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Sample records for 3d breast ultrasound

  1. Automatic 3D lesion segmentation on breast ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chi; Giger, Maryellen L.; Reiser, Ingrid; Drukker, Karen; Edwards, Alexandra; Sennett, Charlene A.

    2013-02-01

    Automatically acquired and reconstructed 3D breast ultrasound images allow radiologists to detect and evaluate breast lesions in 3D. However, assessing potential cancers in 3D ultrasound can be difficult and time consuming. In this study, we evaluate a 3D lesion segmentation method, which we had previously developed for breast CT, and investigate its robustness on lesions on 3D breast ultrasound images. Our dataset includes 98 3D breast ultrasound images obtained on an ABUS system from 55 patients containing 64 cancers. Cancers depicted on 54 US images had been clinically interpreted as negative on screening mammography and 44 had been clinically visible on mammography. All were from women with breast density BI-RADS 3 or 4. Tumor centers and margins were indicated and outlined by radiologists. Initial RGI-eroded contours were automatically calculated and served as input to the active contour segmentation algorithm yielding the final lesion contour. Tumor segmentation was evaluated by determining the overlap ratio (OR) between computer-determined and manually-drawn outlines. Resulting average overlap ratios on coronal, transverse, and sagittal views were 0.60 +/- 0.17, 0.57 +/- 0.18, and 0.58 +/- 0.17, respectively. All OR values were significantly higher the 0.4, which is deemed "acceptable". Within the groups of mammogram-negative and mammogram-positive cancers, the overlap ratios were 0.63 +/- 0.17 and 0.56 +/- 0.16, respectively, on the coronal views; with similar results on the other views. The segmentation performance was not found to be correlated to tumor size. Results indicate robustness of the 3D lesion segmentation technique in multi-modality 3D breast imaging.

  2. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound scans.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tao; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M; Huisman, Henkjan; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method to segment the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images. Determining the location of the chest wall in automated 3D breast ultrasound images is necessary in computer-aided detection systems to remove automatically detected cancer candidates beyond the chest wall and it can be of great help for inter- and intra-modal image registration. We show that the visible part of the chest wall in an automated 3D breast ultrasound image can be accurately modeled by a cylinder. We fit the surface of our cylinder model to a set of automatically detected rib-surface points. The detection of the rib-surface points is done by a classifier using features representing local image intensity patterns and presence of rib shadows. Due to attenuation of the ultrasound signal, a clear shadow is visible behind the ribs. Evaluation of our segmentation method is done by computing the distance of manually annotated rib points to the surface of the automatically detected chest wall. We examined the performance on images obtained with the two most common 3D breast ultrasound devices in the market. In a dataset of 142 images, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall was 5.59 ± 3.08 mm.

  3. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  4. Breast tumor angiogenesis analysis using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Huang, Sheng-Fang; Lee, Yu-Hau; Chen, Dar-Ren; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2006-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process that correlates to tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer angiogenesis has been the most extensively studied and now serves as a paradigm for understanding the biology of angiogenesis and its effects on tumor outcome and patient prognosis. Most studies on characterization of angiogenesis focus on pixel/voxel counts more than morphological analysis. Nevertheless, in cancer, the blood flow is greatly affected by the morphological changes, such as the number of vessels, branching pattern, length, and diameter. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that can quantify vascular morphology using 3-D power Doppler ultrasound (US) on breast tumors. We propose a scheme to extract the morphological information from angiography and to relate them to tumor diagnosis outcome. At first, a 3-D thinning algorithm helps narrow down the vessels into their skeletons. The measurements of vascular morphology significantly rely on the traversing of the vascular trees produced from skeletons. Our study of 3-D assessment of vascular morphological features regards vessel count, length, bifurcation, and diameter of vessels. Investigations into 221 solid breast tumors including 110 benign and 111 malignant cases, the p values using the Student's t-test for all features are less than 0.05 indicating that the proposed features are deemed statistically significant. Our scheme focuses on the vascular architecture without involving the technique of tumor segmentation. The results show that the proposed method is feasible, and have a good agreement with the diagnosis of the pathologists.

  5. Automated 3D whole-breast ultrasound imaging: results of a clinical pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; van Beek, Michiel; de Vries, Ute; Wasser, Martin; Bakker, Leon; Cuisenaire, Olivier; van der Mark, Martin; Entrekin, Rob

    2010-03-01

    We present the first clinical results of a novel fully automated 3D breast ultrasound system. This system was designed to match a Philips diffuse optical mammography system to enable straightforward coregistration of optical and ultrasound images. During a measurement, three 3D transducers scan the breast at 4 different views. The resulting 12 datasets are registered together into a single volume using spatial compounding. In a pilot study, benign and malignant masses could be identified in the 3D images, however lesion visibility is less compared to conventional breast ultrasound. Clear breast shape visualization suggests that ultrasound could support the reconstruction and interpretation of diffuse optical tomography images.

  6. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  7. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation for assistant diagnosis of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxin; Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2016-04-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  8. 3D freehand ultrasound for medical assistance in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Fabian; Fanti, Zian; Arambula Cosío, F.

    2013-11-01

    Image-guided interventions allow the physician to have a better planning and visualization of a procedure. 3D freehand ultrasound is a non-invasive and low-cost imaging tool that can be used to assist medical procedures. This tool can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. There are common medical practices that involve large needles to obtain an accurate diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. In this study we propose the use of 3D freehand ultrasound for planning and guiding such procedures as core needle biopsy and radiofrequency ablation. The proposed system will help the physician to identify the lesion area, using image-processing techniques in the 3D freehand ultrasound images, and guide the needle to this area using the information of position and orientation of the surgical tools. We think that this system can upgrade the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures.

  9. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health. PMID:26831342

  10. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health.

  11. Automatic nipple detection on 3D images of an automated breast ultrasound system (ABUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanshir Moghaddam, Mandana; Tan, Tao; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that applying Automated Breast Ultrasound in addition to mammography in women with dense breasts can lead to additional detection of small, early stage breast cancers which are occult in corresponding mammograms. In this paper, we proposed a fully automatic method for detecting the nipple location in 3D ultrasound breast images acquired from Automated Breast Ultrasound Systems. The nipple location is a valuable landmark to report the position of possible abnormalities in a breast or to guide image registration. To detect the nipple location, all images were normalized. Subsequently, features have been extracted in a multi scale approach and classification experiments were performed using a gentle boost classifier to identify the nipple location. The method was applied on a dataset of 100 patients with 294 different 3D ultrasound views from Siemens and U-systems acquisition systems. Our database is a representative sample of cases obtained in clinical practice by four medical centers. The automatic method could accurately locate the nipple in 90% of AP (Anterior-Posterior) views and in 79% of the other views.

  12. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Gijs A. G. M.; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s-1) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D ultrasound

  13. Automated 3D ultrasound elastography of the breast: a phantom validation study.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Gijs A G M; Holländer, Branislav; Menssen, Jan; Milkowski, Andy; Hansen, Hendrik H G; de Korte, Chris L

    2016-04-01

    In breast cancer screening, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) was introduced as an alternative for mammography since the latter technique is less suitable for women with dense breasts. Although clinical studies show promising results, clinicians report two disadvantages: long acquisition times (>90 s) introducing breathing artefacts, and high recall rates due to detection of many small lesions of uncertain malignant potential. Technical improvements for faster image acquisition and better discrimination between benign and malignant lesions are thus required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if 3D ultrasound elastography using plane-wave imaging is feasible. Strain images of a breast elastography phantom were acquired by an ABVS-mimicking device that allowed axial and elevational movement of the attached transducer. Pre- and post-deformation volumes were acquired with different constant speeds (between 1.25 and 40.0 mm s(-1)) and by three protocols: Go-Go (pre- and post-volumes with identical start and end positions), Go-Return (similar to Go-Go with opposite scanning directions) and Control (pre- and post-volumes acquired per position, this protocol can be seen as reference). Afterwards, 2D and 3D cross-correlation and strain algorithms were applied to the acquired volumes and the results were compared. The Go-Go protocol was shown to be superior with better strain image quality (CNRe and SNRe) than Go-Return and to be similar as Control. This can be attributed to applying opposite mechanical forces to the phantom during the Go-Return protocol, leading to out-of-plane motion. This motion was partly compensated by using 3D cross-correlation. However, the quality was still inferior to Go-Go. Since these results were obtained in a phantom study with controlled deformations, the effect of possible uncontrolled in vivo tissue motion artefacts has to be addressed in future studies. In conclusion, it seems feasible to implement 3D

  14. Automated linking of suspicious findings between automated 3D breast ultrasound volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-03-01

    Automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) is a 3D imaging technique which is rapidly emerging as a safe and relatively inexpensive modality for screening of women with dense breasts. However, reading ABUS examinations is very time consuming task since radiologists need to manually identify suspicious findings in all the different ABUS volumes available for each patient. Image analysis techniques to automatically link findings across volumes are required to speed up clinical workflow and make ABUS screening more efficient. In this study, we propose an automated system to, given the location in the ABUS volume being inspected (source), find the corresponding location in a target volume. The target volume can be a different view of the same study or the same view from a prior examination. The algorithm was evaluated using 118 linkages between suspicious abnormalities annotated in a dataset of ABUS images of 27 patients participating in a high risk screening program. The distance between the predicted location and the center of the annotated lesion in the target volume was computed for evaluation. The mean ± stdev and median distance error achieved by the presented algorithm for linkages between volumes of the same study was 7.75±6.71 mm and 5.16 mm, respectively. The performance was 9.54±7.87 and 8.00 mm (mean ± stdev and median) for linkages between volumes from current and prior examinations. The proposed approach has the potential to minimize user interaction for finding correspondences among ABUS volumes.

  15. Chest-wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound images using thoracic volume classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Zhang, Wei; Mann, Ritse M.; Platel, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are expected to improve effectiveness and efficiency of radiologists in reading automated 3D breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. One challenging task on developing CAD is to reduce a large number of false positives. A large amount of false positives originate from acoustic shadowing caused by ribs. Therefore determining the location of the chestwall in ABUS is necessary in CAD systems to remove these false positives. Additionally it can be used as an anatomical landmark for inter- and intra-modal image registration. In this work, we extended our previous developed chestwall segmentation method that fits a cylinder to automated detected rib-surface points and we fit the cylinder model by minimizing a cost function which adopted a term of region cost computed from a thoracic volume classifier to improve segmentation accuracy. We examined the performance on a dataset of 52 images where our previous developed method fails. Using region-based cost, the average mean distance of the annotated points to the segmented chest wall decreased from 7.57±2.76 mm to 6.22±2.86 mm.art.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Vascular Heterogeneity in Breast Lesions Using Contrast-Enhanced 3-D Harmonic and Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R.; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F.; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L.; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions. PMID:25935933

  17. 3-D visualization and non-linear tissue classification of breast tumors using ultrasound elastography in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ahmed; Layne, Ginger; Abraham, Jame; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the study described here was to introduce new methods for the classification and visualization of human breast tumors using 3-D ultrasound elastography. A tumor's type, shape and size are key features that can help the physician to decide the sort and extent of necessary treatment. In this work, tumor type, being either benign or malignant, was classified non-invasively for nine volunteer patients. The classification was based on estimating four parameters that reflect the tumor's non-linear biomechanical behavior, under multi-compression levels. Tumor prognosis using non-linear elastography was confirmed with biopsy as a gold standard. Three tissue classification parameters were found to be statistically significant with a p-value < 0.05, whereas the fourth non-linear parameter was highly significant, having a p-value < 0.001. Furthermore, each breast tumor's shape and size were estimated in vivo using 3-D elastography, and were enhanced using interactive segmentation. Segmentation with level sets was used to isolate the stiff tumor from the surrounding soft tissue. Segmentation also provided a reliable means to estimate tumors volumes. Four volumetric strains were investigated: the traditional normal axial strain, the first principal strain, von Mises strain and maximum shear strain. It was noted that these strains can provide varying degrees of boundary enhancement to the stiff tumor in the constructed elastograms. The enhanced boundary improved the performance of the segmentation process. In summary, the proposed methods can be employed as a 3-D non-invasive tool for characterization of breast tumors, and may provide early prognosis with minimal pain, as well as diminish the risk of late-stage breast cancer.

  18. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge) and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging ... supply in breast lesions . Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer ...

  19. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  20. An ultrasound tomography system with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) moldings for coupling: in vivo results for 3-D pulse-echo imaging of the female breast.

    PubMed

    Koch, Andreas; Stiller, Florian; Lerch, Reinhard; Ermert, Helmut

    2015-02-01

    Full-angle spatial compounding (FASC) is a concept for pulse-echo imaging using an ultrasound tomography (UST) system. With FASC, resolution is increased and speckles are suppressed by averaging pulse-echo data from 360°. In vivo investigations have already shown a great potential for 2-D FASC in the female breast as well as for finger-joint imaging. However, providing a small number of images of parallel cross-sectional planes with enhanced image quality is not sufficient for diagnosis. Therefore, volume data (3-D) is needed. For this purpose, we further developed our UST add-on system to automatically rotate a motorized array (3-D probe) around the object of investigation. Full integration of external motor and ultrasound electronics control in a custom-made program allows acquisition of 3-D pulse-echo RF datasets within 10 min. In case of breast cancer imaging, this concept also enables imaging of near-thorax tissue regions which cannot be achieved by 2-D FASC. Furthermore, moldings made of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) have been developed as a new acoustic coupling concept. It has a great potential to replace the water bath technique in UST, which is a critical concept with respect to clinical investigations. In this contribution, we present in vivo results for 3-D FASC applied to imaging a female breast which has been placed in a PVA-H molding during data acquisition. An algorithm is described to compensate time-of-flight and consider refraction at the water-PVA-H molding and molding-tissue interfaces. Therefore, the mean speed of sound (SOS) for the breast tissue is estimated with an image-based method. Our results show that the PVA-H molding concept is applicable and feasible and delivers good results. 3-D FASC is superior to 2-D FASC and provides 3-D volume data at increased image quality.

  1. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  2. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  3. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  4. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  5. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: update from a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Henrich, J.; Tukalo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Kaiser, C.; Knaudt, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising new imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis. We developed a 3D USCT system and tested it in a pilot study with encouraging results: 3D USCT was able to depict two carcinomas, which were present in contrast enhanced MRI volumes serving as ground truth. To overcome severe differences in the breast shape, an image registration was applied. We analyzed the correlation between average sound speed in the breast and the breast density estimated from segmented MRIs and found a positive correlation with R=0.70. Based on the results of the pilot study we now carry out a successive clinical study with 200 patients. For this we integrated our reconstruction methods and image post-processing into a comprehensive workflow. It includes a dedicated DICOM viewer for interactive assessment of fused USCT images. A new preview mode now allows intuitive and faster patient positioning. We updated the USCT system to decrease the data acquisition time by approximately factor two and to increase the penetration depth of the breast into the USCT aperture by 1 cm. Furthermore the compute-intensive reflectivity reconstruction was considerably accelerated, now allowing a sub-millimeter volume reconstruction in approximately 16 minutes. The updates made it possible to successfully image first patients in our ongoing clinical study.

  6. Glasses for 3D ultrasound computer tomography: phase compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, M.; Hopp, T.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), developed at KIT, is a promising new imaging system for breast cancer diagnosis, and was successfully tested in a pilot study. The 3D USCT II prototype consists of several hundreds of ultrasound (US) transducers on a semi-ellipsoidal aperture. Spherical waves are sequentially emitted by individual transducers and received in parallel by many transducers. Reflectivity volumes are reconstructed by synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT). However, straight forward SAFT imaging leads to blurred images due to system imperfections. We present an extension of a previously proposed approach to enhance the images. This approach includes additional a priori information and system characteristics. Now spatial phase compensation was included. The approach was evaluated with a simulation and clinical data sets. An increase in the image quality was observed and quantitatively measured by SNR and other metrics.

  7. Breast ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Hacker NF, Friedland ML. Breast disease. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 30. Harvey ...

  8. Automatic multimodal 2D/3D image fusion of ultrasound computer tomography and x-ray mammography for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Torsten; Duric, Neb; Ruiter, Nicole V.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. The established screening method to detect breast cancer in an early state is X-ray mammography. However, X-ray frequently provides limited contrast of tumors located within glandular tissue. A new imaging approach is Ultrasound Computer Tomography generating threedimensional volumes of the breast. Three different images are available: reflectivity, attenuation and speed of sound. The correlation of USCT volumes with X-ray mammograms is of interest for evaluation of the new imaging modality as well as for a multimodal diagnosis. Yet, both modalities differ in image dimensionality, patient positioning and deformation state of the breast. In earlier work we proposed a methodology based on Finite Element Method to register speed of sound images with the according mammogram. In this work, we enhanced the methodology to register all three image types provided by USCT. Furthermore, the methodology is now completely automated using image similarity measures to estimate rotations in datasets. A fusion methodology is proposed which combines the information of the three USCT image types with the X-ray mammogram via semitransparent overlay images. The evaluation was done using 13 datasets from a clinical study. The registration accuracy was measured by the displacement of the center of a lesion marked in both modalities. Using the automated rotation estimation, a mean displacement of 10.4 mm was achieved. Due to the clinically relevant registration accuracy, the methodology provides a basis for evaluation of the new imaging device USCT as well as for multimodal diagnosis.

  9. A method for the calibration of 3D ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenteufel, Mark; Mottl-Link, Sibylle; Wolf, Ivo; de Simone, Raffaele; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2003-05-01

    Background: Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound has a great potential in medical diagnostics. However, there are also some limitations of 3D ultrasound, e.g., in some situations morphology cannot be imaged accurately due to acoustical shadows. Acquiring 3D datasets from multiple positions can overcome some of these limitations. Prior to that a calibration of the ultrasound probe is necessary. Most calibration methods descibed rely on two-dimensional data. We describe a calibration method that uses 3D data. Methods: We have developed a 3D calibration method based on single-point cross-wire calibration using registration techniques for automatic detection of cross centers. For the calibration a cross consisting of three orthogonal wires is imaged. A model-to-image registration method is used to determine the cross center. Results: Due to the use of 3D data less acquisitions and no special protocols are necessary. The influence of noise is reduced. By means of the registration method the time-consuming steps of image plane alignment and manual cross center determination becomes dispensable. Conclusion: A 3D calibration method for ultrasound transducers is described. The calibration method is the base to extend state-of-the-art 3D ultrasound devices, i.e., to acquire multiple 3D, either morphological or functional (Doppler), datasets.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media Mammography Ultrasound - Breast Breast Cancer Screening Breast Cancer Treatment ...

  11. Effectiveness of evaluating tumor vascularization using 3D power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow technology in the prediction of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Kuo, Shou-Jen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced ultrasound (US) imaging of vascular flow and morphological features in the prediction of a pathologic complete response (pCR) and a partial response (PR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for T2 breast cancer. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with T2 breast cancer treated with six courses of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler US with high-definition flow (HDF) technology was used to investigate the blood flow in and morphological features of the tumors. Six vascularity quantization features, three morphological features, and two vascular direction features were selected and extracted from the US images. A support vector machine was used to evaluate the changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and pCR and PR were predicted on the basis of these changes. The most accurate prediction of pCR was achieved after the first chemotherapy cycle, with an accuracy of 93.1% and a specificity of 85.5%, while that of a PR was achieved after the second cycle, with an accuracy of 79.31% and a specificity of 72.22%. Vascularity data can be useful to predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Determination of changes in vascularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 3D power Doppler US with HDF can generate accurate predictions of the patient response, facilitating early decision-making.

  12. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future.

  13. Recent technological advancements in breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Forsberg, Flemming

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is becoming increasingly common as an imaging tool for the detection and characterization of breast tumors. This paper provides an overview of recent technological advancements, especially those that may have an impact in clinical applications in the field of breast ultrasound in the near future. These advancements include close to 100% fractional bandwidth high frequency (5-18MHz) 2D and 3D arrays, automated breast imaging systems to minimize the operator dependence and advanced processing techniques, such as those used for detection of microcalcifications. In addition, elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations that are expected to further enhance the clinical importance of ultrasound based breast tumor screening are briefly reviewed. These techniques have shown initial promise in clinical trials and may translate to more comprehensive clinical adoption in the future. PMID:27179143

  14. MMSE Reconstruction for 3D Freehand Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zheng, Yibin

    2008-01-01

    The reconstruction of 3D ultrasound (US) images from mechanically registered, but otherwise irregularly positioned, B-scan slices is of great interest in image guided therapy procedures. Conventional 3D ultrasound algorithms have low computational complexity, but the reconstructed volume suffers from severe speckle contamination. Furthermore, the current method cannot reconstruct uniform high-resolution data from several low-resolution B-scans. In this paper, the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) method is applied to 3D ultrasound reconstruction. Data redundancies due to overlapping samples as well as correlation of the target and speckle are naturally accounted for in the MMSE reconstruction algorithm. Thus, the reconstruction process unifies the interpolation and spatial compounding. Simulation results for synthetic US images are presented to demonstrate the excellent reconstruction. PMID:18382623

  15. [An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Wu, Huihui; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongwei; Liang, Huageng; Cai, Wenjuan; Fang, Mengjie; Wang, Yujie

    2013-07-01

    An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery was proposed. 3D ultrasound image was sliced into transverse, coronal and sagittal 2D images on the carotid bifurcation point. Then, the three images were processed respectively, and the carotid artery contours and thickness were obtained finally. This paper tries to overcome the disadvantages of current computer aided diagnosis method, such as high computational complexity, easily introduced subjective errors et al. The proposed method could get the carotid artery overall information rapidly, accurately and completely. It could be transplanted into clinical usage for atherosclerosis diagnosis and prevention. PMID:24195385

  16. Linear tracking for 3-D medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Zhao; Hu, Wei; Jin, Lian-Wen; Wei, Gang; Li, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    As the clinical application grows, there is a rapid technical development of 3-D ultrasound imaging. Compared with 2-D ultrasound imaging, 3-D ultrasound imaging can provide improved qualitative and quantitative information for various clinical applications. In this paper, we proposed a novel tracking method for a freehand 3-D ultrasound imaging system with improved portability, reduced degree of freedom, and cost. We designed a sliding track with a linear position sensor attached, and it transmitted positional data via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth, resulting in a wireless spatial tracking modality. A traditional 2-D ultrasound probe fixed to the position sensor on the sliding track was used to obtain real-time B-scans, and the positions of the B-scans were simultaneously acquired when moving the probe along the track in a freehand manner. In the experiments, the proposed method was applied to ultrasound phantoms and real human tissues. The results demonstrated that the new system outperformed a previously developed freehand system based on a traditional six-degree-of-freedom spatial sensor in phantom and in vivo studies, indicating its merit in clinical applications for human tissues and organs. PMID:23757592

  17. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  18. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes. PMID:27164066

  19. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-05-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.

  20. Ultrasound tomography of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, Earle; Babkin, Alex; Duncan, Robert; Kalinin, Arkady; Pevzner, Roman; Tokarev, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The Karmanos Cancer Institute is developing an ultrasound device for measuring and imaging acoustic parameters of human tissue. This paper discusses the experimental results relating to tomographic reconstructions of phantoms and tissue. The specimens were scanned by the prototype scanner at a frequency of 1.5 MHz using 2 microsecond pulses. The receivers and transmitters were positioned along a ring trajectory having a diameter of 20 cm. The ring plane is translated in the vertical direction allowing for 3-D reconstructions from stacked 2-D planes of data. All ultrasound scans were performed at 10 millimeter slice thickness to generate multiple tomographic images. In a previous SPIE paper we presented preliminary results of ultrasound tomographic reconstruction of formalin-fixed breast tissue. We now present new results from data acquired with the scanner. Images were constructed using both reflection-based and transmission based algorithms. The resulting images demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and to measure acoustic properties such as sound speed. Comparison with conventional ultrasound indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of tissue.

  1. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  2. A 3D reconstruction solution to ultrasound Joule heat density tomography based on acousto-electric effect: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R.; Song, A.; Li, X. D.; Lu, Y.; Yan, R.; Xu, B.; Li, X.

    2014-10-01

    A 3D reconstruction solution to ultrasound Joule heat density tomography based on acousto-electric effect by deconvolution is proposed for noninvasive imaging of biological tissue. Compared with ultrasound current source density imaging, ultrasound Joule heat density tomography doesn't require any priori knowledge of conductivity distribution and lead fields, so it can gain better imaging result, more adaptive to environment and with wider application scope. For a general 3D volume conductor with broadly distributed current density field, in the AE equation the ultrasound pressure can't simply be separated from the 3D integration, so it is not a common modulation and basebanding (heterodyning) method is no longer suitable to separate Joule heat density from the AE signals. In the proposed method the measurement signal is viewed as the output of Joule heat density convolving with ultrasound wave. As a result, the internal 3D Joule heat density can be reconstructed by means of Wiener deconvolution. A series of computer simulations set for breast cancer imaging applications, with consideration of ultrasound beam diameter, noise level, conductivity contrast, position dependency and size of simulated tumors, have been conducted to evaluate the feasibility and performance of the proposed reconstruction method. The computer simulation results demonstrate that high spatial resolution 3D ultrasound Joule heat density imaging is feasible using the proposed method, and it has potential applications to breast cancer detection and imaging of other organs.

  3. Reduction of attenuation effects in 3D transrectal ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimmel, Hans; Acosta, Oscar; Fenster, Aaron; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2007-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) is one of the most used imaging modalities today as it is cheap, reliable, safe and widely available. There are a number of issues with US images in general. Besides reflections which is the basis of ultrasonic imaging, other phenomena such as diffraction, refraction, attenuation, dispersion and scattering appear when ultrasound propagates through different tissues. The generated images are therefore corrupted by false boundaries, lack of signal for surface tangential to ultrasound propagation, large amount of noise giving rise to local properties, and anisotropic sampling space complicating image processing tasks. Although 3D Transrectal US (TRUS) probes are not yet widely available, within a few years they will likely be introduced in hospitals. Therefore, the improvement of automatic segmentation from 3D TRUS images, making the process independent of human factor is desirable. We introduce an algorithm for attenuation correction, reducing enhancement/shadowing effects and average attenuation effects in 3D US images, taking into account the physical properties of US. The parameters of acquisition such as logarithmic correction are unknown, therefore no additional information is available to restore the image. As the physical properties are related to the direction of each US ray, the 3D US data set is resampled into cylindrical coordinates using a fully automatic algorithm. Enhancement and shadowing effects, as well as average attenuation effects, are then removed with a rescaling process optimizing simultaneously in and perpendicular to the US ray direction. A set of tests using anisotropic diffusion are performed to illustrate the improvement in image quality, where well defined structures are visible. The evolution of both the entropy and the contrast show that our algorithm is a suitable pre-processing step for segmentation tasks.

  4. Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lam, Richard B.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Del Rio, Stephen P.; Steed, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the design and imaging methodology of a photoacoustic scanner dedicated to imaging hemoglobin distribution throughout a human breast. Methods: The authors developed a dedicated breast photoacoustic mammography (PAM) system using a spherical detector aperture based on our previous photoacoustic tomography scanner. The system uses 512 detectors with rectilinear scanning. The scan shape is a spiral pattern whose radius varies from 24 to 96 mm, thereby allowing a field of view that accommodates a wide range of breast sizes. The authors measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) using a target comprised of 1-mm dots printed on clear plastic. Each dot absorption coefficient was approximately the same as a 1-mm thickness of whole blood at 756 nm, the output wavelength of the Alexandrite laser used by this imaging system. The target was immersed in varying depths of an 8% solution of stock Liposyn II-20%, which mimics the attenuation of breast tissue (1.1 cm−1). The spatial resolution was measured using a 6 μm-diameter carbon fiber embedded in agar. The breasts of four healthy female volunteers, spanning a range of breast size from a brassiere C cup to a DD cup, were imaged using a 96-mm spiral protocol. Results: The CNR target was clearly visualized to a depth of 53 mm. Spatial resolution, which was estimated from the full width at half-maximum of a profile across the PAM image of a carbon fiber, was 0.42 mm. In the four human volunteers, the vasculature was well visualized throughout the breast tissue, including to the chest wall. Conclusions: CNR, lateral field-of-view and penetration depth of our dedicated PAM scanning system is sufficient to image breasts as large as 1335 mL, which should accommodate up to 90% of the women in the United States. PMID:24320471

  5. Refraction Correction in 3D Transcranial Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first correction of refraction in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging using an iterative approach that traces propagation paths through a two-layer planar tissue model, applying Snell’s law in 3D. This approach is applied to real-time 3D transcranial ultrasound imaging by precomputing delays offline for several skull thicknesses, allowing the user to switch between three sets of delays for phased array imaging at the push of a button. Simulations indicate that refraction correction may be expected to increase sensitivity, reduce beam steering errors, and partially restore lost spatial resolution, with the greatest improvements occurring at the largest steering angles. Distorted images of cylindrical lesions were created by imaging through an acrylic plate in a tissue-mimicking phantom. As a result of correcting for refraction, lesions were restored to 93.6% of their original diameter in the lateral direction and 98.1% of their original shape along the long axis of the cylinders. In imaging two healthy volunteers, the mean brightness increased by 8.3% and showed no spatial dependency. PMID:24275538

  6. Generation of 3D synthetic breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are an emergent approach for the rapid evaluation and comparison of various breast imaging technologies and techniques using computer-based modeling tools. A fundamental requirement of this approach for mammography is the use of realistic looking breast anatomy in the studies to produce clinically relevant results. In this work, a biologically inspired approach has been used to simulate realistic synthetic breast phantom blocks for use in virtual clinical trials. A variety of high and low frequency features (including Cooper's ligaments, blood vessels and glandular tissue) have been extracted from clinical digital breast tomosynthesis images and used to simulate synthetic breast blocks. The appearance of the phantom blocks was validated by presenting a selection of simulated 2D and DBT images interleaved with real images to a team of experienced readers for rating using an ROC paradigm. The average areas under the curve for 2D and DBT images were 0.53+/-.04 and 0.55+/-.07 respectively; errors are the standard errors of the mean. The values indicate that the observers had difficulty in differentiating the real images from simulated images. The statistical properties of simulated images of the phantom blocks were evaluated by means of power spectrum analysis. The power spectrum curves for real and simulated images closely match and overlap indicating good agreement.

  7. 3D segmentation and reconstruction of endobronchial ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Breslav, Mikhail; Higgins, William E.

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art practice for lung-cancer staging bronchoscopy often draws upon a combination of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) imaging. While EBUS offers real-time in vivo imaging of suspicious lesions and lymph nodes, its low signal-to-noise ratio and tendency to exhibit missing region-of-interest (ROI) boundaries complicate diagnostic tasks. Furthermore, past efforts did not incorporate automated analysis of EBUS images and a subsequent fusion of the EBUS and MDCT data. To address these issues, we propose near real-time automated methods for three-dimensional (3D) EBUS segmentation and reconstruction that generate a 3D ROI model along with ROI measurements. Results derived from phantom data and lung-cancer patients show the promise of the methods. In addition, we present a preliminary image-guided intervention (IGI) system example, whereby EBUS imagery is registered to a patient's MDCT chest scan.

  8. Mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound guided prostate biopsy system.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Montreuil, Jacques; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-12-01

    There are currently limitations associated with the prostate biopsy procedure, which is the most commonly used method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. With the use of two-dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for needle-guidance in this procedure, the physician has restricted anatomical reference points for guiding the needle to target sites. Further, any motion of the physician's hand during the procedure may cause the prostate to move or deform to a prohibitive extent. These variations make it difficult to establish a consistent reference frame for guiding a needle. We have developed a 3D navigation system for prostate biopsy, which addresses these shortcomings. This system is composed of a 3D US imaging subsystem and a passive mechanical arm to minimize prostate motion. To validate our prototype, a series of experiments were performed on prostate phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric distortions, and the geometric error of the 3D imaging subsystem was 0.37 mm. The accuracy of 3D prostate segmentation was determined by comparing the known volume in a certified phantom to a reconstructed volume generated by our system and was shown to estimate the volume with less then 5% error. Biopsy needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error was 2.1 mm and the 3D location of the biopsy core was recorded with a mean error of 1.8 mm. In this paper, we describe the mechanical design and validation of the prototype system using an in vitro prostate phantom. Preliminary results from an ongoing clinical trial show that prostate motion is small with an in-plane displacement of less than 1 mm during the biopsy procedure.

  9. Detection of Curved Robots using 3D Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongliang; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Dupont, Pierre E

    2011-09-25

    Three-dimensional ultrasound can be an effective imaging modality for image-guided interventions since it enables visualization of both the instruments and the tissue. For robotic applications, its realtime frame rates create the potential for image-based instrument tracking and servoing. These capabilities can enable improved instrument visualization, compensation for tissue motion as well as surgical task automation. Continuum robots, whose shape comprises a smooth curve along their length, are well suited for minimally invasive procedures. Existing techniques for ultrasound tracking, however, are limited to straight, laparoscopic-type instruments and thus are not applicable to continuum robot tracking. Toward the goal of developing tracking algorithms for continuum robots, this paper presents a method for detecting a robot comprised of a single constant curvature in a 3D ultrasound volume. Computational efficiency is achieved by decomposing the six-dimensional circle estimation problem into two sequential three-dimensional estimation problems. Simulation and experiment are used to evaluate the proposed method. PMID:22229110

  10. Detection of Curved Robots using 3D Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongliang; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; Dupont, Pierre E

    2011-09-25

    Three-dimensional ultrasound can be an effective imaging modality for image-guided interventions since it enables visualization of both the instruments and the tissue. For robotic applications, its realtime frame rates create the potential for image-based instrument tracking and servoing. These capabilities can enable improved instrument visualization, compensation for tissue motion as well as surgical task automation. Continuum robots, whose shape comprises a smooth curve along their length, are well suited for minimally invasive procedures. Existing techniques for ultrasound tracking, however, are limited to straight, laparoscopic-type instruments and thus are not applicable to continuum robot tracking. Toward the goal of developing tracking algorithms for continuum robots, this paper presents a method for detecting a robot comprised of a single constant curvature in a 3D ultrasound volume. Computational efficiency is achieved by decomposing the six-dimensional circle estimation problem into two sequential three-dimensional estimation problems. Simulation and experiment are used to evaluate the proposed method.

  11. Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero

    2015-08-01

    The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields. PMID:26285181

  12. Compensation of log-compressed images for 3-D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sanches, João M; Marques, Jorge S

    2003-02-01

    In this study, a Bayesian approach was used for 3-D reconstruction in the presence of multiplicative noise and nonlinear compression of the ultrasound (US) data. Ultrasound images are often considered as being corrupted by multiplicative noise (speckle). Several statistical models have been developed to represent the US data. However, commercial US equipment performs a nonlinear image compression that reduces the dynamic range of the US signal for visualization purposes. This operation changes the distribution of the image pixels, preventing a straightforward application of the models. In this paper, the nonlinear compression is explicitly modeled and considered in the reconstruction process, where the speckle noise present in the radio frequency (RF) US data is modeled with a Rayleigh distribution. The results obtained by considering the compression of the US data are then compared with those obtained assuming no compression. It is shown that the estimation performed using the nonlinear log-compression model leads to better results than those obtained with the Rayleigh reconstruction method. The proposed algorithm is tested with synthetic and real data and the results are discussed. The results have shown an improvement in the reconstruction results when the compression operation is included in the image formation model, leading to sharper images with enhanced anatomical details.

  13. Objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging.

    PubMed

    Eder, Maximilian; Waldenfels, Fee V; Swobodnik, Alexandra; Klöppel, Markus; Pape, Ann-Kathrin; Schuster, Tibor; Raith, Stefan; Kitzler, Elena; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    This study develops an objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging (Konica-Minolta V910(®) scanner) by superimposing the mirrored left breast over the right and objectively determining the mean 3-D contour difference between the 2 breast surfaces. 3 observers analyzed the evaluation protocol precision using 2 dummy models (n = 60), 10 test subjects (n = 300), clinically tested it on 30 patients (n = 900) and compared it to established 2-D measurements on 23 breast reconstructive patients using the BCCT.core software (n = 690). Mean 3-D evaluation precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation (VC), was 3.54 ± 0.18 for all human subjects without significant intra- and inter-observer differences (p > 0.05). The 3-D breast symmetry evaluation is observer independent, significantly more precise (p < 0.001) than the BCCT.core software (VC = 6.92 ± 0.88) and may play a part in an objective surgical outcome analysis after incorporation into clinical practice.

  14. 3D breast image registration--a review.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishna, Radhika

    2005-02-01

    Image registration is an important problem in breast imaging. It is used in a wide variety of applications that include better visualization of lesions on pre- and post-contrast breast MRI images, speckle tracking and image compounding in breast ultrasound images, alignment of positron emission, and standard mammography images on hybrid machines et cetera. It is a prerequisite to align images taken at different times to isolate small interval lesions. Image registration also has useful applications in monitoring cancer therapy. The field of breast image registration has gained considerable interest in recent years. While the primary focus of interest continues to be the registration of pre- and post-contrast breast MRI images, other areas like breast ultrasound registration have gained more attention in recent years. The focus of registration algorithms has also shifted from control point based semi-automated techniques, to more sophisticated voxel based automated techniques that use mutual information as a similarity measure. This paper visits the problem of breast image registration and provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art in this area. PMID:15649086

  15. Development of a physical 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; Bakic, Predrag; Ullberg, Christer; Derand, Helen; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a technique to fabricate a 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom with known ground truth for image quality assessment of 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems. Methods: The phantom design is based on an existing computer model that can generate breast voxel phantoms of varying composition, size, and shape. The physical phantom is produced in two steps. First, the portion of the voxel phantom consisting of the glandular tissue, skin, and Cooper's ligaments is separated into sections. These sections are then fabricated by high-resolution rapid prototyping using a single material with 50% glandular equivalence. The remaining adipose compartments are then filled using an epoxy-based resin (EBR) with 100% adipose equivalence. The phantom sections are stacked to form the physical anthropomorphic phantom. Results: The authors fabricated a prototype phantom corresponding to a 450 ml breast with 45% dense tissue, deformed to a 5 cm compressed thickness. Both the rapid prototype (RP) and EBR phantom materials are radiographically uniform. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the relative attenuation between RP and EBR phantom samples was <1% and the CoV of the signal intensity within RP and EBR phantom samples was <1.5% on average. Digital mammography and reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis images of the authors' phantom were reviewed by two radiologists; they reported that the images are similar in appearance to clinical images, noting there are still artifacts from air bubbles in the EBR. Conclusions: The authors have developed a technique to produce 3D anthropomorphic breast phantoms with known ground truth, yielding highly realistic x-ray images. Such phantoms may serve both qualitative and quantitative performance assessments for 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems.

  16. Development of a 3D digitizer for breast surgery procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Larena, Jorge; Canal Bienzobas, Fernando

    1999-03-01

    The planning of a breast reconstruction surgical operation has to resolve the problem of measuring directly on the patient meaningful anthropometric points from which distances, areas and volumes have to be calculated. In this paper, we propose using a 3D optical digitizer to perform this task.

  17. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have breast cancer. Two main types of breast cancer may be found: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this ... Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of the breast called lobules, ...

  18. Image guidance using 3D-ultrasound (3D-US) for daily positioning of lumpectomy cavity for boost irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of 3D ultrasound (3DUS) breast IGRT for electron and photon lumpectomy site boost treatments. Materials and methods 20 patients with a prescribed photon or electron boost were enrolled in this study. 3DUS images were acquired both at time of simulation, to form a coregistered CT/3DUS dataset, and at the time of daily treatment delivery. Intrafractional motion between treatment and simulation 3DUS datasets were calculated to determine IGRT shifts. Photon shifts were evaluated isocentrically, while electron shifts were evaluated in the beam's-eye-view. Volume differences between simulation and first boost fraction were calculated. Further, to control for the effect of change in seroma/cavity volume due to time lapse between the 2 sets of images, interfraction IGRT shifts using the first boost fraction as reference for all subsequent treatment fractions were also calculated. Results For photon boosts, IGRT shifts were 1.1 ± 0.5 cm and 50% of fractions required a shift >1.0 cm. Volume change between simulation and boost was 49 ± 31%. Shifts when using the first boost fraction as reference were 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 24% required a shift >1.0 cm. For electron boosts, shifts were 1.0 ± 0.5 cm and 52% fell outside the dosimetric penumbra. Interfraction analysis relative to the first fraction noted the shifts to be 0.8 ± 0.4 cm and 36% fell outside the penumbra. Conclusion The lumpectomy cavity can shift significantly during fractionated radiation therapy. 3DUS can be used to image the cavity and correct for interfractional motion. Further studies to better define the protocol for clinical application of IGRT in breast cancer is needed. PMID:21554697

  19. Stereotactic mammography imaging combined with 3D US imaging for image guided breast biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Surry, K. J. M.; Mills, G. R.; Bevan, K.; Downey, D. B.; Fenster, A.

    2007-11-15

    Stereotactic X-ray mammography (SM) and ultrasound (US) guidance are both commonly used for breast biopsy. While SM provides three-dimensional (3D) targeting information and US provides real-time guidance, both have limitations. SM is a long and uncomfortable procedure and the US guided procedure is inherently two dimensional (2D), requiring a skilled physician for both safety and accuracy. The authors developed a 3D US-guided biopsy system to be integrated with, and to supplement SM imaging. Their goal is to be able to biopsy a larger percentage of suspicious masses using US, by clarifying ambiguous structures with SM imaging. Features from SM and US guided biopsy were combined, including breast stabilization, a confined needle trajectory, and dual modality imaging. The 3D US guided biopsy system uses a 7.5 MHz breast probe and is mounted on an upright SM machine for preprocedural imaging. Intraprocedural targeting and guidance was achieved with real-time 2D and near real-time 3D US imaging. Postbiopsy 3D US imaging allowed for confirmation that the needle was penetrating the target. The authors evaluated 3D US-guided biopsy accuracy of their system using test phantoms. To use mammographic imaging information, they registered the SM and 3D US coordinate systems. The 3D positions of targets identified in the SM images were determined with a target localization error (TLE) of 0.49 mm. The z component (x-ray tube to image) of the TLE dominated with a TLE{sub z} of 0.47 mm. The SM system was then registered to 3D US, with a fiducial registration error (FRE) and target registration error (TRE) of 0.82 and 0.92 mm, respectively. Analysis of the FRE and TRE components showed that these errors were dominated by inaccuracies in the z component with a FRE{sub z} of 0.76 mm and a TRE{sub z} of 0.85 mm. A stereotactic mammography and 3D US guided breast biopsy system should include breast compression for stability and safety and dual modality imaging for target localization

  20. A novel MR-guided interventional device for 3D circumferential access to breast tissue

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew; Zhai, Xu; Harter, Ray; Sisney, Gale; Elezaby, Mai; Fain, Sean

    2008-01-01

    MRI is rapidly growing as a tool for image-guided procedures in the breast such as needle localizations, biopsy, and cryotherapy. The ability of MRI to resolve small (<1 cm) lesions allows earlier detection and diagnosis than with ultrasound. Most MR-guidance methods perform a two-dimensional compression of the breast that distorts tissue anatomy and limits medial access. This work presents a system for localizing breast lesions with 360° access to breast tissue. A novel system has been developed to perform breast lesion localization using MR guidance that uses a 3D radial coordinate system with four degrees of freedom. The device is combined with a novel breast RF coil for improved signal to noise and rotates 360° around the breast to allow medial, lateral, superior, and inferior access minimizing insertion depth to the target. Coil performance was evaluated using a human volunteer by comparing signal to noise from both the developed breast RF coil and a commercial seven-channel breast coil. The system was tested with a breast-shaped gel phantom containing randomly distributed MR-visible targets. MR-compatible localization needles were used to demonstrate the accuracy and feasibility of the concept for breast biopsy. Localization results were classified based on the relationship between the final needle tip position and the lesion. A 3D bladder concept was also tested using animal tissue to evaluate the device’s ability to immobilize deformable breast tissue during a needle insertion. The RF breast coil provided signal to noise values comparable to a seven-channel breast coil. The needle tip was in contact with the targeted lesion in 89% (25∕28) of all the trials and 100% (6∕6) of the trials with targeted lesions >6 mm. Target lesions were 3–4 mm in diameter for 47% (13∕28), 5–6 mm in diameter for 32% (9∕28), and over 6 mm in diameter for 21% (6∕28) of the trials, respectively. The 3D bladder concept was shown to immobilize a deformable animal

  1. PET-directed, 3D Ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Baowei; Nieh, Peter T; Schuster, David M; Master, Viraj A

    2013-01-01

    Multimodatity imaging is a promising approach for improving prostate cancer detection and diagnosis. This article describes various concepts in PET-directed, ultrasound-guided biopsies and highlights a new PET/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy system for prostate cancer detection. PMID:25392702

  2. Breast ultrasound scans - surgeons' expectations.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Piotr; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound- guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment.

  3. Nanomagnetic Levitation 3-D Cultures of Breast and Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bumpers, Harvey L.; Janagama, Dasharatham G.; Manne, Upender; Basson, Marc D.; Katkoori, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Background Innovative technologies for drug discovery and development, cancer models, stem cell research, tissue engineering, and drug testing in various cell-based platforms require an application similar to the in vivo system. Materials and Methods We developed for the first time nanomagnetically levitated three dimensional (3-D) cultures of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells using carbon encapsulated cobalt magnetic nanoparticles. BC and CRC xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were evaluated for N-cadherin and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressions. These phenotypes were compared with 2-D cultures and 3-D cultures grown in a gel matrix. Results The BC and CRC cells grown by magnetic levitation formed microtissues. The levitated cultures had high viability and were maintained in culture for long periods of time. It has been observed that N-cadherin and EGFR activities were highly expressed in the levitated 3-D tumor spheres and xenografts of CRC and BC cells. Conclusions Nanomagnetically levitated 3-D cultures tend to form stable microtissues of BC and CRC and may be more feasible for a range of applications in drug discovery or regenerative medicine. PMID:25617973

  4. Measuring Femoral Torsion In Vivo Using Freehand 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Elyse; Pandy, Marcus G; Graham, H Kerr; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Despite variation in bone geometry, muscle and joint function is often investigated using generic musculoskeletal models. Patient-specific bone geometry can be obtained from computerised tomography, which involves ionising radiation, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is costly and time consuming. Freehand 3-D ultrasound provides an alternative to obtain bony geometry. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of 3-D ultrasound in measuring femoral torsion. Measurements of femoral torsion were performed on 10 healthy adults using MRI and 3-D ultrasound. Measurements of femoral torsion from 3-D ultrasound were, on average, smaller than those from MRI (mean difference = 1.8°; 95% confidence interval: -3.9°, 7.5°). MRI and 3-D ultrasound had Bland and Altman repeatability coefficients of 3.1° and 3.7°, respectively. Accurate measurements of femoral torsion were obtained with 3-D ultrasound offering the potential to acquire patient-specific bone geometry for musculoskeletal modelling. Three-dimensional ultrasound is non-invasive and relatively inexpensive and can be integrated into gait analysis.

  5. Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Singh, Mithun K A; van Hespen, Johan C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging can visualize vascularization-driven optical absorption contrast with great potential for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. State-of-the-art photoacoustic breast imaging systems are promising but are limited either by only a 2D imaging capability or by an insufficient imaging field-of-view (FOV). We present a laboratory prototype system designed for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography, and comprehensively characterize it and evaluate its performance in imaging phantoms. The heart of the system is an ultrasound detector array specifically developed for breast imaging and optimized for high sensitivity. Each detector element has an acoustic lens to enlarge the acceptance angle of the large surface area detector elements to ensure a wide system FOV. We characterized the ultrasound detector array performance in terms of frequency response, directional sensitivity, minimum detectable pressure and inter-element electrical and mechanical cross-talk. Further we evaluated the system performance of the laboratory prototype imager using well-defined breast mimicking phantoms. The system possesses a 2 mm XY plane resolution and a 6 mm vertical resolution. A vasculature mimicking object was successfully visualized down to a depth of 40 mm in the breast phantom. Further, tumor mimicking spherical objects with 5 and 10 mm diameter at 20 mm and 40 mm depths are recovered, indicating high system sensitivity. The system has a 170 × 170 × 170 mm(3) FOV, which is well suited for full breast imaging. Various recommendations are provided for performance improvement and to guide this laboratory prototype to a clinical version in future.

  6. Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Singh, Mithun K. A.; van Hespen, Johan C. G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging can visualize vascularization-driven optical absorption contrast with great potential for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. State-of-the-art photoacoustic breast imaging systems are promising but are limited either by only a 2D imaging capability or by an insufficient imaging field-of-view (FOV). We present a laboratory prototype system designed for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography, and comprehensively characterize it and evaluate its performance in imaging phantoms. The heart of the system is an ultrasound detector array specifically developed for breast imaging and optimized for high sensitivity. Each detector element has an acoustic lens to enlarge the acceptance angle of the large surface area detector elements to ensure a wide system FOV. We characterized the ultrasound detector array performance in terms of frequency response, directional sensitivity, minimum detectable pressure and inter-element electrical and mechanical cross-talk. Further we evaluated the system performance of the laboratory prototype imager using well-defined breast mimicking phantoms. The system possesses a 2 mm XY plane resolution and a 6 mm vertical resolution. A vasculature mimicking object was successfully visualized down to a depth of 40 mm in the breast phantom. Further, tumor mimicking spherical objects with 5 and 10 mm diameter at 20 mm and 40 mm depths are recovered, indicating high system sensitivity. The system has a 170 × 170 × 170 mm3 FOV, which is well suited for full breast imaging. Various recommendations are provided for performance improvement and to guide this laboratory prototype to a clinical version in future. PMID:24298416

  7. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Karen; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V® ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation. PMID:24387528

  8. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Karen Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  9. Role of 3-D ultrasound in clinical obstetric practice: evolution over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Martins, Wellington P; Guimarães Filho, Hélio; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-05-01

    The use of 3-D ultrasound in obstetrics has undergone dramatic development over the past 20 years. Since the first publications on this application in clinical practice, several 3-D ultrasound techniques and rendering modes have been proposed and applied to the study of fetal brain, face and cardiac anatomy. In addition, 3-D ultrasound has improved calculations of the volume of fetal organs and limbs and estimations of fetal birth weight. And furthermore, angiographic patterns of fetal organs and the placenta have been assessed using 3-D power Doppler ultrasound quantification. In this review, we aim to summarize current evidence on the clinical relevance of these methodologies and their application in obstetric practice.

  10. Fast 3-D Tomographic Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Paul M.; Kaufman, Peter A.; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring. PMID:22562726

  11. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  12. Transvaginal 3D Image-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Robert; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a transvaginal image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device using piezocomposite HIFU array technology, and commercially-available ultrasound imaging. Potential applications include treatment of uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. The HIFU transducer was an annular phased array, with a focal length range of 30-60 mm, an elliptically-shaped aperture of 35×60 mm, and an operating frequency of 3 MHz. A pillow-shaped bag with water circulation will be used for coupling the HIFU energy into the tissue. An intra-cavity imaging probe (C9-5, Philips) was integrated with the HIFU array such that the focal axis of the HIFU transducer was within the image plane. The entire device will be covered by a gel-filled condom when inserted in the vaginal cavity. To control it, software packages were developed in the LabView programming environment. An imaging algorithm processed the ultrasound image to remove noise patterns due to the HIFU signal. The device will be equipped with a three-dimensional tracking system, using a six-degrees-of-freedom articulating arm. Necrotic lesions were produced in a tissue-mimicking phantom and a turkey breast sample for all focal lengths. Various HIFU doses allow various necrotic lesion shapes, including thin ellipsoidal, spherical, wide cylindrical, and teardrop-shaped. Software control of the device allows multiple foci to be activated sequentially for desired lesion patterns. Ultrasound imaging synchronization can be achieved using hardware signals obtained from the imaging system, or software signals determined empirically for various imaging probes. The image-guided HIFU device will provide a valuable tool in visualization of uterine fibroid tumors for the purposes of planning and subsequent HIFU treatment of the tumor, all in a 3D environment. The control system allows for various lesions of different shapes to be optimally positioned in the tumor to cover the entire tumor

  13. A Molecular Image-directed, 3D Ultrasound-guided Biopsy System for the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Baowei; Schuster, David M.; Master, Viraj; Akbari, Hamed; Fenster, Aaron; Nieh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this biopsy approach uses two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images to guide biopsy and can miss up to 30% of prostate cancers. We are developing a molecular image-directed, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image-guided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. The system consists of a 3D mechanical localization system and software workstation for image segmentation, registration, and biopsy planning. In order to plan biopsy in a 3D prostate, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed image registration methods to fuse TRUS and PET/CT images. The segmentation method was tested in ten patients with a DICE overlap ratio of 92.4% ± 1.1 %. The registration method has been tested in phantoms. The biopsy system was tested in prostate phantoms and 3D ultrasound images were acquired from two human patients. We are integrating the system for PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound-guided, targeted biopsy in human patients. PMID:22708023

  14. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  15. Reproducibility of Acetabular Landmarks and a Standardized Coordinate System Obtained from 3D Hip Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mabee, Myles; Dulai, Sukhdeep; Thompson, Richard B; Jaremko, Jacob L

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is limited by variation in acetabular appearance and alpha angle measurements, which change with position of the ultrasound probe. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound captures the entire acetabular shape, and a reproducible "standard central plane" may be generated, from two landmarks located on opposite ends of the acetabulum, for measurement of alpha angle and other indices. Two users identified landmarks on 51 3D ultrasounds, with ranging severity of disease, and inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of landmark and "standard plane" locations was compared; landmarks were chosen within 2 mm, and the "standard plane" rotation was reproducible within 10° between observers. We observed no difference in variability between alpha angles measured on the "standard plane" in comparison with 2D ultrasound. Applications of the standardized 3D ultrasound central plane will be to fuse serial ultrasounds for follow-up and development of new indices of 3D deformity. PMID:25394808

  16. Vascular Structure Identification in Intraoperative 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Data.

    PubMed

    Ilunga-Mbuyamba, Elisee; Avina-Cervantes, Juan Gabriel; Lindner, Dirk; Cruz-Aceves, Ivan; Arlt, Felix; Chalopin, Claire

    2016-04-08

    In this paper, a method of vascular structure identification in intraoperative 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) data is presented. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used in brain tumor surgery to investigate in real time the current status of cerebral structures. The use of an ultrasound contrast agent enables to highlight tumor tissue, but also surrounding blood vessels. However, these structures can be used as landmarks to estimate and correct the brain shift. This work proposes an alternative method for extracting small vascular segments close to the tumor as landmark. The patient image dataset involved in brain tumor operations includes preoperative contrast T1MR (cT1MR) data and 3D intraoperative contrast enhanced ultrasound data acquired before (3D-iCEUS(start) and after (3D-iCEUS(end) tumor resection. Based on rigid registration techniques, a preselected vascular segment in cT1MR is searched in 3D-iCEUS(start) and 3D-iCEUS(end) data. The method was validated by using three similarity measures (Normalized Gradient Field, Normalized Mutual Information and Normalized Cross Correlation). Tests were performed on data obtained from ten patients overcoming a brain tumor operation and it succeeded in nine cases. Despite the small size of the vascular structures, the artifacts in the ultrasound images and the brain tissue deformations, blood vessels were successfully identified.

  17. Vascular Structure Identification in Intraoperative 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Data

    PubMed Central

    Ilunga-Mbuyamba, Elisee; Avina-Cervantes, Juan Gabriel; Lindner, Dirk; Cruz-Aceves, Ivan; Arlt, Felix; Chalopin, Claire

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a method of vascular structure identification in intraoperative 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) data is presented. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used in brain tumor surgery to investigate in real time the current status of cerebral structures. The use of an ultrasound contrast agent enables to highlight tumor tissue, but also surrounding blood vessels. However, these structures can be used as landmarks to estimate and correct the brain shift. This work proposes an alternative method for extracting small vascular segments close to the tumor as landmark. The patient image dataset involved in brain tumor operations includes preoperative contrast T1MR (cT1MR) data and 3D intraoperative contrast enhanced ultrasound data acquired before (3D-iCEUSstart) and after (3D-iCEUSend) tumor resection. Based on rigid registration techniques, a preselected vascular segment in cT1MR is searched in 3D-iCEUSstart and 3D-iCEUSend data. The method was validated by using three similarity measures (Normalized Gradient Field, Normalized Mutual Information and Normalized Cross Correlation). Tests were performed on data obtained from ten patients overcoming a brain tumor operation and it succeeded in nine cases. Despite the small size of the vascular structures, the artifacts in the ultrasound images and the brain tissue deformations, blood vessels were successfully identified. PMID:27070610

  18. MRI-Derived 3-D-Printed Breast Phantom for Microwave Breast Imaging Validation.

    PubMed

    Burfeindt, Matthew J; Colgan, Timothy J; Mays, R Owen; Shea, Jacob D; Behdad, Nader; Van Veen, Barry D; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    We propose a 3-D-printed breast phantom for use in preclinical experimental microwave imaging studies. The phantom is derived from an MRI of a human subject; thus, it is anthropomorphic, and its interior is very similar to an actual distribution of fibroglandular tissues. Adipose tissue in the breast is represented by the solid plastic (printed) regions of the phantom, while fibroglandular tissue is represented by liquid-filled voids in the plastic. The liquid is chosen to provide a biologically relevant dielectric contrast with the printed plastic. Such a phantom enables validation of microwave imaging techniques. We describe the procedure for generating the 3-D-printed breast phantom and present the measured dielectric properties of the 3-D-printed plastic over the frequency range 0.5-3.5 GHz. We also provide an example of a suitable liquid for filling the fibroglandular voids in the plastic.

  19. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  20. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  1. Real-time cylindrical curvilinear 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Pua, E C; Yen, J T; Smith, S W

    2003-07-01

    In patients who are obese or exhibit signs of pulmonary disease, standard transthoracic scanning may yield poor quality cardiac images. For these conditions, two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is established as an essential diagnostic tool. Current techniques in transesophageal scanning, though, are limited by incomplete visualization of cardiac structures in close proximity to the transducer. Thus, we propose a 2D curvilinear array for 3D transesophageal echocardiography in order to widen the field of view and increase visualization close to the transducer face. In this project, a 440 channel 5 MHz two-dimensional array with a 12.6 mm aperture diameter on a flexible interconnect circuit has been molded to a 4 mm radius of curvature. A 75% element yield was achieved during fabrication and an average -6dB bandwidth of 30% was observed in pulse-echo tests. Using this transducer in conjunction with modifications to the beam former delay software and scan converter display software of the our 3D scanner, we obtained cylindrical real-time curvilinear volumetric scans of tissue phantoms, including a field of view of greater than 120 degrees in the curved, azimuth direction and 65 degrees phased array sector scans in the elevation direction. These images were achieved using a stepped subaperture across the cylindrical curvilinear direction of the transducer face and phased array sector scanning in the noncurved plane. In addition, real-time volume rendered images of a tissue mimicking phantom with holes ranging from 1 cm to less than 4 mm have been obtained. 3D color flow Doppler results have also been acquired. This configuration can theoretically achieve volumes displaying 180 degrees by 120 degrees. The transducer is also capable of obtaining images through a curvilinear stepped subaperture in azimuth in conjunction with a rectilinear stepped subaperture in elevation, further increasing the field of view close to the transducer face. Future work

  2. 3D ultrasound to stereoscopic camera registration through an air-tissue boundary.

    PubMed

    Yip, Michael C; Adebar, Troy K; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E; Nguan, Christopher Y

    2010-01-01

    A novel registration method between 3D ultrasound and stereoscopic cameras is proposed based on tracking a registration tool featuring both ultrasound fiducials and optical markers. The registration tool is pressed against an air-tissue boundary where it can be seen both in ultrasound and in the camera view. By localizing the fiducials in the ultrasound volume, knowing the registration tool geometry, and tracking the tool with the cameras, a registration is found. This method eliminates the need for external tracking, requires minimal setup, and may be suitable for a range of minimally invasive surgeries. A study of the appearance of ultrasound fiducials on an air-tissue boundary is presented, and an initial assessment of the ability to localize the fiducials in ultrasound with sub-millimeter accuracy is provided. The overall accuracy of registration (1.69 +/- 0.60 mm) is a noticeable improvement over other reported methods and warrants patient studies.

  3. Proximal femoral focal deficiency of the fetus - early 3D/4D prenatal ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kudla, Marek J; Beczkowska-Kielek, Aleksandra; Kutta, Katarzyna; Partyka-Lasota, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital syndrome of unknown etiology. Additional disorders can be present up to 70% of PFFD cases. Management (including termination) depends on the severity of the malformation. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman referred for routine ultrasound examination in the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed 3D/4D evaluation revealed asymmetry of lower limbs and diagnosis of isolated PFFD was established. Parents were fully informed and decided to continue the pregnancy. We stress here the importance of early 3D/4D ultrasound diagnosis. Our paper presents the earliest case where the diagnosis of PFFD was established with 3D/4D ultrasound. PMID:27622419

  4. FPGA-based real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Dandekar, Omkar S.; Shekhar, Raj

    2005-02-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging, especially the emerging real-time version of it, is particularly valuable in medical applications such as echocardiography, obstetrics and surgical navigation. A known problem with ultrasound images is their high level of speckle noise. Anisotropic diffusion filtering has been shown to be effective in enhancing the visual quality of 3D ultrasound images and as preprocessing prior to advanced image processing. However, due to its arithmetic complexity and the sheer size of 3D ultrasound images, it is not possible to perform online, real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering using standard software implementations. We present an FPGA-based architecture that allows performing anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D images at acquisition rates, thus enabling the use of this filtering technique in real-time applications, such as visualization, registration and volume rendering.

  5. DTI template-based estimation of cardiac fiber orientations from 3D ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiac muscle fibers directly affect the mechanical, physiological, and pathological properties of the heart. Patient-specific quantification of cardiac fiber orientations is an important but difficult problem in cardiac imaging research. In this study, the authors proposed a cardiac fiber orientation estimation method based on three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound images and a cardiac fiber template that was obtained from magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: A DTI template-based framework was developed to estimate cardiac fiber orientations from 3D ultrasound images using an animal model. It estimated the cardiac fiber orientations of the target heart by deforming the fiber orientations of the template heart, based on the deformation field of the registration between the ultrasound geometry of the target heart and the MRI geometry of the template heart. In the experiments, the animal hearts were imaged by high-frequency ultrasound, T1-weighted MRI, and high-resolution DTI. Results: The proposed method was evaluated by four different parameters: Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), target errors, acute angle error (AAE), and inclination angle error (IAE). Its ability of estimating cardiac fiber orientations was first validated by a public database. Then, the performance of the proposed method on 3D ultrasound data was evaluated by an acquired database. Their average values were 95.4% ± 2.0% for the DSC of geometric registrations, 21.0° ± 0.76° for AAE, and 19.4° ± 1.2° for IAE of fiber orientation estimations. Furthermore, the feasibility of this framework was also performed on 3D ultrasound images of a beating heart. Conclusions: The proposed framework demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D ultrasound imaging to estimate cardiac fiber orientation of in vivo beating hearts and its further improvements could contribute to understanding the dynamic mechanism of the beating heart and has the potential to help diagnosis and therapy

  6. 3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation from 2D transversal ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Eunseop; Nam, Kweon-Ho; Jin, Changzhu; Paeng, Dong-Guk; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Visualizing and analyzing the morphological structure of carotid bifurcations are important for understanding the etiology of carotid atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of stroke and transient ischemic attack. For delineation of vasculatures in the carotid artery, ultrasound examinations have been widely employed because of a noninvasive procedure without ionizing radiation. However, conventional 2D ultrasound imaging has technical limitations in observing the complicated 3D shapes and asymmetric vasodilation of bifurcations. This study aims to propose image-processing techniques for better 3D reconstruction of a carotid bifurcation in a rat by using 2D cross-sectional ultrasound images. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging system with a probe centered at 40MHz was employed to obtain 2D transversal images. The lumen boundaries in each transverse ultrasound image were detected by using three different techniques; an ellipse-fitting, a correlation mapping to visualize the decorrelation of blood flow, and the ellipse-fitting on the correlation map. When the results are compared, the third technique provides relatively good boundary extraction. The incomplete boundaries of arterial lumen caused by acoustic artifacts are somewhat resolved by adopting the correlation mapping and the distortion in the boundary detection near the bifurcation apex was largely reduced by using the ellipse-fitting technique. The 3D lumen geometry of a carotid artery was obtained by volumetric rendering of several 2D slices. For the 3D vasodilatation of the carotid bifurcation, lumen geometries at the contraction and expansion states were simultaneously depicted at various view angles. The present 3D reconstruction methods would be useful for efficient extraction and construction of the 3D lumen geometries of carotid bifurcations from 2D ultrasound images.

  7. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Ketut E; Wilkinson, Michael H F; Veldhuizen, Albert G; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Sardjono, Tri A; Verkerke, Gijbertus J

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis which sometimes may develop rapidly. Furthermore, 3D ultrasound imaging provides information in 3D directly in contrast to projection methods. This paper describes a feasibility study of an ultrasound system to provide a 3D image of the human spine, and presents a framework of procedures to perform this task. The framework consist of an ultrasound image acquisition procedure to image a large part of the human spine by means of a freehand 3D ultrasound system and a volume reconstruction procedure which was performed in four stages: bin-filling, hole-filling, volume segment alignment, and volume segment compounding. The overall results of the procedures in this framework show that imaging of the human spine using ultrasound is feasible. Vertebral parts such as the transverse processes, laminae, superior articular processes, and spinous process of the vertebrae appear as clouds of voxels having intensities higher than the surrounding voxels. In sagittal slices, a string of transverse processes appears representing the curvature of the spine. In the bin-filling stage the estimated mean absolute noise level of a single measurement of a single voxel was determined. Our comparative study for the hole-filling methods based on rank sum statistics proved that the pixel nearest neighbour (PNN) method with variable radius and with the proposed olympic operation is the best method. Its mean absolute grey value error was less in magnitude than the noise level of a single measurement.

  8. Image enhancement and segmentation of fluid-filled structures in 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalana, Vikram; Dudycha, Stephen; McMorrow, Gerald

    2003-05-01

    Segmentation of fluid-filled structures, such as the urinary bladder, from three-dimensional ultrasound images is necessary for measuring their volume. This paper describes a system for image enhancement, segmentation and volume measurement of fluid-filled structures on 3D ultrasound images. The system was applied for the measurement of urinary bladder volume. Results show an average error of less than 10% in the estimation of the total bladder volume.

  9. Intelligent speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion algorithm for automated 3-D ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Shi, Xinling; Zhang, Junhua; Chen, Yue; Pang, Yun

    2015-02-01

    A novel 3-D filtering method is presented for speckle reduction and detail preservation in automated 3-D ultrasound images. First, texture features of an image are analyzed by using the improved quadtree (QT) decomposition. Then, the optimal homogeneous and the obvious heterogeneous regions are selected from QT decomposition results. Finally, diffusion parameters and diffusion process are automatically decided based on the properties of these two selected regions. The computing time needed for 2-D speckle reduction is very short. However, the computing time required for 3-D speckle reduction is often hundreds of times longer than 2-D speckle reduction. This may limit its potential application in practice. Because this new filter can adaptively adjust the time step of iteration, the computation time is reduced effectively. Both synthetic and real 3-D ultrasound images are used to evaluate the proposed filter. It is shown that this filter is superior to other methods in both practicality and efficiency. PMID:26366596

  10. Mechanically assisted 3D prostate ultrasound imaging and biopsy needle-guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Williams, Jackie; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Karnik, Vaishali; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are currently limited to using 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging to guide the biopsy needle. Being limited to 2D causes ambiguity in needle guidance and provides an insufficient record to allow guidance to the same suspicious locations or avoid regions that are negative during previous biopsy sessions. We have developed a mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound imaging and needle tracking system, which supports a commercially available TRUS probe and integrated needle guide for prostate biopsy. The mechanical device is fixed to a cart and the mechanical tracking linkage allows its joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting the weight of the ultrasound probe. The computer interface is provided in order to track the needle trajectory and display its path on a corresponding 3D TRUS image, allowing the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate. The system has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe in order to generate 3D image for 3D navigation. Using the system, 3D TRUS prostate images can be generated in approximately 10 seconds. The system reduces most of the user variability from conventional hand-held probes, which make them unsuitable for precision biopsy, while preserving some of the user familiarity and procedural workflow. In this paper, we describe the 3D TRUS guided biopsy system and report on the initial clinical use of this system for prostate biopsy.

  11. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  12. 3D ultrasound imaging method to assess the true spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quang N; Lou, Edmond H M; Le, Lawrence H

    2015-08-01

    Spinal deformity is a three-dimensional (3D) spinal disorder with a lateral deviation and coupled with axial vertebral rotation (AVR). The current clinical practice only measures its severity on postero-anterior (PA) radiographs, which may underestimate the deformity. The actual severity should be obtained on the plane of maximal curvature (PMC), which requires a 3D spinal image. There are many approaches to reconstruct 3D spinal images; however, ultrasound is one of the promising techniques with its non-ionizing characteristic. This study proposed an image processing method using the voxel-based bilinear interpolation to reconstruct a 3D spinal image from ultrasound data, from which the AVR was measured and the spinal curvature on the PMC was determined. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments were performed to determine the accuracy of the measurements from the ultrasound method. The results showed that the 3D ultrasound spinal image could be reconstructed. The curvature angle on the PA and the PMC planes could also be determined. The tilt angle of each individual vertebra in in-vitro study showed high accuracy and correlation (MAD <; 0.9° ± 0.2° and r(2) > 0.87) when comparing the measurements from CT with ultrasound. In in-vivo study, the curvature angles measured on the PA radiographs and ultrasound images yielded a small difference (MAD 3.4° ± 1.0°) and a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.63) within a clinical accepted error of 5°. PMID:26736565

  13. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  14. OVERALL PROCEDURES PROTOCOL AND PATIENT ENROLLMENT PROTOCOL: TESTING FEASIBILITY OF 3D ULTRASOUND DATA ACQUISITION AND RELIABILITY OF DATA RETRIEVAL FROM STORED 3D IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of collecting, transmitting,

    and analyzing 3-D ultrasound data in the context of a multi-center study of pregnant

    women. The study will also examine the reliability of measurements obtained from 3-D

    imag...

  15. Novel 3-D laparoscopic magnetic ultrasound image guidance for lesion targeting

    PubMed Central

    Sindram, David; McKillop, Iain H; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Accurate laparoscopic liver lesion targeting for biopsy or ablation depends on the ability to merge laparoscopic and ultrasound images with proprioceptive instrument positioning, a skill that can be acquired only through extensive experience. The aim of this study was to determine whether using magnetic positional tracking to provide three-dimensional, real-time guidance improves accuracy during laparoscopic needle placement. Methods: Magnetic sensors were embedded into a needle and laparoscopic ultrasound transducer. These sensors interrupted the magnetic fields produced by an electromagnetic field generator, allowing for real-time, 3-D guidance on a stereoscopic monitor. Targets measuring 5 mm were embedded 3–5 cm deep in agar and placed inside a laparoscopic trainer box. Two novices (a college student and an intern) and two experts (hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons) targeted the lesions out of the ultrasound plane using either traditional or 3-D guidance. Results: Each subject targeted 22 lesions, 11 with traditional and 11 with the novel guidance (n = 88). Hit rates of 32% (14/44) and 100% (44/44) were observed with the traditional approach and the 3-D magnetic guidance approach, respectively. The novices were essentially unable to hit the targets using the traditional approach, but did not miss using the novel system. The hit rate of experts improved from 59% (13/22) to 100% (22/22) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The novel magnetic 3-D laparoscopic ultrasound guidance results in perfect targeting of 5-mm lesions, even by surgical novices. PMID:21083797

  16. Validity Study of Vertebral Rotation Measurement Using 3-D Ultrasound in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Li, Meng; Lou, Edmond H M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheng, Jack C Y; Wong, Man-Sang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of 3-D ultrasound measurements on the vertebral rotation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) under clinical settings. Thirty curves (mean Cobb angle: 21.7° ± 15.9°) from 16 patients with AIS were recruited. 3-D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at the supine position. Each of the two raters measured the apical vertebral rotation using the center of laminae (COL) method in the 3-D ultrasound images and the Aaro-Dahlborn method in the magnetic resonance images. The intra- and inter-reliability of the COL method was demonstrated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (both [2, K] >0.9, p < 0.05). The COL method showed no significant difference (p < 0.05) compared with the Aaro-Dahlborn method. Furthermore, the agreement between these two methods was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman method, and high correlation was found (r > 0.9, p < 0.05). These results validated the proposed 3-D ultrasound method in the measurements of vertebral rotation in the patients with AIS. PMID:27083978

  17. Visualization of hepatic arteries with 3D ultrasound during intra-arterial therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Maxime; Tang, An; Badoual, Anaïs.; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer represents the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The prognosis is poor with an overall mortality of 95%. Moreover, most hepatic tumors are unresectable due to their advanced stage at discovery or poor underlying liver function. Tumor embolization by intra-arterial approaches is the current standard of care for advanced cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. These therapies rely on the fact that the blood supply of primary hepatic tumors is predominantly arterial. Feedback on blood flow velocities in the hepatic arteries is crucial to ensure maximal treatment efficacy on the targeted masses. Based on these velocities, the intra-arterial injection rate is modulated for optimal infusion of the chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumorous tissue. While Doppler ultrasound is a well-documented technique for the assessment of blood flow, 3D visualization of vascular anatomy with ultrasound remains challenging. In this paper we present an image-guidance pipeline that enables the localization of the hepatic arterial branches within a 3D ultrasound image of the liver. A diagnostic Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is first processed to automatically segment the hepatic arteries. A non-rigid registration method is then applied on the portal phase of the MRA volume with a 3D ultrasound to enable the visualization of the 3D mesh of the hepatic arteries in the Doppler images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed workflow, we present initial results from porcine models and patient images.

  18. Whole breast tissue characterization with ultrasound tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steve; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    A number of clinical trials have shown that screening ultrasound, supplemental to mammography, detects additional cancers in women with dense breasts. However, labor intensity, operator dependence and high recall rates have limited adoption. This paper describes the use of ultrasound tomography for whole-breast tissue stiffness measurements as a first step toward addressing the issue of high recall rates. The validation of the technique using an anthropomorphic phantom is described. In-vivo applications are demonstrated on 13 breast masses, indicating that lesion stiffness correlates with lesion type as expected. Comparison of lesion stiffness measurements with standard elastography was available for 11 masses and showed a strong correlation between the 2 measures. It is concluded that ultrasound tomography can map out the 3 dimensional distribution of tissue stiffness over the whole breast. Such a capability is well suited for screening where additional characterization may improve the specificity of screening ultrasound, thereby lowering barriers to acceptance.

  19. Modeling of multi-view 3D freehand radio frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Klein, T; Hansson, M; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays ultrasound (US) examinations are typically performed with conventional machines providing two dimensional imagery. However, there exist a multitude of applications where doctors could benefit from three dimensional ultrasound providing better judgment, due to the extended spatial view. 3D freehand US allows acquisition of images by means of a tracking device attached to the ultrasound transducer. Unfortunately, view dependency makes the 3D representation of ultrasound a non-trivial task. To address this we model speckle statistics, in envelope-detected radio frequency (RF) data, using a finite mixture model (FMM), assuming a parametric representation of data, in which the multiple views are treated as components of the FMM. The proposed model is show-cased with registration, using an ultrasound specific distribution based pseudo-distance, and reconstruction tasks, performed on the manifold of Gamma model parameters. Example field of application is neurology using transcranial US, as this domain requires high accuracy and data systematically features low SNR, making intensity based registration difficult. In particular, 3D US can be specifically used to improve differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to conventional approaches and is therefore of high relevance for future application. PMID:23285579

  20. Breast mass detection using slice conspicuity in 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2014-09-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis, the three dimensional (3D) reconstructed volumes only provide quasi-3D structure information with limited resolution along the depth direction due to insufficient sampling in depth direction and the limited angular range. The limitation could seriously hamper the conventional 3D image analysis techniques for detecting masses because the limited number of projection views causes blurring in the out-of-focus planes. In this paper, we propose a novel mass detection approach using slice conspicuity in the 3D reconstructed digital breast volumes to overcome the above limitation. First, to overcome the limited resolution along the depth direction, we detect regions of interest (ROIs) on each reconstructed slice and separately utilize the depth directional information to combine the ROIs effectively. Furthermore, we measure the blurriness of each slice for resolving the degradation of performance caused by the blur in the out-of-focus plane. Finally, mass features are extracted from the selected in focus slices and analyzed by a support vector machine classifier to reduce the false positives. Comparative experiments have been conducted on a clinical data set. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the conventional 3D approach by achieving a high sensitivity with a small number of false positives.

  1. Model based assessment of vestibular jawbone thickness using high frequency 3D ultrasound micro-scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habor, Daniel; Neuhaus, Sarah; Vollborn, Thorsten; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus; Heger, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Endosseous implants are well-established in modern dentistry. However, without appropriate therapeutic intervention, progressive peri-implant bone loss may lead to failing implants. Conventionally, the particularly relevant vestibular jawbone thickness is monitored using radiographic 3D imaging methods. Ionizing radiation, as well as imaging artifacts caused by metallic implants and superstructures are major drawbacks of these imaging modalities. In this study, a high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based approach to assess the vestibular jawbone thickness is being introduced. It should be emphasized that the presented method does not require ultrasound penetration of the jawbone. An in-vitro study using two porcine specimens with inserted endosseous implants has been carried out to assess the accuracy of our approach. The implant of the first specimen was equipped with a gingiva former while a polymer superstructure was mounted onto the implant of the second specimen. Ultrasound data has been acquired using a 4 degree of freedom (DOF) high frequency (<50MHz) laboratory ultrasound scanner. The ultrasound raw data has been converted to polygon meshes including the surfaces of bone, gingiva, gingiva former (first specimen) and superstructure (second specimen). The meshes are matched with a-priori acquired 3D models of the implant, the superstructure and the gingiva former using a best-fit algorithm. Finally, the vestibular peri-implant bone thickness has been assessed in the resulting 3D models. The accuracy of this approach has been evaluated by comparing the ultrasound based thickness measurement with a reference measurement acquired with an optical extra-oral 3D scanner prior to covering the specimens with gingiva. As a final result, the bone thicknesses of the two specimens were measured yielding an error of -46+/-89μm (first specimen) and 70+/-93μm (second specimen).

  2. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size—a few microns in diameter—and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  3. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size-a few microns in diameter-and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  4. A navigation system for flexible endoscopes using abdominal 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Kaar, M.; Bathia, Amon; Bathia, Amar; Lampret, A.; Birkfellner, W.; Hummel, J.; Figl, M.

    2014-09-01

    A navigation system for flexible endoscopes equipped with ultrasound (US) scan heads is presented. In contrast to similar systems, abdominal 3D-US is used for image fusion of the pre-interventional computed tomography (CT) to the endoscopic US. A 3D-US scan, tracked with an optical tracking system (OTS), is taken pre-operatively together with the CT scan. The CT is calibrated using the OTS, providing the transformation from CT to 3D-US. Immediately before intervention a 3D-US tracked with an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) is acquired and registered intra-modal to the preoperative 3D-US. The endoscopic US is calibrated using the EMTS and registered to the pre-operative CT by an intra-modal 3D-US/3D-US registration. Phantom studies showed a registration error for the US to CT registration of 5.1 mm ± 2.8 mm. 3D-US/3D-US registration of patient data gave an error of 4.1 mm compared to 2.8 mm with the phantom. From this we estimate an error on patient experiments of 5.6 mm.

  5. Passive Markers for Tracking Surgical Instruments in Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Jeffrey; Ren, Hongliang; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    A family of passive echogenic markers is presented by which the position and orientation of a surgical instrument can be determined in a 3-D ultrasound volume, using simple image processing. Markers are attached near the distal end of the instrument so that they appear in the ultrasound volume along with the instrument tip. They are detected and measured within the ultrasound image, thus requiring no external tracking device. This approach facilitates imaging instruments and tissue simultaneously in ultrasound-guided interventions. Marker-based estimates of instrument pose can be used in augmented reality displays or for image-based servoing. Design principles for marker shapes are presented that ensure imaging system and measurement uniqueness constraints are met. An error analysis is included that can be used to guide marker design and which also establishes a lower bound on measurement uncertainty. Finally, examples of marker measurement and tracking algorithms are presented along with experimental validation of the concepts. PMID:22042148

  6. Multi-resolution Gabor wavelet feature extraction for needle detection in 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; Mihajlovic, Nenad; de With, Peter H. N.; Huang, Jinfeng; Ng, Gary C.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging is employed for needle guidance in various minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia and brachytherapy. Unfortunately, a needle guidance using 2D ultrasound is very challenging, due to a poor needle visibility and a limited field of view. Nowadays, 3D ultrasound systems are available and more widely used. Consequently, with an appropriate 3D image-based needle detection technique, needle guidance and interventions may significantly be improved and simplified. In this paper, we present a multi-resolution Gabor transformation for an automated and reliable extraction of the needle-like structures in a 3D ultrasound volume. We study and identify the best combination of the Gabor wavelet frequencies. High precision in detecting the needle voxels leads to a robust and accurate localization of the needle for the intervention support. Evaluation in several ex-vivo cases shows that the multi-resolution analysis significantly improves the precision of the needle voxel detection from 0.23 to 0.32 at a high recall rate of 0.75 (gain 40%), where a better robustness and confidence were confirmed in the practical experiments.

  7. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Gao, Kai; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is an emerging imaging modality to reconstruct the sound speed, density, and ultrasound attenuation of the breast in addition to ultrasound reflection/beamforming images for breast cancer detection and characterization. We recently designed and manufactured a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography prototype with two parallel transducer arrays consisting of a total of 768 transducer elements. The transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the breast in a warm water tank from the chest wall/axillary region to the nipple region to acquire ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound tomography imaging. The distance of these two ultrasound transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. We use our breast ultrasound tomography prototype to acquire phantom and in vivo patient ultrasound data to study its feasibility for breast imaging. We apply our recently developed ultrasound imaging and tomography algorithms to ultrasound data acquired using our breast ultrasound tomography system. Our in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that our breast ultrasound tomography can detect breast lesions shown on clinical ultrasound and mammographic images.

  8. Reconfigurable 2D cMUT-ASIC arrays for 3D ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jongkeun; Jung, Sungjin; Kim, Youngil; Cho, Kyungil; Kim, Baehyung; Lee, Seunghun; Na, Junseok; Yang, Ikseok; Kwon, Oh-kyong; Kim, Dongwook

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the design and implementations of the complete 2D capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer electronics and its analog front-end module for transmitting high voltage ultrasound pulses and receiving its echo signals to realize 3D ultrasound image. In order to minimize parasitic capacitances and ultimately improve signal-to- noise ratio (SNR), cMUT has to be integrate with Tx/Rx electronics. Additionally, in order to integrate 2D cMUT array module, significant optimized high voltage pulser circuitry, low voltage analog/digital circuit design and packaging challenges are required due to high density of elements and small pitch of each element. We designed 256(16x16)- element cMUT and reconfigurable driving ASIC composed of 120V high voltage pulser, T/R switch, low noise preamplifier and digital control block to set Tx frequency of ultrasound and pulse train in each element. Designed high voltage analog ASIC was successfully bonded with 2D cMUT array by flip-chip bonding process and it connected with analog front-end board to transmit pulse-echo signals. This implementation of reconfigurable cMUT-ASIC-AFE board enables us to produce large aperture 2D transducer array and acquire high quality of 3D ultrasound image.

  9. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  10. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  11. Reconstruction of 3D ultrasound images based on Cyclic Regularized Savitzky-Golay filters.

    PubMed

    Toonkum, Pollakrit; Suwanwela, Nijasri C; Chinrungrueng, Chedsada

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a new three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound reconstruction algorithm for generation of 3D images from a series of two-dimensional (2D) B-scans acquired in the mechanical linear scanning framework. Unlike most existing 3D ultrasound reconstruction algorithms, which have been developed and evaluated in the freehand scanning framework, the new algorithm has been designed to capitalize the regularity pattern of the mechanical linear scanning, where all the B-scan slices are precisely parallel and evenly spaced. The new reconstruction algorithm, referred to as the Cyclic Regularized Savitzky-Golay (CRSG) filter, is a new variant of the Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing filter. The CRSG filter has been improved upon the original SG filter in two respects: First, the cyclic indicator function has been incorporated into the least square cost function to enable the CRSG filter to approximate nonuniformly spaced data of the unobserved image intensities contained in unfilled voxels and reduce speckle noise of the observed image intensities contained in filled voxels. Second, the regularization function has been augmented to the least squares cost function as a mechanism to balance between the degree of speckle reduction and the degree of detail preservation. The CRSG filter has been evaluated and compared with the Voxel Nearest-Neighbor (VNN) interpolation post-processed by the Adaptive Speckle Reduction (ASR) filter, the VNN interpolation post-processed by the Adaptive Weighted Median (AWM) filter, the Distance-Weighted (DW) interpolation, and the Adaptive Distance-Weighted (ADW) interpolation, on reconstructing a synthetic 3D spherical image and a clinical 3D carotid artery bifurcation in the mechanical linear scanning framework. This preliminary evaluation indicates that the CRSG filter is more effective in both speckle reduction and geometric reconstruction of 3D ultrasound images than the other methods. PMID:20696448

  12. Quantification of carotid arteries atherosclerosis using 3D ultrasound images and area-preserving flattened maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Egger, Micaela; Spence, J. David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Quantitative measurements of the progression (or regression) of carotid plaque burden are important in monitoring patients and evaluating new treatment options. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to monitor the progression of carotid artery plaques in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Different methods of measuring various ultrasound phenotypes of atherosclerosis have been developed. In this work, we extended concepts used in intima-media thickness (IMT) measurements based on 2D images and introduced a metric called 3D vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (3D VWT), which was obtained by computing the distance between the carotid wall and lumen surfaces on a point-by-point basis in a 3D image of the carotid arteries. The VWT measurements were then superimposed on the arterial wall to produce the VWT map. Since the progression of plaque thickness is important in monitoring patients who are at risk for stroke, we also computed the change of VWT by comparing the VWT maps obtained for a patient at two different time points. In order to facilitate the visualization and interpretation of the 3D VWT and VWT-Change maps, we proposed a technique to flatten these maps in an area-preserving manner.

  13. Accurate Diagnosis of Severe Hypospadias Using 2D and 3D Ultrasounds

    PubMed Central

    López Ramón y Cajal, Carlos; Marín Ortiz, Elena; Sarmiento Carrera, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    The hypospadias is the most common urogenital anomaly of male neonates but the prenatal diagnosis of this is often missed before birth. We present the prenatal diagnosis of a severe penoscrotal hypospadias using 2D and 3D ultrasounds. 3D sonography allowed us the best evaluation of the genitals and their anatomical relations. This ample detailed study allowed us to show the findings to the parents and the pediatric surgeon and to configure the best information about the prognosis and surgical treatment. PMID:27774326

  14. 2D array transducers for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of interventional devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Edward D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-02-01

    We describe catheter ring arrays for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of devices such as vascular grafts, heart valves and vena cava filters. We have constructed several prototypes operating at 5 MHz and consisting of 54 elements using the W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. micro-miniature ribbon cables. We have recently constructed a new transducer using a braided wiring technology from Precision Interconnect. This transducer consists of 54 elements at 4.8 MHz with pitch of 0.20 mm and typical -6 dB bandwidth of 22%. In all cases, the transducer and wiring assembly were integrated with an 11 French catheter of a Cook Medical deployment device for vena cava filters. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro testing is ongoing including simultaneous 3D ultrasound and x-ray fluoroscopy.

  15. Registration of Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound to Tomographic Images of the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Brekken, Reidar; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an image-based method for registration of real-time 3-D ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal aorta, targeting future use in ultrasound-guided endovascular intervention. We proposed a method in which a surface model of the aortic wall was segmented from CT, and the approximate initial location of this model relative to the ultrasound volume was manually indicated. The model was iteratively transformed to automatically optimize correspondence to the ultrasound data. Feasibility was studied using data from a silicon phantom and in vivo data from a volunteer with previously acquired CT. Through visual evaluation, the ultrasound and CT data were seen to correspond well after registration. Both aortic lumen and branching arteries were well aligned. The processing was done offline, and the registration took approximately 0.2 s per ultrasound volume. The results encourage further patient studies to investigate accuracy, robustness and clinical value of the approach. PMID:27156015

  16. Random Walk Based Segmentation for the Prostate on 3D Transrectal Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj V.; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new semi-automatic segmentation method for the prostate on 3D transrectal ultrasound images (TRUS) by combining the region and classification information. We use a random walk algorithm to express the region information efficiently and flexibly because it can avoid segmentation leakage and shrinking bias. We further use the decision tree as the classifier to distinguish the prostate from the non-prostate tissue because of its fast speed and superior performance, especially for a binary classification problem. Our segmentation algorithm is initialized with the user roughly marking the prostate and non-prostate points on the mid-gland slice which are fitted into an ellipse for obtaining more points. Based on these fitted seed points, we run the random walk algorithm to segment the prostate on the mid-gland slice. The segmented contour and the information from the decision tree classification are combined to determine the initial seed points for the other slices. The random walk algorithm is then used to segment the prostate on the adjacent slice. We propagate the process until all slices are segmented. The segmentation method was tested in 32 3D transrectal ultrasound images. Manual segmentation by a radiologist serves as the gold standard for the validation. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieved a Dice similarity coefficient of 91.37±0.05%. The segmentation method can be applied to 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and other applications. PMID:27660383

  17. Random walk based segmentation for the prostate on 3D transrectal ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ling; Guo, Rongrong; Tian, Zhiqiang; Venkataraman, Rajesh; Sarkar, Saradwata; Liu, Xiabi; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj V.; Schuster, David M.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a new semi-automatic segmentation method for the prostate on 3D transrectal ultrasound images (TRUS) by combining the region and classification information. We use a random walk algorithm to express the region information efficiently and flexibly because it can avoid segmentation leakage and shrinking bias. We further use the decision tree as the classifier to distinguish the prostate from the non-prostate tissue because of its fast speed and superior performance, especially for a binary classification problem. Our segmentation algorithm is initialized with the user roughly marking the prostate and non-prostate points on the mid-gland slice which are fitted into an ellipse for obtaining more points. Based on these fitted seed points, we run the random walk algorithm to segment the prostate on the mid-gland slice. The segmented contour and the information from the decision tree classification are combined to determine the initial seed points for the other slices. The random walk algorithm is then used to segment the prostate on the adjacent slice. We propagate the process until all slices are segmented. The segmentation method was tested in 32 3D transrectal ultrasound images. Manual segmentation by a radiologist serves as the gold standard for the validation. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieved a Dice similarity coefficient of 91.37+/-0.05%. The segmentation method can be applied to 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and other applications.

  18. 3D ultrasound Nakagami imaging for radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Shelton, Joseph; Bruner, Debrorah; Tridandapani, Srini; Liu, Tian

    2014-03-01

    Radiation-induced vaginal fibrosis is a debilitating side-effect affecting up to 80% of women receiving radiotherapy for their gynecological (GYN) malignancies. Despite the significant incidence and severity, little research has been conducted to identify the pathophysiologic changes of vaginal toxicity. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that ultrasound Nakagami shape and PDF parameters can be used to quantify radiation-induced vaginal toxicity. These Nakagami parameters are derived from the statistics of ultrasound backscattered signals to capture the physical properties (e.g., arrangement and distribution) of the biological tissues. In this paper, we propose to expand this Nakagami imaging concept from 2D to 3D to fully characterize radiation-induced changes to the vaginal wall within the radiation treatment field. A pilot study with 5 post-radiotherapy GYN patients was conducted using a clinical ultrasound scanner (6 MHz) with a mechanical stepper. A serial of 2D ultrasound images, with radio-frequency (RF) signals, were acquired at 1 mm step size. The 2D Nakagami shape and PDF parameters were calculated from the RF signal envelope with a sliding window, and then 3D Nakagami parameter images were generated from the parallel 2D images. This imaging method may be useful as we try to monitor radiation-induced vaginal injury, and address vaginal toxicities and sexual dysfunction in women after radiotherapy for GYN malignancies.

  19. 3-D ultrasound-guided robotic needle steering in biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Adebar, Troy K; Fletcher, Ashley E; Okamura, Allison M

    2014-12-01

    Robotic needle steering systems have the potential to greatly improve medical interventions, but they require new methods for medical image guidance. Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound is a widely available, low-cost imaging modality that may be used to provide real-time feedback to needle steering robots. Unfortunately, the poor visibility of steerable needles in standard grayscale ultrasound makes automatic segmentation of the needles impractical. A new imaging approach is proposed, in which high-frequency vibration of a steerable needle makes it visible in ultrasound Doppler images. Experiments demonstrate that segmentation from this Doppler data is accurate to within 1-2 mm. An image-guided control algorithm that incorporates the segmentation data as feedback is also described. In experimental tests in ex vivo bovine liver tissue, a robotic needle steering system implementing this control scheme was able to consistently steer a needle tip to a simulated target with an average error of 1.57 mm. Implementation of 3-D ultrasound-guided needle steering in biological tissue represents a significant step toward the clinical application of robotic needle steering.

  20. Inter-rater reliability in the classification of supraspinatus tendon tears using 3D ultrasound – a question of experience?

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Christian; Micheroli, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound of the shoulder is characterized by a comparable accuracy to two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound. No studies investigating 2D versus 3D inter-rater reliability in the detection of supraspinatus tendon tears taking into account the level of experience of the raters have been carried out so far. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability in the analysis of 3D ultrasound image sets of the supraspinatus tendon between sonographer with different levels of experience. Patients and methods Non-interventional, prospective, observational pilot study of 2309 images of 127 adult patients suffering from unilateral shoulder pain. 3D ultrasound image sets were scored by three raters independently. The intra-and interrater reliabilities were calculated. Results There was an excellent intra-rater reliability of rater A in the overall classification of supraspinatus tendon tears (2D vs 3D κ = 0.892, pairwise reliability 93.81%, 3D scoring round 1 vs 3D scoring round 2 κ = 0.875, pairwise reliability 92.857%). The inter-rater reliability was only moderate compared to rater B on 3D (κ = 0.497, pairwise reliability 70.95%) and fair compared to rater C (κ = 0.238, pairwise reliability 42.38%). Conclusions The reliability of 3D ultrasound of the supraspinatus tendon depends on the level of experience of the sonographer. Experience in 2D ultrasound does not seem to be sufficient for the analysis of 3D ultrasound imaging sets. Therefore, for a 3D ultrasound analysis new diagnostic criteria have to be established and taught even to experienced 2D sonographers to improve reproducibility. PMID:27679728

  1. Inter-rater reliability in the classification of supraspinatus tendon tears using 3D ultrasound – a question of experience?

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Christian; Micheroli, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound of the shoulder is characterized by a comparable accuracy to two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound. No studies investigating 2D versus 3D inter-rater reliability in the detection of supraspinatus tendon tears taking into account the level of experience of the raters have been carried out so far. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability in the analysis of 3D ultrasound image sets of the supraspinatus tendon between sonographer with different levels of experience. Patients and methods Non-interventional, prospective, observational pilot study of 2309 images of 127 adult patients suffering from unilateral shoulder pain. 3D ultrasound image sets were scored by three raters independently. The intra-and interrater reliabilities were calculated. Results There was an excellent intra-rater reliability of rater A in the overall classification of supraspinatus tendon tears (2D vs 3D κ = 0.892, pairwise reliability 93.81%, 3D scoring round 1 vs 3D scoring round 2 κ = 0.875, pairwise reliability 92.857%). The inter-rater reliability was only moderate compared to rater B on 3D (κ = 0.497, pairwise reliability 70.95%) and fair compared to rater C (κ = 0.238, pairwise reliability 42.38%). Conclusions The reliability of 3D ultrasound of the supraspinatus tendon depends on the level of experience of the sonographer. Experience in 2D ultrasound does not seem to be sufficient for the analysis of 3D ultrasound imaging sets. Therefore, for a 3D ultrasound analysis new diagnostic criteria have to be established and taught even to experienced 2D sonographers to improve reproducibility.

  2. 3D deformable organ model based liver motion tracking in ultrasound videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Bae; Hwang, Youngkyoo; Oh, Young-Taek; Bang, Won-Chul; Lee, Heesae; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method of using 2D ultrasound (US) cine images during image-guided therapy to accurately track the 3D position of a tumor even when the organ of interest is in motion due to patient respiration. Tracking is possible thanks to a 3D deformable organ model we have developed. The method consists of three processes in succession. The first process is organ modeling where we generate a personalized 3D organ model from high quality 3D CT or MR data sets captured during three different respiratory phases. The model includes the organ surface, vessel and tumor, which can all deform and move in accord with patient respiration. The second process is registration of the organ model to 3D US images. From 133 respiratory phase candidates generated from the deformable organ model, we resolve the candidate that best matches the 3D US images according to vessel centerline and surface. As a result, we can determine the position of the US probe. The final process is real-time tracking using 2D US cine images captured by the US probe. We determine the respiratory phase by tracking the diaphragm on the image. The 3D model is then deformed according to respiration phase and is fitted to the image by considering the positions of the vessels. The tumor's 3D positions are then inferred based on respiration phase. Testing our method on real patient data, we have found the accuracy of 3D position is within 3.79mm and processing time is 5.4ms during tracking.

  3. Double Ring Array Catheter for In Vivo Real-Time 3D Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen W; Gardea, Paul; Patel, Vivek; Douglas, Stephen J; Wolf, Patrick D

    2014-03-12

    We developed new forward-viewing matrix transducers consisting of double ring arrays of 118 total PZT elements integrated into catheters used to deploy medical interventional devices. Our goal is 3D ultrasound guidance of medical device implantation to reduce x-ray fluoroscopy exposure. The double ring arrays were fabricated on inner and outer custom polyimide flexible circuits with inter-element spacing of 0.20 mm and then wrapped around an 11 French (Fr) catheter to produce a 15 Fr catheter (outer diameter [O.D.]). We used a braided cabling technology to connect the elements to the Volumetrics Medical Imaging (VMI) real-time 3D ultrasound scanner. Transducer performance yielded an average -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 49% ± 11% centered at 4.4 MHz for 118 elements. Real-time 3D cardiac scans of the in vivo pig model yielded good image quality including en face views of the tricuspid valve and real-time 3D guidance of an endo-myocardial biopsy catheter introduced into the left ventricle. PMID:24626564

  4. 3D ultrasound volume stitching using phase symmetry and harris corner detection for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Rupin; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Abugharbieh, Rafeef

    2010-03-01

    Stitching of volumes obtained from three dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) scanners improves visualization of anatomy in many clinical applications. Fast but accurate volume registration remains the key challenge in this area.We propose a volume stitching method based on efficient registration of 3D US volumes obtained from a tracked US probe. Since the volumes, after adjusting for probe motion, are coarsely registered, we obtain salient correspondence points in the central slices of these volumes. This is done by first removing artifacts in the US slices using intensity invariant local phase image processing and then applying the Harris Corner detection algorithm. Fast sub-volume registration on a small neighborhood around the points then gives fast, accurate 3D registration parameters. The method has been tested on 3D US scans of phantom and real human radius and pelvis bones and a phantom human fetus. The method has also been compared to volumetric registration, as well as feature based registration using 3D-SIFT. Quantitative results show average post-registration error of 0.33mm which is comparable to volumetric registration accuracy (0.31mm) and much better than 3D-SIFT based registration which failed to register the volumes. The proposed method was also much faster than volumetric registration (~4.5 seconds versus 83 seconds).

  5. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  6. Local phase tensor features for 3-D ultrasound to statistical shape+pose spine model registration.

    PubMed

    Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-11-01

    Most conventional spine interventions are performed under X-ray fluoroscopy guidance. In recent years, there has been a growing interest to develop nonionizing imaging alternatives to guide these procedures. Ultrasound guidance has emerged as a leading alternative. However, a challenging problem is automatic identification of the spinal anatomy in ultrasound data. In this paper, we propose a local phase-based bone feature enhancement technique that can robustly identify the spine surface in ultrasound images. The local phase information is obtained using a gradient energy tensor filter. This information is used to construct local phase tensors in ultrasound images, which highlight the spine surface. We show that our proposed approach results in a more distinct enhancement of the bone surfaces compared to recently proposed techniques based on monogenic scale-space filters and logarithmic Gabor filters. We also demonstrate that registration accuracy of a statistical shape+pose model of the spine to 3-D ultrasound images can be significantly improved, using the proposed method, compared to those obtained using monogenic scale-space filters and logarithmic Gabor filters.

  7. Simulation of MRI-Guided Transurethral Conformal 3-D Ultrasound Therapy of the Prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2007-05-01

    The capability of MRI to measure spatial heating patterns during therapy delivery with ultrasound makes adaptive thermal therapy possible. Active feedback provided by MR thermometry enables on-line adjustment of the treatment to compensate for tissue/perfusion changes during heating. The feasibility of performing 3-D conformal thermal therapy of the entire prostate gland with a multi-element transurethral ultrasound heating applicator was considered in this study. The major challenge was using MR temperature feedback to adjust simultaneously the device's rate of rotation and the power and frequency of multiple independent ultrasound transducers, to shape the region of thermal damage to the prostate gland in all spatial dimensions while sparing surrounding tissues from damage. The 3-D Bioheat Transfer Equation was used to model the ultrasound therapy using manually segmented MRI prostate geometries from 20 prostate cancer patients. Average prostate dimensions (±SD) were: length: 37.8±7.2 mm, width: 47.1±5.5 mm, height: 28.9±5.7 mm. Typical treatments of the entire prostate volume take less than 30 min. Results from various treatment strategies were compared by calculating the percentage volume of under- and over-treated tissue and the potential thermal damage incurred by important adjacent anatomical structures using "dose-effect" curves. Visualization tools were developed to investigate patient-specific prostate and periprostatic anatomy, as well as the simulated coagulated volumes in 3-D, enabling evaluation of individual patient outcomes. These simulations also enabled the investigation of the number and size of transducer segments required for accurate treatment delivery. In general, the under-treated fraction can be maintained below 1% of the prostate volume, but the over-treated fraction can range up to 15%, emphasizing the importance of accurate location of sensitive adjacent structures.

  8. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  9. Preliminary results in large bone segmentation from 3D freehand ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Zian; Torres, Fabian; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Computer Assisted Orthopedic Surgery (CAOS) requires a correct registration between the patient in the operating room and the virtual models representing the patient in the computer. In order to increase the precision and accuracy of the registration a set of new techniques that eliminated the need to use fiducial markers have been developed. The majority of these newly developed registration systems are based on costly intraoperative imaging systems like Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An alternative to these methods is the use of an Ultrasound (US) imaging system for the implementation of a more cost efficient intraoperative registration solution. In order to develop the registration solution with the US imaging system, the bone surface is segmented in both preoperative and intraoperative images, and the registration is done using the acquire surface. In this paper, we present the a preliminary results of a new approach to segment bone surface from ultrasound volumes acquired by means 3D freehand ultrasound. The method is based on the enhancement of the voxels that belongs to surface and its posterior segmentation. The enhancement process is based on the information provided by eigenanalisis of the multiscale 3D Hessian matrix. The preliminary results shows that from the enhance volume the final bone surfaces can be extracted using a singular value thresholding.

  10. Development of a Wireless and Near Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Strain Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaohong; Chen, Yongdong; Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an important medical imaging tool for characterization of lesions. In this paper, we present a wireless and near real-time 3D ultrasound strain imaging system. It uses a 3D translating device to control a commercial linear ultrasound transducer to collect pre-compression and post-compression radio-frequency (RF) echo signal frames. The RF frames are wirelessly transferred to a high-performance server via a local area network (LAN). A dynamic programming strain estimation algorithm is implemented with the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the graphic processing unit (GPU) in the server to calculate the strain image after receiving a pre-compression RF frame and a post-compression RF frame at the same position. Each strain image is inserted into a strain volume which can be rendered in near real-time. We take full advantage of the translating device to precisely control the probe movement and compression. The GPU-based parallel computing techniques are designed to reduce the computation time. Phantom and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that our system can generate strain volumes with good quality and display an incrementally reconstructed volume image in near real-time. PMID:26954841

  11. METHODS FOR USING 3-D ULTRASOUND SPECKLE TRACKING IN BIAXIAL MECHANICAL TESTING OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUE SAMPLES

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon Hwai; Park, Dae Woo; Dutta, Debaditya; Simon, Marc; Kim, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Being multilayered and anisotropic, biological tissues such as cardiac and arterial walls are structurally complex, making full assessment and understanding of their mechanical behavior challenging. Current standard mechanical testing uses surface markers to track tissue deformations and does not provide deformation data below the surface. In the study described here, we found that combining mechanical testing with 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking could overcome this limitation. Rat myocardium was tested with a biaxial tester and was concurrently scanned with high-frequency ultrasound in three dimensions. The strain energy function was computed from stresses and strains using an iterative non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Because the strain energy function consists of terms for the base matrix and for embedded fibers, spatially varying fiber orientation was also computed by curve fitting. Using finite-element simulations, we first validated the accuracy of the non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Next, we compared experimentally measured rat myocardium strain energy function values with those in the literature and found a matching order of magnitude. Finally, we retained samples after the experiments for fiber orientation quantification using histology and found that the results satisfactorily matched those computed in the experiments. We conclude that 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking can be a useful addition to traditional mechanical testing of biological tissues and may provide the benefit of enabling fiber orientation computation. PMID:25616585

  12. A PET/CT Directed, 3D Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy System for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Master, Viraj; Nieh, Peter; Akbari, Hamed; Yang, Xiaofeng; Fenster, Aaron; Schuster, David

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects 1 in 6 men in the USA. Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this “blind” biopsy approach can miss at least 20% of prostate cancers. In this study, we are developing a PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound image-guided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. In order to plan biopsy in three dimensions, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform for 3D TRUS images of the prostate. The segmentation was tested in five patients with a DICE overlap ratio of more than 91%. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed a nonrigid registration algorithm for TRUS and PET/CT images. The registration method has been tested in a prostate phantom with a target registration error (TRE) of less than 0.4 mm. The segmentation and registration methods are two key components of the multimodality molecular image-guided biopsy system. PMID:26866061

  13. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  14. Accuracy of volume measurement using 3D ultrasound and development of CT-3D US image fusion algorithm for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jihye; Huh, Jangyoung; Hyun An, So; Oh, Yoonjin; Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, DongYoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Cho, Sungho; Lee, Rena

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring volumes using three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), and to verify the feasibility of the replacement of CT-MR fusion images with CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods: Phantoms, consisting of water, contrast agent, and agarose, were manufactured. The volume was measured using 3D US, CT, and MR devices. A CT-3D US and MR-3D US image fusion software was developed using the Insight Toolkit library in order to acquire three-dimensional fusion images. The quality of the image fusion was evaluated using metric value and fusion images. Results: Volume measurement, using 3D US, shows a 2.8 {+-} 1.5% error, 4.4 {+-} 3.0% error for CT, and 3.1 {+-} 2.0% error for MR. The results imply that volume measurement using the 3D US devices has a similar accuracy level to that of CT and MR. Three-dimensional image fusion of CT-3D US and MR-3D US was successfully performed using phantom images. Moreover, MR-3D US image fusion was performed using human bladder images. Conclusions: 3D US could be used in the volume measurement of human bladders and prostates. CT-3D US image fusion could be used in monitoring the target position in each fraction of external beam radiation therapy. Moreover, the feasibility of replacing the CT-MR image fusion to the CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning was verified.

  15. A compact robotic apparatus and method for 3-D ultrasound guided prostate therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Smith, David; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging has revolutionized the treatment of prostate cancer by producing increasingly accurate models of the prostate and influencing sophisticated targeting procedures for the insertion of radioactive seeds during brachytherapy. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging, which allows 3D models of the prostate to be constructed from a series of two-dimensional images, helps to accurately target and implant seeds into the prostate. We have developed a compact robotic apparatus, as well as an effective method for guiding and controlling the insertion of transperineal needles into the prostate. This device has been designed to accurately guide a needle in 3D space so that the needle can be inserted into the prostate at an angle that does not interfere with the pubic arch. The physician can adjust manually or automatically the position of the apparatus in order to place several radioactive seeds into the prostate at designated target locations. Because many physicians are wary of conducting robotic surgical procedures, the apparatus has been developed so that the physician can position the needle for manual insertion and apply a method for manually releasing the needle without damaging the apparatus or endangering the patient.

  16. Needle Trajectory and Tip Localization in Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound Using a Moving Stylus.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Parmida; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Tim; Lessoway, Victoria A; Ng, Gary C

    2015-07-01

    Described here is a novel approach to needle localization in 3-D ultrasound based on automatic detection of small changes in appearance on movement of the needle stylus. By stylus oscillation, including its full insertion into the cannula to the tip, the image processing techniques can localize the needle trajectory and the tip in the 3-D ultrasound volume. The 3-D needle localization task is reduced to two 2-D localizations using orthogonal projections. To evaluate our method, we tested it on three different ex vivo tissue types, and the preliminary results indicated that the method accuracy lies within clinical acceptance, with average error ranges of 0.9°-1.4° in needle trajectory and 0.8-1.1 mm in needle tip. Results also indicate that method performance is independent of the echogenicity of the tissue. This technique is a safe way of producing ultrasonic intensity changes and appears to introduce negligible risk to the patient, as the outer cannula remains fixed.

  17. Pitch-catch phase aberration correction of multiple isoplanatic patches for 3-D transcranial ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Brooks D; Smith, Stephen W

    2013-03-01

    Having previously presented the ultrasound brain helmet, a system for simultaneous 3-D ultrasound imaging via both temporal bone acoustic windows, the scanning geometry of this system is utilized to allow each matrix array to serve as a correction source for the opposing array. Aberration is estimated using cross-correlation of RF channel signals, followed by least mean squares solution of the resulting overdetermined system. Delay maps are updated and real-time 3-D scanning resumes. A first attempt is made at using multiple arrival time maps to correct multiple unique aberrators within a single transcranial imaging volume, i.e., several isoplanatic patches. This adaptive imaging technique, which uses steered unfocused waves transmitted by the opposing, or beacon, array, updates the transmit and receive delays of 5 isoplanatic patches within a 64° x 64° volume. In phantom experiments, color flow voxels above a common threshold have also increased by an average of 92%, whereas color flow variance decreased by an average of 10%. This approach has been applied to both temporal acoustic windows of two human subjects, yielding increases in echo brightness in 5 isoplanatic patches with a mean value of 24.3 ± 9.1%, suggesting that such a technique may be beneficial in the future for performing noninvasive 3-D color flow imaging of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke.

  18. Pitch–Catch Phase Aberration Correction of Multiple Isoplanatic Patches for 3-D Transcranial Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Having previously presented the ultrasound brain helmet, a system for simultaneous 3-D ultrasound imaging via both temporal bone acoustic windows, the scanning geometry of this system is utilized to allow each matrix array to serve as a correction source for the opposing array. Aberration is estimated using cross-correlation of RF channel signals, followed by least mean squares solution of the resulting overdetermined system. Delay maps are updated and real-time 3-D scanning resumes. A first attempt is made at using multiple arrival time maps to correct multiple unique aberrators within a single transcranial imaging volume, i.e., several isoplanatic patches. This adaptive imaging technique, which uses steered unfocused waves transmitted by the opposing, or beacon, array, updates the transmit and receive delays of 5 isoplanatic patches within a 64° × 64° volume. In phantom experiments, color flow voxels above a common threshold have also increased by an average of 92%, whereas color flow variance decreased by an average of 10%. This approach has been applied to both temporal acoustic windows of two human subjects, yielding increases in echo brightness in 5 isoplanatic patches with a mean value of 24.3 ± 9.1%, suggesting that such a technique may be beneficial in the future for performing noninvasive 3-D color flow imaging of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke. PMID:23475914

  19. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computerized detection of microcalcifications in reconstructed breast volume using a 3D approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan; Helvie, Mark A.

    2010-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this preliminary study, we investigated the approach of detecting microcalcifications in the tomosynthesized volume. The DBT volume is first enhanced by 3D multi-scale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices with a calcification response function and signal-to-noise ratio enhancement filtering. Potential signal sites are identified in the enhanced volume and local analysis is performed to further characterize each object. A 3D dynamic clustering procedure is designed to locate potential clusters using hierarchical criteria. We collected a pilot data set of two-view DBT mammograms of 39 breasts containing microcalcification clusters (17 malignant, 22 benign) with IRB approval. A total of 74 clusters were identified by an experienced radiologist in the 78 DBT views. Our prototype CAD system achieved view-based sensitivity of 90% and 80% at an average FP rate of 7.3 and 2.0 clusters per volume, respectively. At the same levels of case-based sensitivity, the FP rates were 3.6 and 1.3 clusters per volume, respectively. For the subset of malignant clusters, the view-based detection sensitivity was 94% and 82% at an average FP rate of 6.0 and 1.5 FP clusters per volume, respectively. At the same levels of case-based sensitivity, the FP rates were 1.2 and 0.9 clusters per volume, respectively. This study demonstrated that computerized microcalcification detection in 3D is a promising approach to the development of a CAD system for DBT. Study is underway to further improve the computer-vision methods and to optimize the processing parameters using a larger data set.

  20. 3D visualization of strain in abdominal aortic aneurysms based on navigated ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekken, Reidar; Kaspersen, Jon Harald; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn; Hernes, Toril A. N.; Myhre, Hans Olav

    2007-03-01

    The criterion for recommending treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is that the diameter exceeds 50-55 mm or shows a rapid increase. Our hypothesis is that a more accurate prediction of aneurysm rupture is obtained by estimating arterial wall strain from patient specific measurements. Measuring strain in specific parts of the aneurysm reveals differences in load or tissue properties. We have previously presented a method for in vivo estimation of circumferential strain by ultrasound. In the present work, a position sensor attached to the ultrasound probe was used for combining several 2D ultrasound sectors into a 3D model. The ultrasound was registered to a computed-tomography scan (CT), and the strain values were mapped onto a model segmented from these CT data. This gave an intuitive coupling between anatomy and strain, which may benefit both data acquisition and the interpretation of strain. In addition to potentially provide information relevant for assessing the rupture risk of the aneurysm in itself, this model could be used for validating simulations of fluid-structure interactions. Further, the measurements could be integrated with the simulations in order to increase the amount of patient specific information, thus producing a more reliable and accurate model of the biomechanics of the individual aneurysm. This approach makes it possible to extract several parameters potentially relevant for predicting rupture risk, and may therefore extend the basis for clinical decision making.

  1. Systematic review of 3D mammography for breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Robert; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Harvey, Susan C; Edwards, Mary; Shaikh, Javed; Arber, Mick; Glanville, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This review investigated the relative performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) (alone or with full field digital mammography (FFDM) or synthetic digital mammography) compared with FFDM alone for detecting breast cancer lesions in asymptomatic women. A systematic review was carried out according to systematic reviewing principles provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. A protocol was developed a priori. The review was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42014013949). Searches were undertaken in October 2014. Following selection, five studies were eligible. Higher cancer detection rates were observed when comparing DBT + FFDM with FFDM in two European studies: the summary difference per 1000 screens was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.8 to 3.1). Both European studies found lower false positive rates for individual readers. One found a lower recall rate based on conditional recall. The second study was not designed to compare post-arbitration recall rates between FFDM and DBT + FFDM. One European study presented data on interval cancer rates; sensitivity and specificity for DBT + FFDM were both higher compared to FFDM. One large multicentre US study showed a higher cancer detection rate for DBT + FFDM, while two smaller US studies did not find statistically significant differences. Reductions in recall and false positive rates were observed in the US studies in favour of DBT + FFDM. In comparison to FFDM, DBT, as an adjunct to FFDM, has a higher cancer detection rate, increasing the effectiveness of breast cancer screening. Additional benefits of DBT may also include reduced recalls and, consequently, reduced costs and distress caused to women who would have been recalled. PMID:27212700

  2. Improved Visualization of Intracranial Vessels with Intraoperative Coregistration of Rotational Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intraoperative 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Podlesek, Dino; Meyer, Tobias; Morgenstern, Ute; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound can visualize and update the vessel status in real time during cerebral vascular surgery. We studied the depiction of parent vessels and aneurysms with a high-resolution 3D intraoperative ultrasound imaging system during aneurysm clipping using rotational digital subtraction angiography as a reference. Methods We analyzed 3D intraoperative ultrasound in 39 patients with cerebral aneurysms to visualize the aneurysm intraoperatively and the nearby vascular tree before and after clipping. Simultaneous coregistration of preoperative subtraction angiography data with 3D intraoperative ultrasound was performed to verify the anatomical assignment. Results Intraoperative ultrasound detected 35 of 43 aneurysms (81%) in 39 patients. Thirty-nine intraoperative ultrasound measurements were matched with rotational digital subtraction angiography and were successfully reconstructed during the procedure. In 7 patients, the aneurysm was partially visualized by 3D-ioUS or was not in field of view. Post-clipping intraoperative ultrasound was obtained in 26 and successfully reconstructed in 18 patients (69%) despite clip related artefacts. The overlap between 3D-ioUS aneurysm volume and preoperative rDSA aneurysm volume resulted in a mean accuracy of 0.71 (Dice coefficient). Conclusions Intraoperative coregistration of 3D intraoperative ultrasound data with preoperative rotational digital subtraction angiography is possible with high accuracy. It allows the immediate visualization of vessels beyond the microscopic field, as well as parallel assessment of blood velocity, aneurysm and vascular tree configuration. Although spatial resolution is lower than for standard angiography, the method provides an excellent vascular overview, advantageous interpretation of 3D-ioUS and immediate intraoperative feedback of the vascular status. A prerequisite for understanding vascular intraoperative ultrasound is image quality and a successful match with preoperative

  3. A 3D printed nano bone matrix for characterization of breast cancer cell and osteoblast interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cui, Haitao; Zhou, Xuan; Boualam, Benchaa; McGrane, Robert; Glazer, Robert I.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-08-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most prevalent complications of late-stage breast cancer, in which the native bone matrix components, including osteoblasts, are intimately involved in tumor progression. The development of a successful in vitro model would greatly facilitate understanding the underlying mechanism of breast cancer bone invasion as well as provide a tool for effective discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we fabricated a series of in vitro bone matrices composed of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite of varying concentrations to mimic the native bone microenvironment for the investigation of breast cancer bone metastasis. A stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to fabricate the bone matrices with precisely controlled architecture. The interaction between breast cancer cells and osteoblasts was investigated in the optimized bone matrix. Using a Transwell® system to separate the two cell lines, breast cancer cells inhibited osteoblast proliferation, while osteoblasts stimulated breast cancer cell growth, whereas, both cell lines increased IL-8 secretion. Breast cancer cells co-cultured with osteoblasts within the 3D bone matrix formed multi-cellular spheroids in comparison to two-dimensional monolayers. These findings validate the use of our 3D printed bone matrices as an in vitro metastasis model, and highlights their potential for investigating breast cancer bone metastasis.

  4. Evaluation of Gastric Volumes: Comparison of 3-D Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Buisman, Wijnand J; Mauritz, Femke A; Westerhuis, Wouter E; Gilja, Odd Helge; van der Zee, David C; van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, Maud Y A

    2016-07-01

    To investigate gastric accommodation, accurate measurements of gastric volumes are necessary. An excellent technique to measure gastric volumes is dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Unfortunately, dynamic MRI is expensive and not always available. A new 3-D ultrasound (US) method using a matrix transducer was developed to measure gastric volumes. In this prospective study, 14 healthy volunteers underwent a dynamic MRI and a 3-D US. Gastric volumes were calculated with intra-gastric liquid content and total gastric volume. Mean postprandial liquid gastric content was 397 ± 96.5 mL. Mean volume difference was 1.0 mL with limits of agreement of -8.9 to 10.9 mL. When gastric air was taken into account, mean total gastric volume was 540 ± 115.4 mL SD. Mean volume difference was 2.3 mL with limits of agreement of -21.1 to 26.4 mL. The matrix 3-D US showed excellent agreement with dynamic MRI. Therefore matrix 3-D US is a reliable alternative to measure gastric volumes. PMID:27067418

  5. 3D conformal MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy: results of gel phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; McCormick, S.; Bronskill, M.; Chopra, R.

    2011-09-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Previous in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing conservative treatments using real-time temperature feedback to control accurately the establishment of coagulative lesions within circumscribed prostate regions. This in-vitro study tested device configuration and control options for achieving full prostate treatments. A multi-channel MRI compatible ultrasound therapy system was evaluated in gel phantoms using 3 canine prostate models. Prostate profiles were 5 mm-step-segmented from T2-weighted MR images performed during previous in-vivo experiments. During ultrasound exposures, each ultrasound element was controlled independently by the 3D controller. Decisions on acoustic power, frequency, and device rotation rate were made in real time based on MR thermometry feedback and prostate radii. Low and high power treatment approaches using maximum acoustic powers of 10 or 20 W.cm-2 were tested as well as single and dual-frequency strategies (4.05/13.10 MHz). The dual-frequency strategy used either the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component, depending on the prostate radius. The 20 W.cm-2 dual frequency approach was the most efficient configuration in achieving full prostate treatments. Treatment times were about half the duration of those performed with 10 W.cm-2 configurations. Full prostate coagulations were performed in 16.3±6.1 min at a rate of 1.8±0.2 cm3.min-1, and resulted in very little undertreated tissue (<3%). Surrounding organs positioned beyond a safety distance of 1.4±1.0 mm from prostate boundaries were not damaged, particularly rectal wall tissues. In this study, a 3D, MR-thermometry-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy was validated in vitro in a tissue-mimicking phantom for performing full prostate treatment. A dual-frequency configuration with 20 W.cm-2 ultrasound intensity exposure showed good

  6. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use.

  7. Real-time 3D surface-image-guided beam setup in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Djajaputra, David; Li Shidong

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach for external beam radiotherapy of breast cancer that utilizes the three-dimensional (3D) surface information of the breast. The surface data of the breast are obtained from a 3D optical camera that is rigidly mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. This 3D camera utilizes light in the visible range therefore it introduces no ionization radiation to the patient. In addition to the surface topographical information of the treated area, the camera also captures gray-scale information that is overlaid on the 3D surface image. This allows us to visualize the skin markers and automatically determine the isocenter position and the beam angles in the breast tangential fields. The field sizes and shapes of the tangential, supraclavicular, and internal mammary gland fields can all be determined according to the 3D surface image of the target. A least-squares method is first introduced for the tangential-field setup that is useful for compensation of the target shape changes. The entire process of capturing the 3D surface data and subsequent calculation of beam parameters typically requires less than 1 min. Our tests on phantom experiments and patient images have achieved the accuracy of 1 mm in shift and 0.5 deg. in rotation. Importantly, the target shape and position changes in each treatment session can both be corrected through this real-time image-guided system.

  8. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values. PMID:24371468

  9. Visualization of a newborn's hip joint using 3D ultrasound and automatic image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overhoff, Heinrich M.; Lazovic, Djordje; von Jan, Ute

    1999-05-01

    Graf's method is a successful procedure for the diagnostic screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip. In a defined 2-D ultrasound (US) scan, which virtually cuts the hip joint, landmarks are interactively identified to derive congruence indicators. As the indicators do not reflect the spatial joint structure, and the femoral head is not clearly visible in the US scan, here 3-D US is used to gain insight to the hip joint in its spatial form. Hip joints of newborns were free-hand scanned using a conventional ultrasound transducer and a localizer system fixed on the scanhead. To overcome examiner- dependent findings the landmarks were detected by automatic segmentation of the image volume. The landmark image volumes and an automatically determined virtual sphere approximating the femoral head were visualized color-coded on a computer screen. The visualization was found to be intuitive and to simplify the diagnostic substantially. By the visualization of the 3-D relations between acetabulum and femoral head the reliability of diagnostics is improved by finding the entire joint geometry.

  10. Accuracy evaluation of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Walter J.; Nye, Jonathan A.; Schuster, David M.; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj A.; Votaw, John R.; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer is critical in maximizing the probability of successful treatment. Current systematic biopsy approach takes 12 or more randomly distributed core tissue samples within the prostate and can have a high potential, especially with early disease, for a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system. Testing was conducted on prostate phantoms created from an agar mixture which had embedded markers. The phantoms were scanned and the 3D ultrasound system was used to direct the biopsy. Each phantom was analyzed with a CT scan to obtain needle deflection measurements. The deflection experienced throughout the biopsy process was dependent on the depth of the biopsy target. The results for markers at a depth of less than 20 mm, 20-30 mm, and greater than 30 mm were 3.3 mm, 4.7 mm, and 6.2 mm, respectively. This measurement encapsulates the entire biopsy process, from the scanning of the phantom to the firing of the biopsy needle. Increased depth of the biopsy target caused a greater deflection from the intended path in most cases which was due to an angular incidence of the biopsy needle. Although some deflection was present, this system exhibits a clear advantage in the targeted biopsy of prostate cancer and has the potential to reduce the number of false negative biopsies for large lesions.

  11. Realistic microwave breast models through T1-weighted 3-D MRI data.

    PubMed

    Tunçay, Ahmet Hakan; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present an effective method for developing realistic numerical three-dimensional (3-D) microwave breast models of different shape, size, and tissue density. These models are especially convenient for microwave breast cancer imaging applications and numerical analysis of human breast-microwave interactions. As in the recent studies on this area, anatomical information of the breast tissue is collected from T1-weighted 3-D MRI data of different patients' in prone position. The method presented in this paper offers significant improvements including efficient noise reduction and tissue segmentation, nonlinear mapping of electromagnetic properties, realistically asymmetric phantom shape, and a realistic classification of breast phantoms. Our method contains a five-step approach where each MRI voxel is classified and mapped to the appropriate dielectric properties. In the first step, the MRI data are denoised by estimating and removing the bias field from each slice, after which the voxels are segmented into two main tissues as fibro-glandular and adipose. Using the distribution of the voxel intensities in MRI histogram, two nonlinear mapping functions are generated for dielectric permittivity and conductivity profiles, which allow each MRI voxel to map to its proper dielectric properties. Obtained dielectric profiles are then converted into 3-D numerical breast phantoms using several image processing techniques, including morphologic operations, filtering. Resultant phantoms are classified according to their adipose content, which is a critical parameter that affects penetration depth during microwave breast imaging.

  12. Breast ultrasound scans – surgeons’ expectations

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Piotr; Chrapowicki, Eryk; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challenge related to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound-guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary and baseline diagnostic procedure the patient with suspected pathological lesions within breast is referred to by the surgeon. Lesions visualized in ultrasound scans are classified according to the BI-RADS US assessment categories. The successive categories (2 through 6) encompass individual pathological lesions, estimating the risk of malignancy and provide guidelines for further diagnostic and therapeutic management. This article described the important aspects of ultrasonographic imaging of focal lesions within the breasts as significant from the standpoint of surgical treatment of patients falling within BI-RADS US categories 3, 4, 5, and 6. Attention is drawn to the importance of ultrasound scans in the assessment of axillary fossa lymph nodes before the decision regarding the surgical treatment. PMID:26675118

  13. Craniosynostosis: prenatal diagnosis by 2D/3D ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Talita Micheletti; Peixoto, Alberto Borges; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2016-09-01

    Craniosynostosis is defined as the process of premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures. It is a common condition that occurs in about 1 to 2,000 live births. Craniosynostosis may be classified in primary or secondary. It is also classified as nonsyndromic or syndromic. According to suture commitment, craniosynostosis may affect a single suture or multiple sutures. There is a wide range of syndromes involving craniosynostosis and the most common are Apert, Pffeifer, Crouzon, Shaethre-Chotzen and Muenke syndromes. The underlying etiology of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is unknown. Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathway play a crucial role in the etiology of craniosynostosis syndromes. Prenatal ultrasound`s detection rate of craniosynostosis is low. Nowadays, different methods can be applied for prenatal diagnosis of craniosynostosis, such as two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan and, finally, molecular diagnosis. The presence of craniosynostosis may affect the birthing process. Fetuses with craniosynostosis also have higher rates of perinatal complications. In order to avoid the risks of untreated craniosynostosis, children are usually treated surgically soon after postnatal diagnosis. PMID:27622416

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Ultrasound-Guided 3D Needle Steering in Biological Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Abayazid, Momen; Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this paper, we present a system capable of automatically steering bevel-tip flexible needles under ultrasound guidance towards stationary and moving targets in gelatin phantoms and biological tissue while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles. We use three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound to track the needle tip during the procedure. Methods Our system uses a fast sampling-based path planner to compute and periodically update a feasible path to the target that avoids obstacles. We then use a novel control algorithm to steer the needle along the path in a manner that reduces the number of needle rotations, thus reducing tissue damage. We present experimental results for needle insertion procedures for both stationary and moving targets and obstacles for up to 90 mm of needle insertion. Results We obtained a mean targeting error of 0.32 ± 0.10 mm and 0.38 ± 0.19 mm in gelatin-based phantom and biological tissue, respectively. Conclusions The achieved submillimeter accuracy suggests that our approach is sufficient to target the smallest lesions (ϕ2 mm) that can be detected using state-of-the-art ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:24562744

  15. 3-D statistical cancer atlas-based targeting of prostate biopsy using ultrasound image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos A.; Crawford, E. David; Barqawi, Albaha; Werahera, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2008-03-01

    Prostate cancer is a multifocal disease and lesions are not distributed uniformly within the gland. Several biopsy protocols concerning spatially specific targeting have been reported urology literature. Recently a statistical cancer atlas of the prostate was constructed providing voxelwise probabilities of cancers in the prostate. Additionally an optimized set of biopsy sites was computed with 94 - 96% detection accuracy was reported using only 6-7 needles. Here we discuss the warping of this atlas to prostate segmented side-fire ultrasound images of the patient. A shape model was used to speed up registration. The model was trained from over 38 expert segmented subjects off-line. This training yielded as few as 15-20 degrees of freedom that were optimized to warp the atlas surface to the patient's ultrasound image followed by elastic interpolation of the 3-D atlas. As a result the atlas is completely mapped to the patient's prostate anatomy along with optimal predetermined needle locations for biopsy. These do not preclude the use of additional biopsies if desired. A color overlay of the atlas is also displayed on the ultrasound image showing high cancer zones within the prostate. Finally current biopsy locations are saved in the atlas space and may be used to update the atlas based on the pathology report. In addition to the optimal atlas plan, previous biopsy locations and alternate plans can also be stored in the atlas space and warped to the patient with no additional time overhead.

  16. Thermal analysis of the surrounding anatomy during 3-D MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Previous numerical simulations have shown that MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy can generate highly accurate volumes of thermal coagulation conforming to 3-D human prostate geometries. The goal of this work is to simulate, quantify and evaluate the thermal impact of these treatments on the rectum, pelvic bone, neurovascular bundles (NVB) and urinary sphincters. This study used twenty 3-D anatomical models of prostate cancer patients and detailed bio-acoustic simulations incorporating an active feedback algorithm which controlled a rotating, planar ultrasound transducer (17-4×3 mm elements, 4.7/9.7 MHz, 10 Wac/cm2). Heating of the adjacent surrounding anatomy was evaluated using thermal tolerances reported in the literature. Heating of the rectum poses the most important safety concern and is influenced largely by the water temperature flowing through an endorectal cooling device; temperatures of 7-37° C are required to limit potential damage to less than 10 mm3 on the outer 1 mm layer of rectum. Significant heating of the pelvic bone was predicted in 30% of the patient models with an ultrasound frequency of 4.7 MHz; setting the frequency to 9.7 MHz when the bone is less than 10 mm away from the prostate reduced heating in all cases below the threshold for irreversible damage. Heating of the NVB was significant in 75% of the patient models in the absence of treatment planning; this proportion was reduced to 5% by using treatment margins of up to 4 mm. To avoid damaging the urinary sphincters, margins from the transducer of 2-4 mm should be used, depending on the transurethral cooling temperature. Simulations show that MRI-guided transurethral therapy can treat the entire prostate accurately. Strategies have been developed which, along with careful treatment planning, can be used to avoid causing thermal injury to the rectum, pelvic bone, NVB and urinary sphincters.

  17. [Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: diagnosis with 2D, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and 3D power doppler of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, E; Gunev, D; Diavolov, V; Slavchev, B

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy is rare type of ectopic pregnancy. It is associated with severe complication if it is not diagnosed early in pregnancy. We present a case of difficult first-trimester diagnosis of Cesarean scar pregnancy. In this paper we discuss the incidence of this condition, the antenatal diagnosis, the prognosis and management and the importance of 2D and 3D ultrasound technique as a diagnostic tool. PMID:24501880

  18. Fast myocardial strain estimation from 3D ultrasound through elastic image registration with analytic regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Bidisha; Heyde, Brecht; Alessandrini, Martino; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Image registration techniques using free-form deformation models have shown promising results for 3D myocardial strain estimation from ultrasound. However, the use of this technique has mostly been limited to research institutes due to the high computational demand, which is primarily due to the computational load of the regularization term ensuring spatially smooth cardiac strain estimates. Indeed, this term typically requires evaluating derivatives of the transformation field numerically in each voxel of the image during every iteration of the optimization process. In this paper, we replace this time-consuming step with a closed-form solution directly associated with the transformation field resulting in a speed up factor of ~10-60,000, for a typical 3D B-mode image of 2503 and 5003 voxels, depending upon the size and the parametrization of the transformation field. The performance of the numeric and the analytic solutions was contrasted by computing tracking and strain accuracy on two realistic synthetic 3D cardiac ultrasound sequences, mimicking two ischemic motion patterns. Mean and standard deviation of the displacement errors over the cardiac cycle for the numeric and analytic solutions were 0.68+/-0.40 mm and 0.75+/-0.43 mm respectively. Correlations for the radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain components at end-systole were 0.89, 0.83 and 0.95 versus 0.90, 0.88 and 0.92 for the numeric and analytic regularization respectively. The analytic solution matched the performance of the numeric solution as no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found when expressed in terms of bias or limits-of-agreement.

  19. Errors and mistakes in breast ultrasound diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Wiesław; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Migda, Bartosz

    2012-09-01

    Sonomammography is often the first additional examination performed in the diagnostics of breast diseases. The development of ultrasound imaging techniques, particularly the introduction of high frequency transducers, matrix transducers, harmonic imaging and finally, elastography, influenced the improvement of breast disease diagnostics. Nevertheless, as in each imaging method, there are errors and mistakes resulting from the technical limitations of the method, breast anatomy (fibrous remodeling), insufficient sensitivity and, in particular, specificity. Errors in breast ultrasound diagnostics can be divided into impossible to be avoided and potentially possible to be reduced. In this article the most frequently made errors in ultrasound have been presented, including the ones caused by the presence of artifacts resulting from volumetric averaging in the near and far field, artifacts in cysts or in dilated lactiferous ducts (reverberations, comet tail artifacts, lateral beam artifacts), improper setting of general enhancement or time gain curve or range. Errors dependent on the examiner, resulting in the wrong BIRADS-usg classification, are divided into negative and positive errors. The sources of these errors have been listed. The methods of minimization of the number of errors made have been discussed, including the ones related to the appropriate examination technique, taking into account data from case history and the use of the greatest possible number of additional options such as: harmonic imaging, color and power Doppler and elastography. In the article examples of errors resulting from the technical conditions of the method have been presented, and those dependent on the examiner which are related to the great diversity and variation of ultrasound images of pathological breast lesions.

  20. Defining the medial-lateral axis of an anatomical femur coordinate system using freehand 3D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Elyse; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-03-01

    Hip rotation from gait analysis informs clinical decisions regarding correction of femoral torsional deformities. However, it is among the least repeatable due to discrepancies in determining the medial-lateral axis of the femur. Conventional or functional calibration methods may be used to define the axis but there is no benchmark to evaluate these methods. Freehand 3D ultrasound, the coupling of ultrasound with 3D motion capture, may provide such a benchmark. We measured the accuracy in vitro and repeatability in vivo of determining the femur condylar axis from freehand 3D ultrasound. The condylar axis provided the reference medial-lateral axis of the femur and was used to evaluate one conventional method and three functional calibration methods, applied to three calibration movements. Ten healthy subjects (20 limbs) underwent 3D gait analysis and freehand 3D ultrasound. The functional calibration methods were a transformation technique, a geometrical method and a method that minimises variance of knee varus-valgus kinematics (DynaKAD). The conventional method used markers over the femoral epicondyles. The condylar axis determined by 3D ultrasound showed good accuracy in vitro, 1.6° (SD: 0.3°) and good repeatability in vivo, 0.2° (RSMD: 2.3°). The DynaKAD method applied to the walking calibration movement determined the medial-lateral axis closest to the ultrasound reference. The average angular difference in the transverse plane was 3.1° (SD: 6.1°). Freehand 3D ultrasound offers an accurate, non-invasive and relatively fast method to locate the medial-lateral axis of the femur for gait analysis.

  1. Intracranial Catheter for Integrated 3D Ultrasound Imaging & Hyperthermia: Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herickhoff, Carl D.; Light, Edward D.; Bing, Kristin Frinkley; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Grant, Gerald A.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Dixon-Tulloch, Ellen; Shih, Timothy; Hsu, Stephen J.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an intracranial catheter transducer capable of real-time 3D (RT3D) imaging and ultrasound hyperthermia, for application in the visualization and treatment of tumors in the brain. We designed and constructed a 12 Fr, integrated matrix and linear array catheter transducer prototype for combined RT3D imaging and heating capability. This dual-mode catheter incorporated 153 matrix array elements and 11 linear array elements, on a 0.2 mm pitch, with a total aperture size of 8.4 mm×2.3 mm. This array achieved a 3.5° C in vitro temperature rise at a 2 cm focal distance in tissue-mimicking material. The dual-mode catheter prototype was compared with a Siemens 10 Fr AcuNav™ catheter as a gold standard in experiments assessing image quality and therapeutic potential, and both probes were used in a canine brain model to image anatomical structures and color Doppler blood flow and to attempt in vivo heating.

  2. Spatiotemporal non-rigid image registration for 3D ultrasound cardiac motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeckx, D.; Ector, J.; Maes, F.; D'hooge, J.; Vandermeulen, D.; Voigt, J.-U.; Heidbüchel, H.; Suetens, P.

    2007-03-01

    We present a new method to evaluate 4D (3D + time) cardiac ultrasound data sets by nonrigid spatio-temporal image registration. First, a frame-to-frame registration is performed that yields a dense deformation field. The deformation field is used to calculate local spatiotemporal properties of the myocardium, such as the velocity, strain and strain rate. The field is also used to propagate particular points and surfaces, representing e.g. the endo-cardial surface over the different frames. As such, the 4D path of these point is obtained, which can be used to calculate the velocity by which the wall moves and the evolution of the local surface area over time. The wall velocity is not angle-dependent as in classical Doppler imaging, since the 4D data allows calculating the true 3D motion. Similarly, all 3D myocardium strain components can be estimated. Combined they result in local surface area or volume changes which van be color-coded as a measure of local contractability. A diagnostic method that strongly benefits from this technique is cardiac motion and deformation analysis, which is an important aid to quantify the mechanical properties of the myocardium.

  3. The Effect of Ultrasound Stimulation on the Cytoskeletal Organization of Chondrocytes Seeded In 3D Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Sandra; Hasanova, Gulnara; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The impact of low intensity diffuse ultrasound (LIDUS) stimulation on the cytoskeletal organization of chondrocytes seeded in 3D scaffolds was evaluated. Chondrocytes seeded on 3D chitosan matrices were exposed to LIDUS at 5.0 MHz (~15kPa, 51-secs, 4-applications/day) in order to study the organization of actin, tubulin and vimentin. The results showed that actin presented a cytosolic punctuated distribution, tubulin presented a quasi parallel organization of microtubules whereas vimentin distribution was unaffected. Chondrocytes seeded on 3D scaffolds responded to US stimulation by the disruption of actin stress fibers and were sensitive to the presence of ROCK inhibitor (Y27632). The gene expression of ROCK-I, a key element in the formation of stress fibers and mDia1, was significantly up-regulated under the application of US. We conclude that the results of both the cytoskeletal analyses and gene expression support the argument that the presence of punctuated actin upon US stimulation was accompanied by the up-regulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. PMID:22987069

  4. A new combined prior based reconstruction method for compressed sensing in 3D ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Muhammad S.; Islam, Rafiqul; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew J.; Pickering, Mark R.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging is one of the most popular medical imaging modalities, with 3D US imaging gaining popularity recently due to its considerable advantages over 2D US imaging. However, as it is limited by long acquisition times and the huge amount of data processing it requires, methods for reducing these factors have attracted considerable research interest. Compressed sensing (CS) is one of the best candidates for accelerating the acquisition rate and reducing the data processing time without degrading image quality. However, CS is prone to introduce noise-like artefacts due to random under-sampling. To address this issue, we propose a combined prior-based reconstruction method for 3D US imaging. A Laplacian mixture model (LMM) constraint in the wavelet domain is combined with a total variation (TV) constraint to create a new regularization regularization prior. An experimental evaluation conducted to validate our method using synthetic 3D US images shows that it performs better than other approaches in terms of both qualitative and quantitative measures.

  5. Animal testing using 3D microwave tomography system for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Moon; Son, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyuk Je; Kim, Bo Ra; Choi, Heyng Do; Jeon, Soon Ik

    2014-01-01

    The three dimensional microwave tomography (3D MT) system of the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) comprises an antenna array, transmitting receiving module, switch matrix module and a signal processing component. This system also includes a patient interface bed as well as a 3D reconstruction algorithm. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of image reconstruction results using the assembled system and MRI results, which is used to image the breasts of dogs. Microwave imaging reconstruction results (at 1,500 MHz) obtained using the ETRI 3D MT system are presented. The system provides computationally reliable diagnosis results from the reconstructed MT Image. PMID:25160233

  6. Segmentation of the common carotid artery with active shape models from 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Jin, Jiaoying; He, Wanji; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue

    2012-03-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a major cause of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a new segmentation method for outlining both lumen and adventitia (inner and outer walls) of common carotid artery (CCA) from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) images for carotid atherosclerosis diagnosis and evaluation. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17× 2× 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80mg atorvastain and nine with placebo), who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. We investigate the use of Active Shape Models (ASMs) to segment CCA inner and outer walls after statin therapy. The proposed method was evaluated with respect to expert manually outlined boundaries as a surrogate for ground truth. For the lumen and adventitia segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 93.6%+/- 2.6%, 91.8%+/- 3.5%, mean absolute distances (MAD) of 0.28+/- 0.17mm and 0.34 +/- 0.19mm, maximum absolute distances (MAXD) of 0.87 +/- 0.37mm and 0.74 +/- 0.49mm. The proposed algorithm took 4.4 +/- 0.6min to segment a single 3D US images, compared to 11.7+/-1.2min for manual segmentation. Therefore, the method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the fast, safety and economical monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression during therapy.

  7. Quantification of cerebral ventricle volume change of preterm neonates using 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yimin; Kishimoto, Jessica; Qiu, Wu; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Fenster, Aaron; Chiu, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major cause of brain injury in preterm neonates. Quantitative measurement of ventricular dilation or shrinkage is important for monitoring patients and in evaluation of treatment options. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to monitor the ventricle volume as a biomarker for ventricular dilation. However, volumetric quantification does not provide information as to where dilation occurs. The location where dilation occurs may be related to specific neurological problems later in life. For example, posterior horn enlargement, with thinning of the corpus callosum and parietal white matter fibres, could be linked to poor visuo-spatial abilities seen in hydrocephalic children. In this work, we report on the development and application of a method used to analyze local surface change of the ventricles of preterm neonates with IVH from 3D US images. The technique is evaluated using manual segmentations from 3D US images acquired in two imaging sessions. The surfaces from baseline and follow-up were registered and then matched on a point-by-point basis. The distance between each pair of corresponding points served as an estimate of local surface change of the brain ventricle at each vertex. The measurements of local surface change were then superimposed on the ventricle surface to produce the 3D local surface change map that provide information on the spatio-temporal dilation pattern of brain ventricles following IVH. This tool can be used to monitor responses to different treatment options, and may provide important information for elucidating the deficiencies a patient will have later in life.

  8. Combining supine MRI and 3D optical scanning for improved surgical planning of breast conserving surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Matthew J.; Poplack, Steven P.; Barth, Richard J., Jr.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-02-01

    Image-guided wire localization is the current standard of care for the excision of non-palpable carcinomas during breast conserving surgeries (BCS). The efficacy of this technique depends upon the accuracy of wire placement, maintenance of the fixed wire position (despite patient movement), and the surgeon's understanding of the spatial relationship between the wire and tumor. Notably, breast shape can vary significantly between the imaging and surgical positions. Despite this method of localization, re-excision is needed in approximately 30% of patients due to the proximity of cancer to the specimen margins. These limitations make wire localization an inefficient and imprecise procedure. Alternatively, we investigate a method of image registration and finite element (FE) deformation which correlates preoperative supine MRIs with 3D optical scans of the breast surface. MRI of the breast can accurately define the extents of very small cancers. Furthermore, supine breast MR reduces the amount of tissue deformation between the imaging and surgical positions. At the time of surgery, the surface contour of the breast may be imaged using a handheld 3D laser scanner. With the MR images segmented by tissue type, the two scans are approximately registered using fiducial markers present in both acquisitions. The segmented MRI breast volume is then deformed to match the optical surface using a FE mechanical model of breast tissue. The resulting images provide the surgeon with 3D views and measurements of the tumor shape, volume, and position within the breast as it appears during surgery which may improve surgical guidance and obviate the need for wire localization.

  9. 3D in vivo imaging of rat hearts by high frequency ultrasound and its application in myofiber orientation wrapping

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging. PMID:26412926

  10. 3D in vivo imaging of rat hearts by high frequency ultrasound and its application in myofiber orientation wrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  11. 3D Prostate Segmentation of Ultrasound Images Combining Longitudinal Image Registration and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Fei, Baowei

    2012-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional (3D) segmentation method for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which is based on longitudinal image registration and machine learning. Using longitudinal images of each individual patient, we register previously acquired images to the new images of the same subject. Three orthogonal Gabor filter banks were used to extract texture features from each registered image. Patient-specific Gabor features from the registered images are used to train kernel support vector machines (KSVMs) and then to segment the newly acquired prostate image. The segmentation method was tested in TRUS data from five patients. The average surface distance between our and manual segmentation is 1.18 ± 0.31 mm, indicating that our automatic segmentation method based on longitudinal image registration is feasible for segmenting the prostate in TRUS images. PMID:24027622

  12. GPCA vs. PCA in recognition and 3-D localization of ultrasound reflectors.

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos A; Jiménez, José A; Pizarro, Daniel; Losada, Cristina; Rodriguez, José M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of classification and localization of reflectors, using the time-of-flight (TOF) data obtained from ultrasonic transducers, is presented. The method of classification and localization is based on Generalized Principal Component Analysis (GPCA) applied to the TOF values obtained from a sensor that contains four ultrasound emitters and 16 receivers. Since PCA works with vectorized representations of TOF, it does not take into account the spatial locality of receivers. The GPCA works with two-dimensional representations of TOF, taking into account information on the spatial position of the receivers. This report includes a detailed description of the method of classification and localization and the results of achieved tests with three types of reflectors in 3-D environments: planes, edges, and corners. The results in terms of processing time, classification and localization were very satisfactory for the reflectors located in the range of 50-350 cm.

  13. Constitutive Modeling of Porcine Liver in Indentation Using 3D Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; Socrate, S.; Zickler, T.E.; Howe, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present an inverse finite-element modeling framework for constitutive modeling and parameter estimation of soft tissues using full-field volumetric deformation data obtained from 3D ultrasound. The finite-element model is coupled to full-field visual measurements by regularization springs attached at nodal locations. The free ends of the springs are displaced according to the locally estimated tissue motion and the normalized potential energy stored in all springs serves as a measure of model-experiment agreement for material parameter optimization. We demonstrate good accuracy of estimated parameters and consistent convergence properties on synthetically generated data. We present constitutive model selection and parameter estimation for perfused porcine liver in indentation and demonstrate that a quasilinear viscoelastic model with shear modulus relaxation offers good model-experiment agreement in terms of indenter displacement (0.19 mm RMS error) and tissue displacement field (0.97 mm RMS error). PMID:19627823

  14. 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) prostate segmentation based on optimal feature learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter J.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Mao, Hui; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2016-03-01

    We propose a 3D prostate segmentation method for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which is based on patch-based feature learning framework. Patient-specific anatomical features are extracted from aligned training images and adopted as signatures for each voxel. The most robust and informative features are identified by the feature selection process to train the kernel support vector machine (KSVM). The well-trained SVM was used to localize the prostate of the new patient. Our segmentation technique was validated with a clinical study of 10 patients. The accuracy of our approach was assessed using the manual segmentations (gold standard). The mean volume Dice overlap coefficient was 89.7%. In this study, we have developed a new prostate segmentation approach based on the optimal feature learning framework, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with manual segmentations.

  15. Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper's ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as {beta} exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The

  16. A method for 3D reconstruction of coronary arteries using biplane angiography and intravascular ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Bourantas, Christos V; Kourtis, Iraklis C; Plissiti, Marina E; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Katsouras, Christos S; Papafaklis, Michail I; Michalis, Lampros K

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a new method for the three-dimensional reconstruction of coronary arteries and its quantitative validation. Our approach is based on the fusion of the data provided by intravascular ultrasound images (IVUS) and biplane angiographies. A specific segmentation algorithm is used for the detection of the regions of interest in intravascular ultrasound images. A new methodology is also introduced for the accurate extraction of the catheter path. In detail, a cubic B-spline is used for approximating the catheter path in each biplane projection. Each B-spline curve is swept along the normal direction of its X-ray angiographic plane forming a surface. The intersection of the two surfaces is a 3D curve, which represents the reconstructed path. The detected regions of interest in the IVUS images are placed perpendicularly onto the path and their relative axial twist is computed using the sequential triangulation algorithm. Then, an efficient algorithm is applied to estimate the absolute orientation of the first IVUS frame. In order to obtain 3D visualization the commercial package Geomagic Studio 4.0 is used. The performance of the proposed method is assessed using a validation methodology which addresses the separate validation of each step followed for obtaining the coronary reconstruction. The performance of the segmentation algorithm was examined in 80 IVUS images. The reliability of the path extraction method was studied in vitro using a metal wire model and in vivo in a dataset of 11 patients. The performance of the sequential triangulation algorithm was tested in two gutter models and in the coronary arteries (marked with metal clips) of six cadaveric sheep hearts. Finally, the accuracy in the estimation of the first IVUS frame absolute orientation was examined in the same set of cadaveric sheep hearts. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction method is reliable and capable of depicting the morphology of

  17. Catheter-Based Ultrasound for 3D Control of Thermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Juang, Titania; Nau, Will H.; Kinsey, Adam; Hsu, I.-Chow; Rieke, Viola; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Bouley, Donna

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-based ultrasound applicators have been investigated for delivering hyperthermia and thermal ablation for the treatment of cancer and benign diseases. Technology includes an intrauterine applicator integrated with an HDR ring applicator, interstitial applicators for hyperthermia delivery during brachytherapy, interstitial applicators for tumor ablation, and transurethral devices for conformal prostate ablation. Arrays of multiple sectored tubular transducers have been fabricated for interstitial and intrauterine hyperthermia applicators. High-power interstitial versions have been evaluated for percutaneous implantation with directional or dynamic angular control of thermal ablation. Transurethral applicators include curvilinear transducers with rotational sweeping of narrow heating patterns, and multi-sectored tubular devices capable of dynamic angular control without applicator movement. Performance was evaluated in phantom, excised tissue, in vivo experiments in canine prostate under MR temperature monitoring, clinical hyperthermia, and 3D-biothermal simulations with patient anatomy. Interstitial and intrauterine devices can tailor hyperthermia to large treatment volumes, with multisectored control useful to limit exposure to rectum and bladder. Curvilinear transurethral devices with sequential rotation produce target conforming coagulation zones that can cover either the whole gland or defined focal regions. Multi-sectored transurethral applicators can dynamically control the angular heating profile and target large regions of the prostate without applicator manipulation. High-power interstitial implants with directional devices can be used to effectively ablate defined target regions while avoiding sensitive tissues. MR temperature monitoring can effectively define the extent of thermal damage and provided a means for real-time control of the applicators. In summary, these catheter-based ultrasound devices allow for dynamic control of heating profiles

  18. Comparison of 3-D synthetic aperture phased-array ultrasound imaging and parallel beamforming.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) can be used to achieve real-time 3-D ultrasound phased-array imaging. It investigates whether SAI increases the image quality compared with the parallel beamforming (PB) technique for real-time 3-D imaging. Data are obtained using both simulations and measurements with an ultrasound research scanner and a commercially available 3.5- MHz 1024-element 2-D transducer array. To limit the probe cable thickness, 256 active elements are used in transmit and receive for both techniques. The two imaging techniques were designed for cardiac imaging, which requires sequences designed for imaging down to 15 cm of depth and a frame rate of at least 20 Hz. The imaging quality of the two techniques is investigated through simulations as a function of depth and angle. SAI improved the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at low steering angles by 35%, and the 20-dB cystic resolution by up to 62%. The FWHM of the measured line spread function (LSF) at 80 mm depth showed a difference of 20% in favor of SAI. SAI reduced the cyst radius at 60 mm depth by 39% in measurements. SAI improved the contrast-to-noise ratio measured on anechoic cysts embedded in a tissue-mimicking material by 29% at 70 mm depth. The estimated penetration depth on the same tissue-mimicking phantom shows that SAI increased the penetration by 24% compared with PB. Neither SAI nor PB achieved the design goal of 15 cm penetration depth. This is likely due to the limited transducer surface area and a low SNR of the experimental scanner used.

  19. CISUS: an integrated 3D ultrasound system for IGT using a modular tracking API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pieper, Steve; Choti, Michael A.; Taylor, Russell H.; Kikinis, Ron; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2004-05-01

    Ultrasound has become popular in clinical/surgical applications, both as the primary image guidance modality and also in conjunction with other modalities like CT or MRI. Three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) systems have also demonstrated usefulness in image-guided therapy (IGT). At the same time, however, current lack of open-source and open-architecture multi-modal medical visualization systems prevents 3DUS from fulfilling its potential. Several stand-alone 3DUS systems, like Stradx or In-Vivo exist today. Although these systems have been found to be useful in real clinical setting, it is difficult to augment their functionality and integrate them in versatile IGT systems. To address these limitations, a robotic/freehand 3DUS open environment (CISUS) is being integrated into the 3D Slicer, an open-source research tool developed for medical image analysis and surgical planning. In addition, the system capitalizes on generic application programming interfaces (APIs) for tracking devices and robotic control. The resulting platform-independent open-source system may serve as a valuable tool to the image guided surgery community. Other researchers could straightforwardly integrate the generic CISUS system along with other functionalities (i.e. dual view visualization, registration, real-time tracking, segmentation, etc) to rapidly create their medical/surgical applications. Our current driving clinical application is robotically assisted and freehand 3DUS-guided liver ablation, which is fully being integrated under the CISUS-3D Slicer. Initial functionality and pre-clinical feasibility are demonstrated on phantom and ex-vivo animal models.

  20. 3-D breast anthropometry of plus-sized women in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pandarum, Reena; Yu, Winnie; Hunter, Lawrance

    2011-09-01

    Exploratory retail studies in South Africa indicate that plus-sized women experience problems and dissatisfaction with poorly fitting bras. The lack of 3-D anthropometric studies for the plus-size women's bra market initiated this research. 3-D body torso measurements were collected from a convenience sample of 176 plus-sized women in South Africa. 3-D breast measurements extracted from the TC(2) NX12-3-D body scanner 'breast module' software were compared with traditional tape measurements. Regression equations show that the two methods of measurement were highly correlated although, on average, the bra cup size determining factor 'bust minus underbust' obtained from the 3-D method is approximately 11% smaller than that of the manual method. It was concluded that the total bust volume correlated with the quadrant volume (r = 0.81), cup length, bust length and bust prominence, should be selected as the overall measure of bust size and not the traditional bust girth and the underbust measurement. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes new data and adds to the knowledge base of anthropometry and consumer ergonomics on bra fit and support, published in this, the Ergonomics Journal, by Chen et al. (2010) on bra fit and White et al. (2009) on breast support during overground running.

  1. Accurate 3D reconstruction of complex blood vessel geometries from intravascular ultrasound images: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K R; Thubrikar, M J; Fowler, B; Mostafavi, M T; Funk, M W

    2000-01-01

    We present a technique that accurately reconstructs complex three dimensional blood vessel geometry from 2D intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. Biplane x-ray fluoroscopy is used to image the ultrasound catheter tip at a few key points along its path as the catheter is pulled through the blood vessel. An interpolating spline describes the continuous catheter path. The IVUS images are located orthogonal to the path, resulting in a non-uniform structured scalar volume of echo densities. Isocontour surfaces are used to view the vessel geometry, while transparency and clipping enable interactive exploration of interior structures. The two geometries studied are a bovine artery vascular graft having U-shape and a constriction, and a canine carotid artery having multiple branches and a constriction. Accuracy of the reconstructions is established by comparing the reconstructions to (1) silicone moulds of the vessel interior, (2) biplane x-ray images, and (3) the original echo images. Excellent shape and geometry correspondence was observed in both geometries. Quantitative measurements made at key locations of the 3D reconstructions also were in good agreement with those made in silicone moulds. The proposed technique is easily adoptable in clinical practice, since it uses x-rays with minimal exposure and existing IVUS technology. PMID:11105284

  2. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Pavanetto, Franca; Perugini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a “placebo” formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or t0), after 1 month (t1), and at the end of the study (t2). Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. PMID:22203840

  3. A preliminary evaluation work on a 3D ultrasound imaging system for 2D array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaoli; Li, Xu; Yang, Jiali; Li, Chunyu; Song, Junjie; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary evaluation work on a pre-designed 3-D ultrasound imaging system. The system mainly consists of four parts, a 7.5MHz, 24×24 2-D array transducer, the transmit/receive circuit, power supply, data acquisition and real-time imaging module. The row-column addressing scheme is adopted for the transducer fabrication, which greatly reduces the number of active channels . The element area of the transducer is 4.6mm by 4.6mm. Four kinds of tests were carried out to evaluate the imaging performance, including the penetration depth range, axial and lateral resolution, positioning accuracy and 3-D imaging frame rate. Several strong reflection metal objects , fixed in a water tank, were selected for the purpose of imaging due to a low signal-to-noise ratio of the transducer. The distance between the transducer and the tested objects , the thickness of aluminum, and the seam width of the aluminum sheet were measured by a calibrated micrometer to evaluate the penetration depth, the axial and lateral resolution, respectively. The experiment al results showed that the imaging penetration depth range was from 1.0cm to 6.2cm, the axial and lateral resolution were 0.32mm and 1.37mm respectively, the imaging speed was up to 27 frames per second and the positioning accuracy was 9.2%.

  4. Tracking the interframe deformation of structures in 3D ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syn, M.; Gosling, J. P.; Prager, Richard W.; Berman, Laurence; Crowley, J.

    1994-09-01

    Three dimensional ultrasound imaging with a freehand probe allows a flexible approach to medical visualization and diagnosis. Given the imperfect accuracy of proprioceptive devices used to log the position and tilt of the probe, it is important to utilize the position constraints provided by image evidence. This is also important if we wish to consider the visualization of structures which move significantly during acquisition, such as a heart of fetus. We present here an initial approach to more robust segmentation and shape recovery in a particularly noisy modality. We consider 2D segmentation based on edge evidence, using first an active contour, then finding an optimal segmentation using simulated annealing. Correspondence between contours in adjacent frames can only be solved in general cases by use of a 3D prior model. Dynamic physics-based mesh models as used by Pentland [20] and Nastar [17], allow for shape modelling, then over-constrained 3D shape recovery can be performed using the intrinsic vibration modes of the model.

  5. Automatic 3D ultrasound calibration for image guided therapy using intramodality image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Kirmizibayrak, Can; Shamdasani, Vijay; Metz, Steve; Hristov, Dimitre

    2013-11-01

    Many real time ultrasound (US) guided therapies can benefit from management of motion-induced anatomical changes with respect to a previously acquired computerized anatomy model. Spatial calibration is a prerequisite to transforming US image information to the reference frame of the anatomy model. We present a new method for calibrating 3D US volumes using intramodality image registration, derived from the ‘hand-eye’ calibration technique. The method is fully automated by implementing data rejection based on sensor displacements, automatic registration over overlapping image regions, and a self-consistency error metric evaluated continuously during calibration. We also present a novel method for validating US calibrations based on measurement of physical phantom displacements within US images. Both calibration and validation can be performed on arbitrary phantoms. Results indicate that normalized mutual information and localized cross correlation produce the most accurate 3D US registrations for calibration. Volumetric image alignment is more accurate and reproducible than point selection for validating the calibrations, yielding <1.5 mm root mean square error, a significant improvement relative to previously reported hand-eye US calibration results. Comparison of two different phantoms for calibration and for validation revealed significant differences for validation (p = 0.003) but not for calibration (p = 0.795).

  6. Automated Computed Tomography-Ultrasound Cross-Modality 3-D Contouring Algorithm for Prostate.

    PubMed

    Ermacora, Denis; Pesente, Silvia; Pascoli, Francesco; Raducci, Sebastian; Mauro, Rudy; Rumeileh, Imad Abu; Verhaegen, Frank; Fontanarosa, Davide

    2015-10-01

    A novel fully automated algorithm is introduced for 3-D cross-modality image segmentation of the prostate, based on the simultaneous use of co-registered computed tomography (CT) and 3-D ultrasound (US) images. By use of a Gabor feature detector, the algorithm can outline in three dimensions and in cross-modality the prostate, and it can be trained and optimized on specific patient populations. We applied it to 16 prostate cancer patients and evaluated the conformity between the automatically segmented prostate contours and the contours manually outlined by an experienced physician, on the CT-US fusion, using the mean distance to conformity (MDC) index. When only the CT scans were used, the average MDC value was 4.5 ± 1.7 mm (maximum value = 9.0 mm). When the US scans also were considered, the mean ± standard deviation was reduced to 3.9 ± 0.7 mm (maximum value = 5.5 mm). The cross-modality approach acted on all the largest distance values, reducing them to acceptable discrepancies.

  7. Automated kidney detection for 3D ultrasound using scan line searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Matthias; Nadolny, Anne; Wesarg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound (U/S) is a fast and non-expensive imaging modality that is used for the examination of various anatomical structures, e.g. the kidneys. One important task for automatic organ tracking or computer-aided diagnosis is the identification of the organ region. During this process the exact information about the transducer location and orientation is usually unavailable. This renders the implementation of such automatic methods exceedingly challenging. In this work we like to introduce a new automatic method for the detection of the kidney in 3D U/S images. This novel technique analyses the U/S image data along virtual scan lines. Here, characteristic texture changes when entering and leaving the symmetric tissue regions of the renal cortex are searched for. A subsequent feature accumulation along a second scan direction produces a 2D heat map of renal cortex candidates, from which the kidney location is extracted in two steps. First, the strongest candidate as well as its counterpart are extracted by heat map intensity ranking and renal cortex size analysis. This process exploits the heat map gap caused by the renal pelvis region. Substituting the renal pelvis detection with this combined cortex tissue feature increases the detection robustness. In contrast to model based methods that generate characteristic pattern matches, our method is simpler and therefore faster. An evaluation performed on 61 3D U/S data sets showed, that in 55 cases showing none or minor shadowing the kidney location could be correctly identified.

  8. Characterization of neonatal patients with intraventricular hemorrhage using 3D ultrasound cerebral ventricle volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Jessica; Fenster, Aaron; Lee, David S. C.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2015-03-01

    One of the major non-congenital cause of neurological impairment among neonates born very preterm is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) - bleeding within the lateral ventricles. Most IVH patients will have a transient period of ventricle dilation that resolves spontaneously. However, those patients most at risk of long-term impairment are those who have progressive ventricle dilation as this causes macrocephaly, an abnormally enlarged head, then later causes increases intracranial pressure (ICP). 2D ultrasound (US) images through the fontanelles of the patients are serially acquired to monitor the progression of the ventricle dilation. These images are used to determine when interventional therapies such as needle aspiration of the built up CSF might be indicated for a patient. Initial therapies usually begin during the third week of life. Such interventions have been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality in IVH patients; however, this comes with risks of further hemorrhage or infection; therefore only patients requiring it should be treated. Previously we have developed and validated a 3D US system to monitor the progression of ventricle volumes (VV) in IVH patients. This system has been validated using phantoms and a small set of patient images. The aim of this work is to determine the ability of 3D US generated VV to categorize patients into those who will require interventional therapies, and those who will have spontaneous resolution. Patients with higher risks could therefore be monitored better, by re-allocating some of the resources as the low risks infants would need less monitoring.

  9. 2-D array for 3-D Ultrasound Imaging Using Synthetic Aperture Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Nadim M.; Yen, Jesse T.

    2010-01-01

    A 2-D array of 256 × 256 = 65,536 elements, with total area 4 × 4 = 16 cm2, serves as a flexible platform for developing acquisition schemes for 3-D rectilinear ultrasound imaging at 10 MHz using synthetic aperture techniques. This innovative system combines a simplified interconnect scheme and synthetic aperture techniques with a 2-D array for 3-D imaging. A row-column addressing scheme is used to access different elements for different transmit events. This addressing scheme is achieved through a simple interconnect, consisting of one top, one bottom single layer flex circuits, which, compared to multi-layer flex circuits, are simpler to design, cheaper to manufacture and thinner so their effect on the acoustic response is minimized. We present three designs that prioritize different design objectives: volume acquisiton time, resolution, and sensitivity, while maintaining acceptable figures for the other design objectives. For example, one design overlooks time acquisition requirements, assumes good noise conditions, and optimizes for resolution, achieving −6 dB and −20 dB beamwidths of less than 0.2 and 0.5 millimeters, respectively, for an F/2 aperture. Another design can acquire an entire volume in 256 transmit events, with −6dB and −20 dB beamwidths in the order of 0.4 and 0.8 millimeters, respectively. PMID:16764446

  10. Enhancement of 3D modeling and classification of microcalcifications in breast computed tomography (BCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alquran, Hiam; Shaheen, Eman; O'Connor, J. Michael; Mahd, Mufeed

    2014-03-01

    Current computer aided diagnosis (CADx) software for digital mammography relies mainly on 2D techniques. With the emergence of three-dimensional (3D) breast imaging modalities such as breast Computed Tomography (BCT), there is an opportunity to analyze 3D features in the classification of calcifications. We previously reported our initial work on automated 3D feature detection and classification based on morphological descriptions for single microcalcifications within clusters [1]. In this work, we propose the expansion of the 3D classification methods to include novel microcalcification morphological feature detection such as including more morphological classes and replacing the 2D Radon transform by a 3D Radon transform. Results show that the classification rate improved compared to the previously reported results from a total of 546 to 559 consistently classified calcifications out of 635 total calcifications. This slight improvement is due to the use of the 3D Radon transform and incorporating methods to detect two classes not previously implemented. Future work will focus on adding feature detection and classification of cluster patterns.

  11. Ultrasound guided nerve block for breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, P; Casas, P; López, S; Fajardo, M

    2016-03-01

    The breast surgery has undergone changes in recent years, encouraging new initiatives for the anaesthetic management of these patients in order to achieve maximum quality and rapid recovery. The fundamental tool that has allowed a significant improvement in the progress of regional anaesthesia for breast disease has been ultrasound, boosting the description and introduction into clinical practice of interfascial chest wall blocks, although the reference standard is still the paravertebral block. It is very likely that these blocks will change the protocols in the coming years. A review is presented of the anatomy of the breast region, description of nerve blocks and techniques, as well as their indications, all according to published articles and the opinion of the authors based on their experience.

  12. Ultrasound guided nerve block for breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, P; Casas, P; López, S; Fajardo, M

    2016-03-01

    The breast surgery has undergone changes in recent years, encouraging new initiatives for the anaesthetic management of these patients in order to achieve maximum quality and rapid recovery. The fundamental tool that has allowed a significant improvement in the progress of regional anaesthesia for breast disease has been ultrasound, boosting the description and introduction into clinical practice of interfascial chest wall blocks, although the reference standard is still the paravertebral block. It is very likely that these blocks will change the protocols in the coming years. A review is presented of the anatomy of the breast region, description of nerve blocks and techniques, as well as their indications, all according to published articles and the opinion of the authors based on their experience. PMID:26776926

  13. 3D ultrasound system to investigate intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, J.; de Ribaupierre, S.; Lee, D. S. C.; Mehta, R.; St. Lawrence, K.; Fenster, A.

    2013-11-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common disorder among preterm neonates that is routinely diagnosed and monitored by 2D cranial ultrasound (US). The cerebral ventricles of patients with IVH often have a period of ventricular dilation (ventriculomegaly). This initial increase in ventricle size can either spontaneously resolve, which often shows clinically as a period of stabilization in ventricle size and eventual decline back towards a more normal size, or progressive ventricular dilation that does not stabilize and which may require interventional therapy to reduce symptoms relating to increased intracranial pressure. To improve the characterization of ventricle dilation, we developed a 3D US imaging system that can be used with a conventional clinical US scanner to image the ventricular system of preterm neonates at risk of ventriculomegaly. A motorized transducer housing was designed specifically for hand-held use inside an incubator using a transducer commonly used for cranial 2D US scans. This system was validated using geometric phantoms, US/MRI compatible ventricle volume phantoms, and patient images to determine 3D reconstruction accuracy and inter- and intra-observer volume estimation variability. 3D US geometric reconstruction was found to be accurate with an error of <0.2%. Measured volumes of a US/MRI compatible ventricle-like phantom were within 5% of gold standard water displacement measurements. Intra-class correlation for the three observers was 0.97, showing very high agreement between observers. The coefficient of variation was between 1.8-6.3% for repeated segmentations of the same patient. The minimum detectable difference was calculated to be 0.63 cm3 for a single observer. Results from ANOVA for three observers segmenting three patients of IVH grade II did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) for the measured ventricle volumes between observers. This 3D US system can reliably produce 3D US images of the neonatal ventricular

  14. Tomographic Reconstruction of Breast Characteristics Using Transmitted Ultrasound Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gursharan; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2012-10-01

    X-ray Mammography has been the standard technique for the detection of breast cancer. However, it uses ionizing radiation, and can cause severe discomfort. It also has low spatial resolution, and can be prone to misdiagnosis. Techniques such as X-ray CT and MRI alleviate some of these issues but are costly. Researchers at Karmanos Cancer Institute developed a tomographic ultrasound device which is able to reconstruct the reflectivity, attenuation, and sound speed characteristics of the breast. A patient places her breast into a ring array of transducers immersed in a water bath, and the device scanning the breast yields a 3d reconstruction. Our work focuses on improving algorithms for attenuation and sound speed imaging. Current time-of-flight tomography provides relatively low resolution images. Improvements are made by considering diffraction effects with the use of the low resolution image as a seed to the Born approximation. Ultimately, full waveform inversion will be used to obtain images with resolution comparable to MRI.

  15. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  16. A compact mechatronic system for 3D ultrasound guided prostate interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Bax, Jeffrey; Smith, David; Bartha, Laura; Montreuil, Jacques; Sherebrin, Shi; Gardi, Lori; Edirisinghe, Chandima; Fenster, Aaron

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound imaging has improved the treatment of prostate cancer by producing increasingly higher quality images and influencing sophisticated targeting procedures for the insertion of radioactive seeds during brachytherapy. However, it is critical that the needles be placed accurately within the prostate to deliver the therapy to the planned location and avoid complications of damaging surrounding tissues. Methods: The authors have developed a compact mechatronic system, as well as an effective method for guiding and controlling the insertion of transperineal needles into the prostate. This system has been designed to allow guidance of a needle obliquely in 3D space into the prostate, thereby reducing pubic arch interference. The choice of needle trajectory and location in the prostate can be adjusted manually or with computer control. Results: To validate the system, a series of experiments were performed on phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric error, which was less than 0.4 mm. Needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error of bead placement was less then 1.6 mm along parallel needle paths that were within 1.2 mm of the intended target and 1 deg. from the preplanned trajectory. At oblique angles of up to 15 deg. relative to the probe axis, beads were placed to within 3.0 mm along a trajectory that were within 2.0 mm of the target with an angular error less than 2 deg. Conclusions: By combining 3D TRUS imaging system to a needle tracking linkage, this system should improve the physician's ability to target and accurately guide a needle to selected targets without the need for the computer to directly manipulate and insert the needle. This would be beneficial as the physician has complete control of the system and can safely maneuver the needle guide around obstacles such as previously placed needles.

  17. Reproducing 2D breast mammography images with 3D printed phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    Mammography is currently the standard imaging modality used to screen women for breast abnormalities and, as a result, it is a tool of great importance for the early detection of breast cancer. Physical phantoms are commonly used as surrogates of breast tissue to evaluate some aspects of the performance of mammography systems. However, most phantoms do not reproduce the anatomic heterogeneity of real breasts. New fabrication technologies, such as 3D printing, have created the opportunity to build more complex, anatomically realistic breast phantoms that could potentially assist in the evaluation of mammography systems. The primary objective of this work is to present a simple, easily reproducible methodology to design and print 3D objects that replicate the attenuation profile observed in real 2D mammograms. The secondary objective is to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the competing 3D printing technologies, and characterize the x-ray properties of the different materials they use. Printable phantoms can be created using the open-source code introduced in this work, which processes a raw mammography image to estimate the amount of x-ray attenuation at each pixel, and outputs a triangle mesh object that encodes the observed attenuation map. The conversion from the observed pixel gray value to a column of printed material with equivalent attenuation requires certain assumptions and knowledge of multiple imaging system parameters, such as x-ray energy spectrum, source-to-object distance, compressed breast thickness, and average breast material attenuation. A detailed description of the new software, a characterization of the printed materials using x-ray spectroscopy, and an evaluation of the realism of the sample printed phantoms are presented.

  18. Mapping 3D Strains with Ultrasound Speckle Tracking: Method Validation and Initial Results in Porcine Scleral Inflation.

    PubMed

    Cruz Perez, Benjamin; Pavlatos, Elias; Morris, Hugh J; Chen, Hong; Pan, Xueliang; Hart, Richard T; Liu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a high frequency ultrasound method for measuring distributive, 3D strains in the sclera during elevations of intraocular pressure. A 3D cross-correlation based speckle-tracking algorithm was implemented to compute the 3D displacement vector and strain tensor at each tracking point. Simulated ultrasound radiofrequency data from a sclera-like structure at undeformed and deformed states with known strains were used to evaluate the accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of strain estimation. An experimental high frequency ultrasound (55 MHz) system was built to acquire 3D scans of porcine eyes inflated from 15 to 17 and then 19 mmHg. Simulations confirmed good strain estimation accuracy and SNR (e.g., the axial strains had less than 4.5% error with SNRs greater than 16.5 for strains from 0.005 to 0.05). Experimental data in porcine eyes showed increasing tensile, compressive, and shear strains in the posterior sclera during inflation, with a volume ratio close to one suggesting near-incompressibility. This study established the feasibility of using high frequency ultrasound speckle tracking for measuring 3D tissue strains and its potential to characterize physiological deformations in the posterior eye. PMID:26563101

  19. Transvaginal 3-d power Doppler ultrasound evaluation of the fetal brain at 10-13 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Noguchi, Junko

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the fetal brain volume (FBV) and vascularization and blood flow using transvaginal 3-D power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound late in the first trimester of pregnancy. 3DPD ultrasound examinations with the VOCAL imaging analysis program were performed on 36 normal fetuses from 10-13 weeks' gestation. FBV and 3DPD indices related to the fetal brain vascularization (vascularization index [VI], flow index [FI] and vascularization flow index [VFI]) were calculated in each fetus. Intra- and interclass correlation coefficients and intra- and interobserver agreements of measurements were assessed. FBV was curvilinearly correlated well with the gestational age (R2 = 0.861, p < 0.0001). All 3-D power Doppler indices (VI, FI and VFI) showed no change at 10-13 weeks' gestation. FBV and all 3-D power Doppler indices (VI, FI and VFI) showed a correlation > 0.82, with good intra- and interobserver agreement. Our findings suggest that 3-D ultrasound is a superior means of evaluating the FBV in utero, and that 3-D power Doppler ultrasound histogram analysis may provide new information on the assessment of fetal brain perfusion.

  20. Estimation of 3D cardiac deformation using spatio-temporal elastic registration of non-scanconverted ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elen, An; Loeckx, Dirk; Choi, Hon Fai; Gao, Hang; Claus, Piet; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul; D'hooge, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Current ultrasound methods for measuring myocardial strain are often limited to measurements in one or two dimensions. Spatio-temporal elastic registration of 3D cardiac ultrasound data can however be used to estimate the 3D motion and full 3D strain tensor. In this work, the spatio-temporal elastic registration method was validated for both non-scanconverted and scanconverted images. This was done using simulated 3D pyramidal ultrasound data sets based on a thick-walled deforming ellipsoid and an adapted convolution model. A B-spline based frame-to-frame elastic registration method was applied to both the scanconverted and non-scanconverded data sets and the accuracy of the resulting deformation fields was quantified. The mean accuracy of the estimated displacement was very similar for the scanconverted and non-scanconverted data sets and thus, it was shown that 3D elastic registration to estimate the cardiac deformation from ultrasound images can be performed on non-scanconverted images, but that avoiding of the scanconversion step does not significantly improve the results of the displacement estimation.

  1. Visualization of 3D geometric models of the breast created from contrast-enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leader, J. Ken, III; Wang, Xiao Hui; Chang, Yuan-Hsiang; Chapman, Brian E.

    2002-05-01

    Contrast enhanced breast MRI is currently used as an adjuvant modality to x-ray mammography because of its ability to resolve ambiguities and determine the extent of malignancy. This study described techniques to create and visualize 3D geometric models of abnormal breast tissue. MRIs were performed on a General Electric 1.5 Tesla scanner using dual phased array breast coils. Image processing tasks included: 1) correction of image inhomogeneity caused by the coils, 2) segmentation of normal and abnormal tissue, and 3) modeling and visualization of the segmented tissue. The models were visualized using object-based surface rendering which revealed characteristics critical to differentiating benign from malignant tissue. Surface rendering illustrated the enhancement distribution and enhancement patterns. The modeling process condensed the multi-slice MRI data information and standardized its interpretation. Visualizing the 3D models should improve the radiologist's and/or surgeon's impression of the 3D shape, extent, and accessibility of the malignancy compared to viewing breast MRI data slice by slice.

  2. High-resolution 3D micro-CT imaging of breast microcalcifications: a preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of microcalcifications on mammograms indicates the presence of breast lesion, and the shapes of the microcalcifications as seen by conventional mammography correlates with the probability of malignancy. This preliminary study evaluated the 3D shape of breast microcalcifications using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compared the findings with those obtained using anatomopathological analysis. Methods The study analyzed breast biopsy samples from 11 women with findings of suspicious microcalcifications on routine mammograms. The samples were imaged using a micro-CT (SkyScan 1076) at a resolution of 35 μm. Images were reconstructed using filtered back-projection and analyzed in 3D using surface rendering. The samples were subsequently analyzed by the pathology service. Reconstructed 3D images were compared with the corresponding histological slices. Results Anatomopathological analysis showed that 5 of 11 patients had ductal breast carcinoma in situ. One patient was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. Individual object analysis was performed on 597 microcalcifications. Malignant microcalcifications tended to be thinner and to have a smaller volume and surface area, while their surface area-to-volume ratio was greater than that of benign microcalcifications. The structure model index values were the same for malignant and benign microcalcifications. Conclusions This is the first study to use micro-CT for quantitative 3D analysis of microcalcifications. This high-resolution imaging technique will be valuable for gaining a greater understanding of the morphologic characteristics of malignant and benign microcalcifications. The presence of many small microcalcifications can be an indication of malignancy. For the larger microcalcifications, 3D parameters confirmed the more irregular shape of malignant microcalcifications. PMID:24393444

  3. In vitro in-stent restenoses evaluated by 3D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lécart, Myriam; Cardinal, Marie-Hélène Roy; Qin, Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Cloutier, Guy

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify in-stent restenoses with 3D B mode and power Doppler ultrasound (U.S.) imaging. In-stent restenoses were mimicked with vascular phantoms in which a nonferromagnetic prototype stent (Boston Scientific) and a ferromagnetic clinical stainless steel stent (Palmaz P295) were embedded. Each phantom had an 80% in-stent stenosis and a 75% stenosis located outside the stent. These phantoms were compared to a reference phantom reproducing both stenoses without stent. Data sets of 2D cross-sectional U.S. images were acquired in freehand scanning using a magnetic sensor attached to the U.S. probe and in mechanical linear scanning with the probe attached to a step motor device. Each 2D image was automatically segmented before 3D reconstruction of the vessel. Results indicate that the reference phantom (without stent) was accurately assessed with errors below 1.8% for the 75% stenosis and 3.2% for the 80% stenosis in both B mode and power Doppler for the two scanning methods. The 80% in-stent stenoses in Boston Scientific and Palmaz stents were, respectively, evaluated at 73.8 (+/-3.2)% and 75.8 (+/- 3)% in B mode and at 82 (+/- 2.5)% and 86.2 (+/- 6.4)% in power Doppler when freehand scans were used. For comparison, when linear scans were selected, in-stent stenoses in the Boston Scientific or Palmaz stent were, respectively, evaluated at 77.4 (+/- 2.0)% and 73.8 (+/- 2.5)% in B mode and at 87.0 (+/- 1.3)% and 85.6 (+/- 5.8)% in power Doppler. To conclude, 3D freehand U.S. is a valuable method to quantify in-stent restenoses, particularly in B mode. It is thus hoped that, in the clinical setting, noninvasive 3D U.S. may provide sufficient precision to grade in-stent restenoses. PMID:19291990

  4. Semiautomatic registration of 3D transabdominal ultrasound images for patient repositioning during postprostatectomy radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Presles, Benoît Rit, Simon; Sarrut, David; Fargier-Voiron, Marie; Liebgott, Hervé; Biston, Marie-Claude; Munoz, Alexandre; Pommier, Pascal; Lynch, Rod

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work is to propose and evaluate registration algorithms of three-dimensional (3D) transabdominal (TA) ultrasound (US) images to setup postprostatectomy patients during radiation therapy. Methods: Three registration methods have been developed and evaluated to register a reference 3D-TA-US image acquired during the planning CT session and a 3D-TA-US image acquired before each treatment session. The first method (method A) uses only gray value information, whereas the second one (method B) uses only gradient information. The third one (method C) combines both sets of information. All methods restrict the comparison to a region of interest computed from the dilated reference positioning volume drawn on the reference image and use mutual information as a similarity measure. The considered geometric transformations are translations and have been optimized by using the adaptive stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Validation has been carried out using manual registration by three operators of the same set of image pairs as the algorithms. Sixty-two treatment US images of seven patients irradiated after a prostatectomy have been registered to their corresponding reference US image. The reference registration has been defined as the average of the manual registration values. Registration error has been calculated by subtracting the reference registration from the algorithm result. For each session, the method has been considered a failure if the registration error was above both the interoperator variability of the session and a global threshold of 3.0 mm. Results: All proposed registration algorithms have no systematic bias. Method B leads to the best results with mean errors of −0.6, 0.7, and −0.2 mm in left–right (LR), superior–inferior (SI), and anterior–posterior (AP) directions, respectively. With this method, the standard deviations of the mean error are of 1.7, 2.4, and 2.6 mm in LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively

  5. Histological Evaluation of 3D MRI-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Therapy in the Prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Siddharth; Boyes, Aaron; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Previous work from our group has shown that transurethral ultrasound therapy, with a single ultrasound transducer guided by temperature feedback from a single MRI plane (slice), can be used to treat a targeted region accurately in the prostate gland. We have extended this approach to a larger, 3D, targeted volume within the prostate, using a multi-element transducer controlled concurrently by temperature feedback from multiple imaging planes. Animals were placed supine in a 1.5 T clinical MRI, and the transurethral heating device was positioned with image guidance. A four-element transducer (each element was 5 mm long, operating at ˜8 MHz) was rotated to treat a targeted volume around the device. Temperature maps transverse to each element were acquired during heating and used to control the acoustic power of each element and the rate of rotation of the device. T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced (CE) MR images were obtained pre- and post-heating. Following the treatment, prostates were removed and fixed, axially sliced, stained with H&E, and digitally imaged at high-resolution to outline boundaries of cell death. Slice alignment and image registration techniques were developed to enable quantitative comparison of the axial MRI images and matching histological sections. Prostate sections showed clear regions of coagulative necrosis, extending ˜20 mm along the urethra, which correlated well with CE MRI data and transducer length. After registration, the outer border of coagulative necrosis on H&E conformed well to the target isotherm, similar to results from our previous (single element) acute studies. These results confirm that our previous analysis techniques for a single transducer can be extended to multiple elements, and that a large volumetric ablation of the prostate gland is feasible with a high degree of accuracy.

  6. Anechoic Sphere Phantoms for Estimating 3-D Resolution of Very High Frequency Ultrasound Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; McCormick, Matthew M.; Deaner, Meagan E.; Stiles, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Two phantoms have been constructed for assessing the performance of high frequency ultrasound imagers. They also allow for periodic quality assurance tests. The phantoms contain eight blocks of tissue-mimicking material where each block contains a spatially random distribution of suitably small anechoic spheres having a small distribution of diameters. The eight mean sphere diameters are distributed from 0.10 to 1.09 mm. The two phantoms differ primarily in terms of the backscatter coefficient of the background material in which the spheres are suspended. The mean scatterer diameter for one phantom is larger than that for the other phantom resulting in a lesser increase in backscatter coefficient for the second phantom; however, the backscatter curves cross at about 35 MHz. Since spheres have no preferred orientation, all three (spatial) dimensions of resolution contribute to sphere detection on an equal basis; thus, the resolution is termed 3-D. Two high frequency scanners are compared. One employs single-element (fixed focus) transducers, and the other employs variable focus linear arrays. The nominal frequency for the single element transducers were 25 and 55 MHz and for the linear array transducers were 20, 30 and 40 MHz. The depth range for detection of spheres of each size is determined corresponding to determination of 3-D resolution as a function of depth. As expected, the single-element transducers are severely limited in useful imaging depth ranges compared with the linear arrays. Note that these phantoms could also be useful for training technicians in using higher frequency scanners. PMID:20889416

  7. Compressed Sensing Reconstruction of 3D Ultrasound Data Using Dictionary Learning and Line-Wise Subsampling.

    PubMed

    Lorintiu, Oana; Liebgott, Hervé; Alessandrini, Martino; Bernard, Olivier; Friboulet, Denis

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a compressed sensing (CS) method adapted to 3D ultrasound imaging (US). In contrast to previous work, we propose a new approach based on the use of learned overcomplete dictionaries that allow for much sparser representations of the signals since they are optimized for a particular class of images such as US images. In this study, the dictionary was learned using the K-SVD algorithm and CS reconstruction was performed on the non-log envelope data by removing 20% to 80% of the original data. Using numerically simulated images, we evaluate the influence of the training parameters and of the sampling strategy. The latter is done by comparing the two most common sampling patterns, i.e., point-wise and line-wise random patterns. The results show in particular that line-wise sampling yields an accuracy comparable to the conventional point-wise sampling. This indicates that CS acquisition of 3D data is feasible in a relatively simple setting, and thus offers the perspective of increasing the frame rate by skipping the acquisition of RF lines. Next, we evaluated this approach on US volumes of several ex vivo and in vivo organs. We first show that the learned dictionary approach yields better performances than conventional fixed transforms such as Fourier or discrete cosine. Finally, we investigate the generality of the learned dictionary approach and show that it is possible to build a general dictionary allowing to reliably reconstruct different volumes of different ex vivo or in vivo organs.

  8. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J.; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm2 intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  9. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm(2) intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application. PMID:27597635

  10. Improved Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Tissue Scaffolds with Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Castro, Nathan J; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Haitao; Aliabouzar, Mitra; Sarkar, Kausik; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-06

    3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer. The resultant scaffolds provide a highly porous and interconnected 3D environment to support cell proliferation. Scaffolds with small square pores were determined to be the optimal geometric pattern for MSC attachment and growth. The optimal LIPUS working parameters were determined to be 1.5 MHz, 20% duty cycle with 150 mW/cm(2) intensity. Results demonstrated that RGDS peptide and nHA containing 3D printed scaffolds under LIPUS treatment can greatly promote MSC proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and total protein content. These results illustrate the effectiveness of the combination of LIPUS and biomimetic 3D printing scaffolds as a valuable combinatorial tool for improved MSC function, thus make them promising for future clinical and various regenerative medicine application.

  11. 3D surface imaging for guidance in breast cancer radiotherapy: organs at risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Betgen, Anja; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Remeijer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the variability in heart position in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy for breast cancer when 3D surface imaging would be used for monitoring the depth of the breath hold during treatment. Materials and Methods: Ten patients who received DIBH radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Retrospectively, heart-based registrations were performed for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to planning CT and breast surface registrations were performed for a 3D surface (two different regions of interest [ROIs]), captured concurrently with CBCT, to planning CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to investigate the prediction quality of 3D surface imaging for 3D heart displacement. Further, the residual setup errors (systematic [Σ] and random [σ]) of the heart were estimated relative to the surface registrations. Results: When surface imaging [ROIleft-side;ROIboth-sides] would be used for monitoring, the residual errors of the heart position are in left-right: Σ=[0.360.12], σ=[0.160.14] cranio-caudal: Σ=[0.540.54], σ=[0.280.31] and in anteriorposterior: Σ=[0.180.14], σ=[0.200.19] cm. Correlations between setup errors were: R2 = [0.23;0.73], [0.67;0.65], [0.65;0.73] in left-right, cranio-caudal, and anterior-posterior direction, respectively. ROC analysis resulted in an area under the ROC curve of [0.82;0.78]. Conclusion: The use of ROIboth-sides provided promising results. However, considerable variability in the heart position, particularly in CC direction, is observed when 3D surface imaging would be used for guidance in DIBH radiotherapy after BCS. Planning organ at risk volume margins should be used to take into account the heart-position variability.

  12. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. Results: In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Conclusion: Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs. PMID:25038809

  13. Dynamic 2D ultrasound and 3D CT image registration of the beating heart.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xishi; Moore, John; Guiraudon, Gerard; Jones, Douglas L; Bainbridge, Daniel; Ren, Jing; Peters, Terry M

    2009-08-01

    Two-dimensional ultrasound (US) is widely used in minimally invasive cardiac procedures due to its convenience of use and noninvasive nature. However, the low quality of US images often limits their utility as a means for guiding procedures, since it is often difficult to relate the images to their anatomical context. To improve the interpretability of the US images while maintaining US as a flexible anatomical and functional real-time imaging modality, we describe a multimodality image navigation system that integrates 2D US images with their 3D context by registering them to high quality preoperative models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) images. The mapping from such a model to the patient is completed using spatial and temporal registrations. Spatial registration is performed by a two-step rapid registration method that first approximately aligns the two images as a starting point to an automatic registration procedure. Temporal alignment is performed with the aid of electrocardiograph (ECG) signals and a latency compensation method. Registration accuracy is measured by calculating the TRE. Results show that the error between the US and preoperative images of a beating heart phantom is 1.7 +/-0.4 mm, with a similar performance being observed in in vivo animal experiments.

  14. Controlled Study of Traditional Ultrasound and Ultrasound Elastography on the Diagnosis of Breast Masses.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wang, Ling; Wu, Haojie; Wei, Xiangkun; Duan, Yajie; Xu, Lingyao; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Liu

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to explore the application values of traditional ultrasound (contrast ultrasound [CUS]) and ultrasound elastography (UE) (including gray-scale ultrasound, color Doppler flow imaging, spectral Doppler ultrasound) in the diagnosis of breast masses. Postoperative histopathological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. One hundred seventy benign and malignant breast lesions from our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy differences of breast malignancy diagnosed by UE and CUS were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of breast malignancy diagnosed by UE were 98.7%, 90.2%, and 97.7%, whereas that by CUS were 93.6%, 76.1%, and 78.9%, respectively. The specificity and diagnosis rate of UE in the differential diagnosis of malignant breast lesions are superior to those of CUS and have an important clinical value.

  15. A second generation of physical anthropomorphic 3D breast phantoms based on human subject data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Adam; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. P.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2014-03-01

    Previous fabrication of anthropomorphic breast phantoms has demonstrated their viability as a model for 2D (mammography) and 3D (tomosynthesis) breast imaging systems. Further development of these models will be essential for the evaluation of breast x-ray systems. There is also the potential to use them as the ground truth in virtual clinical trials. The first generation of phantoms was segmented from human subject dedicated breast computed tomography data and fabricated into physical models using highresolution 3D printing. Two variations were made. The first was a multi-material model (doublet) printed with two photopolymers to represent glandular and adipose tissues with the greatest physical contrast available, mimicking 75% and 35% glandular tissue. The second model was printed with a single 75% glandular equivalent photopolymer (singlet) to represent glandular tissue, which can be filled independently with an adipose-equivalent material such as oil. For this study, we have focused on improving the latter, the singlet phantom. First, the temporary oil filler has been replaced with a permanent adipose-equivalent urethane-based polymer. This offers more realistic contrast as compared to the multi-material approach at the expense of air bubbles and pockets that form during the filling process. Second, microcalcification clusters have been included in the singlet model via crushed eggshells, which have very similar chemical composition to calcifications in vivo. The results from these new prototypes demonstrate significant improvement over the first generation of anthropomorphic physical phantoms.

  16. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornblower, V. D. M.; Yu, E.; Fenster, A.; Battista, J. J.; Malthaner, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  17. A fast slam approach to freehand 3-d ultrasound reconstruction for catheter ablation guidance in the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Koolwal, Aditya B; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher R; Liang, David H

    2011-12-01

    We present a method for real-time, freehand 3D ultrasound (3D-US) reconstruction of moving anatomy, with specific application towards guiding the catheter ablation procedure in the left atrium. Using an intracardiac echo (ICE) catheter with a pose (position/orientation) sensor mounted to its tip, we continually mosaic 2D-ICE images of a left atrium phantom model to form a 3D-US volume. Our mosaicing strategy employs a probabilistic framework based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a technique commonly used in mobile robotics for creating maps of unexplored environments. The measured ICE catheter tip pose provides an initial estimate for compounding 2D-ICE image data into the 3D-US volume. However, we simultaneously consider the overlap-consistency shared between 2D-ICE images and the 3D-US volume, computing a "corrected" tip pose if need be to ensure spatially-consistent reconstruction. This allows us to compensate for anatomic movement and sensor drift that would otherwise cause motion artifacts in the 3D-US volume. Our approach incorporates 2D-ICE data immediately after acquisition, allowing us to continuously update the registration parameters linking sensor coordinates to 3D-US coordinates. This, in turn, enables real-time localization and display of sensorized therapeutic catheters within the 3D-US volume for facilitating procedural guidance.

  18. A fast slam approach to freehand 3-d ultrasound reconstruction for catheter ablation guidance in the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Koolwal, Aditya B; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher R; Liang, David H

    2011-12-01

    We present a method for real-time, freehand 3D ultrasound (3D-US) reconstruction of moving anatomy, with specific application towards guiding the catheter ablation procedure in the left atrium. Using an intracardiac echo (ICE) catheter with a pose (position/orientation) sensor mounted to its tip, we continually mosaic 2D-ICE images of a left atrium phantom model to form a 3D-US volume. Our mosaicing strategy employs a probabilistic framework based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a technique commonly used in mobile robotics for creating maps of unexplored environments. The measured ICE catheter tip pose provides an initial estimate for compounding 2D-ICE image data into the 3D-US volume. However, we simultaneously consider the overlap-consistency shared between 2D-ICE images and the 3D-US volume, computing a "corrected" tip pose if need be to ensure spatially-consistent reconstruction. This allows us to compensate for anatomic movement and sensor drift that would otherwise cause motion artifacts in the 3D-US volume. Our approach incorporates 2D-ICE data immediately after acquisition, allowing us to continuously update the registration parameters linking sensor coordinates to 3D-US coordinates. This, in turn, enables real-time localization and display of sensorized therapeutic catheters within the 3D-US volume for facilitating procedural guidance. PMID:22014856

  19. Stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsies on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system.

    PubMed

    Viala, Juliette; Gignier, Pierre; Perret, Baudouin; Hovasse, Claudie; Hovasse, Denis; Chancelier-Galan, Marie-Dominique; Bornet, Gregoire; Hamrouni, Adel; Lasry, Jean-Louis; Convard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe our operating process and to report results of 118 stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsies performed on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system. From October 2009 to December 2010, 118 stereotactic vacuum assisted biopsies have been performed on a digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis system. Informed consent was obtained for all patients. A total of 106 patients had a lesion, six had two lesions. Sixty-one lesions were clusters of micro-calcifications, 54 were masses and three were architectural distortions. Patients were in lateral decubitus position to allow shortest skin-target approach (or sitting). Specific compression paddle, adapted on the system, performed, and graduated, allowing localization in X-Y. Tomosynthesis views define the depth of lesion. Graduated Coaxial localization kit determines the beginning of the biopsy window. Biopsies were performed with an ATEC-Suros, 9 Gauge handpiece. All biopsies, except one, have reached the lesions. Five hemorrhages were incurred in the process, but no interruption was needed. Eight breast hematomas, were all spontaneously resolved. One was an infection. About 40% of patients had a skin ecchymosis. Processing is fast, easy, and requires lower irradiation dose than with classical stereotactic biopsies. Histology analysis reported 45 benign clusters of micro-calcifications, 16 malignant clusters of micro-calcifications, 24 benign masses, and 33 malignant masses. Of 13 malignant lesions, digital 2D-mammography failed to detect eight lesions and underestimated the classification of five lesions. Digital breast 3D-tomosynthesis depicts malignant lesions not visualized on digital 2D-mammography. Development of tomosynthesis biopsy unit integrated to stereotactic system will permit histology analysis for suspicious lesions.

  20. High-resolution 3D ultrasound jawbone surface imaging for diagnosis of periodontal bony defects: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2010-11-01

    Although medical specialties have recognized the importance of using ultrasonic imaging, dentistry is only beginning to discover its benefit. This has particularly been important in the field of periodontics which studies infections in the gum and bone tissues that surround the teeth. This study investigates the feasibility of using a custom-designed high-frequency ultrasound imaging system to reconstruct high-resolution (< 50 μm) three-dimensional (3D) surface images of periodontal defects in human jawbone. The system employs single-element focused ultrasound transducers with center frequencies ranging from 30 to 60 MHz. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high-precision two-dimensional (2D) positioning system of ±1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate measurements of the mandible, in vitro. Signal and image processing algorithms are applied to reconstruct high-resolution ultrasound images and extract the jawbone surface in each frame. Then, all edges are combined and smoothed in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. In vitro experiments were performed to assess the system performance using mandibles with teeth (dentate) or without (nondentate). The system was able to reconstruct 3D images for the mandible's outer surface with superior spatial resolution down to 24 μm, and to perform the whole scanning in < 30 s. Major anatomical landmarks on the images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles. All the anatomical landmarks were detected and fully described as 3D images using this novel ultrasound imaging technique, whereas the 2D X-ray radiographic images suffered from poor contrast. These results indicate the great potential of utilizing high-resolution ultrasound as a noninvasive, nonionizing imaging technique for the early diagnosis of the more severe form of periodontal disease.

  1. A comparative analysis of 2D and 3D CAD for calcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Conant, Emily F.

    2015-03-01

    Many medical centers offer digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and 2D digital mammography acquired under the same compression (i.e., "Combo" examination) for screening. This paper compares a conventional 2D CAD algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® CAD v9.4) for calcification detection against a prototype 3D algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® 3D Calc CAD v1.0). Due to the newness of DBT, the development of this 3D CAD algorithm is ongoing, and it is currently not FDA-approved in the United States. For this study, DBT screening cases with suspicious calcifications were identified retrospectively at the University of Pennsylvania. An expert radiologist (E.F.C.) reviewed images with both 2D and DBT CAD marks, and compared the marks to biopsy results. Control cases with one-year negative follow-up were also studied; these cases either possess clearly benign calcifications or lacked calcifications. To allow the user to alter the sensitivity for cancer detection, an operating point is assigned to each CAD mark. As expected from conventional 2D CAD, increasing the operating point in 3D CAD increases sensitivity and reduces specificity. Additionally, we showed that some cancers are occult to 2D CAD at all operating points. By contrast, 3D CAD allows for detection of some cancers that are missed on 2D CAD. We also demonstrated that some non-cancerous CAD marks in 3D are not present at analogous locations in the 2D image. Hence, there are additional marks when using both 2D and 3D CAD in combination, leading to lower specificity than with conventional 2D CAD alone.

  2. New fabrication techniques for ring-array transducers for real-time 3D intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Light, Edward D; Lieu, Victor; Smith, Stephen W

    2009-10-01

    We have previously described miniature 2D array transducers integrated into a Cook Medical, Inc. vena cava filter deployment device. While functional, the fabrication technique was very labor intensive and did not lend itself well to efficient fabrication of large numbers of devices. We developed two new fabrication methods that we believe can be used to efficiently manufacture these types of devices in greater than prototype numbers. One transducer consisted of 55 elements operating near 5 MHz. The interelement spacing is 0.20 mm. It was constructed on a flat piece of copper-clad polyimide and then wrapped around an 11 French catheter of a Cook Medical, Inc. inferior vena cava (IVC) filter deployment device. We used a braided wiring technology from Tyco Electronics Corp. to connect the elements to our real-time 3D ultrasound scanner. Typical measured transducer element bandwidth was 20% centered at 4.7 MHz and the 50 Omega round trip insertion loss was --82 dB. The mean of the nearest neighbor cross talk was -37.0 dB. The second method consisted of a 46-cm long single layer flex circuit from MicroConnex that terminates in an interconnect that plugs directly into our system cable. This transducer had 70 elements at 0.157 mm interelement spacing operating at 4.8 MHz. Typical measured transducer element bandwidth was 29% and the 50 Omega round trip insertion loss was -83 dB. The mean of the nearest neighbor cross talk was -33.0 dB. PMID:20458877

  3. Critical assessment of intramodality 3D ultrasound imaging for prostate IGRT compared to fiducial markers

    SciTech Connect

    Meer, Skadi van der; Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther; Hermans, Jolanda; Voncken, Robert; Heuvelmans, Denys; Gubbels, Carol; Fontanarosa, Davide; Visser, Peter; Lutgens, Ludy; Gils, Francis van; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: A quantitative 3D intramodality ultrasound (US) imaging system was verified for daily in-room prostate localization, and compared to prostate localization based on implanted fiducial markers (FMs).Methods: Thirteen prostate patients underwent multiple US scans during treatment. A total of 376 US-scans and 817 matches were used to determine the intra- and interoperator variability. Additionally, eight other patients underwent daily prostate localization using both US and electronic portal imaging (EPI) with FMs resulting in 244 combined US-EPI scans. Scanning was performed with minimal probe pressure and a correction for the speed of sound aberration was performed. Uncertainties of both US and FM methods were assessed. User variability of the US method was assessed.Results: The overall US user variability is 2.6 mm. The mean differences between US and FM are: 2.5 {+-} 4.0 mm (LR), 0.6 {+-} 4.9 mm (SI), and -2.3 {+-} 3.6 mm (AP). The intramodality character of this US system mitigates potential errors due to transducer pressure and speed of sound aberrations.Conclusions: The overall accuracy of US (3.0 mm) is comparable to our FM workflow (2.2 mm). Since neither US nor FM can be considered a gold standard no conclusions can be drawn on the superiority of either method. Because US imaging captures the prostate itself instead of surrogates no invasive procedure is required. It requires more effort to standardize US imaging than FM detection. Since US imaging does not involve a radiation burden, US prostate imaging offers an alternative for FM EPI positioning.

  4. 3D perfused brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy and imaging: design, construction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José M; Jarosz, Boguslaw J

    2015-03-01

    Thermal therapy has emerged as an independent modality of treating some tumors. In many clinics the hyperthermia, one of the thermal therapy modalities, has been used adjuvant to radio- or chemotherapy to substantially improve the clinical treatment outcomes. In this work, a methodology for building a realistic brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound low dose-rate thermal therapy of the brain is proposed. A 3D brain phantom made of the tissue mimicking material (TMM) had the acoustic and thermal properties in the 20-32 °C range, which is similar to that of a brain at 37 °C. The phantom had 10-11% by mass of bovine gelatin powder dissolved in ethylene glycol. The TMM sonicated at 1 MHz, 1.6 MHz and 2.5 MHz yielded the amplitude attenuation coefficients of 62  ±  1 dB m(-1), 115  ±  4 dB m(-1) and 175  ±  9 dB m(-1), respectively. The density and acoustic speed determination at room temperature (~24 °C) gave 1040  ±  40 kg m(-3) and 1545  ±  44 m s(-1), respectively. The average thermal conductivity was 0.532 W m(-1) K(-1). The T1 and T2 values of the TMM were 207  ±  4 and 36.2  ±  0.4 ms, respectively. We envisage the use of our phantom for treatment planning and for quality assurance in MRI based temperature determination. Our phantom preparation methodology may be readily extended to other thermal therapy technologies.

  5. 3D perfused brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound thermal therapy and imaging: design, construction and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, José M.; Jarosz, Boguslaw J.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal therapy has emerged as an independent modality of treating some tumors. In many clinics the hyperthermia, one of the thermal therapy modalities, has been used adjuvant to radio- or chemotherapy to substantially improve the clinical treatment outcomes. In this work, a methodology for building a realistic brain phantom for interstitial ultrasound low dose-rate thermal therapy of the brain is proposed. A 3D brain phantom made of the tissue mimicking material (TMM) had the acoustic and thermal properties in the 20-32 °C range, which is similar to that of a brain at 37 °C. The phantom had 10-11% by mass of bovine gelatin powder dissolved in ethylene glycol. The TMM sonicated at 1 MHz, 1.6 MHz and 2.5 MHz yielded the amplitude attenuation coefficients of 62  ±  1 dB m-1, 115  ±  4 dB m-1 and 175  ±  9 dB m-1, respectively. The density and acoustic speed determination at room temperature (~24 °C) gave 1040  ±  40 kg m-3 and 1545  ±  44 m s-1, respectively. The average thermal conductivity was 0.532 W m-1 K-1. The T1 and T2 values of the TMM were 207  ±  4 and 36.2  ±  0.4 ms, respectively. We envisage the use of our phantom for treatment planning and for quality assurance in MRI based temperature determination. Our phantom preparation methodology may be readily extended to other thermal therapy technologies.

  6. The simulation of 3D microcalcification clusters in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, Eman; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Zanca, Federica; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jurgen; Young, Kenneth C.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D models of microcalcification clusters and describes the validation of their realistic appearance when simulated into 2D digital mammograms and into breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: A micro-CT unit was used to scan 23 breast biopsy specimens of microcalcification clusters with malignant and benign characteristics and their 3D reconstructed datasets were segmented to obtain 3D models of microcalcification clusters. These models were then adjusted for the x-ray spectrum used and for the system resolution and simulated into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. Six radiologists were asked to distinguish between 40 real and 40 simulated clusters of microcalcifications in two separate studies on 2D mammography and tomosynthesis datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to test the ability of each observer to distinguish between simulated and real microcalcification clusters. The kappa statistic was applied to assess how often the individual simulated and real microcalcification clusters had received similar scores (''agreement'') on their realistic appearance in both modalities. This analysis was performed for all readers and for the real and the simulated group of microcalcification clusters separately. ''Poor'' agreement would reflect radiologists' confusion between simulated and real clusters, i.e., lesions not systematically evaluated in both modalities as either simulated or real, and would therefore be interpreted as a success of the present models. Results: The area under the ROC curve, averaged over the observers, was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [0.44, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.46 (95% confidence interval [0.29, 0.64]) for the tomosynthesis study, indicating no statistically significant difference between real and simulated

  7. GPU accelerated registration of a statistical shape model of the lumbar spine to 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaghi, Siavash; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Gong, Ren Hui; Chen, Elvis; Gill, Sean; Boisvert, Jonathan; Pichora, David; Borschneck, Dan; Fichtinger, Gabor; Mousavi, Parvin

    2011-03-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a statistical shape model registration to 3D ultrasound images of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4). Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy optimization technique, along with Linear Correlation of Linear Combination similarity metric have been used, to improve the robustness and capture range of the registration approach. Instantiation and ultrasound simulation have been implemented on a graphics processing unit for a faster registration. Phantom studies show a mean target registration error of 3.2 mm, while 80% of all the cases yield target registration error of below 3.5 mm.

  8. Investigation and optimization of a finite element simulation of transducer array systems for 3D ultrasound computer tomography with respect to electrical impedance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, B.; Pirinen, J.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2012-03-01

    The established standard screening method to detect breast cancer is X-ray mammography. However X-ray mammography often has low contrast for tumors located within glandular tissue. A new approach is 3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), which is expected to detect small tumors at an early stage. This paper describes the development, improvement and the results of Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations of the Transducer Array System (TAS) used in our 3D USCT. The focus of this work is on researching the influence of meshing and material parameters on the electrical impedance curves. Thereafter, these findings are used to optimize the simulation model. The quality of the simulation was evaluated by comparing simulated impedance characteristics with measured data of the real TAS. The resulting FEM simulation model is a powerful tool to analyze and optimize transducer array systems applied for USCT. With this simulation model, the behavior of TAS for different geometry modifications was researched. It provides a means to understand the acoustical performances inside of any ultrasound transducer represented by its electrical impedance characteristic.

  9. Novel Ultrasound Sensor and Reconstruction Algorithm for Breast Cancer Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Ashby, A E; Ciarlo, D R; Thomas, G H

    2002-09-09

    Mammography is currently used for screening women over the age of 40 for breast cancer. It has not been used routinely on younger women because their breast composition is mostly glandular, or radiodense, meaning there is an increased radiation exposure risk as well as a high likelihood of poor image quality. For these younger women, it is calculated that the radiation exposure risk is higher than the potential benefit from the screening. It is anticipated that transmission ultrasound will enable screening of much younger women and complement mamographic screening in women over 40. Ultrasonic transmission tomography holds out the hope of being a discriminating tool for breast cancer screening that is safe, comfortable, and inexpensive. From its inception, however, this imaging modality has been plagued by the problem of how to quickly and inexpensively obtain the data necessary for the tomographic reconstruction. The objectives of this project were: to adapt a new kind of sensor to data acquisition for ultrasonic transmission tomography of the breast, to collect phantom data, to devise new reconstruction algorithms to use that data, and to recommend improved methods for displaying the reconstructions. The ultrasound sensor images an acoustic pressure wave over an entire surface by converting sound pressure into an optical modulation. At the beginning of this project the sensor imaged an area of approximately 7mm by 7mm and was very fragile. During the first year of this research we improved the production and assembly process of the sensors so they now last indefinitely. Our goal for the second year was to enlarge the sensor aperture. Due to unavailability of high quality materials, we were not able to enlarge our original design. We created a phantom of materials similar to those used in manufacturing breast phantoms. We used the sensors to collect data from this phantom. We used both established (diffraction tomography) and new (paraxial adjoint method tomography

  10. SU-E-T-393: Investigation of Hot Spots in Tomotherapy 3D Conformal Breast Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q; Siebers, J; Khandelwal, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the root-cause of hotspots inherent to Tomotherapy static beam 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for breast treatment. ASTRO (ref here) recommends that IMRT be avoided for breast treatments. Despite Tomotherapy's inherent IMRT-like optimization and delivery, our experience at a Tomotherapy-only site has been that Tomotherapy 3DCRT fail to produce a clinically acceptable plan for 79% of our breast patients. Hot-spots have been one of the major obstacles. Methods: Eight lumpectomy patients were planned according to RTOG-1005 specification. Two or four tangential beams were used for 3DCRT breast planning. To spare the contralateral breast and ipsilateral lung, part of the PTV was not covered by the primary beam, yielding adjacent hot-spots. We hypothesize that the planning system creates hotspots adjacent to the cold spots to yield scatter radiation dose compensation in the blocked region. Various phantom and patient setup were used to test the hypothesis. Results: Hot spots outside of PTV in the range of 135% - 174% were observed for patient plan. It is confirmed that the PTV partial block causes the adjacent hot spot. The root cause is the optimizer quadratic objective function over- weighs improving the cold spot. The IMRT flexibility offered by Tomotherapy is counter-productive in static-beam 3DCRT breast treatment. For phantom case, as the Modulation-Factor increases from 1.1 to 5, the hot spot increases from 110% to 300%. Limiting the 3DCRT intensity modulation is shown to produce clinically acceptable plan. Conclusion: Most of the hot spots in Tomotherapy 3DCRT breast plan originate from the planning-system optimizer attempting to cover PTV cold spots rather than from the beam energy. Altering the objective function could improve clinical acceptability of static beam Tomotherapy 3DCRT.

  11. Low intensity pulse ultrasound stimulate chondrocytes growth in a 3-D alginate scaffold through improved porosity and permeability.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gepu; Lu, Lu; Ji, Hongfei; Ma, Yong; Dong, Rui; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Junru; Zhang, Dong

    2015-04-01

    A 3-D scaffold culture system has been used to promote in producing functional chondrocytes for repairing damaged cartilage. In the present study, the low intensity pulse ultrasound (LIPUS) (P(-)=0, 0.055, 0.085 and 0.11 MPa) was applied to improve the porosity and permeability of a 3-D alginate scaffold which was beneficial for the nutrition supply and metabolism during cell growth in 3-D alginate scaffold. The porosity and permeability of the scaffold was quantitatively analyzed based on scanning electron microscopy examination and fluorescence image observation. The results suggest that, for the scaffold exposed to LIPUS, its porosity and permeability could be significantly enhanced by the increasing LIPUS amplitude, which might be induced by the microstreaming shear stress generated by ultrasound-driven microbubble oscillations. Furthermore, the assessments of cell proliferation and collagen II expression confirmed that chondrocytes growth could be effectively promoted in 3-D alginate scaffolds treated by LIPUS, because of the improved scaffold porosity and permeability might benefit cell growth space and nutrition supply. It should also be noticed that appropriate LIPUS driving parameters should be adapted to achieve optimized chondrocytes culture effect in 3-D alginate scaffold. PMID:25543661

  12. Low intensity pulse ultrasound stimulate chondrocytes growth in a 3-D alginate scaffold through improved porosity and permeability.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gepu; Lu, Lu; Ji, Hongfei; Ma, Yong; Dong, Rui; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Junru; Zhang, Dong

    2015-04-01

    A 3-D scaffold culture system has been used to promote in producing functional chondrocytes for repairing damaged cartilage. In the present study, the low intensity pulse ultrasound (LIPUS) (P(-)=0, 0.055, 0.085 and 0.11 MPa) was applied to improve the porosity and permeability of a 3-D alginate scaffold which was beneficial for the nutrition supply and metabolism during cell growth in 3-D alginate scaffold. The porosity and permeability of the scaffold was quantitatively analyzed based on scanning electron microscopy examination and fluorescence image observation. The results suggest that, for the scaffold exposed to LIPUS, its porosity and permeability could be significantly enhanced by the increasing LIPUS amplitude, which might be induced by the microstreaming shear stress generated by ultrasound-driven microbubble oscillations. Furthermore, the assessments of cell proliferation and collagen II expression confirmed that chondrocytes growth could be effectively promoted in 3-D alginate scaffolds treated by LIPUS, because of the improved scaffold porosity and permeability might benefit cell growth space and nutrition supply. It should also be noticed that appropriate LIPUS driving parameters should be adapted to achieve optimized chondrocytes culture effect in 3-D alginate scaffold.

  13. Detection of breast microcalcifications using synthetic-aperture ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Lin, Youzuo; Zhang, Zhigang; Pohl, Jennifer; Sandoval, Daniel; Williamson, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Ultrasound could be an attractive imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications, but it requires significant improvement in image resolution and quality. Recently, we have used tissue-equivalent phantoms to demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound has the potential to detect small targets. In this paper, we study the in vivo imaging capability of a real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system for detecting breast microcalcifications. This LANL's (Los Alamos National Laboratory's) custom built synthetic-aperture ultrasound system has a maximum frame rate of 25 Hz, and is one of the very first medical devices capable of acquiring synthetic-aperture ultrasound data and forming ultrasound images in real time, making the synthetic-aperture ultrasound feasible for clinical applications. We recruit patients whose screening mammograms show breast microcalcifications, and use LANL's synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to scan the regions with microcalcifications. Our preliminary in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that synthetic-aperture ultrasound is a promising imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications.

  14. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis: A 3D approach

    PubMed Central

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Lu, Yao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To design a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volumes and to perform a preliminary evaluation of the CADe system. Methods: IRB approval and informed consent were obtained in this study. A data set of two-view DBT of 72 breasts containing microcalcification clusters was collected from 72 subjects who were scheduled to undergo breast biopsy. Based on tissue sampling results, 17 cases had breast cancer and 55 were benign. A separate data set of two-view DBT of 38 breasts free of clustered microcalcifications from 38 subjects was collected to independently estimate the number of false-positives (FPs) generated by the CADe system. A radiologist experienced in breast imaging marked the biopsied cluster of microcalcifications with a 3D bounding box using all available clinical and imaging information. A CADe system was designed to detect microcalcification clusters in the reconstructed volume. The system consisted of prescreening, clustering, and false-positive reduction stages. In the prescreening stage, the conspicuity of microcalcification-like objects was increased by an enhancement-modulated 3D calcification response function. An iterative thresholding and 3D object growing method was used to detect cluster seed objects, which were used as potential centers of microcalcification clusters. In the cluster detection stage, microcalcification candidates were identified using a second iterative thresholding procedure, which was applied to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhanced image voxels with a positive calcification response. Starting with each cluster seed object as the initial cluster center, a dynamic clustering algorithm formed a cluster candidate by including microcalcification candidates within a 3D neighborhood of the cluster seed object that satisfied the clustering criteria. The number, size, and SNR of the microcalcifications in a cluster candidate and the

  15. FINAL INTERIM REPORT, CANDIDATE SITES, MACHINES IN USE, DATA STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION METHODS: TESTING FEASIBILITY OF 3D ULTRASOUND DATA ACQUISITION AND RELIABILITY OF DATA RETRIEVAL FROM STORED 3D IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Work Assignment, 02-03, is to examine the feasibility of collecting transmitting, and analyzing 3-D ultrasound data in the context of a multi-center study of pregnant women. The study will also examine the reliability of measurements obtained from 3-D images< ...

  16. Theoretical Analysis of the Accuracy and Safety of MRI-Guided Transurethral 3-D Conformal Ultrasound Prostate Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy is a promising new approach for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of producing large regions of thermal coagulation adequate for prostate therapy; however, the quantitative assessment of shaping these regions to complex 3-D human prostate geometries has not been fully explored. This study used numerical simulations and twenty manually-segmented pelvic anatomical models derived from high-quality MR images of prostate cancer patients to evaluate the treatment accuracy and safety of 3-D conformal MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy. The simulations incorporated a rotating multi-element planar dual-frequency ultrasound transducer (seventeen 4×3 mm elements) operating at 4.7/9.7 MHz and 10 W/cm2 maximum acoustic power. Results using a novel feedback control algorithm which modulated the ultrasound frequency, power and device rate of rotation showed that regions of thermal coagulation could be shaped to predefined prostate volumes within 1.0 mm across the vast majority of these glands. Treatment times were typically 30 min and remained below 60 min for large 60 cc prostates. With a rectal cooling temperature of 15° C, the rectal wall did not exceed 30EM43 in half of the twenty patient models with only a few 1 mm3 voxels above this threshold in the other cases. At 4.7 MHz, heating of the pelvic bone can become significant when it is located less than 10 mm from the prostate. Numerical simulations show that MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy can thermally coagulate whole prostate glands accurately and safely in 3-D.

  17. The simulation of 3D mass models in 2D digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, Eman De Keyzer, Frederik; Bosmans, Hilde; Ongeval, Chantal Van; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: This work proposes a new method of building 3D breast mass models with different morphological shapes and describes the validation of the realism of their appearance after simulation into 2D digital mammograms and breast tomosynthesis images. Methods: Twenty-five contrast enhanced MRI breast lesions were collected and each mass was manually segmented in the three orthogonal views: sagittal, coronal, and transversal. The segmented models were combined, resampled to have isotropic voxel sizes, triangularly meshed, and scaled to different sizes. These masses were referred to as nonspiculated masses and were then used as nuclei onto which spicules were grown with an iterative branching algorithm forming a total of 30 spiculated masses. These 55 mass models were projected into 2D projection images to obtain mammograms after image processing and into tomographic sequences of projection images, which were then reconstructed to form 3D tomosynthesis datasets. The realism of the appearance of these mass models was assessed by five radiologists via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis when compared to 54 real masses. All lesions were also given a breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) score. The data sets of 2D mammography and tomosynthesis were read separately. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used for the interrater observer agreement assessment for the BIRADS scores per modality. Further paired analysis, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, of the BIRADS assessment between 2D and tomosynthesis was separately performed for the real masses and for the simulated masses. Results: The area under the ROC curves, averaged over all observers, was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [0.50, 0.66]) for the 2D study, and 0.67 (95% confidence interval [0.55, 0.79]) for the tomosynthesis study. According to the BIRADS scores, the nonspiculated and the spiculated masses varied in their degrees of malignancy from normal (BIRADS 1) to highly

  18. Register cardiac fiber orientations from 3D DTI volume to 2D ultrasound image of rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound or echocardiography is one of the most widely used examinations for the diagnosis of cardiac diseases. However, it only supplies the geometric and structural information of the myocardium. In order to supply more detailed microstructure information of the myocardium, this paper proposes a registration method to map cardiac fiber orientations from three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) volume to the 2D ultrasound image. It utilizes a 2D/3D intensity based registration procedure including rigid, log-demons, and affine transformations to search the best similar slice from the template volume. After registration, the cardiac fiber orientations are mapped to the 2D ultrasound image via fiber relocations and reorientations. This method was validated by six images of rat hearts ex vivo. The evaluation results indicated that the final Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) achieved more than 90% after geometric registrations; and the inclination angle errors (IAE) between the mapped fiber orientations and the gold standards were less than 15 degree. This method may provide a practical tool for cardiologists to examine cardiac fiber orientations on ultrasound images and have the potential to supply additional information for diagnosis of cardiac diseases. PMID:26855466

  19. Register cardiac fiber orientations from 3D DTI volume to 2D ultrasound image of rat hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound or echocardiography is one of the most widely used examinations for the diagnosis of cardiac diseases. However, it only supplies the geometric and structural information of the myocardium. In order to supply more detailed microstructure information of the myocardium, this paper proposes a registration method to map cardiac fiber orientations from three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) volume to the 2D ultrasound image. It utilizes a 2D/3D intensity based registration procedure including rigid, log-demons, and affine transformations to search the best similar slice from the template volume. After registration, the cardiac fiber orientations are mapped to the 2D ultrasound image via fiber relocations and reorientations. This method was validated by six images of rat hearts ex vivo. The evaluation results indicated that the final Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) achieved more than 90% after geometric registrations; and the inclination angle errors (IAE) between the mapped fiber orientations and the gold standards were less than 15 degree. This method may provide a practical tool for cardiologists to examine cardiac fiber orientations on ultrasound images and have the potential to supply additional information for diagnosis of cardiac diseases.

  20. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Lang, Julie E; Sener, Stephen F; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E; Kirk Shung, K

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  1. Investigation of a scanned cylindrical ultrasound system for breast hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Tseng, Li-Te; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Lin, Win-Li

    2006-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of a scanned cylindrical ultrasound system for producing uniform heating from the central to the superficial portions of the breast or localized heating within the breast at a specific location. The proposed system consists of plane ultrasound transducer(s) mounted on a scanned cylindrical support. The breast was immersed in water and surrounded by this system during the treatment. The control parameters considered are the size of the transducer, the ultrasound frequency, the scan angle and the shifting distance between the axes of the breast and the system. Three-dimensional acoustical and thermal models were used to calculate the temperature distribution. Non-perfused phantom experiments were performed to verify the simulation results. Simulation results indicate that high frequency ultrasound could be used for the superficial heating, and the scan angle of the transducer could be varied to obtain an appropriate high temperature region to cover the desired treatment region. Low frequency ultrasound could be used for deep heating and the high temperature region could be moved by shifting the system. In addition, a combination of low and high frequency ultrasound could result in a portion treatment from the central to the superficial breast or an entire breast treatment. Good agreement was obtained between non-perfused experiments and simulation results. The findings of this study can be used to determine the effects of the control parameters of this system, as well as to select the optimal parameters for a specific treatment.

  2. A novel breast ultrasound system for providing coronal images: system development and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-wei; Li, Cheng; Li, An-hua; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Breast ultrasound images along coronal plane contain important diagnosis information. However, conventional clinical 2D ultrasound cannot provide such images. In order to solve this problem, we developed a novel ultrasound system aimed at providing breast coronal images. In this system, a spatial sensor was fixed on an ultrasound probe to obtain the image spatial data. A narrow-band rendering method was used to form coronal images based on B-mode images and their corresponding spatial data. Software was developed for data acquisition, processing, rendering and visualization. In phantom experiments, 20 inclusions with different size (5-20 mm) were measured using this new system. The results obtained by the new method well correlated with those measured by a micrometer (y=1.0147x, R(2)=0.9927). The phantom tests also showed that this system had excellent intra- and inter-operator repeatability (ICC>0.995). Three subjects with breast lesions were scanned in vivo using this new system and a commercially available three-dimensional (3D) probe. The average scanning times for the two systems were 64 s and 74 s, respectively. The results revealed that this new method required shorter scanning time. The tumor sizes measured on the coronal plane provided by the new method were smaller by 5.6-11.9% in comparison with the results of the 3D probe. The phantom tests and preliminary subject tests indicated the feasibility of this system for clinical applications by providing additional information for clinical breast ultrasound diagnosis.

  3. A 3D Freehand Ultrasound System for Multi-view Reconstructions from Sparse 2D Scanning Planes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. Methods We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is based on a 3D freehand ultrasound system that allows users to control the 2D acquisition imaging using conventional 2D probes. For reliable performance, we develop new methods for image segmentation and robust multi-view registration. We first present a new hybrid geometric level-set approach that provides reliable segmentation performance with relatively simple initializations and minimum edge leakage. Optimization of the segmentation model parameters and its effect on performance is carefully discussed. Second, using the segmented images, a new coarse to fine automatic multi-view registration method is introduced. The approach uses a 3D Hotelling transform to initialize an optimization search. Then, the fine scale feature-based registration is performed using a robust, non-linear least squares algorithm. The robustness of the multi-view registration system allows for accurate 3D reconstructions from sparse 2D image planes. Results Volume measurements from multi-view 3D reconstructions are found to be consistently and significantly more accurate than measurements from single view reconstructions. The volume error of multi-view reconstruction is measured to be less than 5% of the true volume. We show that volume reconstruction accuracy is a function of the total number of 2D image planes and the number of views for calibrated phantom. In clinical in-vivo cardiac experiments, we show that volume estimates of the left ventricle from multi-view reconstructions are found to be in better

  4. Image fusion of Ultrasound Computer Tomography volumes with X-ray mammograms using a biomechanical model based 2D/3D registration.

    PubMed

    Hopp, T; Duric, N; Ruiter, N V

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is a promising breast imaging modality under development. Comparison to a standard method like mammography is essential for further development. Due to significant differences in image dimensionality and compression state of the breast, correlating USCT images and X-ray mammograms is challenging. In this paper we present a 2D/3D registration method to improve the spatial correspondence and allow direct comparison of the images. It is based on biomechanical modeling of the breast and simulation of the mammographic compression. We investigate the effect of including patient-specific material parameters estimated automatically from USCT images. The method was systematically evaluated using numerical phantoms and in-vivo data. The average registration accuracy using the automated registration was 11.9mm. Based on the registered images a method for analysis of the diagnostic value of the USCT images was developed and initially applied to analyze sound speed and attenuation images based on X-ray mammograms as ground truth. Combining sound speed and attenuation allows differentiating lesions from surrounding tissue. Overlaying this information on mammograms, combines quantitative and morphological information for multimodal diagnosis. PMID:25456144

  5. Characterization of controlled bone defects using 2D and 3D ultrasound imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Biren J; Longsine, Whitney; Sabonghy, Eric P; Han, Arum; Tasciotti, Ennio; Weiner, Bradley K; Ferrari, Mauro; Righetti, Raffaella

    2010-08-21

    Ultrasound is emerging as an attractive alternative modality to standard x-ray and CT methods for bone assessment applications. As of today, however, there is a lack of systematic studies that investigate the performance of diagnostic ultrasound techniques in bone imaging applications. This study aims at understanding the performance limitations of new ultrasound techniques for imaging bones in controlled experiments in vitro. Experiments are performed on samples of mammalian and non-mammalian bones with controlled defects with size ranging from 400 microm to 5 mm. Ultrasound findings are statistically compared with those obtained from the same samples using standard x-ray imaging modalities and optical microscopy. The results of this study demonstrate that it is feasible to use diagnostic ultrasound imaging techniques to assess sub-millimeter bone defects in real time and with high accuracy and precision. These results also demonstrate that ultrasound imaging techniques perform comparably better than x-ray imaging and optical imaging methods, in the assessment of a wide range of controlled defects both in mammalian and non-mammalian bones. In the future, ultrasound imaging techniques might provide a cost-effective, real-time, safe and portable diagnostic tool for bone imaging applications.

  6. Conceptual detector development and Monte Carlo simulation of a novel 3D breast computed tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegle, Jens; Müller, Bernhard H.; Neumann, Bernd; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    A new 3D breast computed tomography (CT) system is under development enabling imaging of microcalcifications in a fully uncompressed breast including posterior chest wall tissue. The system setup uses a steered electron beam impinging on small tungsten targets surrounding the breast to emit X-rays. A realization of the corresponding detector concept is presented in this work and it is modeled through Monte Carlo simulations in order to quantify first characteristics of transmission and secondary photons. The modeled system comprises a vertical alignment of linear detectors hold by a case that also hosts the breast. Detectors are separated by gaps to allow the passage of X-rays towards the breast volume. The detectors located directly on the opposite side of the gaps detect incident X-rays. Mechanically moving parts in an imaging system increase the duration of image acquisition and thus can cause motion artifacts. So, a major advantage of the presented system design is the combination of the fixed detectors and the fast steering electron beam which enable a greatly reduced scan time. Thereby potential motion artifacts are reduced so that the visualization of small structures such as microcalcifications is improved. The result of the simulation of a single projection shows high attenuation by parts of the detector electronics causing low count levels at the opposing detectors which would require a flat field correction, but it also shows a secondary to transmission ratio of all counted X-rays of less than 1 percent. Additionally, a single slice with details of various sizes was reconstructed using filtered backprojection. The smallest detail which was still visible in the reconstructed image has a size of 0.2mm.

  7. Digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening: A pictorial review of screen-detected cancers and false recalls attributed to tomosynthesis in prospective screening trials.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lång, Kristina; Bernardi, Daniela; Tagliafico, Alberto; Zackrisson, Sophia; Skaane, Per

    2016-04-01

    This pictorial review highlights cancers detected only at tomosynthesis screening and screens falsely recalled in the course of breast tomosynthesis screening, illustrating both true-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) detection attributed to tomosynthesis. Images and descriptive data were used to characterise cases of screen-detection with tomosynthesis, sourced from prospective screening trials that performed standard (2D) digital mammography (DM) and tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) in the same screening participants. Exemplar cases from four trials highlight common themes of relevance to screening practice including: the type of lesions frequently made more conspicuous or perceptible by tomosynthesis (spiculated masses, and architectural distortions); the histologic findings (both TP and FP) of tomosynthesis-only detection; and the need to extend breast work-up protocols (additional imaging including ultrasound and MRI, and tomosynthesis-guided biopsy) if tomosynthesis is adopted for primary screening. PMID:27017251

  8. Image stitching for three-pass whole breast ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Chen, Chii-Jen; Takada, Etsuo; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2006-03-01

    Early detection through screening is the best defense against morbidity and mortality from breast cancers. Mammography is the most used screening tool for detecting early breast cancer because it can easily obtain the view of whole breast. However, because the ultrasound images are cross-sectional images, not projection images like mammography, and the ultrasound probe does not fully cover the breast width, it is not a convenient screening tool when adjunct with screening mammography. The physician needs a lot of examination time to perform the breast screening. Recently, some whole breast ultrasound scanning machines are developed. The examination could be performed by an experienced technician. Because the probe width still does not fully cover the breast width, several scanning passes are required to obtain the whole breast image. The physician still cannot have a full view of breast. In this paper, an image stitching technique is proposed to stitch multi-pass images into a full-view image. The produced full-view image can reveal the breast anatomy and assists physicians to reduce extra manual adjustment.

  9. Malignant hyperechoic breast lesions at ultrasound: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Tiang, Stephen; Metcalf, Cecily; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Malignant breast lesions are typically hypoechoic at sonography. However, a small subgroup of hyperechoic malignant breast lesions is encountered in clinical practice. We present a pictorial essay of a number of different hyperechoic breast malignancies with mammographic, sonographic and histopathologic correlation. Suspicious sonographic features in a hyperechoic lesion include inhomogeneity in echogenic pattern, an irregular margin, posterior acoustic shadowing and internal vascularity. A hyperechoic lesion at ultrasound does not discount the need to undertake histological assessment of a mammographically suspicious lesion.

  10. Simultaneous bilateral real-time 3-d transcranial ultrasound imaging at 1 MHz through poor acoustic windows.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Brooks D; Nicoletto, Heather A; Bennett, Ellen R; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Smith, Stephen W

    2013-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been proposed as a rapid, portable alternative imaging modality to examine stroke patients in pre-hospital or emergency room settings. However, in performing transcranial ultrasound examinations, 8%-29% of patients in a general population may present with window failure, in which case it is not possible to acquire clinically useful sonographic information through the temporal bone acoustic window. In this work, we describe the technical considerations, design and fabrication of low-frequency (1.2 MHz), large aperture (25.3 mm) sparse matrix array transducers for 3-D imaging in the event of window failure. These transducers are integrated into a system for real-time 3-D bilateral transcranial imaging-the ultrasound brain helmet-and color flow imaging capabilities at 1.2 MHz are directly compared with arrays operating at 1.8 MHz in a flow phantom with attenuation comparable to the in vivo case. Contrast-enhanced imaging allowed visualization of arteries of the Circle of Willis in 5 of 5 subjects and 8 of 10 sides of the head despite probe placement outside of the acoustic window. Results suggest that this type of transducer may allow acquisition of useful images either in individuals with poor windows or outside of the temporal acoustic window in the field.

  11. Advanced laser system for 3D optoacoustic tomography of the breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosner, Marc; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Heller, Donald F.; Su, Richard; Ermilov, Sergey; Brecht, Hans Peter; Ivanov, Vassili; Talole, Pratik; Lou, Yang; Anastasio, Mark; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    We describe the ongoing development and performance of a high-pulse-energy wavelength-cycling laser system for three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography of the breast. Joule-level energies are desired for achieving the required penetration depths while maintaining safe fluence levels. Wavelength cycling provides a pulse sequence which repeatedly alternates between two wavelengths (approximately 756 and 797 nm) that provide differential imaging. This improves co-registration of captured differential images and quantification of blood oxygen saturation. New design features have been developed for and incorporated into a clinical prototype laser system, to improve efficacy and ease of use in the clinic. We describe the benefits of these features for operation with a clinical pilot optoacoustic / ultrasound dual-modality three-dimensional imaging system.

  12. Development of a 3D patient-specific planning platform for interstitial and transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Punit; Diederich, Chris J.

    2010-03-01

    Interstitial and transurethral catheter-based ultrasound devices are under development for treatment of prostate cancer and BPH, uterine fibroids, liver tumors and other soft tissue disease. Accurate 3D thermal modeling is essential for designing site-specific applicators, exploring treatment delivery strategies, and integration of patient-specific treatment planning of thermal ablations. We are developing a comprehensive 3D modeling and treatment planning platform for ultrasound ablation of tissue using catheter-based applicators. We explored the applicability of assessing thermal effects in tissue using critical temperature, thermal dose and Arrhenius thermal damage thresholds and performed a comparative analysis of dynamic tissue properties critical to accurate modeling. We used the model to assess the feasibility of automatic feedback control with MR thermometry, and demonstrated the utility of the modeling platform for 3D patient-specific treatment planning. We have identified critical temperature, thermal dose and thermal damage thresholds for assessing treatment endpoint. Dynamic changes in tissue attenuation/absorption and perfusion must be included for accurate prediction of temperature profiles and extents of the ablation zone. Lastly, we demonstrated use of the modeling platform for patient-specific treatment planning.

  13. Development and Implementation of a Web-Enabled 3D Consultation Tool for Breast Augmentation Surgery Based on 3D-Image Reconstruction of 2D Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jaime; Olariu, Radu; Dindoyal, Irving; Le Huu, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Background Producing a rich, personalized Web-based consultation tool for plastic surgeons and patients is challenging. Objective (1) To develop a computer tool that allows individual reconstruction and simulation of 3-dimensional (3D) soft tissue from ordinary digital photos of breasts, (2) to implement a Web-based, worldwide-accessible preoperative surgical planning platform for plastic surgeons, and (3) to validate this tool through a quality control analysis by comparing 3D laser scans of the patients with the 3D reconstructions with this tool from original 2-dimensional (2D) pictures of the same patients. Methods The proposed system uses well-established 2D digital photos for reconstruction into a 3D torso, which is then available to the user for interactive planning. The simulation is performed on dedicated servers, accessible via Internet. It allows the surgeon, together with the patient, to previsualize the impact of the proposed breast augmentation directly during the consultation before a surgery is decided upon. We retrospectively conduced a quality control assessment of available anonymized pre- and postoperative 2D digital photographs of patients undergoing breast augmentation procedures. The method presented above was used to reconstruct 3D pictures from 2D digital pictures. We used a laser scanner capable of generating a highly accurate surface model of the patient’s anatomy to acquire ground truth data. The quality of the computed 3D reconstructions was compared with the ground truth data used to perform both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Results We evaluated the system on 11 clinical cases for surface reconstructions and 4 clinical cases of postoperative simulations, using laser surface scan technologies showing a mean reconstruction error between 2 and 4 mm and a maximum outlier error of 16 mm. Qualitative and quantitative analyses from plastic surgeons demonstrate the potential of these new emerging technologies. Conclusions We

  14. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  15. The systematic and random errors determination using realtime 3D surface tracking system in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanphet, J.; Suriyapee, S.; Dumrongkijudom, N.; Sanghangthum, T.; Kumkhwao, J.; Wisetrintong, M.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study to determine the patient setup uncertainties in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiation therapy for left breast cancer patients using real-time 3D surface tracking system. The six breast cancer patients treated by 6 MV photon beams from TrueBeam linear accelerator were selected. The patient setup errors and motion during treatment were observed and calculated for interfraction and intrafraction motions. The systematic and random errors were calculated in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions. From 180 images tracking before and during treatment, the maximum systematic error of interfraction and intrafraction motions were 0.56 mm and 0.23 mm, the maximum random error of interfraction and intrafraction motions were 1.18 mm and 0.53 mm, respectively. The interfraction was more pronounce than the intrafraction, while the systematic error was less impact than random error. In conclusion the intrafraction motion error from patient setup uncertainty is about half of interfraction motion error, which is less impact due to the stability in organ movement from DIBH. The systematic reproducibility is also half of random error because of the high efficiency of modern linac machine that can reduce the systematic uncertainty effectively, while the random errors is uncontrollable.

  16. Adaptive enhancement and visualization techniques for 3D THz images of breast cancer tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuhao; Bowman, Tyler; Gauch, John; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates image enhancement and visualization techniques for pulsed terahertz (THz) images of tissue samples. Specifically, our research objective is to effectively differentiate between heterogeneous regions of breast tissues that contain tumors diagnosed as triple negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). Tissue slices and blocks of varying thicknesses were prepared and scanned using our lab's THz pulsed imaging system. One of the challenges we have encountered in visualizing the obtained images and differentiating between healthy and cancerous regions of the tissues is that most THz images have a low level of details and narrow contrast, making it difficult to accurately identify and visualize the margins around the IDC. To overcome this problem, we have applied and evaluated a number of image processing techniques to the scanned 3D THz images. In particular, we employed various spatial filtering and intensity transformation techniques to emphasize the small details in the images and adjust the image contrast. For each of these methods, we investigated how varying filter sizes and parameters affect the amount of enhancement applied to the images. Our experimentation shows that several image processing techniques are effective in producing THz images of breast tissue samples that contain distinguishable details, making further segmentation of the different image regions promising.

  17. Intraoperative Ultrasound in the Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Eggemann, H; Ignatov, T; Beni, A; Costa, S D; Ortmann, O; Ignatov, A

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the value of intraoperative ultrasound in breast-conserving operations and to compare it with standard procedures. Methods: For this purpose 307 women with palpable breast cancers and 116 patients with non-palpable breast cancers were compared retrospectively. In the group with palpable breast cancers 177 patients were treated by US-guided operations and 130 patients underwent palpation-guided breast-conserving operations. As primary outcomes, the resection margins and the rate of re-operations were evaluated. Results: With regard to disease-free resection margins, intraoperative ultrasound was significantly superior to palpation alone. In the group of patients in whom the tumours were extirpated with the help of palpation, R1 resections were observed almost twice as often (16.9 %) as in the US-guided group (8.5 %). In the group with non-palpable breast cancers, intraoperative ultrasound was employed in 61 patients. As a control, 43 cases were evaluated in whom the breast-conserving operation was performed after wire marking. In this group US-guided tumour removal proved to be superior to that after wire marking for tumours that did not exhibit any intraductal components. Otherwise the redo resection rate was reduced by use of ultrasound. Furthermore, the surgeon was able by means of intraoperative ultrasound to identify "problematic" margins and to excise them in the same sitting. Conclusions: The US-guided, breast-conserving operations led to a lower rate of R1 resections and redo operations in comparison to operations with palpation alone or those after wire marking.

  18. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p < 0.05). Comparisons between ventricle volumes from 3D US and MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  19. Tubular structure enhancement for surgical instrument detection in 3D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongliang; Dupont, Pierre E

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound has been an effective imaging modality for diagnostics and is now an emerging modality for image-guided minimally-invasive interventions since it enables visualization of both instruments and tissue. Challenges to ultrasound-guided interventions arise, however, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the imaging artifacts created by the interventional instruments. Metallic instruments, in particular, are strong scatters and so produce a variety of artifacts. For many interventions, the manual or robotic instrument is comprised of a long curved tubular structure with specialized tooling at its tip. Toward the goal of developing a surgical navigation system, this paper proposes an image processing algorithm for enhancing the tubular structure of imaged instruments while also reducing imaging artifacts. Experiments are presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach in the context of robotic instruments whose shape comprises a smooth curve along their length.

  20. Segmentation of ultrasound breast images based on a neutrosophic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Ling; Cheng, Heng-Da

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers of women. Ultrasound is often used for breast cancer diagnosis because it is harmless, portable, and low-cost. However, the segmentation of breast ultrasound (BUS) images is a difficult task due to their low contrast and speckle noise. Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities and their interactions with different ideational spectra. It is a new philosophy to extend fuzzy logic and is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability theory, neutrosophic set theory, and neutrosophic statistics. In this paper, we employ neutrosophy and develop a fully automatic algorithm for BUS image segmentation. By using neutrosophy, we integrate two conflicting opinions about speckle in ultrasound image: speckle is noise and speckle includes pattern information. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach is accurate, effective, and robust.

  1. A computational model for estimating tumor margins in complementary tactile and 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsil, Arefin; Escoto, Abelardo; Naish, Michael D.; Patel, Rajni V.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional surgical methods are effective for treating lung tumors; however, they impose high trauma and pain to patients. Minimally invasive surgery is a safer alternative as smaller incisions are required to reach the lung; however, it is challenging due to inadequate intraoperative tumor localization. To address this issue, a mechatronic palpation device was developed that incorporates tactile and ultrasound sensors capable of acquiring surface and cross-sectional images of palpated tissue. Initial work focused on tactile image segmentation and fusion of position-tracked tactile images, resulting in a reconstruction of the palpated surface to compute the spatial locations of underlying tumors. This paper presents a computational model capable of analyzing orthogonally-paired tactile and ultrasound images to compute the surface circumference and depth margins of a tumor. The framework also integrates an error compensation technique and an algebraic model to align all of the image pairs and to estimate the tumor depths within the tracked thickness of a palpated tissue. For validation, an ex vivo experimental study was conducted involving the complete palpation of 11 porcine liver tissues injected with iodine-agar tumors of varying sizes and shapes. The resulting tactile and ultrasound images were then processed using the proposed model to compute the tumor margins and compare them to fluoroscopy based physical measurements. The results show a good negative correlation (r = -0.783, p = 0.004) between the tumor surface margins and a good positive correlation (r = 0.743, p = 0.009) between the tumor depth margins.

  2. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth; Epstein, Katherine; Sandoval, Daniel; Williamson, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography has great potential to provide quantitative estimations of physical properties of breast tumors for accurate characterization of breast cancer. We design and manufacture a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays. The distance of these two transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. The ultrasound transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the entire breast slice by slice and acquires ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound imaging and tomographic reconstructions. We use the system to acquire patient data at the University of New Mexico Hospital for clinical studies. We present some preliminary imaging results of in vivo patient ultrasound data. Our preliminary clinical imaging results show promising of our breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays for breast cancer imaging and characterization.

  3. SU-E-J-135: An Investigation of Ultrasound Imaging for 3D Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, T; Harris, E; Bamber, J; Evans, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the use of a mechanically swept 3D ultrasound (US) probe to estimate intra-fraction motion of the prostate during radiation therapy using an US phantom and simulated transperineal imaging. Methods: A 3D motion platform was used to translate an US speckle phantom while simulating transperineal US imaging. Motion patterns for five representative types of prostate motion, generated from patient data previously acquired with a Calypso system, were using to move the phantom in 3D. The phantom was also implanted with fiducial markers and subsequently tracked using the CyberKnife kV x-ray system for comparison. A normalised cross correlation block matching algorithm was used to track speckle patterns in 3D and 2D US data. Motion estimation results were compared with known phantom translations. Results: Transperineal 3D US could track superior-inferior (axial) and anterior-posterior (lateral) motion to better than 0.8 mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) at a volume rate of 1.7 Hz (comparable with kV x-ray tracking RMSE). Motion estimation accuracy was poorest along the US probe's swept axis (right-left; RL; RMSE < 4.2 mm) but simple regularisation methods could be used to improve RMSE (< 2 mm). 2D US was found to be feasible for slowly varying motion (RMSE < 0.5 mm). 3D US could also allow accurate radiation beam gating with displacement thresholds of 2 mm and 5 mm exhibiting a RMSE of less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: 2D and 3D US speckle tracking is feasible for prostate motion estimation during radiation delivery. Since RL prostate motion is small in magnitude and frequency, 2D or a hybrid (2D/3D) US imaging approach which also accounts for potential prostate rotations could be used. Regularisation methods could be used to ensure the accuracy of tracking data, making US a feasible approach for gating or tracking in standard or hypo-fractionated prostate treatments.

  4. Skin-sparing Helical Tomotherapy vs 3D-conformal Radiotherapy for Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy: In Vivo Skin Dosimetry Study

    SciTech Connect

    Capelle, Lisa; Warkentin, Heather; MacKenzie, Marc; Joseph, Kurian; Gabos, Zsolt; Pervez, Nadeem; Tankel, Keith; Chafe, Susan; Amanie, John; Ghosh, Sunita; Parliament, Matthew; Abdulkarim, Bassam

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether treatment-planning system (TPS)-calculated dose accurately reflects skin dose received for patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) with standard three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or skin-sparing helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating acute skin toxicity from adjuvant breast RT with 3D-CRT compared to skin-sparing HT, where a 5-mm strip of ipsilateral breast skin was spared. Thermoluminescent dosimetry or optically stimulated luminescence measurements were made in multiple locations and were compared to TPS-calculated doses. Skin dosimetric parameters and acute skin toxicity were recorded in these patients. Results: With HT there was a significant correlation between calculated and measured dose in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.67, P<.001; r = 0.44, P=.03, respectively) and the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.73, P<.001; r = 0.88, P<.001, respectively). With 3D-CRT there was a significant correlation in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.45, P=.03; r = 0.68, P<.001, respectively); the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.62, P=.001; r = 0.86, P<.001, respectively); and the mid neck (r = 0.42, P=.04, respectively). On average, HT-calculated dose overestimated the measured dose by 14%; 3D-CRT underestimated the dose by 0.4%. There was a borderline association between highest measured skin dose and moist desquamation (P=.05). Skin-sparing HT had greater skin homogeneity (homogeneity index of 1.39 vs 1.65, respectively; P=.005) than 3D-CRT plans. HT plans had a lower skin{sub V50} (1.4% vs 5.9%, respectively; P=.001) but higher skin{sub V40} and skin{sub V30} (71.7% vs 64.0%, P=.02; and 99.0% vs 93.8%, P=.001, respectively) than 3D-CRT plans. Conclusion: The 3D-CRT TPS more accurately reflected skin dose than the HT TPS, which tended to overestimate dose received by 14% in patients

  5. Computer-generated 3D ultrasound images of the carotid artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, Robert H.; Lee, Paul L.; Lai, June Y.; Frieden, Howard J.; Blankenhorn, David H.

    1989-01-01

    A method is under development to measure carotid artery lesions from a computer-generated three-dimensional ultrasound image. For each image, the position of the transducer in six coordinates (x, y, z, azimuth, elevation, and roll) is recorded and used to position each B-mode picture element in its proper spatial position in a three-dimensional memory array. After all B-mode images have been assembled in the memory, the three-dimensional image is filtered and resampled to produce a new series of parallel-plane two-dimensional images from which arterial boundaries are determined using edge tracking methods.

  6. Computer-generated 3D ultrasound images of the carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Robert H.; Lee, Paul L.; Lai, June Y.; Frieden, Howard J.; Blankenhorn, David H.

    A method is under development to measure carotid artery lesions from a computer-generated three-dimensional ultrasound image. For each image, the position of the transducer in six coordinates (x, y, z, azimuth, elevation, and roll) is recorded and used to position each B-mode picture element in its proper spatial position in a three-dimensional memory array. After all B-mode images have been assembled in the memory, the three-dimensional image is filtered and resampled to produce a new series of parallel-plane two-dimensional images from which arterial boundaries are determined using edge tracking methods.

  7. 3D non-rigid registration using surface and local salient features for transrectal ultrasound image-guided prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma; Fei, Baowei

    2011-03-01

    We present a 3D non-rigid registration algorithm for the potential use in combining PET/CT and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for targeted prostate biopsy. Our registration is a hybrid approach that simultaneously optimizes the similarities from point-based registration and volume matching methods. The 3D registration is obtained by minimizing the distances of corresponding points at the surface and within the prostate and by maximizing the overlap ratio of the bladder neck on both images. The hybrid approach not only capture deformation at the prostate surface and internal landmarks but also the deformation at the bladder neck regions. The registration uses a soft assignment and deterministic annealing process. The correspondences are iteratively established in a fuzzy-to-deterministic approach. B-splines are used to generate a smooth non-rigid spatial transformation. In this study, we tested our registration with pre- and postbiopsy TRUS images of the same patients. Registration accuracy is evaluated using manual defined anatomic landmarks, i.e. calcification. The root-mean-squared (RMS) of the difference image between the reference and floating images was decreased by 62.6+/-9.1% after registration. The mean target registration error (TRE) was 0.88+/-0.16 mm, i.e. less than 3 voxels with a voxel size of 0.38×0.38×0.38 mm3 for all five patients. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the 3D non-rigid registration algorithm.

  8. Use of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound in the Detection of Breast Tumor Bed Displacement During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Philip; Muanza, Thierry; Reynard, Eric; Robert, Karine; Barker, Jennifer; Sultanem, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of a three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) image-guided system in identifying and tracking the tumor bed (TB) for planning and daily localization before radiation delivery for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty breast cancer patients underwent two CT scans at the time of simulation and just before their boost. Three-dimensional ultrasound images were acquired immediately after the CT scans, to which the images were automatically fused. Three-dimensional ultrasound images were also acquired immediately before treatment. Spatial and temporal TB differences between CT and US were evaluated. Results: The TB was not visible on US and CT in 1 subject who had and 1 subject who had not received chemotherapy before whole-breast radiotherapy. The mean (SD) TB volume overlap was 78% (14%). The mean centroid position of the TB on CT vs. US differed by 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mm in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. The mean (SD) absolute radial displacement of the TB on each fraction from the treatment plan was 10.8 (6.3) mm. Conclusions: The TB was well visualized by US for the majority of patients. Clinically insignificant differences in the displacements calculated by paired CT vs. paired US demonstrate the feasibility of using 3D-US. The present study suggests that a 10-mm planning target volume margin could result in undercoverage of the clinical target volumes in 50% of treatments. Multimodality planning and image-guided radiotherapy with US potentially offers an accurate and non-ionizing solution for the daily definition of the TB position during partial-breast irradiation and boost treatments.

  9. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  10. Using High Frequency Focused Water-Coupled Ultrasound for 3-D Surface Depression Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Surface topography is an important variable in the performance of many industrial components and is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over a small area or using optical scattering methods for larger area measurement. A prior study was performed demonstrating that focused air-coupled ultrasound at 1 MHz was capable of profiling surfaces with 25 micron depth resolution and 400 micron lateral resolution over a 1.4 mm depth range. In this article, the question of whether higher-frequency focused water-coupled ultrasound can improve on these specifications is addressed. 10 and 25 MHz focused ultrasonic transducers were employed in the water-coupled mode. Time-of-flight images of the sample surface were acquired and converted to depth / surface profile images using the simple relation (d = V*t/2) between distance (d), time-of-flight (t), and the velocity of sound in water (V). Results are compared for the two frequencies used and with those from the 1 MHz air-coupled configuration.

  11. Development of model observers applied to 3D breast tomosynthesis microcalcifications and masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Ivan; Timberg, Pontus; Zhang, Sheng; Abbey, Craig; Verdun, Francis; Bochud, François O.

    2011-03-01

    The development of model observers for mimicking human detection strategies has followed from symmetric signals in simple noise to increasingly complex backgrounds. In this study we implement different model observers for the complex task of detecting a signal in a 3D image stack. The backgrounds come from real breast tomosynthesis acquisitions and the signals were simulated and reconstructed within the volume. Two different tasks relevant to the early detection of breast cancer were considered: detecting an 8 mm mass and detecting a cluster of microcalcifications. The model observers were calculated using a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with dense difference-of-Gaussian channels, and a modified (Partial prewhitening [PPW]) observer which was adapted to realistic signals which are not circularly symmetric. The sustained temporal sensitivity function was used to filter the images before applying the spatial templates. For a frame rate of five frames per second, the only CHO that we calculated performed worse than the humans in a 4-AFC experiment. The other observers were variations of PPW and outperformed human observers in every single case. This initial frame rate was a rather low speed and the temporal filtering did not affect the results compared to a data set with no human temporal effects taken into account. We subsequently investigated two higher speeds at 5, 15 and 30 frames per second. We observed that for large masses, the two types of model observers investigated outperformed the human observers and would be suitable with the appropriate addition of internal noise. However, for microcalcifications both only the PPW observer consistently outperformed the humans. The study demonstrated the possibility of using a model observer which takes into account the temporal effects of scrolling through an image stack while being able to effectively detect a range of mass sizes and distributions.

  12. The use of 3D laser imaging and a new breast replica cast as a method to optimize autologous breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahcan, Uros; Bracun, Drago; Zivec, Katarina; Pavlic, Rok; Butala, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Aesthetically pleasing and symmetrical breasts are the goal of reconstructive breast surgery. Sometimes, however, multiple procedures are needed to improve a reconstructed breast's symmetry and appearance. In order to avoid additional corrective procedures, we have developed a new method that uses a reverse engineering technique to produce what we call a new breast replica cast (NBRC). The NBRC is a mould of the contralateral healthy breast, designed according to preoperative laser 3D images. During surgery, the mould is used to help shape the new breast. With this method, we are able to achieve breast symmetry in terms of volume, projection, contour, and position on the chest wall more accurately, more quickly, and more safely than before.

  13. High-speed dynamic 3D photoacoustic imaging of sentinel lymph node in a murine model using an ultrasound array.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Kim, Chulhong; Maslov, Konstantin; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V

    2009-08-01

    Noninvasive photoacoustic sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping with high spatial resolution has the potential to improve the false negative rate and eliminate the use of radioactive tracers in SLN identification. In addition, the demonstrated high spatial resolution may enable physicians to replace SLN biopsy with fine needle aspiration biopsy, and thus reduce the risk of associated morbidity. The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of high-speed 3D photoacoustic imaging of the uptake and clearance dynamics of Evans blue dye in SLNs. The photoacoustic imaging system was developed with a 30 MHz ultrasound array and a kHz repetition rate laser system. It acquires one 3D photoacoustic image of 166 B-scan frames in 1 s, with axial, lateral, and elevational resolutions of 25, 70, and 200 microm, respectively. With optic-fiber based light delivery, the entire system is compact and is convenient to use. Upon injection of Evans blue, a blue dye currently used in clinical SLN biopsy, SLNs in mice and rats were accurately and noninvasively mapped in vivo using our imaging system. In our experiments, the SLNs were found to be located at approximately 0.65 mm below the skin surface in mice and approximately 1.2 mm in rats. In some cases, lymph vessels and lymphatic valves were also imaged. The dye dynamics--accumulation and clearance--in SLNs were quantitatively monitored by sequential 3D imaging with temporal resolution of as high as approximately 6 s. The demonstrated capability suggests that high-speed 3D photoacoustic imaging should facilitate the understanding of the dynamics of various dyes in SLNs and potentially help identify SLNs with high accuracy. PMID:19746805

  14. Development of 3D ultrasound needle guidance for high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of gynaecological cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, J.; Tessier, D.; D'Souza, D.; Leung, E.; Hajdok, G.; Fenster, A.

    2016-04-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is often included in standard-of-care for gynaecological cancers. Needles are currently inserted through a perineal template without any standard real-time imaging modality to assist needle guidance, causing physicians to rely on pre-operative imaging, clinical examination, and experience. While two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) is sometimes used for real-time guidance, visualization of needle placement and depth is difficult and subject to variability and inaccuracy in 2D images. The close proximity to critical organs, in particular the rectum and bladder, can lead to serious complications. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) transrectal US system and are investigating its use for intra-operative visualization of needle positions used in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy. As a proof-of-concept, four patients were imaged with post-insertion 3D US and x-ray CT. Using software developed in our laboratory, manual rigid registration of the two modalities was performed based on the perineal template's vaginal cylinder. The needle tip and a second point along the needle path were identified for each needle visible in US. The difference between modalities in the needle trajectory and needle tip position was calculated for each identified needle. For the 60 needles placed, the mean trajectory difference was 3.23 +/- 1.65° across the 53 visible needle paths and the mean difference in needle tip position was 3.89 +/- 1.92 mm across the 48 visible needles tips. Based on the preliminary results, 3D transrectal US shows potential for the development of a 3D US-based needle guidance system for interstitial gynaecological brachytherapy.

  15. Double difference tomography for breast ultrasound sound speed imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Rama, Olsi; Burger, Angelika; Polin, Lisa; Nechiporchik, Nicole

    2011-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Double difference (DD) tomography utilizes more accurate differential time-of-flight (ToF) data to reconstruct the sound speed structure of the breast. It can produce more precise and better resolution sound speed images than standard tomography that uses absolute ToF data. We apply DD tomography to phantom data and excised mouse mammary glands data. DD tomograms demonstrate sharper sound speed contrast than the standard tomograms.

  16. Development of a 3D ultrasound system to investigate post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in pre-term neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, J.; Lee, D.; St. Lawrence, K.; Romano, W.; Fenster, A.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2013-03-01

    Clinical intracranial ultrasound (US) is performed as a standard of care on neonates at risk of intraventricular hemorrhaging (IVH) and is also used after a diagnosis to monitor for potential ventricular dilation. However, it is difficult to estimate the volume of ventricles with 2D US due to their irregular shape. We developed a 3D US system to be used as an adjunct to a clinical system to investigate volumetric changes in the ventricles of neonates with IVH. Our system has been found have an error of within 1% of actual distance measurements in all three directions and volume measurements of manually segmented volumes from phantoms were not statistically significantly different from the actual values (p>0.3). Interobserver volume measurements of the lateral ventricles in a patient with grade III IVH found no significant differences between measurements. There is the potential to use this system in IVH patients to monitor the progression of ventriculomegaly over time.

  17. Isotropic 3D Nuclear Morphometry of Normal, Fibrocystic and Malignant Breast Epithelial Cells Reveals New Structural Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Hernandez, Kathryn F.; Lintecum, Kelly M.; Senechal, Patti; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D) objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria. Methodology We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure. Principal Findings We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio) between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At p<0.0025 by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests, 90% of our computed descriptors statistically differentiated control from abnormal cell populations, but only 69% of these features statistically differentiated the fibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations. Conclusions Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear structure variations

  18. Automatic left-atrial segmentation from cardiac 3D ultrasound: a dual-chamber model-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Nuno; Sarvari, Sebastian I.; Orderud, Fredrik; Gérard, Olivier; D'hooge, Jan; Samset, Eigil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic solution for segmentation and quantification of the left atrium (LA) from 3D cardiac ultrasound. A model-based framework is applied, making use of (deformable) active surfaces to model the endocardial surfaces of cardiac chambers, allowing incorporation of a priori anatomical information in a simple fashion. A dual-chamber model (LA and left ventricle) is used to detect and track the atrio-ventricular (AV) plane, without any user input. Both chambers are represented by parametric surfaces and a Kalman filter is used to fit the model to the position of the endocardial walls detected in the image, providing accurate detection and tracking during the whole cardiac cycle. This framework was tested in 20 transthoracic cardiac ultrasound volumetric recordings of healthy volunteers, and evaluated using manual traces of a clinical expert as a reference. The 3D meshes obtained with the automatic method were close to the reference contours at all cardiac phases (mean distance of 0.03+/-0.6 mm). The AV plane was detected with an accuracy of -0.6+/-1.0 mm. The LA volumes assessed automatically were also in agreement with the reference (mean +/-1.96 SD): 0.4+/-5.3 ml, 2.1+/-12.6 ml, and 1.5+/-7.8 ml at end-diastolic, end-systolic and pre-atrial-contraction frames, respectively. This study shows that the proposed method can be used for automatic volumetric assessment of the LA, considerably reducing the analysis time and effort when compared to manual analysis.

  19. Multi-atlas-based automatic 3D segmentation for prostate brachytherapy in transrectal ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouranian, Saman; Mahdavi, S. Sara; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, S. E.; Abolmaesumi, P.

    2013-03-01

    One of the commonly used treatment methods for early-stage prostate cancer is brachytherapy. The standard of care for planning this procedure is segmentation of contours from transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which closely follow the prostate boundary. This process is currently performed either manually or using semi-automatic techniques. This paper introduces a fully automatic segmentation algorithm which uses a priori knowledge of contours in a reference data set of TRUS volumes. A non-parametric deformable registration method is employed to transform the atlas prostate contours to a target image coordinates. All atlas images are sorted based on their registration results and the highest ranked registration results are selected for decision fusion. A Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation algorithm is utilized to fuse labels from registered atlases and produce a segmented target volume. In this experiment, 50 patient TRUS volumes are obtained and a leave-one-out study on TRUS volumes is reported. We also compare our results with a state-of-the-art semi-automatic prostate segmentation method that has been clinically used for planning prostate brachytherapy procedures and we show comparable accuracy and precision within clinically acceptable runtime.

  20. 3D optical imagery for motion compensation in a limb ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, Bryan J.; Feigin, Micha; Zhang, Xiang; Mireault, Al; Raskar, Ramesh; Herr, Hugh M.; Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional processes for prosthetic socket fabrication are heavily subjective, often resulting in an interface to the human body that is neither comfortable nor completely functional. With nearly 100% of amputees reporting that they experience discomfort with the wearing of their prosthetic limb, designing an effective interface to the body can significantly affect quality of life and future health outcomes. Active research in medical imaging and biomechanical tissue modeling of residual limbs has led to significant advances in computer aided prosthetic socket design, demonstrating an interest in moving toward more quantifiable processes that are still patient-specific. In our work, medical ultrasonography is being pursued to acquire data that may quantify and improve the design process and fabrication of prosthetic sockets while greatly reducing cost compared to an MRI-based framework. This paper presents a prototype limb imaging system that uses a medical ultrasound probe, mounted to a mechanical positioning system and submerged in a water bath. The limb imaging is combined with three-dimensional optical imaging for motion compensation. Images are collected circumferentially around the limb and combined into cross-sectional axial image slices, resulting in a compound image that shows tissue distributions and anatomical boundaries similar to magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper we provide a progress update on our system development, along with preliminary results as we move toward full volumetric imaging of residual limbs for prosthetic socket design. This demonstrates a novel multi-modal approach to residual limb imaging.

  1. An analysis of the mechanical parameters used for finite element compression of a high-resolution 3D breast phantom

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Christina M. L.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Segars, W. Paul; Veress, Alexander I.; Dobbins, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors previously introduced a methodology to generate a realistic three-dimensional (3D), high-resolution, computer-simulated breast phantom based on empirical data. One of the key components of such a phantom is that it provides a means to produce a realistic simulation of clinical breast compression. In the current study, they have evaluated a finite element (FE) model of compression and have demonstrated the effect of a variety of mechanical properties on the model using a dense mesh generated from empirical breast data. While several groups have demonstrated an effective compression simulation with lower density finite element meshes, the presented study offers a mesh density that is able to model the morphology of the inner breast structures more realistically than lower density meshes. This approach may prove beneficial for multimodality breast imaging research, since it provides a high level of anatomical detail throughout the simulation study. Methods: In this paper, the authors describe methods to improve the high-resolution performance of a FE compression model. In order to create the compressible breast phantom, dedicated breast CT data was segmented and a mesh was generated with 4-noded tetrahedral elements. Using an explicit FE solver to simulate breast compression, several properties were analyzed to evaluate their effect on the compression model including: mesh density, element type, density, and stiffness of various tissue types, friction between the skin and the compression plates, and breast density. Following compression, a simulated projection was generated to demonstrate the ability of the compressible breast phantom to produce realistic simulated mammographic images. Results: Small alterations in the properties of the breast model can change the final distribution of the tissue under compression by more than 1 cm; which ultimately results in different representations of the breast model in the simulated images. The model

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Remodeling in a Revised Peripheral Artery Bypass Graft Using 3D Ultrasound Imaging and Computational Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Riley, James J.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of the role of hemodynamic shear stress in the remodeling and failure of a peripheral artery bypass graft. Three separate scans of a femoral to popliteal above-knee bypass graft were taken over the course of a 16 month period following a revision of the graft. The morphology of the lumen is reconstructed from data obtained by a custom 3D ultrasound system. Numerical simulations are performed with the patient-specific geometries and physiologically realistic flow rates. The ultrasound reconstructions reveal two significant areas of remodeling: a stenosis with over 85% reduction in area, which ultimately caused graft failure, and a poststenotic dilatation or widening of the lumen. Likewise, the simulations reveal a complicated hemodynamic environment within the graft. Preliminary comparisons with in vivo velocimetry also showed qualitative agreement with the flow dynamics observed in the simulations. Two distinct flow features are discerned and are hypothesized to directly initiate the observed in vivo remodeling. First, a flow separation occurs at the stenosis. A low shear recirculation region subsequently develops distal to the stenosis. The low shear region is thought to be conducive to smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal growth. A poststenotic jet issues from the stenosis and subsequently impinges onto the lumen wall. The lumen dilation is thought to be a direct result of the high shear stress and high frequency pressure fluctuations associated with the jet impingement. PMID:21428682

  3. Frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography breast attenuation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gursharan Yash Singh; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; West, Erik; Montgomery, Katelyn; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound waveform tomography techniques have shown promising results for the visualization and characterization of breast disease. By using frequency-domain waveform tomography techniques and a gradient descent algorithm, we have previously reconstructed the sound speed distributions of breasts of varying densities with different types of breast disease including benign and malignant lesions. By allowing the sound speed to have an imaginary component, we can model the intrinsic attenuation of a medium. We can similarly recover the imaginary component of the velocity and thus the attenuation. In this paper, we will briefly review ultrasound waveform tomography techniques, discuss attenuation and its relations to the imaginary component of the sound speed, and provide both numerical and ex vivo examples of waveform tomography attenuation reconstructions.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of 3D conformal, IMRT, and V-MAT techniques for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jian-Jian; Chang, Zheng; Horton, Janet K.; Wu, Qing-Rong Jackie; Yoo, Sua; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-07-01

    The purpose is to dosimetrically compare the following 3 delivery techniques: 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (V-MAT) in the treatment of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Overall, 16 patients with T1/2N0 breast cancer were treated with 3D-CRT (multiple, noncoplanar photon fields) on the RTOG 0413 partial-breast trial. These cases were subsequently replanned using static gantry IMRT and V-MAT technology to understand dosimetric differences among these 3 techniques. Several dosimetric parameters were used in plan quality evaluation, including dose conformity index (CI) and dose-volume histogram analysis of normal tissue coverage. Quality assurance studies including gamma analysis were performed to compare the measured and calculated dose distributions. The IMRT and V-MAT plans gave more conformal target dose distributions than the 3D-CRT plans (p < 0.05 in CI). The volume of ipsilateral breast receiving 5 and 10 Gy was significantly less using the V-MAT technique than with either 3D-CRT or IMRT (p < 0.05). The maximum lung dose and the ipsilateral lung volume receiving 10 (V{sub 10}) or 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) were significantly less with both V-MAT and IMRT (p < 0.05). The IMRT technique was superior to 3D-CRT and V-MAT of low dose distributions in ipsilateral lung (p < 0.05 in V{sub 5} and D{sub 5}). The total mean monitor units (MUs) for V-MAT (621.0 ± 111.9) were 12.2% less than those for 3D-CRT (707.3 ± 130.9) and 46.5% less than those for IMRT (1161.4 ± 315.6) (p < 0.05). The average machine delivery time was 1.5 ± 0.2 minutes for the V-MAT plans, 7.0 ± 1.6 minutes for the 3D-CRT plans, and 11.5 ± 1.9 minutes for the IMRT plans, demonstrating much less delivery time for V-MAT. Based on this preliminary study, V-MAT and IMRT techniques offer improved dose conformity as compared with 3D-CRT techniques without increasing dose to the ipsilateral lung. In

  5. Noninvasive quantification of in vitro osteoblastic differentiation in 3D engineered tissue constructs using spectral ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Gudur, Madhu Sudhan Reddy; Rao, Rameshwar R; Peterson, Alexis W; Caldwell, David J; Stegemann, Jan P; Deng, Cheri X

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive monitoring of engineered tissues is needed for translation of these products from the lab to the clinic. In this study, non-invasive, high resolution spectral ultrasound imaging (SUSI) was used to monitor the differentiation of MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts seeded within collagen hydrogels. SUSI was used to measure the diameter, concentration and acoustic attenuation of scatterers within such constructs cultured in either control or osteogenic medium over 21 days. Conventional biochemical assays were used on parallel samples to determine DNA content and calcium deposition. Construct volume and morphology were accurately imaged using ultrasound. Cell diameter was estimated to be approximately 12.5-15.5 µm using SUSI, which corresponded well to measurements of fluorescently stained cells. The total number of cells per construct assessed by quantitation of DNA content decreased from 5.6±2.4×10(4) at day 1 to 0.9±0.2×10(4) at day 21. SUSI estimation of the equivalent number of acoustic scatters showed a similar decreasing trend, except at day 21 in the osteogenic samples, which showed a marked increase in both scatterer number and acoustic impedance, suggestive of mineral deposition by the differentiating MC3T3 cells. Estimation of calcium content by SUSI was 41.7±11.4 µg/ml, which agreed well with the biochemical measurement of 38.7±16.7 µg/ml. Color coded maps of parameter values were overlaid on B-mode images to show spatiotemporal changes in cell diameter and calcium deposition. This study demonstrates the use of non-destructive ultrasound imaging to provide quantitative information on the number and differentiated state of cells embedded within 3D engineered constructs, and therefore presents a valuable tool for longitudinal monitoring of engineered tissue development.

  6. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, N. R.; Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    of 3D dielectric property distributions for breast-like phantoms with tumor inclusions utilizing both the in-plane and new cross-plane data.

  7. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    recovery of 3D dielectric property distributions for breast-like phantoms with tumor inclusions utilizing both the in-plane and new cross-plane data. PMID:25554311

  8. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, N. R.; Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-12-15

    recovery of 3D dielectric property distributions for breast-like phantoms with tumor inclusions utilizing both the in-plane and new cross-plane data.

  9. The Ultrasound Brain Helmet: New Transducers and Volume Registration for In Vivo Simultaneous Multi-Transducer 3-D Transcranial Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Light, Edward D.; Nicoletto, Heather A.; Bennett, Ellen R.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Because stroke remains an important and time-sensitive health concern in developed nations, we present a system capable of fusing 3-D transcranial ultrasound volumes acquired from two sides of the head. This system uses custom sparse array transducers built on flexible multilayer circuits that can be positioned for simultaneous imaging through both temporal acoustic windows, allowing for potential registration of multiple real-time 3-D scans of cerebral vasculature. We examine hardware considerations for new matrix arrays—transducer design and interconnects—in this application. Specifically, it is proposed that SNR may be increased by reducing the length of probe cables. This claim is evaluated as part of the presented system through simulation, experimental data, and in vivo imaging. Ultimately, gains in SNR of 7 dB are realized by replacing a standard probe cable with a much shorter flex interconnect; higher gains may be possible using ribbon-based probe cables. In vivo images are presented, showing cerebral arteries with and without the use of microbubble contrast agent; they have been registered and fused using a simple algorithm which maximizes normalized cross-correlation. PMID:21693401

  10. Accurate quantification of local changes for carotid arteries in 3D ultrasound images using convex optimization-based deformable registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jieyu; Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Fenster, Aaron; Chiu, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Registration of longitudinally acquired 3D ultrasound (US) images plays an important role in monitoring and quantifying progression/regression of carotid atherosclerosis. We introduce an image-based non-rigid registration algorithm to align the baseline 3D carotid US with longitudinal images acquired over several follow-up time points. This algorithm minimizes the sum of absolute intensity differences (SAD) under a variational optical-flow perspective within a multi-scale optimization framework to capture local and global deformations. Outer wall and lumen were segmented manually on each image, and the performance of the registration algorithm was quantified by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and mean absolute distance (MAD) of the outer wall and lumen surfaces after registration. In this study, images for 5 subjects were registered initially by rigid registration, followed by the proposed algorithm. Mean DSC generated by the proposed algorithm was 79:3+/-3:8% for lumen and 85:9+/-4:0% for outer wall, compared to 73:9+/-3:4% and 84:7+/-3:2% generated by rigid registration. Mean MAD of 0:46+/-0:08mm and 0:52+/-0:13mm were generated for lumen and outer wall respectively by the proposed algorithm, compared to 0:55+/-0:08mm and 0:54+/-0:11mm generated by rigid registration. The mean registration time of our method per image pair was 143+/-23s.

  11. Quantitative 3-d diagnostic ultrasound imaging using a modified transducer array and an automated image tracking technique.

    PubMed

    Hossack, John A; Sumanaweera, Thilaka S; Napel, Sandy; Ha, Jun S

    2002-08-01

    An approach for acquiring dimensionally accurate three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound data from multiple 2-D image planes is presented. This is based on the use of a modified linear-phased array comprising a central imaging array that acquires multiple, essentially parallel, 2-D slices as the transducer is translated over the tissue of interest. Small, perpendicularly oriented, tracking arrays are integrally mounted on each end of the imaging transducer. As the transducer is translated in an elevational direction with respect to the central imaging array, the images obtained by the tracking arrays remain largely coplanar. The motion between successive tracking images is determined using a minimum sum of absolute difference (MSAD) image matching technique with subpixel matching resolution. An initial phantom scanning-based test of a prototype 8 MHz array indicates that linear dimensional accuracy of 4.6% (2 sigma) is achievable. This result compares favorably with those obtained using an assumed average velocity [31.5% (2 sigma) accuracy] and using an approach based on measuring image-to-image decorrelation [8.4% (2 sigma) accuracy]. The prototype array and imaging system were also tested in a clinical environment, and early results suggest that the approach has the potential to enable a low cost, rapid, screening method for detecting carotid artery stenosis. The average time for performing a screening test for carotid stenosis was reduced from an average of 45 minutes using 2-D duplex Doppler to 12 minutes using the new 3-D scanning approach.

  12. Mapping and characterizing endometrial implants by registering 2D transvaginal ultrasound to 3D pelvic magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Yavariabdi, Amir; Bartoli, Adrien; Samir, Chafik; Artigues, Maxime; Canis, Michel

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new deformable slice-to-volume registration method to register a 2D Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVUS) to a 3D Magnetic Resonance (MR) volume. Our main goal is to find a cross-section of the MR volume such that the endometrial implants and their depth of infiltration can be mapped from TVUS to MR. The proposed TVUS-MR registration method uses contour to surface correspondences through a novel variational one-step deformable Iterative Closest Point (ICP) method. Specifically, we find a smooth deformation field while establishing point correspondences automatically. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method by quantitative and qualitative tests on both semi-synthetic and clinical data. To generate semi-synthetic data sets, 3D surfaces are deformed with 4-40% degrees of deformation and then various intersection curves are obtained at 0-20° cutting angles. Results show an average mean square error of 5.7934±0.4615mm, average Hausdorff distance of 2.493±0.14mm, and average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.9750±0.0030.

  13. Semi-automatic assessment of pediatric hydronephrosis severity in 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Otero, Hansel; Yao, Peter; Biggs, Elijah; Mansoor, Awais; Ardon, Roberto; Jago, James; Peters, Craig A.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-03-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in pediatric urology. Thanks to its non-ionizing nature, ultrasound (US) imaging is the preferred diagnostic modality for the evaluation of the kidney and the urinary track. However, due to the lack of correlation of US with renal function, further invasive and/or ionizing studies might be required (e.g., diuretic renograms). This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for the accurate and objective assessment of pediatric hydronephrosis based on morphological analysis of kidney from 3DUS scans. The integration of specific segmentation tools in the system, allows to delineate the relevant renal structures from 3DUS scans of the patients with minimal user interaction, and the automatic computation of 90 anatomical features. Using the washout half time (T1/2) as indicative of renal obstruction, an optimal subset of predictive features is selected to differentiate, with maximum sensitivity, those severe cases where further attention is required (e.g., in the form of diuretic renograms), from the noncritical ones. The performance of this new 3DUS-based CAD system is studied for two clinically relevant T1/2 thresholds, 20 and 30 min. Using a dataset of 20 hydronephrotic cases, pilot experiments show how the system outperforms previous 2D implementations by successfully identifying all the critical cases (100% of sensitivity), and detecting up to 100% (T1/2 = 20 min) and 67% (T1/2 = 30 min) of non-critical ones for T1/2 thresholds of 20 and 30 min, respectively.

  14. Mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound for pre-operative assessment and guiding percutaneous treatment of focal liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi Neshat, Hamid; Bax, Jeffery; Barker, Kevin; Gardi, Lori; Chedalavada, Jason; Kakani, Nirmal; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Image-guided percutaneous ablation is the standard treatment for focal liver tumors deemed inoperable and is commonly used to maintain eligibility for patients on transplant waitlists. Radiofrequency (RFA), microwave (MWA) and cryoablation technologies are all delivered via one or a number of needle-shaped probes inserted directly into the tumor. Planning is mostly based on contrast CT/MRI. While intra-procedural CT is commonly used to confirm the intended probe placement, 2D ultrasound (US) remains the main, and in some centers the only imaging modality used for needle guidance. Corresponding intraoperative 2D US with planning and other intra-procedural imaging modalities is essential for accurate needle placement. However, identification of matching features of interest among these images is often challenging given the limited field-of-view (FOV) and low quality of 2D US images. We have developed a passive tracking arm with a motorized scan-head and software tools to improve guiding capabilities of conventional US by large FOV 3D US scans that provides more anatomical landmarks that can facilitate registration of US with both planning and intra-procedural images. The tracker arm is used to scan the whole liver with a high geometrical accuracy that facilitates multi-modality landmark based image registration. Software tools are provided to assist with the segmentation of the ablation probes and tumors, find the 2D view that best shows the probe(s) from a 3D US image, and to identify the corresponding image from planning CT scans. In this paper, evaluation results from laboratory testing and a phase 1 clinical trial for planning and guiding RFA and MWA procedures using the developed system will be presented. Early clinical results show a comparable performance to intra-procedural CT that suggests 3D US as a cost-effective alternative with no side-effects in centers where CT is not available.

  15. 2D and 3D registration methods for dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kristen C.; Roth, Susan; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2014-03-01

    Contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DBT) uses an iodinated contrast agent to image the threedimensional breast vasculature. The University of Pennsylvania is conducting a CE-DBT clinical study in patients with known breast cancers. The breast is compressed continuously and imaged at four time points (1 pre-contrast; 3 postcontrast). A hybrid subtraction scheme is proposed. First, dual-energy (DE) images are obtained by a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the high-energy and low-energy image pairs. Then, post-contrast DE images are subtracted from the pre-contrast DE image. This hybrid temporal subtraction of DE images is performed to analyze iodine uptake, but suffers from motion artifacts. Employing image registration further helps to correct for motion, enhancing the evaluation of vascular kinetics. Registration using ANTS (Advanced Normalization Tools) is performed in an iterative manner. Mutual information optimization first corrects large-scale motions. Normalized cross-correlation optimization then iteratively corrects fine-scale misalignment. Two methods have been evaluated: a 2D method using a slice-by-slice approach, and a 3D method using a volumetric approach to account for out-of-plane breast motion. Our results demonstrate that iterative registration qualitatively improves with each iteration (five iterations total). Motion artifacts near the edge of the breast are corrected effectively and structures within the breast (e.g. blood vessels, surgical clip) are better visualized. Statistical and clinical evaluations of registration accuracy in the CE-DBT images are ongoing.

  16. Volumetric breast density evaluation from ultrasound tomography images

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2008-09-15

    Previous ultrasound tomography work conducted by our group showed a direct correlation between measured sound speed and physical density in vitro, and increased in vivo sound speed with increasing mammographic density, a known risk factor for breast cancer. Building on these empirical results, the purpose of this work was to explore a metric to quantify breast density using our ultrasound tomography sound speed images in a manner analogous to computer-assisted mammogram segmentation for breast density analysis. Therefore, volumetric ultrasound percent density (USPD) is determined by segmenting high sound speed areas from each tomogram using a k-means clustering routine, integrating these results over the entire volume of the breast, and dividing by whole-breast volume. First, a breast phantom comprised of fat inclusions embedded in fibroglandular tissue was scanned four times with both our ultrasound tomography clinical prototype (with 4 mm spatial resolution) and CT. The coronal transmission tomograms and CT images were analyzed using semiautomatic segmentation routines, and the integrated areas of the phantom's fat inclusions were compared between the four repeated scans. The average variability for inclusion segmentation was {approx}7% and {approx}2%, respectively, and a close correlation was observed in the integrated areas between the two modalities. Next, a cohort of 93 patients was imaged, yielding volumetric coverage of the breast (45-75 sound speed tomograms/patient). The association of USPD with mammographic percent density (MPD) was evaluated using two measures: (1) qualitative, as determined by a radiologist's visual assessment using BI-RADS Criteria and (2) quantitative, via digitization and semiautomatic segmentation of craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms. A strong positive association between BI-RADS category and USPD was demonstrated [Spearman {rho}=0.69 (p<0.001)], with significant differences between all BI-RADS categories as assessed

  17. 3D Quantitative Assessment of Lesion Response to MR-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Lynn J.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Rüdiger E.; Hamm, Bernd; Geschwind, Jean-François; Hong, Kelvin; Chapiro, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To investigate the response after MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) treatment of uterine fibroids (UF) using a 3D quantification of total and enhancing lesion volume (TLV, ELV) on contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) scans. Methods and Materials In a total of 24 patients, ceMRI scans were obtained at baseline and 24 hrs, 6, 12 and 24 months after MRgHIFU treatment. The dominant lesion was assessed using a semi-automatic quantitative 3D segmentation technique. Agreement between software-assisted and manual measurements was then analyzed using a linear regression model. Patients were classified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) based on their symptom report after 6 months. Statistical analysis included the paired t-test and Mann-Whitney-test. Results Preprocedurally, the median TLV and ELV were 263.74cm3 (30.45–689.56cm3) and 210.13cm3 (14.43–689.53cm3), respectively. The 6-month follow-up demonstrated a reduction of TLV in 21 patients (87.5%) with a median TLV of 171.7cm3 (8.5–791.2cm3) (p<.0001). TLV remained stable with significant differences compared to baseline (p<.001 and p=.047 after 12 and 24 months). A reduction of ELV was apparent in 16 patients (66.6%) with a median ELV of 158.91cm3 (8.55–779.61cm3) after 6 months (p=.065). 3D quantification and manual measurements showed strong intermethod-agreement for fibroid volumes (R2=.889 and R2=.917) but greater discrepancy for enhancement calculations (R2=.659 and R2=.419) at baseline and 6 mo. No significant differences in TLV or ELV were observed between clinical R (n=15) and NR (n=3). Conclusion The 3D assessment has proven feasible and accurate in the quantification of fibroid response to MRgHIFU. Contrary to ELV, changes in TLV may be representative of the clinical outcome. PMID:26160057

  18. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided pbreast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  19. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Searching for an early pregnancy 3-D morphometric ultrasound marker to predict fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, G N; Noble, J A; Impey, L

    2013-03-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, even in term babies. An effective screening test to identify pregnancies at risk of FGR, leading to increased antenatal surveillance with timely delivery, could decrease perinatal mortality and morbidity. Placental volume, measured with commercially available packages and a novel, semi-automated technique, has been shown to predict small for gestational age babies. Placental morphology measured in 2-D in the second trimester and ex-vivo post delivery, correlates with FGR. This has also been investigated using 2-D estimates of diameter and site of cord insertion obtained using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL) software. Data is presented describing a pilot study of a novel 3-D method for defining compactness of placental shape. We prospectively recruited women with a singleton pregnancy and BMI of <35. A 3-D ultrasound scan was performed between 11 and 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. The placental volume, total placental surface area and the area of the utero-placental interface were calculated using our validated technique. From these we generated dimensionless indices including sphericity (ψ), standardised placental volume (sPlaV) and standardised functional area (sFA) using Buckingham π theorem. The marker for FGR used was small for gestational age, defined as <10th customised birth weight centile (cSGA). Regression analysis examined which of the morphometric indices were independent predictors of cSGA. Data were collected for 143 women, 20 had cSGA babies. Only sPlaV and sFA were significantly correlated to birth weight (p < 0.001). Regression demonstrated all dimensionless indices were inter-dependent co-factors. ROC curves showed no advantage for using sFA over the simpler sPlaV. The generated placental indices are not independent of placental volume this early in gestation. It is hoped that another placental ultrasound marker based on vascularity can improve the

  20. Non-rigid registration between 3D ultrasound and CT images of the liver based on intensity and gradient information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Duhgoon; Nam, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jae Young; Ra, Jong Beom

    2011-01-01

    In order to utilize both ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) images of the liver concurrently for medical applications such as diagnosis and image-guided intervention, non-rigid registration between these two types of images is an essential step, as local deformation between US and CT images exists due to the different respiratory phases involved and due to the probe pressure that occurs in US imaging. This paper introduces a voxel-based non-rigid registration algorithm between the 3D B-mode US and CT images of the liver. In the proposed algorithm, to improve the registration accuracy, we utilize the surface information of the liver and gallbladder in addition to the information of the vessels inside the liver. For an effective correlation between US and CT images, we treat those anatomical regions separately according to their characteristics in US and CT images. Based on a novel objective function using a 3D joint histogram of the intensity and gradient information, vessel-based non-rigid registration is followed by surface-based non-rigid registration in sequence, which improves the registration accuracy. The proposed algorithm is tested for ten clinical datasets and quantitative evaluations are conducted. Experimental results show that the registration error between anatomical features of US and CT images is less than 2 mm on average, even with local deformation due to different respiratory phases and probe pressure. In addition, the lesion registration error is less than 3 mm on average with a maximum of 4.5 mm that is considered acceptable for clinical applications.

  1. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution ultrasound imaging: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Hanson, Kenneth; Sandoval, Daniel; Pohl, Jennifer; Williamson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Imaging breast microcalcifications is crucial for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. It is challenging for current clinical ultrasound to image breast microcalcifications. However, new imaging techniques using data acquired with a synthetic-aperture ultrasound system have the potential to significantly improve ultrasound imaging. We recently developed a super-resolution ultrasound imaging method termed the phase-coherent multiple-signal classification (PC-MUSIC). This signal subspace method accounts for the phase response of transducer elements to improve image resolution. In this paper, we investigate the clinical feasibility of our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method for detecting breast microcalcifications. We use our custom-built, real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to acquire breast ultrasound data for 40 patients whose mammograms show the presence of breast microcalcifications. We apply our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method to the patient data, and produce clear images of breast calcifications. Our super-resolution ultrasound PC-MUSIC imaging with synthetic-aperture ultrasound data can provide a new imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications in clinic without using ionizing radiation.

  2. IN VIVO BREAST SOUND-SPEED IMAGING WITH ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cuiping; Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1 through 4. Our analysis showed that the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m · s)−1) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4-fold compared with the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422±9 m/s (mean±SD) and 1487±21 m/s, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions 1548±17 m/s was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513±27 m/s) (one-sided p < 0.001). These results suggest that, clinically, sound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor the clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:19647920

  3. Ultrasound RF time series for classification of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Nishant; Eskandari, Hani; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Sojoudi, Samira; Gordon, Paula; Warren, Linda; Rohling, Robert N; Salcudean, Septimiu E; Moradi, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    This work reports the use of ultrasound radio frequency (RF) time series analysis as a method for ultrasound-based classification of malignant breast lesions. The RF time series method is versatile and requires only a few seconds of raw ultrasound data with no need for additional instrumentation. Using the RF time series features, and a machine learning framework, we have generated malignancy maps, from the estimated cancer likelihood, for decision support in biopsy recommendation. These maps depict the likelihood of malignancy for regions of size 1 mm(2) within the suspicious lesions. We report an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84%-0.90%) using support vector machines and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85) using Random Forests classification algorithms, on 22 subjects with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. Changing the classification method yielded consistent results which indicates the robustness of this tissue typing method. The findings of this report suggest that ultrasound RF time series, along with the developed machine learning framework, can help in differentiating malignant from benign breast lesions, subsequently reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies after mammography screening. PMID:25350925

  4. An algorithm to correct 2D near-infrared fluorescence signals using 3D intravascular ultrasound architectural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallas, Georgios; Brooks, Dana H.; Rosenthal, Amir; Vinegoni, Claudio; Calfon, Marcella A.; Razansky, R. Nika; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    Intravascular Near-Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a promising imaging modality to image vessel biology and high-risk plaques in vivo. We have developed a NIRF fiber optic catheter and have presented the ability to image atherosclerotic plaques in vivo, using appropriate NIR fluorescent probes. Our catheter consists of a 100/140 μm core/clad diameter housed in polyethylene tubing, emitting NIR laser light at a 90 degree angle compared to the fiber's axis. The system utilizes a rotational and a translational motor for true 2D imaging and operates in conjunction with a coaxial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) device. IVUS datasets provide 3D images of the internal structure of arteries and are used in our system for anatomical mapping. Using the IVUS images, we are building an accurate hybrid fluorescence-IVUS data inversion scheme that takes into account photon propagation through the blood filled lumen. This hybrid imaging approach can then correct for the non-linear dependence of light intensity on the distance of the fluorescence region from the fiber tip, leading to quantitative imaging. The experimental and algorithmic developments will be presented and the effectiveness of the algorithm showcased with experimental results in both saline and blood-like preparations. The combined structural and molecular information obtained from these two imaging modalities are positioned to enable the accurate diagnosis of biologically high-risk atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries that are responsible for heart attacks.

  5. Physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a fetus with Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Lopes, Jorge; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Rapid prototyping is becoming a fast-growing and valuable technique for physical models in case of congenital anomalies. Manufacturing models are generally built from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, computed tomography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. Physical prototype has demonstrated to be clinically of value in case of complex fetal malformations and may improve antenatal management especially in cases of craniosynostosis, orofacial clefts, and giant epignathus. In addition, it may enhance parental bonding in visually impaired parents and have didactic value in teaching program. Hereby, the first 3D physical model from 3D ultrasound and MRI scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a third trimester fetus affected by Chiari II malformation is reported. PMID:25686895

  6. Physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a fetus with Chiari II malformation.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Lopes, Jorge; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Rapid prototyping is becoming a fast-growing and valuable technique for physical models in case of congenital anomalies. Manufacturing models are generally built from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, computed tomography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. Physical prototype has demonstrated to be clinically of value in case of complex fetal malformations and may improve antenatal management especially in cases of craniosynostosis, orofacial clefts, and giant epignathus. In addition, it may enhance parental bonding in visually impaired parents and have didactic value in teaching program. Hereby, the first 3D physical model from 3D ultrasound and MRI scan data reconstruction of lumbosacral myelomeningocele in a third trimester fetus affected by Chiari II malformation is reported.

  7. Target specific delivery of anticancer drug in silk fibroin based 3D distribution model of bone-breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subia, Bano; Dey, Tuli; Sharma, Shaily; Kundu, Subhas C

    2015-02-01

    To avoid the indiscriminating action of anticancer drugs, the cancer cell specific targeting of drug molecule becomes a preferred choice for the treatment. The successful screening of the drug molecules in 2D culture system requires further validation. The failure of target specific drug in animal model raises the issue of creating a platform in between the in vitro (2D) and in vivo animal testing. The metastatic breast cancer cells migrate and settle at different sites such as bone tissue. This work evaluates the in vitro 3D model of the breast cancer and bone cells to understand the cellular interactions in the presence of a targeted anticancer drug delivery system. The silk fibroin based cytocompatible 3D scaffold is used as in vitro 3D distribution model. Human breast adenocarcinoma and osteoblast like cells are cocultured to evaluate the efficiency of doxorubicin loaded folic acid conjugated silk fibroin nanoparticle as drug delivery system. Decreasing population of the cancer cells, which lower the levels of vascular endothelial growth factors, glucose consumption, and lactate production are observed in the drug treated coculture constructs. The drug treated constructs do not show any major impact on bone mineralization. The diminished expression of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcein and alkaline phosphatase are recorded. The result indicates that this type of silk based 3D in vitro coculture model may be utilized as a bridge between the traditional 2D and animal model system to evaluate the new drug molecule (s) or to reassay the known drug molecules or to develop target specific drug in cancer research. PMID:25557227

  8. Target specific delivery of anticancer drug in silk fibroin based 3D distribution model of bone-breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subia, Bano; Dey, Tuli; Sharma, Shaily; Kundu, Subhas C

    2015-02-01

    To avoid the indiscriminating action of anticancer drugs, the cancer cell specific targeting of drug molecule becomes a preferred choice for the treatment. The successful screening of the drug molecules in 2D culture system requires further validation. The failure of target specific drug in animal model raises the issue of creating a platform in between the in vitro (2D) and in vivo animal testing. The metastatic breast cancer cells migrate and settle at different sites such as bone tissue. This work evaluates the in vitro 3D model of the breast cancer and bone cells to understand the cellular interactions in the presence of a targeted anticancer drug delivery system. The silk fibroin based cytocompatible 3D scaffold is used as in vitro 3D distribution model. Human breast adenocarcinoma and osteoblast like cells are cocultured to evaluate the efficiency of doxorubicin loaded folic acid conjugated silk fibroin nanoparticle as drug delivery system. Decreasing population of the cancer cells, which lower the levels of vascular endothelial growth factors, glucose consumption, and lactate production are observed in the drug treated coculture constructs. The drug treated constructs do not show any major impact on bone mineralization. The diminished expression of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcein and alkaline phosphatase are recorded. The result indicates that this type of silk based 3D in vitro coculture model may be utilized as a bridge between the traditional 2D and animal model system to evaluate the new drug molecule (s) or to reassay the known drug molecules or to develop target specific drug in cancer research.

  9. The intrafraction motion induced dosimetric impacts in breast 3D radiation treatment: A 4DCT based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Li Xiang; Beriwal, Sushil; Heron, Dwight E.; Sontag, Marc R.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2007-07-15

    The question remains regarding the dosimetric impact of intrafraction motion in 3D breast treatment. This study was conducted to investigate this issue utilizing the 4DCT scan. The 4D and helical CT scan sets were acquired for 12 breast cancer patients. For each of these patients, based on the helical CT scan, a conventional 3D conformal plan was generated. The breast treatment was then simulated based on the 4DCT scan. In each phase of the 4DCT scan, dose distribution was generated with the same beam parameters as the conventional plan. A software package was developed to compute the cumulative dose distribution from all the phases. Since the intrafraction organ motion is reflected by the 4DCT images, the cumulative dose computed based on the 4DCT images should be closer to what the patient received during treatment. Various dosimetric parameters were obtained from the plan and 4D cumulative dose distribution for the target volume and heart, and were compared to deduce the motion-induced impacts. The studies were performed for both whole breast and partial breast treatment. In the whole breast treatment, the average intrafraction motion induced changes in D{sub 95}, D{sub 90}, V{sub 100}, V{sub 95}, and V{sub 90} of the target volume were -5.4%, -3.1%, -13.4%, -5.1%, and -3.2%, respectively, with the largest values at -26.2%, -14.1%, -91.0%, -15.1%, and -9.0%, respectively. Motion had little impact on the D{sub max} of the target volume, but its impact on the D{sub min} of the target volume was significant. For left breast treatment, the motion-induced D{sub max} change to the heart could be negative or positive, with the largest increase at about 6 Gy. In partial breast treatment, the only non-insignificant impact was in the D{sub min} of the CTV (ranging from -15.2% to 11.7%). The results showed that the intrafraction motion may compromise target dose coverage in breast treatments and the degree of that compromise was correlated with motion magnitude. However

  10. Peptide Hydrogelation and Cell Encapsulation for 3D Culture of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuzhi S.; Nguyen, Thu A.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture plays an invaluable role in tumor biology by providing in vivo like microenviroment and responses to therapeutic agents. Among many established 3D scaffolds, hydrogels demonstrate a distinct property as matrics for 3D cell culture. Most of the existing pre-gel solutions are limited under physiological conditions such as undesirable pH or temperature. Here, we report a peptide hydrogel that shows superior physiological properties as an in vitro matrix for 3D cell culture. The 3D matrix can be accomplished by mixing a self-assembling peptide directly with a cell culture medium without any pH or temperature adjustment. Results of dynamic rheological studies showed that this hydrogel can be delivered multiple times via pipetting without permanently destroying the hydrogel architecture, indicating the deformability and remodeling ability of the hydrogel. Human epithelial cancer cells, MCF-7, are encapsulated homogeneously in the hydrogel matrix during hydrogelation. Compared with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture, cells residing in the hydrogel matrix grow as tumor-like clusters in 3D formation. Relevant parameters related to cell morphology, survival, proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed using MCF-7 cells in 3D hydrogels. Interestingly, treatment of cisplatin, an anti-cancer drug, can cause a significant decrease of cell viability of MCF-7 clusters in hydrogels. The responses to cisplatin were dose- and time-dependent, indicating the potential usage of hydrogels for drug testing. Results of confocal microscopy and Western blotting showed that cells isolated from hydrogels are suitable for downstream proteomic analysis. The results provided evidence that this peptide hydrogel is a promising 3D cell culture material for drug testing. PMID:23527204

  11. Characterization of image quality for 3D scatter-corrected breast CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachon, Jan H.; Shah, Jainil; Tornai, Martin P.

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the image quality of our dedicated, quasi-monochromatic spectrum, cone beam breast imaging system under scatter corrected and non-scatter corrected conditions for a variety of breast compositions. CT projections were acquired of a breast phantom containing two concentric sets of acrylic spheres that varied in size (1-8mm) based on their polar position. The breast phantom was filled with 3 different concentrations of methanol and water, simulating a range of breast densities (0.79-1.0g/cc); acrylic yarn was sometimes included to simulate connective tissue of a breast. For each phantom condition, 2D scatter was measured for all projection angles. Scatter-corrected and uncorrected projections were then reconstructed with an iterative ordered subsets convex algorithm. Reconstructed image quality was characterized using SNR and contrast analysis, and followed by a human observer detection task for the spheres in the different concentric rings. Results show that scatter correction effectively reduces the cupping artifact and improves image contrast and SNR. Results from the observer study indicate that there was no statistical difference in the number or sizes of lesions observed in the scatter versus non-scatter corrected images for all densities. Nonetheless, applying scatter correction for differing breast conditions improves overall image quality.

  12. Treatment techniques for 3D conformal radiation to breast and chest wall including the internal mammary chain.

    PubMed

    Sonnik, Deborah; Selvaraj, Raj N; Faul, Clare; Gerszten, Kristina; Heron, Dwight E; King, Gwendolyn C

    2007-01-01

    Breast, chest wall, and regional nodal irradiation have been associated with an improved outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients. Complex treatment planning is often utilized to ensure complete coverage of the target volume while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The 2 techniques evaluated in this report are the partially wide tangent fields (PWTFs) and the 4-field photon/electron combination (the modified "Kuske Technique"). These 2 techniques were evaluated in 10 consecutive breast cancer patients. All patients had computerized tomographic (CT) scans for 3D planning supine on a breast board. The breast was defined clinically by the physician and confirmed radiographically with radiopaque bebes. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of normal and target tissues were then compared. The deep tangent field with blocks resulted in optimal coverage of the target and the upper internal mammary chain (IMC) while sparing of critical and nontarget tissues. The wide tangent technique required less treatment planning and delivery time. We compared the 2 techniques and their resultant DVHs and feasibility in a busy clinic.

  13. Automated quality assessment in three-dimensional breast ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Schwaab, Julia; Diez, Yago; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; van Zelst, Jan; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound (ABUS) is a valuable adjunct to x-ray mammography for breast cancer screening of women with dense breasts. High image quality is essential for proper diagnostics and computer-aided detection. We propose an automated image quality assessment system for ABUS images that detects artifacts at the time of acquisition. Therefore, we study three aspects that can corrupt ABUS images: the nipple position relative to the rest of the breast, the shadow caused by the nipple, and the shape of the breast contour on the image. Image processing and machine learning algorithms are combined to detect these artifacts based on 368 clinical ABUS images that have been rated manually by two experienced clinicians. At a specificity of 0.99, 55% of the images that were rated as low quality are detected by the proposed algorithms. The areas under the ROC curves of the single classifiers are 0.99 for the nipple position, 0.84 for the nipple shadow, and 0.89 for the breast contour shape. The proposed algorithms work fast and reliably, which makes them adequate for online evaluation of image quality during acquisition. The presented concept may be extended to further image modalities and quality aspects. PMID:27158633

  14. Microenvironment complexity and matrix stiffness regulate breast cancer cell activity in a 3D in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Cavo, Marta; Fato, Marco; Peñuela, Leonardo; Beltrame, Francesco; Raiteri, Roberto; Scaglione, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures represent fundamental tools for the comprehension of cellular phenomena both in normal and in pathological conditions. In particular, mechanical and chemical stimuli play a relevant role on cell fate, cancer onset and malignant evolution. Here, we use mechanically-tuned alginate hydrogels to study the role of substrate elasticity on breast adenocarcinoma cell activity. The hydrogel elastic modulus (E) was measured via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a remarkable range (150–4000 kPa) was obtained. A breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was seeded within the 3D gels, on standard Petri and alginate-coated dishes (2D controls). Cells showed dramatic morphological differences when cultured in 3D versus 2D, exhibiting a flat shape in both 2D conditions, while maintaining a circular, spheroid-organized (cluster) conformation within the gels, similar to those in vivo. Moreover, we observed a strict correlation between cell viability and substrate elasticity; in particular, the number of MCF-7 cells decreased constantly with increasing hydrogel elasticity. Remarkably, the highest cellular proliferation rate, associated with the formation of cell clusters, occurred at two weeks only in the softest hydrogels (E = 150–200 kPa), highlighting the need to adopt more realistic and a priori defined models for in vitro cancer studies. PMID:27734939

  15. Determining inter-fractional motion of the uterus using 3D ultrasound imaging during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Mariwan; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Behrens, Claus F.

    2014-03-01

    Uterine positional changes can reduce the accuracy of radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to; 1) Quantify the inter-fractional uterine displacement using a novel 3D ultrasound (US) imaging system, and 2) Compare the result with the bone match shift determined by Cone- Beam CT (CBCT) imaging.Five cervical cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Three of them underwent weekly CBCT imaging prior to treatment and bone match shift was applied. After treatment delivery they underwent a weekly US scan. The transabdominal scans were conducted using a Clarity US system (Clarity® Model 310C00). Uterine positional shifts based on soft-tissue match using US was performed and compared to bone match shifts for the three directions. Mean value (+/-1 SD) of the US shifts were (mm); anterior-posterior (A/P): (3.8+/-5.5), superior-inferior (S/I) (-3.5+/-5.2), and left-right (L/R): (0.4+/-4.9). The variations were larger than the CBCT shifts. The largest inter-fractional displacement was from -2 mm to +14 mm in the AP-direction for patient 3. Thus, CBCT bone matching underestimates the uterine positional displacement due to neglecting internal uterine positional change to the bone structures. Since the US images were significantly better than the CBCT images in terms of soft-tissue visualization, the US system can provide an optional image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. US imaging might be a better IGRT system than CBCT, despite difficulty in capturing the entire uterus. Uterine shifts based on US imaging contains relative uterus-bone displacement, which is not taken into consideration using CBCT bone match.

  16. A Compressive Sensing Approach for 3D Breast Cancer Microwave Imaging With Magnetic Nanoparticles as Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, Martina T; Scapaticci, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In microwave breast cancer imaging magnetic nanoparticles have been recently proposed as contrast agent. Due to the non-magnetic nature of human tissues, magnetic nanoparticles make possible the overcoming of some limitations of conventional microwave imaging techniques, thus providing reliable and specific diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, a Compressive Sensing inspired inversion technique is introduced for the reconstruction of the magnetic contrast induced within the tumor. The applicability of Compressive Sensing theory is guaranteed by the fact that the underlying inverse scattering problem is linear and the searched magnetic perturbation is sparse. From the numerical analysis, performed in realistic conditions in 3D geometry, it has been pointed out that the adoption of this new tool allows improving resolution and accuracy of the reconstructions, as well as reducing the number of required measurements.

  17. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol breast phantoms for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Isabela Miller; De Matheo, Lucas Lobianco; Costa Júnior, José Francisco Silva; Borba, Cecília de Melo; von Krüger, Marco Antonio; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic phantoms are objects that mimic some features of biological tissues, allowing the study of their interactions with ultrasound (US). In the diagnostic-imaging field, breast phantoms are an important tool for testing performance and optimizing US systems, as well as for training medical professionals. This paper describes the design and manufacture of breast lesions by using polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as the base material. Among the materials available for this study, PVCP was shown to be stable, durable, and easy to handle. Furthermore, it is a nontoxic, nonpolluting, and low-cost material. The breast's glandular tissue (image background) was simulated by adding graphite powder with a concentration of 1% to the base material. Mixing PVCP and graphite powder in differing concentrations allows one to simulate lesions with different echogenicity patterns (anechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic). From this mixture, phantom materials were obtained with speed of sound varying from 1379.3 to 1397.9ms(-1) and an attenuation coefficient having values between 0.29 and 0.94dBcm(-1) for a frequency of 1MHz at 24°C. A single layer of carnauba wax was added to the lesion surface in order to evaluate its applicability for imaging. The images of the phantoms were acquired using commercial ultrasound equipment; a specialist rated the images, elaborating diagnoses representative of both benign and malignant lesions. The results indicated that it was possible to easily create a phantom by using low-cost materials, readily available in the market and stable at room temperature, as the basis of ultrasonic phantoms that reproduce the image characteristics of fatty breast tissue and typical lesions of the breast.

  18. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol breast phantoms for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Isabela Miller; De Matheo, Lucas Lobianco; Costa Júnior, José Francisco Silva; Borba, Cecília de Melo; von Krüger, Marco Antonio; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic phantoms are objects that mimic some features of biological tissues, allowing the study of their interactions with ultrasound (US). In the diagnostic-imaging field, breast phantoms are an important tool for testing performance and optimizing US systems, as well as for training medical professionals. This paper describes the design and manufacture of breast lesions by using polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as the base material. Among the materials available for this study, PVCP was shown to be stable, durable, and easy to handle. Furthermore, it is a nontoxic, nonpolluting, and low-cost material. The breast's glandular tissue (image background) was simulated by adding graphite powder with a concentration of 1% to the base material. Mixing PVCP and graphite powder in differing concentrations allows one to simulate lesions with different echogenicity patterns (anechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic). From this mixture, phantom materials were obtained with speed of sound varying from 1379.3 to 1397.9ms(-1) and an attenuation coefficient having values between 0.29 and 0.94dBcm(-1) for a frequency of 1MHz at 24°C. A single layer of carnauba wax was added to the lesion surface in order to evaluate its applicability for imaging. The images of the phantoms were acquired using commercial ultrasound equipment; a specialist rated the images, elaborating diagnoses representative of both benign and malignant lesions. The results indicated that it was possible to easily create a phantom by using low-cost materials, readily available in the market and stable at room temperature, as the basis of ultrasonic phantoms that reproduce the image characteristics of fatty breast tissue and typical lesions of the breast. PMID:27153374

  19. A new method for real-time co-registration of 3D coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Stéphane; Didday, Rich; Slots, Tristan; Kayaert, Peter; Sonck, Jeroen; El-Mourad, Mike; Preumont, Nicolas; Schoors, Dany; Van Camp, Guy

    2014-06-01

    We present a new clinically practical method for online co-registration of 3D quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography (OCT). The workflow is based on two modified commercially available software packages. Reconstruction steps are explained and compared to previously available methods. The feasibility for different clinical scenarios is illustrated. The co-registration appears accurate, robust and induced a minimal delay on the normal cath lab activities. This new method is based on the 3D angiographic reconstruction of the catheter path and does not require operator's identification of landmarks to establish the image synchronization.

  20. Computer-aided classification of liver tumors in 3D ultrasound images with combined deformable model segmentation and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungeun; Kim, Jong Hyo; Park, Moon Ho; Kim, Ye-Hoon; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Cho, Baek Hwan; Woo, Kyoung-Gu

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we propose a computer-aided classification scheme of liver tumor in 3D ultrasound by using a combination of deformable model segmentation and support vector machine. For segmentation of tumors in 3D ultrasound images, a novel segmentation model was used which combined edge, region, and contour smoothness energies. Then four features were extracted from the segmented tumor including tumor edge, roundness, contrast, and internal texture. We used a support vector machine for the classification of features. The performance of the developed method was evaluated with a dataset of 79 cases including 20 cysts, 20 hemangiomas, and 39 hepatocellular carcinomas, as determined by the radiologist's visual scoring. Evaluation of the results showed that our proposed method produced tumor boundaries that were equal to or better than acceptable in 89.8% of cases, and achieved 93.7% accuracy in classification of cyst and hemangioma.

  1. Development of Ultrasound Tomography for Breast Imaging: Technical Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Duric, N; Littrup, P; Babkin, A; Chambers, D; Azevedo, S; Arkady, K; Pevzner, R; Tokarev, M; Holsapple, E

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medicine because of its benign characteristics and real-time capabilities. Physics theory suggests that the application of tomographic techniques may allow ultrasound imaging to reach its full potential as a diagnostic tool allowing it to compete with other tomographic modalities such as X-ray CT and MRI. This paper describes the construction and use of a prototype tomographic scanner and reports on the feasibility of implementing tomographic theory in practice and the potential of US tomography in diagnostic imaging. Data were collected with the prototype by scanning two types of phantoms and a cadaveric breast. A specialized suite of algorithms was developed and utilized to construct images of reflectivity and sound speed from the phantom data. The basic results can be summarized as follows: (1) A fast, clinically relevant US tomography scanner can be built using existing technology. (2) The spatial resolution, deduced from images of reflectivity, is 0.4 mm. The demonstrated 10 cm depth-of-field is superior to that of conventional ultrasound and the image contrast is improved through the reduction of speckle noise and overall lowering of the noise floor. (3) Images of acoustic properties such as sound speed suggest that it is possible to measure variations in the sound speed of 5 m/s. An apparent correlation with X-ray attenuation suggests that the sound speed can be used to discriminate between various types of soft tissue. (4) Ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve diagnostic imaging in relation to breast cancer detection.

  2. 3D In Vitro Model for Breast Cancer Research Using Magnetic Levitation and Bioprinting Method.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Fransisca; Godin, Biana

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment composition and architecture are known as a major factor in orchestrating the tumor growth and its response to various therapies. In this context, in vivo studies are necessary to evaluate the responses. However, while tumor cells can be of human origin, tumor microenvironment in the in vivo models is host-based. On the other hand, in vitro studies in a flat monoculture of tumor cells (the most frequently used in vitro tumor model) are unable to recapitulate the complexity of tumor microenvironment. Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell cultures of tumor cells have been proven to be an important experimental tool in understanding mechanisms of tumor growth, response to therapeutics, and transport of nutrients/drugs. We have recently described a novel tool to create 3D co-cultures of tumor cells and cells in the tumor microenvironment. Our method utilizes magnetic manipulation/levitation of the specific ratios of tumor cells and cells in the tumor microenvironment (from human or animal origin) aiding in the formation of tumor spheres with defined cellular composition and density, as quickly as within 24 h. This chapter describes the experimental protocols developed to model the 3D structure of the cancer environment using the above method. PMID:26820961

  3. Diffraction tomography applied to simulated ultrasound through breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, David H.

    2002-11-01

    Diffraction tomography is used to obtain images of sound speed and attenuation of a slice of breast tissue obtained from the Visible Woman data set. Simulated ultrasound data was generated using an acoustic propagation code run on the ASCI Blue Pacific computer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Data was generated for a slice of healthy tissue, and a slice with simulated lesions to determine the ability of the imaging method to detect various abnormalities in the breast. In addition, the time reversal operator for the slice was constructed from the data and the eigenfunctions backpropagated into the slice as first suggested by Mast [Mast, Nachman, and Waag, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(2)] to identify structures associated with each time reversal mode for both the healthy tissue and tissue with lesions.

  4. Far-infrared and 3D imaging for doneness assessment in chicken breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yang; Ibarra, Juan G.

    2001-03-01

    Sensor fusion of infrared imaging and range imaging was proposed to estimate internal temperature on just cooked chicken breasts. An infrared camera operating at 8-12 microns registered surface temperature of cooked meat samples, while a single line structured light system located the thickest region of the meat target. In this region of interest, a combined time series/neural network method is applied to correlate the internal and external temperatures during the cool-down process. Experimental verification in a pilot plant oven is presented. To ensure food safety, a mandatory regulation requires all poultry processors in the U.S.A to verify that all ready-to-eat products reach a minimum endpoint temperature (71¦C for chicken breast), but no current assay can do a non-invasively inspection of all the samples. The proposed system has the potential for on-line inspection of ready-to-eat meat for food quality and safety.

  5. Calibration and optimization of 3D digital breast tomosynthesis guided near infrared spectral tomography

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, Kelly E.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Shi, Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Poplack, Steven P.; Karellas, Andrew; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a three-dimensional multimodal digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) x-ray and non-fiber based near infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system is challenging but essential for clinical studies. Phantom imaging results yielded linear contrast recovery of total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration for cylindrical inclusions of 15 mm, 10 mm and 7 mm with a 3.5% decrease in the HbT estimate for each 1 cm increase in inclusion depth. A clinical exam of a patient’s breast containing both benign and malignant lesions was successfully imaged, with greater HbT was found in the malignancy relative to the benign abnormality and fibroglandular regions (11 μM vs. 9.5 μM). Tools developed improved imaging system characterization and optimization of signal quality, which will ultimately improve patient selection and subsequent clinical trial results. PMID:26713210

  6. The cytoskeletal organization of breast carcinoma and fibroblast cells inside three dimensional (3-D) isotropic silicon microstructures.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Strobl, Jeannine S; De Vita, Raffaella; Agah, Masoud

    2010-06-01

    Studying the cytoskeletal organization as cells interact in their local microenvironment is interest of biological science, tissue engineering and cancer diagnosis applications. Herein, we describe the behavior of cell lines obtained from metastatic breast tumor pleural effusions (MDA-MB-231), normal fibrocystic mammary epithelium (MCF10A), and HS68 normal fibroblasts inside three dimensional (3-D) isotropic silicon microstructures fabricated by a single-mask, single-isotropic-etch process. We report differences in adhesion, mechanism of force balance within the cytoskeleton, and deformability among these cell types inside the 3-D microenvironment. HS68 fibroblasts typically stretched and formed vinculin-rich focal adhesions at anchor sites inside the etched cavities. In contrast, MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells adopted the curved surfaces of isotropic microstructures and exhibited more diffuse vinculin cytoplasmic staining in addition to vinculin localized in focal adhesions. The measurement of cells elasticity using atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation revealed that HS68 cells are significantly stiffer (p < 0.0001) than MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells. Upon microtubule disruption with nocodazole, fibroblasts no longer stretched, but adhesion of MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 within the etched features remained unaltered. Our findings are consistent with tensegrity theory. The 3-D microstructures have the potential to probe cytoskeletal-based differences between healthy and diseased cells that can provide biomarkers for diagnostics purposes. PMID:20207413

  7. Evaluating the extent of cell death in 3D high frequency ultrasound by registration with whole-mount tumor histopathology

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, Roxana M.; Kolios, Michael C.; Moseley, Joanne L.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: High frequency ultrasound imaging, 10-30 MHz, has the capability to assess tumor response to radiotherapy in mouse tumors as early as 24 h after treatment administration. The advantage of this technique is that the image contrast is generated by changes in the physical properties of dying cells. Therefore, a subject can be imaged before and multiple times during the treatment without the requirement of injecting specialized contrast agents. This study is motivated by a need to provide metrics of comparison between the volume and localization of cell death, assessed from histology, with the volume and localization of cell death surrogate, assessed as regions with increased echogeneity from ultrasound images. Methods: The mice were exposed to radiation doses of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Ultrasound images were collected from each tumor before and 24 h after exposure to radiation using a broadband 25 MHz center frequency transducer. After radiotherapy, tumors exhibited hyperechoic regions in ultrasound images that corresponded to areas of cell death in histology. The ultrasound and histological images were rigidly registered. The tumors and regions of cell death were manually outlined on histological images. Similarly, the tumors and hyperechoic regions were outlined on the ultrasound images. Each set of contours was converted to a volumetric mesh in order to compare the volumes and the localization of cell death in histological and ultrasound images. Results: A shrinkage factor of 17{+-}2% was calculated from the difference in the tumor volumes evaluated from histological and ultrasound images. This was used to correct the tumor and cell death volumes assessed from histology. After this correction, the average absolute difference between the volume of cell death assessed from ultrasound and histological images was 11{+-}14% and the volume overlap was 70{+-}12%. Conclusions: The method provided metrics of comparison between the volume of cell death assessed from

  8. Infrared thermography and ultrasound C-scan for non-destructive evaluation of 3D carbon fiber materials: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai; Genest, Marc; Robitaille, Francois; Maldague, Xavier; West, Lucas; Joncas, Simon; Leduc, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    3D Carbon fiber polymer matrix composites (3D CF PMCs) are increasingly used for aircraft construction due to their exceptional stiffness and strength-to-mass ratios. However, defects are common in the 3D combining areas and are challenging to inspect. In this paper, Stitching is used to decrease these defects, but causes some new types of defects. Infrared NDT (non-destructive testing) and ultrasound NDT are used. In particular, a micro-laser line thermography technique (micro-LLT) and a micro-laser spot thermography (micro-LST) with locked-in technique are used to detect the micro-defects. In addition, a comparative study is conducted by using pulsed thermography (PT), vibrothermography (VT). In order to confirm the types of the defects, microscopic inspection is carried out before NDT work, after sectioning and polishing a small part of the sample..

  9. Automated computer optimization for 3D treatment planning of breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guangpei; Ahunbay, Ergun; Li, X. Allen

    2008-06-15

    A software package, capable of optimizing beam energy and weight and wedge angle and orientation in conjunction with commercial treatment planning system, has been developed to effectively generate three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans for breast irradiation with complicated dosimetry requirements. A nonlinear optimization procedure was utilized for the optimization. The study with 15 patient cases shows that the technique can reduce treatment planning time and effort significantly and can give comparable or slightly better dosimetry results. The package can also be used to optimize the beam weights of 3DCRT plans for other treatment sites.

  10. An automated breast ultrasound scanner with integrated photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Corey J.; Moradi, Hamid; Salcudean, Septimiu E.

    2016-03-01

    We have integrated photo-acoustic imaging into an automated breast ultrasound scanner (ABUS) with the goal of simultaneously performing ultrasound (US) and multi-spectral photo-acoustic tomography (PAT). This was accomplished with minimal change to the existing automated scanner by coupling laser light into an optical fiber for flexible and robust light delivery. We present preliminary tomography data acquired with this setup, including a simple resolution-testing geometry and a tissue phantom. Integrating PAT into the ABUS such that breast imaging is possible will require illumination from below the transducer dome. To that end, we are moving towards a fiber-based, localized illumination geometry which is fixed relative to the transducer. By illuminating locally (only near the current acquisition slice), this approach reduces overall light exposure at the tissue surface, allowing higher light intensity per acquisition (which translates to higher absorber contrast), while remaining below safe exposure thresholds. We present time-domain simulations of photo-acoustic imaging under non-uniform illumination conditions, and test one potential weighting scheme which can be used to extract absorber locations.

  11. A comparative study in ultrasound breast imaging classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran A.; Bez, Helmut E.

    2009-02-01

    American College of Radiology introduces a standard in classification, the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS), standardize the reporting of ultrasound findings, clarify its interpretation, and facilitate communication between clinicians. The effective use of new technologies to support healthcare initiatives is important and current research is moving towards implementing computer tools in the diagnostics process. Initially a detailed study was carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used appearance based classification algorithms, based on the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and two dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA). The study showed that these two appearance based classification approaches are not capable of handling the classification of ultrasound breast image lesions. Therefore further investigations in the use of a popular feature based classifier - Support Vector Machine (SVM) was conducted. A pre-processing step before feature based classification is feature extraction, which involve shape, texture and edge descriptors for the Region of Interest (ROI). The input dataset to SVM classification is from a fully automated ROI detection. We achieve the success rate of 0.550 in PCA, 0.500 in LDA, and 0.931 in SVM. The best combination of features in SVM classification is to combine the shape, texture and edge descriptors, with sensitivity 0.840 and specificity 0.968. This paper briefly reviews the background to the project and then details the ongoing research. In conclusion, we discuss the contributions, limitations, and future plans of our work.

  12. 3D conformal MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound prostate therapy: validation of numerical simulations and demonstration in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Burtnyk, Mathieu; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2010-11-21

    MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy uses a linear array of transducer elements and active temperature feedback to create volumes of thermal coagulation shaped to predefined prostate geometries in 3D. The specific aims of this work were to demonstrate the accuracy and repeatability of producing large volumes of thermal coagulation (>10 cc) that conform to 3D human prostate shapes in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom, and to evaluate quantitatively the accuracy with which numerical simulations predict these 3D heating volumes under carefully controlled conditions. Eleven conformal 3D experiments were performed in a tissue-mimicking phantom within a 1.5T MR imager to obtain non-invasive temperature measurements during heating. Temperature feedback was used to control the rotation rate and ultrasound power of transurethral devices with up to five 3.5 × 5 mm active transducer elements. Heating patterns shaped to human prostate geometries were generated using devices operating at 4.7 or 8.0 MHz with surface acoustic intensities of up to 10 W cm(-2). Simulations were informed by transducer surface velocity measurements acquired with a scanning laser vibrometer enabling improved calculations of the acoustic pressure distribution in a gel phantom. Temperature dynamics were determined according to a FDTD solution to Pennes' BHTE. The 3D heating patterns produced in vitro were shaped very accurately to the prostate target volumes, within the spatial resolution of the MRI thermometry images. The volume of the treatment difference falling outside ± 1 mm of the target boundary was, on average, 0.21 cc or 1.5% of the prostate volume. The numerical simulations predicted the extent and shape of the coagulation boundary produced in gel to within (mean ± stdev [min, max]): 0.5 ± 0.4 [-1.0, 2.1] and -0.05 ± 0.4 [-1.2, 1.4] mm for the treatments at 4.7 and 8.0 MHz, respectively. The temperatures across all MRI thermometry images were predicted within -0.3 ± 1.6 °C and 0

  13. Breast cancer detection: radiologists’ performance using mammography with and without automated whole-breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Judy; Lee, Sung-Jae; Comulada, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective Radiologist reader performance for breast cancer detection using mammography plus automated whole-breast ultrasound (AWBU) was compared with mammography alone. Methods Screenings for non-palpable breast malignancies in women with radiographically dense breasts with contemporaneous mammograms and AWBU were reviewed by 12 radiologists blinded to the diagnoses; half the studies were abnormal. Readers first reviewed the 102 mammograms. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) and Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) likelihood ratings were recorded with location information for identified abnormalities. Readers then reviewed the mammograms and AWBU with knowledge of previous mammogram-only evaluation. We compared reader performance across screening techniques using absolute callback, areas under the curve (AUC), and figure of merit (FOM). Results True positivity of cancer detection increased 63%, with only a 4% decrease in true negativity. Reader-averaged AUC was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.808 versus 0.701) and likelihood scores (0.810 versus 0.703). Similarly, FOM was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.786 versus 0.613) and likelihood scores (0.791 versus 0.614). Conclusion Adding AWBU to mammography improved callback rates, accuracy of breast cancer detection, and confidence in callbacks for dense-breasted women. PMID:20632009

  14. Increased extracellular matrix density decreases MCF10A breast cell acinus formation in 3D culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Lance, Amanda; Yang, Chih-Chao; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Dean, Delphine; Deitch, Sandy; Burg, Karen J L; Dréau, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to the generation and dynamic of normal breast tissue, in particular to the generation of polarized acinar and ductal structures. In vitro 3D culture conditions, including variations in the composition of the ECM, have been shown to directly influence the formation and organization of acinus-like and duct-like structures. Furthermore, the density of the ECM appears to also play a role in the normal mammary tissue and tumour formation. Here we show that the density of the ECM directly influences the number, organization and function of breast acini. Briefly, non-malignant human breast MCF10A cells were incubated in increasing densities of a Matrigel®-collagen I matrix. Elastic moduli near and distant to the acinus structures were measured by atomic force microscopy, and the number of acinus structures was determined. Immunochemistry was used to investigate the expression levels of E-cadherin, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-14 and ß-casein in MCF10A cells. The modulus of the ECM was significantly increased near the acinus structures and the number of acinus structures decreased with the increase in Matrigel-collagen I density. As evaluated by the expression of laminin, the organization of the acinus structures present was altered as the density of the ECM increased. Increases in both E-cadherin and MMP14 expression by MCF10A cells as ECM density increased were also observed. In contrast, MCF10A cells expressed lower ß-casein levels as the ECM density increased. Taken together, these observations highlight the key role of ECM density in modulating the number, organization and function of breast acini.

  15. Quantitative assessment of cancer vascular architecture by skeletonization of high-resolution 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images: role of liposomes and microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Molinari, F; Meiburger, K M; Giustetto, P; Rizzitelli, S; Boffa, C; Castano, M; Terreno, E

    2014-12-01

    The accurate characterization and description of the vascular network of a cancer lesion is of paramount importance in clinical practice and cancer research in order to improve diagnostic accuracy or to assess the effectiveness of a treatment. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of liposomes as an ultrasound contrast agent to describe the 3-D vascular architecture of a tumor. Eight C57BL/6 mice grafted with syngeneic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were injected with a bolus of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DSPC)-based non-targeted liposomes and with a bolus of microbubbles. 3-D contrast-enhanced images of the tumor lesions were acquired in three conditions: pre-contrast, after the injection of microbubbles, and after the injection of liposomes. By using a previously developed reconstruction and characterization image processing technique, we obtained the 3-D representation of the vascular architecture in these three conditions. Six descriptive parameters of these networks were also computed: the number of vascular trees (NT), the vascular density (VD), the number of branches, the 2-D curvature measure, the number of vascular flexes of the vessels, and the 3-D curvature. Results showed that all the vascular descriptors obtained by liposome-based images were statistically equal to those obtained by using microbubbles, except the VD which was found to be lower for liposome images. All the six descriptors computed in pre-contrast conditions had values that were statistically lower than those computed in presence of contrast, both for liposomes and microbubbles. Liposomes have already been used in cancer therapy for the selective ultrasound-mediated delivery of drugs. This work demonstrated their effectiveness also as vascular diagnostic contrast agents, therefore proving that liposomes can be used as efficient "theranostic" (i.e. therapeutic 1 diagnostic) ultrasound probes.

  16. Quantitative assessment of cancer vascular architecture by skeletonization of high-resolution 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images: role of liposomes and microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Molinari, F; Meiburger, K M; Giustetto, P; Rizzitelli, S; Boffa, C; Castano, M; Terreno, E

    2014-12-01

    The accurate characterization and description of the vascular network of a cancer lesion is of paramount importance in clinical practice and cancer research in order to improve diagnostic accuracy or to assess the effectiveness of a treatment. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of liposomes as an ultrasound contrast agent to describe the 3-D vascular architecture of a tumor. Eight C57BL/6 mice grafted with syngeneic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were injected with a bolus of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DSPC)-based non-targeted liposomes and with a bolus of microbubbles. 3-D contrast-enhanced images of the tumor lesions were acquired in three conditions: pre-contrast, after the injection of microbubbles, and after the injection of liposomes. By using a previously developed reconstruction and characterization image processing technique, we obtained the 3-D representation of the vascular architecture in these three conditions. Six descriptive parameters of these networks were also computed: the number of vascular trees (NT), the vascular density (VD), the number of branches, the 2-D curvature measure, the number of vascular flexes of the vessels, and the 3-D curvature. Results showed that all the vascular descriptors obtained by liposome-based images were statistically equal to those obtained by using microbubbles, except the VD which was found to be lower for liposome images. All the six descriptors computed in pre-contrast conditions had values that were statistically lower than those computed in presence of contrast, both for liposomes and microbubbles. Liposomes have already been used in cancer therapy for the selective ultrasound-mediated delivery of drugs. This work demonstrated their effectiveness also as vascular diagnostic contrast agents, therefore proving that liposomes can be used as efficient "theranostic" (i.e. therapeutic 1 diagnostic) ultrasound probes. PMID:24206210

  17. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M.; Reardon, Michael A.; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  18. A Low-Dose Ipsilateral Lung Restriction Improves 3-D Conformal Planning for Partial Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Tracy; Truong, Pauline T.; Salter, Lee; Graham, Cathy; Gaffney, Helene; Beckham, Wayne; Olivotto, Ivo A.

    2011-04-01

    In trials of 3D conformal external beam partial breast radiotherapy (PBRT), the dosimetrist must balance the priorities of achieving high conformity to the target versus minimizing low-dose exposure to the normal structures. This study highlights the caveat that in the absence of a low-dose lung restriction, the use of relatively en-face fields may meet trial-defined requirements but expose the ipsilateral lung to unnecessary low-dose radiation. Adding a low-dose restriction that {<=}20% of the ipsilateral lung should receive 10% of the prescribed dose resulted in successful plans in 88% of cases. This low-dose lung limit should be used in PBRT planning.

  19. Toward real-time bent-ray breast ultrasound tomography using GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labyed, Yassin; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a promising imaging modality that has the potential to improve the diagnosis and screening of breast cancer. We develop a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm to reconstruct sound-speed images of the breast. We investigate the acceleration of the algorithm using graphical processing units (GPUs). We adapt the algorithmic steps of ultrasound bent-ray tomography to a GPU cluster, and use multi-GPU scaling to speed up the computation. Our results show that it is very promising to use a GPU cluster with multiple GPU cards to achieve nearly real-time tomographic reconstruction.

  20. Breast imaging with ultrasound tomography: a comparative study with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, Bryan; Littrup, Peter; Duric, Neb; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Lupinacci, Jessica; Myc, Lukasz; Szczepanski, Amy; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype relative to magnetic resonance (MR) for imaging overall breast anatomy and accentuating tumors relative to background tissue. The study was HIPAA compliant, approved by the Institutional Review Board, and performed after obtaining the requisite informed consent. Twenty-three patients were imaged with MR and the UST prototype. T1 weighted images with fat saturation, with and without gadolinium enhancement, were used to examine anatomical structures and tumors, while T2 weighted images were used to identify cysts. The UST scans generated sound speed, attenuation, and reflection images. A qualitative visual comparison of the MRI and UST images was then used to identify anatomical similarities. A more focused approach that involved a comparison of reported masses, lesion volumes, and breast density was used to quantify the findings from the visual assessment. Our acoustic tomography prototype imaged distributions of fibrous stroma, parenchyma, fatty tissues, and lesions in patterns similar to those seen in the MR images. The range of thresholds required to establish tumor volume equivalency between MRI and UST suggested that a universal threshold for isolating masses relative to background tissue is feasible with UST. UST has demonstrated the ability to visualize and characterize breast tissues in a manner comparable to MRI. Thresholding techniques accentuate masses relative to background anatomy, which may prove clinically useful for early cancer detection.

  1. Multi-modal Ultrasound Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Valdés, L.; Pérez-Liva, M.; Camacho, J.; Udías, J. M.; Herraiz, J. L.; González-Salido, N.

    This work describes preliminary results of a two-modality imaging system aimed at the early detection of breast cancer. The first technique is based on compounding conventional echographic images taken at regular angular intervals around the imaged breast. The other modality obtains tomographic images of propagation velocity using the same circular geometry. For this study, a low-cost prototype has been built. It is based on a pair of opposed 128-element, 3.2 MHz array transducers that are mechanically moved around tissue mimicking phantoms. Compounded images around 360° provide improved resolution, clutter reduction, artifact suppression and reinforce the visualization of internal structures. However, refraction at the skin interface must be corrected for an accurate image compounding process. This is achieved by estimation of the interface geometry followed by computing the internal ray paths. On the other hand, sound velocity tomographic images from time of flight projections have been also obtained. Two reconstruction methods, Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and 2D Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (2D OSEM), were used as a first attempt towards tomographic reconstruction. These methods yield useable images in short computational times that can be considered as initial estimates in subsequent more complex methods of ultrasound image reconstruction. These images may be effective to differentiate malignant and benign masses and are very promising for breast cancer screening.

  2. Inhibitors of Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling revert the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells in 3D context.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Masahiro; Bissell, Mina J

    2016-05-31

    Loss of polarity and quiescence along with increased cellular invasiveness are associated with breast tumor progression. ROCK plays a central role in actin-cytoskeletal rearrangement. We used physiologically relevant 3D cultures of nonmalignant and cancer cells in gels made of laminin-rich extracellular matrix, to investigate ROCK function. Whereas expression levels of ROCK1 and ROCK2 were elevated in cancer cells compared to nonmalignant cells, this was not observed in 2D cultures. Malignant cells showed increased phosphorylation of MLC, corresponding to disorganized F-actin. Inhibition of ROCK signaling restored polarity, decreased disorganization of F-actin, and led to reduction of proliferation. Inhibition of ROCK also decreased EGFR and Integrinβ1 levels, and consequently suppressed activation of Akt, MAPK and FAK as well as GLUT3 and LDHA levels. Again, ROCK inhibition did not inhibit these molecules in 2D. A triple negative breast cancer cell line, which lacks E-cadherin, had high levels of ROCK but was less sensitive to ROCK inhibitors. Exogenous overexpression of E-cadherin, however, rendered these cells strikingly sensitive to ROCK inhibition. Our results add to the growing literature that demonstrate the importance of context and tissue architecture in determining not only regulation of normal and malignant phenotypes but also drug response.

  3. Influence of ultrasound power on acoustic streaming and micro-bubbles formations in a low frequency sono-reactor: mathematical and 3D computational simulation.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Baharak; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of ultrasound power amplitude on liquid behaviour in a low-frequency (24 kHz) sono-reactor. Three types of analysis were employed: (i) mechanical analysis of micro-bubbles formation and their activities/characteristics using mathematical modelling. (ii) Numerical analysis of acoustic streaming, fluid flow pattern, volume fraction of micro-bubbles and turbulence using 3D CFD simulation. (iii) Practical analysis of fluid flow pattern and acoustic streaming under ultrasound irradiation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In mathematical modelling, a lone micro bubble generated under power ultrasound irradiation was mechanistically analysed. Its characteristics were illustrated as a function of bubble radius, internal temperature and pressure (hot spot conditions) and oscillation (pulsation) velocity. The results showed that ultrasound power significantly affected the conditions of hotspots and bubbles oscillation velocity. From the CFD results, it was observed that the total volume of the micro-bubbles increased by about 4.95% with each 100 W-increase in power amplitude. Furthermore, velocity of acoustic streaming increased from 29 to 119 cm/s as power increased, which was in good agreement with the PIV analysis.

  4. Detailed characterization of 2D and 3D scatter-to-primary ratios of various breast geometries using a dedicated CT mammotomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jainil; Pachon, Jan H.; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P.

    2011-03-01

    With a dedicated breast CT system using a quasi-monochromatic x-ray source and flat-panel digital detector, the 2D and 3D scatter to primary ratios (SPR) of various geometric phantoms having different densities were characterized in detail. Projections were acquired using geometric and anthropomorphic breast phantoms. Each phantom was filled with 700ml of 5 different water-methanol concentrations to simulate effective boundary densities of breast compositions from 100% glandular (1.0g/cm3) to 100% fat (0.79g/cm3). Projections were acquired with and without a beam stop array. For each projection, 2D scatter was determined by cubic spline interpolating the values behind the shadow of each beam stop through the object. Scatter-corrected projections were obtained by subtracting the scatter, and the 2D SPRs were obtained as a ratio of the scatter to scatter-corrected projections. Additionally the (un)corrected data were individually iteratively reconstructed. The (un)corrected 3D volumes were subsequently subtracted, and the 3D SPRs obtained from the ratio of the scatter volume-to-scatter-corrected (or primary) volume. Results show that the 2D SPR values peak in the center of the volumes, and were overall highest for the simulated 100% glandular composition. Consequently, scatter corrected reconstructions have visibly reduced cupping regardless of the phantom geometry, as well as more accurate linear attenuation coefficients. The corresponding 3D SPRs have increased central density, which reduces radially. Not surprisingly, for both 2D and 3D SPRs there was a dependency on both phantom geometry and object density on the measured SPR values, with geometry dominating for 3D SPRs. Overall, these results indicate the need for scatter correction given different geometries and breast densities that will be encountered with 3D cone beam breast CT.

  5. A novel technique for teaching challenging ultrasound-guided breast procedures to radiology residents.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Joseph; Hardman, Rulon L; Dornbluth, Nella Carol; Kist, Ken A

    2013-10-01

    Ultrasound-guided breast interventions (core biopsies, needle-wire localizations, and fine-needle cyst aspirations) are common procedures performed by radiologists. Residents must gain competency in these interventions during training. Phantoms and simulations have been advocated for teaching interventions, and various systems are available for standard breast interventions. However, simulations for difficult/high-risk interventions are not readily available. We describe an inexpensive method for simulating difficult ultrasound-guided breast procedures, including masses over breast implants, deep masses along the chest wall, and lymph nodes adjacent to axillary vessels.

  6. Refraction corrected transmission ultrasound computed tomography for application in breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengying; Jackowski, Marcel; Dione, Donald P.; Varslot, Trond; Staib, Lawrence H.; Mueller, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We present an iterative framework for CT reconstruction from transmission ultrasound data which accurately and efficiently models the strong refraction effects that occur in our target application: Imaging the female breast. Methods: Our refractive ray tracing framework has its foundation in the fast marching method (FNMM) and it allows an accurate as well as efficient modeling of curved rays. We also describe a novel regularization scheme that yields further significant reconstruction quality improvements. A final contribution is the development of a realistic anthropomorphic digital breast phantom based on the NIH Visible Female data set. Results: Our system is able to resolve very fine details even in the presence of significant noise, and it reconstructs both sound speed and attenuation data. Excellent correspondence with a traditional, but significantly more computationally expensive wave equation solver is achieved. Conclusions: Apart from the accurate modeling of curved rays, decisive factors have also been our regularization scheme and the high-quality interpolation filter we have used. An added benefit of our framework is that it accelerates well on GPUs where we have shown that clinical 3D reconstruction speeds on the order of minutes are possible. PMID:20527557

  7. Ultrasound imaging of breast tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Umphrey, Heidi; Lockhart, Mark; Robbin, Michelle; Forero-Torres, Andres

    2015-09-01

    A novel image processing strategy is detailed for simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. After normalization and tumor segmentation, a global time-intensity curve describing contrast agent flow was analyzed to derive surrogate measures of tumor perfusion (i.e., peak intensity, time-to-peak intensity, area under the curve, wash-in rate, wash-out rate). A maximum intensity image was generated from these same segmented image sequences, and each vascular component was skeletonized via a thinning algorithm. This skeletonized data set and collection of vessel segments were then investigated to extract parameters related to the neovascular network and physical architecture (i.e., vessel-to-tissue ratio, number of bifurcations, vessel count, average vessel length and tortuosity). An efficient computation of local perfusion parameters was also introduced and operated by averaging time-intensity curve data over each individual neovascular segment. Each skeletonized neovascular segment was then color-coded by these local measures to produce a parametric map detailing spatial properties of tumor perfusion. Longitudinal DCE-US image data sets were collected in six patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 transducer and Definity contrast agent. Patients were imaged using US before and after contrast agent dosing at baseline and again at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24 after treatment started. Preliminary clinical results suggested that breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be associated with temporal and spatial changes in DCE-US-derived parametric measures of tumor perfusion. Moreover, changes in neovascular morphology parametric measures may also help identify any breast tumor response (or lack thereof) to systemic treatment. Breast cancer management from early detection to therapeutic

  8. Diffraction and coherence in breast ultrasound tomography: a study with a toroidal array

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound is commonly used as an adjunct to mammography for diagnostic evaluation of suspicions arising from breast cancer screening. As an alternative to conventional sonography that uses hand-held transducers, toroidal array probes that encircle the breast immersed in a water bath have been investigated for ultrasound tomography. In this paper, two sets of experiments performed with a prototype ultrasound scanner on a phantom and a human breast in vivo are used to investigate the effects of diffraction and coherence in ultrasound tomography. Reconstructions obtained with transmission diffraction tomography (TDT) are compared with conventional reflection imaging and computerized ultrasound tomography showing a substantial improvement. The in vivo tests demonstrate that TDT can image the complex boundary of a cancer mass and suggest that it can reveal the anatomy of milk ducts and Cooper's ligaments.

  9. Breast ultrasound tomography: bridging the gap to clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Janer, Roman; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Goll, Jeffrey; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Greenway, William

    2012-03-01

    Conventional sonography, which performs well in dense breast tissue and is comfortable and radiation-free, is not practical for screening because of its operator dependence and the time needed to scan the whole breast. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can significantly improve on these limitations, it is also not practical because it has long been prohibitively expensive for routine use. There is therefore a need for an alternative breast imaging method that obviates the constraints of these standard imaging modalities. The lack of such an alternative is a barrier to dramatically impacting mortality (about 45,000 women in the US per year) and morbidity from breast cancer because, currently, there is a trade-off between the cost effectiveness of mammography and sonography on the one hand and the imaging accuracy of MRI on the other. This paper presents a progress report on our long term goal to eliminate this trade-off and thereby improve breast cancer survival rates and decrease unnecessary biopsies through the introduction of safe, cost-effective, operatorindependent sonography that can rival MRI in accuracy. The objective of the study described in this paper was to design and build an improved ultrasound tomography (UST) scanner in support of our goals. To that end, we report on a design that builds on our current research prototype. The design of the new scanner is based on a comparison of the capabilities of our existing prototype and the performance needed for clinical efficacy. The performance gap was quantified by using clinical studies to establish the baseline performance of the research prototype, and using known MRI capabilities to establish the required performance. Simulation software was used to determine the basic operating characteristics of an improved scanner that would provide the necessary performance. Design elements focused on transducer geometry, which in turn drove the data acquisition system and the image reconstruction engine

  10. Corrections to traditional methods of verifying tangential-breast 3D monitor-unit calculations: use of an equivalent triangle to estimate effective fields.

    PubMed

    Prado, Karl L; Kirsner, Steven M; Erice, Rolly C

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for correctly estimating the effective field size of tangential-breast fields. The method uses an "equivalent triangle" to verify intact breast tangential field monitor-unit settings calculated by a 3D planning system to within 2%. The effects on verification calculations of loss of full scatter due to beam oblique incidence, proximity to field boundaries, and reduced scattering volumes are handled properly. The methodology is validated by comparing calculations performed by the 3D planning system with the respective verification estimates. The accuracy of this technique is established for dose calculations both with and without heterogeneity corrections.

  11. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Andrea; Atyeo, John; Cox, Jennifer; Rinks, Marianne; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to 3D

  12. Tracked regularized ultrasound elastography for targeting breast radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rivaz, Hassan; Foroughi, Pezhman; Fleming, Ioana; Zellars, Richard; Boctor, Emad; Hager, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Tracked ultrasound elastography can be used for guidance in partial breast radiotherapy by visualizing the hard scar tissue around the lumpectomy cavity. For clinical success, the elastography method needs to be robust to the sources of decorrelation between ultrasound images, specifically fluid motions inside the cavity, change of the appearance of speckles caused by compression or physiologic motions, and out-of-plane motion of the probe. In this paper, we present a novel elastography technique that is based on analytic minimization of a regularized cost function. The cost function incorporates similarity of RF data intensity and displacement continuity, making the method robust to small decorrelations present throughout the image. We also exploit techniques from robust statistics to make the method resistant to large decorrelations caused by sources such as fluid motion. The analytic displacement estimation works in real-time. Moreover, the tracked data, used for targeting the radiotherapy, is exploited for discarding frames with excessive out-of-plane motion. Simulation, phantom and patient results are presented.

  13. Quantification of Coupled Stiffness and Fiber Orientation Remodeling in Hypertensive Rat Right-Ventricular Myocardium Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking with Biaxial Testing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dae Woo; Sebastiani, Andrea; Yap, Choon Hwai; Simon, Marc A.; Kim, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST). RV pressure overload was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by pulmonary artery (PA) banding. The second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensors and Green-Lagrangian strain tensors were computed in the RV myocardium using the biaxial testing combined with 3D-UST. A previously established non-linear curve-fitting algorithm was applied to fit experimental data to a Strain Energy Function (SEF) for computation of myofiber orientation. The fiber orientations obtained by the biaxial testing with 3D-UST compared well with the fiber orientations computed from the histology. In addition, the re-orientation of myofiber in the right ventricular free wall (RVFW) along longitudinal direction (apex-to-outflow-tract direction) was noticeable in response to PH. For normotensive RVFW samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test spiraled from 20° at the endo-cardium to -42° at the epi-cardium (Δ = 62°). For PHRV samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test had much less spiral across tissue thickness: 3° at endo-cardium to -7° at epi-cardium (Δ = 10°, P<0.005 compared to normotensive). PMID:27780271

  14. Automatic registration between 3D intra-operative ultrasound and pre-operative CT images of the liver based on robust edge matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Woo Hyun; Kang, Dong-Goo; Lee, Duhgoon; Lee, Jae Young; Ra, Jong Beom

    2012-01-01

    The registration of a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) image with a computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance image is beneficial in various clinical applications such as diagnosis and image-guided intervention of the liver. However, conventional methods usually require a time-consuming and inconvenient manual process for pre-alignment, and the success of this process strongly depends on the proper selection of initial transformation parameters. In this paper, we present an automatic feature-based affine registration procedure of 3D intra-operative US and pre-operative CT images of the liver. In the registration procedure, we first segment vessel lumens and the liver surface from a 3D B-mode US image. We then automatically estimate an initial registration transformation by using the proposed edge matching algorithm. The algorithm finds the most likely correspondences between the vessel centerlines of both images in a non-iterative manner based on a modified Viterbi algorithm. Finally, the registration is iteratively refined on the basis of the global affine transformation by jointly using the vessel and liver surface information. The proposed registration algorithm is validated on synthesized datasets and 20 clinical datasets, through both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Experimental results show that automatic registration can be successfully achieved between 3D B-mode US and CT images even with a large initial misalignment.

  15. Breast ultrasound computed tomography using waveform inversion with source encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Matthews, Thomas; Anis, Fatima; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. Because they are based on the acoustic wave equation, waveform inversion-based reconstruction methods can produce images that possess improved spatial resolution properties over those produced by ray-based methods. However, waveform inversion methods are computationally demanding and have not been applied widely in USCT breast imaging. In this work, source encoding concepts are employed to develop an accelerated USCT reconstruction method that circumvents the large computational burden of conventional waveform inversion methods. This method, referred to as the waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) method, encodes the measurement data using a random encoding vector and determines an estimate of the speed-of-sound distribution by solving a stochastic optimization problem by use of a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Computer-simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the use of the WISE method. Using a single graphics processing unit card, each iteration can be completed within 25 seconds for a 128 × 128 mm2 reconstruction region. The results suggest that the WISE method maintains the high spatial resolution of waveform inversion methods while significantly reducing the computational burden.

  16. Prone Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiotherapy Without a Boost to the Tumor Bed: Comparable Toxicity of IMRT Versus a 3D Conformal Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, Matthew E.; Raza, Shahzad; Becker, Stewart J.; Jozsef, Gabor; Lymberis, Stella C.; Hochman, Tsivia; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, Keith J.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: We report a comparison of the dosimetry and toxicity of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) vs. intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) among patients treated in the prone position with the same fractionation and target of the hypofractionation arm of the Canadian/Whelan trial. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved protocol identified a consecutive series of early-stage breast cancer patients treated according to the Canadian hypofractionation regimen but in the prone position. Patients underwent IMRT treatment planning and treatment if the insurance carrier approved reimbursement for IMRT; in case of refusal, a 3D-CRT plan was used. A comparison of the dosimetric and toxicity outcomes during the acute, subacute, and long-term follow-up of the two treatment groups is reported. Results: We included 97 consecutive patients with 100 treatment plans in this study (3 patients with bilateral breast cancer); 40 patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 57 with IMRT. IMRT significantly reduced the maximum dose (Dmax median, 109.96% for 3D-CRT vs. 107.28% for IMRT; p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test) and improved median dose homogeneity (median, 1.15 for 3D-CRT vs. 1.05 for IMRT; p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test) when compared with 3D-CRT. Acute toxicity consisted primarily of Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis and occurred in 92% of patients. Grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 13% of patients in the 3D-CRT group and 2% in the IMRT group. IMRT moderately decreased rates of acute pruritus (p = 0.03, chi-square test) and Grade 2 to 3 subacute hyperpigmentation (p = 0.01, Fisher exact test). With a minimum of 6 months' follow-up, the treatment was similarly well tolerated in either group, including among women with large breast volumes. Conclusion: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy is well tolerated when treating patients in the prone position, even among those with large breast volumes. Breast IMRT significantly improves dosimetry but yields only a modest but

  17. Will supplemental screening ultrasound increase breast cancer overdiagnosis?

    PubMed

    Molleran, Virginia M

    2015-08-01

    Overdiagnosis refers to the detection of cancers that would never come to light in a patient's lifetime and are only identified by means of screening. Exactly how much overdiagnosis currently exists with screening mammography is uncertain. Because we do not know for certain which tumors would ultimately lead to death if left untreated and which would not, we cannot directly measure overdiagnosis and how best to estimate it is a matter of controversy. A conservative estimate of overdiagnosis with mammography would be on the order of 10%, but estimates have ranged as high as 54%. We know from multiple studies that ultrasound (US) screening mostly detects small, invasive, node-negative cancers; and in the ACRIN 6666 study, there was a greater tendency for US-only-detected tumors to be low grade than those detected with mammography. However, the population of patients undergoing screening US can be expected to differ from the average screening mammography population in that they will have higher breast density, they will be younger, and they may also have higher breast cancer risk than the population undergoing screening mammography. These factors may be associated with more aggressive tumors. There is no way to know whether we will be increasing overdiagnosis without performing a large randomized controlled study with very long-term follow-up. Even if some cancers are overdiagnosed with US, there will be a greater proportion of lethal breast cancers that are successfully treated because of screening US. The more important task is to learn how to correctly diagnose and appropriately treat nonlethal cancers.

  18. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3 Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T cell co-regulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an immunohistochemical analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients. PMID:25899053

  19. Optimal angular dose distribution to acquire 3D and extra 2D images for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-Seul; Lee, Haeng-Hwa; Gang, Won-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Young-Wook; Choi, JaeGu

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal non-uniform angular dose distribution to improve the quality of the 3D reconstructed images and to acquire extra 2D projection images. In this analysis, 7 acquisition sets were generated by using four different values for the number of projections (11, 15, 21, and 29) and total angular range (±14°, ±17.5°, ±21°, and ±24.5° ). For all acquisition sets, the zero-degree projection was used as the 2D image that was close to that of standard conventional mammography (CM). Exposures used were 50, 100, 150, and 200 mR for the zero-degree projection, and the remaining dose was distributed over the remaining projection angles. To quantitatively evaluate image quality, we computed the CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio) and the ASF (artifact spread function) for the same radiation dose. The results indicate that, for microcalcifications, acquisition sets with approximately 4 times higher exposure on the zero-degree projection than the average exposure for the remaining projection angles yielded higher CNR values and were 3% higher than the uniform distribution. However, very high dose concentrations toward the zero-degree projection may reduce the quality of the reconstructed images due to increasing noise in the peripheral views. The zero-degree projection of the non-uniform dose distribution offers a 2D image similar to that of standard CM, but with a significantly lower radiation dose. Therefore, we need to evaluate the diagnostic potential of extra 2D projection image when diagnose breast cancer by using 3D images with non-uniform angular dose distributions.

  20. Improved image guidance technique for minimally invasive mitral valve repair using real-time tracked 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Adam; Moore, John; Bainbridge, Daniel; Peters, Terry

    2016-03-01

    In the past ten years, numerous new surgical and interventional techniques have been developed for treating heart valve disease without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. Heart valve repair is now being performed in a blood-filled environment, reinforcing the need for accurate and intuitive imaging techniques. Previous work has demonstrated how augmenting ultrasound with virtual representations of specific anatomical landmarks can greatly simplify interventional navigation challenges and increase patient safety. These techniques often complicate interventions by requiring additional steps taken to manually define and initialize virtual models. Furthermore, overlaying virtual elements into real-time image data can also obstruct the view of salient image information. To address these limitations, a system was developed that uses real-time volumetric ultrasound alongside magnetically tracked tools presented in an augmented virtuality environment to provide a streamlined navigation guidance platform. In phantom studies simulating a beating-heart navigation task, procedure duration and tool path metrics have achieved comparable performance to previous work in augmented virtuality techniques, and considerable improvement over standard of care ultrasound guidance.

  1. Evaluation of a prototype 3D ultrasound system for multimodality imaging of cervical nodes for adaptive radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Danielle; Fava, Palma; Cury, Fabio; Vuong, Te; Falco, Tony; Verhaegen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Sonography has good topographic accuracy for superficial lymph node assessment in patients with head and neck cancers. It is therefore an ideal non-invasive tool for precise inter-fraction volumetric analysis of enlarged cervical nodes. In addition, when registered with computed tomography (CT) images, ultrasound information may improve target volume delineation and facilitate image-guided adaptive radiation therapy. A feasibility study was developed to evaluate the use of a prototype ultrasound system capable of three dimensional visualization and multi-modality image fusion for cervical node geometry. A ceiling-mounted optical tracking camera recorded the position and orientation of a transducer in order to synchronize the transducer's position with respect to the room's coordinate system. Tracking systems were installed in both the CT-simulator and radiation therapy treatment rooms. Serial images were collected at the time of treatment planning and at subsequent treatment fractions. Volume reconstruction was performed by generating surfaces around contours. The quality of the spatial reconstruction and semi-automatic segmentation was highly dependent on the system's ability to track the transducer throughout each scan procedure. The ultrasound information provided enhanced soft tissue contrast and facilitated node delineation. Manual segmentation was the preferred method to contour structures due to their sonographic topography.

  2. Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A. Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry; Schell, Scott; Goldstein, Neal S.; Kunzman, Jonathan; Gilbert, Sam; Martinez, Alvaro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

  3. In vivo evaluation of a breast-specific magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound system in a goat udder model

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A.; Todd, N.; Minalga, E.; Wang, Y.; Diakite, M.; Hadley, R.; Merrill, R.; Factor, R.; Neumayer, L.; Parker, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This work further evaluates the functionality, efficacy, and safety of a new breast-specific magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system in an in vivo goat udder model. Methods: Eight female goats underwent an MRgFUS ablation procedure using the breast-specific MRgFUS system. Tissue classification was achieved through the 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition of several contrasts (T1w, T2w, PDw, 3-point Dixon). The MRgFUS treatment was performed with a grid trajectory executed in one or two planes within the glandular tissue of the goat udder. Temperature was monitored using a 3D proton resonance frequency (PRF) MRI technique. Delayed contrast enhanced-MR images were acquired immediately and 14 days post MRgFUS treatment. A localized tissue excision was performed in one animal and histological analysis was performed. Animals were available for adoption at the conclusion of the study. Results: The breast-specific MRgFUS system was able to ablate regions ranging in size from 0.4 to 3.6 cm3 in the goat udder model. Tissue damage was confirmed through the correlation of thermal dose measurements obtained with realtime 3D MR thermometry to delayed contrast enhanced-MR images immediately after the treatment and 14 days postablation. In general, lesions were longer in the ultrasound propagation direction, which is consistent with the dimensions of the ultrasound focal spot. Thermal dose volumes had better agreement with nonenhancing areas of the DCE-MRI images obtained 14 days after the MRgFUS treatment. Conclusions: The system was able to successfully ablate lesions up to 3.6 cm3. The thermal dose volume was found to correlate better with the 14-day postablation nonenhancing delayed contrast enhanced-MR image volumes. While the goat udder is not an ideal model for the human breast, this study has proven the feasibility of using this system on a wide variety of udder shapes and sizes, demonstrating the flexibility that

  4. A comparison of needle tip localization accuracy using 2D and 3D trans-rectal ultrasound for high-dose-rate prostate cancer brachytherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Hoover, Douglas A.; Surry, Kathleen; Edirisinghe, Chandima; Montreuil, Jacques; D'Souza, David; Fenster, Aaron; Wong, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Background: High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) is a prostate cancer treatment option involving the insertion of hollow needles into the gland through the perineum to deliver a radioactive source. Conventional needle imaging involves indexing a trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe in the superior/inferior (S/I) direction, using the axial transducer to produce an image set for organ segmentation. These images have limited resolution in the needle insertion direction (S/I), so the sagittal transducer is used to identify needle tips, requiring a manual registration with the axial view. This registration introduces a source of uncertainty in the final segmentations and subsequent treatment plan. Our lab has developed a device enabling 3D-TRUS guided insertions with high S/I spatial resolution, eliminating the need to align axial and sagittal views. Purpose: To compare HDR-BT needle tip localization accuracy between 2D and 3D-TRUS. Methods: 5 prostate cancer patients underwent conventional 2D TRUS guided HDR-BT, during which 3D images were also acquired for post-operative registration and segmentation. Needle end-length measurements were taken, providing a gold standard for insertion depths. Results: 73 needles were analyzed from all 5 patients. Needle tip position differences between imaging techniques was found to be largest in the S/I direction with mean+/-SD of -2.5+/-4.0 mm. End-length measurements indicated that 3D TRUS provided statistically significantly lower mean+/-SD insertion depth error of -0.2+/-3.4 mm versus 2.3+/-3.7 mm with 2D guidance (p < .001). Conclusions: 3D TRUS may provide more accurate HDR-BT needle localization than conventional 2D TRUS guidance for the majority of HDR-BT needles.

  5. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer with a Dedicated Breast Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Merckel, Laura G.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Koehler, Max O.; Bongard, H. J. G. Desiree van den; Deckers, Roel; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Binkert, Christoph A.; Moonen, Chrit T.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A. Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2013-04-15

    Optimizing the treatment of breast cancer remains a major topic of interest. In current clinical practice, breast-conserving therapy is the standard of care for patients with localized breast cancer. Technological developments have fueled interest in less invasive breast cancer treatment. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a completely noninvasive ablation technique. Focused beams of ultrasound are used for ablation of the target lesion without disrupting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the beam path. MRI is an excellent imaging method for tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and evaluation of treatment results. The combination of HIFU and MR imaging offers an opportunity for image-guided ablation of breast cancer. Previous studies of MR-HIFU in breast cancer patients reported a limited efficacy, which hampered the clinical translation of this technique. These prior studies were performed without an MR-HIFU system specifically developed for breast cancer treatment. In this article, a novel and dedicated MR-HIFU breast platform is presented. This system has been designed for safe and effective MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer. Furthermore, both clinical and technical challenges are discussed, which have to be solved before MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  6. NOTE: Adaptation of a 3D prostate cancer atlas for transrectal ultrasound guided target-specific biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, R.; Werahera, P. N.; Barqawi, A.; Crawford, E. D.; Shinohara, K.; Simoneau, A. R.; Suri, J. S.

    2008-10-01

    Due to lack of imaging modalities to identify prostate cancer in vivo, current TRUS guided prostate biopsies are taken randomly. Consequently, many important cancers are missed during initial biopsies. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential clinical utility of a high-speed registration algorithm for a 3D prostate cancer atlas. This 3D prostate cancer atlas provides voxel-level likelihood of cancer and optimized biopsy locations on a template space (Zhan et al 2007). The atlas was constructed from 158 expert annotated, 3D reconstructed radical prostatectomy specimens outlined for cancers (Shen et al 2004). For successful clinical implementation, the prostate atlas needs to be registered to each patient's TRUS image with high registration accuracy in a time-efficient manner. This is implemented in a two-step procedure, the segmentation of the prostate gland from a patient's TRUS image followed by the registration of the prostate atlas. We have developed a fast registration algorithm suitable for clinical applications of this prostate cancer atlas. The registration algorithm was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU) to meet the critical processing speed requirements for atlas guided biopsy. A color overlay of the atlas superposed on the TRUS image was presented to help pick statistically likely regions known to harbor cancer. We validated our fast registration algorithm using computer simulations of two optimized 7- and 12-core biopsy protocols to maximize the overall detection rate. Using a GPU, patient's TRUS image segmentation and atlas registration took less than 12 s. The prostate cancer atlas guided 7- and 12-core biopsy protocols had cancer detection rates of 84.81% and 89.87% respectively when validated on the same set of data. Whereas the sextant biopsy approach without the utility of 3D cancer atlas detected only 70.5% of the cancers using the same histology data. We estimate 10-20% increase in prostate cancer detection rates

  7. Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) System: Development of Combined Transmission and Reflection Ultrasound with New Reconstruction Algorithms for Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P J; Duric, N; Azevedo, S; Chambers, D; Candy, J V; Johnson, S; Auner, G; Rather, J; Holsapple, E T

    2001-09-07

    Our Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system has been developed to the engineering prototype stage and generated unique data sets of both transmission and reflection ultrasound (US). This paper will help define the clinical underpinnings of the developmental process and interpret the imaging results from a similar perspective. The CURE project was designed to incorporate numerous diagnostic parameters to improve upon two major areas of early breast cancer detection. CURE may provide improved tissue characterization of breast masses and reliable detection of abnormal microcalcifications found in some breast cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Current breast US is limited to mass evaluation, whereas mammography also detects and guides biopsy of malignant calcifications. Screening with CURE remains a distant goal, but improved follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may represent a feasible breakthrough. Improved tissue characterization could result in reduction of the estimated one million benign biopsies each year in the United States, costing up to several billion dollars. Most breast calcifications are benign and comprise-80% of stereotactic biopsies guided by mammography. Ultrasound has the capability of finding some groups of calcifications, but further improvements in resolution should also address tissue characterization to define the soft tissue filling of ducts by DCIS. In this manner, CURE may be able to more accurately identify the malignant calcifications associated with progression of DCIS or early cancers. Currently, high-resolution US images of the breast are performed in the reflection mode at higher frequencies, which also limits depth of penetration. Reconstruction of reflection ultrasound images relies upon acoustic impedance differences in the tissue and includes only direct backscatter of the ultrasound signal. Resolution and tissue contrast of current US continues to improve with denser transducer arrays and image

  8. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2009-07-27

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  9. Ultrasound breast imaging using frequency domain reverse time migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, O.; Zuberi, M. A. H.; Pratt, R. G.; Duric, N.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ultrasonography reconstruction techniques, such as B-mode, are based on a simple wave propagation model derived from a high frequency approximation. Therefore, to minimize model mismatch, the central frequency of the input pulse is typically chosen between 3 and 15 megahertz. Despite the increase in theoretical resolution, operating at higher frequencies comes at the cost of lower signal-to-noise ratio. This ultimately degrades the image contrast and overall quality at higher imaging depths. To address this issue, we investigate a reflection imaging technique, known as reverse time migration, which uses a more accurate propagation model for reconstruction. We present preliminary simulation results as well as physical phantom image reconstructions obtained using data acquired with a breast imaging ultrasound tomography prototype. The original reconstructions are filtered to remove low-wavenumber artifacts that arise due to the inclusion of the direct arrivals. We demonstrate the advantage of using an accurate sound speed model in the reverse time migration process. We also explain how the increase in computational complexity can be mitigated using a frequency domain approach and a parallel computing platform.

  10. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haertl, Petra M.; Pohl, Fabian; Weidner, Karin; Groeger, Christian; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D{sub 15%} of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D{sub 15%} was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D{sub 10%} of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes.

  11. Histamine-functionalized copolymer micelles as a drug delivery system in 2D and 3D models of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuning; Lundberg, Pontus; Diether, Maren; Porsch, Christian; Janson, Caroline; Lynd, Nathaniel A.; Ducani, Cosimo; Malkoch, Michael; Malmström, Eva; Hawker, Craig J.; Nyström, Andreas M.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine functionalized block copolymers based on poly(allyl glycidyl ether)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAGE-b-PEO) were prepared with different ratios of histamine and octyl or benzyl groups using UV-initiated thiol-ene click chemistry. At neutral pH, the histamine units are uncharged and hydrophobic, while in acidic environments, such as in the endosome, lysosomes, or extracellular sites of tumours, the histamine groups are positively charged and hydrophilic. pH responsible polymer drug delivery systems is a promising route to site specific delivery of drugs and offers the potential to avoid side effects of systemic treatment. Our detailed in vitro experiments of the efficacy of drug delivery and the intracellular localization characteristics of this library of NPs in 2D and 3D cultures of breast cancer revealed that the 50% histamine-modified polymer loaded with DOX exhibited rapid accumulation in the nucleus of free DOX within 2 h. Confocal studies showed enhanced mitochondrial localization and lysosomal escape when compared to controls. From these combined studies, it was shown that by accurately tuning the structure of the initial block copolymers, the resulting self-assembled NPs can be designed to exploit histamine as an endosomal escape trigger and the octyl/benzyl units give rise to a hydrophobic core resulting in highly efficacious drug delivery systems (DDS) with control over intracellular localization. Optimization and rational control of the intracellular localization of both DDS and the parent drug can give nanomedicines a substantial increase in efficacy and should be explored in future studies. PMID:26257912

  12. Numerical modeling of the 3D dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles using the boundary integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Calvisi, Michael L.

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. While various models have been developed to describe the spherical oscillations of contrast agents, the treatment of nonspherical behavior has received less attention. However, the nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in therapeutic applications, for example, enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces, and causing tissue ablation. In this paper, a model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is described. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. The numerical model agrees well with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for encapsulated spherical bubbles. Numerical analyses of the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The oscillation amplitude and period decrease significantly due to the coating. A bubble jet forms when the amplitude of ultrasound is sufficiently large, as occurs for bubbles without a coating; however, the threshold amplitude required to incite jetting increases due to the coating. When a UCA is near a rigid boundary subject to acoustic forcing, the jet is directed towards the wall if the acoustic wave propagates perpendicular to the boundary. When the acoustic wave propagates parallel to the rigid boundary, the jet direction has components both along the wave direction and towards the boundary that depend mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance of the bubble from the boundary. In all cases, the jet

  13. Position tracking of moving liver lesion based on real-time registration between 2D ultrasound and 3D preoperative images

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, Chijun; Hyun Nam, Woo; Lee, Duhgoon; Ra, Jong Beom; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Registration between 2D ultrasound (US) and 3D preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) (or computed tomography, CT) images has been studied recently for US-guided intervention. However, the existing techniques have some limits, either in the registration speed or the performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a real-time and fully automatic registration system between two intermodal images of the liver, and subsequently an indirect lesion positioning/tracking algorithm based on the registration result, for image-guided interventions. Methods: The proposed position tracking system consists of three stages. In the preoperative stage, the authors acquire several 3D preoperative MR (or CT) images at different respiratory phases. Based on the transformations obtained from nonrigid registration of the acquired 3D images, they then generate a 4D preoperative image along the respiratory phase. In the intraoperative preparatory stage, they properly attach a 3D US transducer to the patient’s body and fix its pose using a holding mechanism. They then acquire a couple of respiratory-controlled 3D US images. Via the rigid registration of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a

  14. Non-rigid registration of a 3D ultrasound and a MR image data set of the female pelvic floor using a biomechanical model

    PubMed Central

    Verhey, Janko F; Wisser, Josef; Warfield, Simon K; Rexilius, Jan; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Background The visual combination of different modalities is essential for many medical imaging applications in the field of Computer-Assisted medical Diagnosis (CAD) to enhance the clinical information content. Clinically, incontinence is a diagnosis with high clinical prevalence and morbidity rate. The search for a method to identify risk patients and to control the success of operations is still a challenging task. The conjunction of magnetic resonance (MR) and 3D ultrasound (US) image data sets could lead to a new clinical visual representation of the morphology as we show with corresponding data sets of the female anal canal with this paper. Methods We present a feasibility study for a non-rigid registration technique based on a biomechanical model for MR and US image data sets of the female anal canal as a base for a new innovative clinical visual representation. Results It is shown in this case study that the internal and external sphincter region could be registered elastically and the registration partially corrects the compression induced by the ultrasound transducer, so the MR data set showing the native anatomy is used as a frame for the US data set showing the same region with higher resolution but distorted by the transducer Conclusion The morphology is of special interest in the assessment of anal incontinence and the non-rigid registration of normal clinical MR and US image data sets is a new field of the adaptation of this method incorporating the advantages of both technologies. PMID:15777475

  15. Potential impact of legislation mandating breast density notification: benefits, harms, and cost effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Schechter, Clyde; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Lee, Christoph I.; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; de Koning, Harry J.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Lehman, Constance D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background At least nineteen states have laws that require telling women with dense breasts and a negative screening mammogram to consider supplemental screening. The most readily available supplemental screening modality is ultrasound, yet little is known about its effectiveness. Objective To evaluate the benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts. Design Comparative modeling with 3 validated simulation models. Data Sources Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium; the medical literature. Target Population A contemporary cohort of women eligible for routine screening. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Payer. Interventions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts following a negative screening mammogram. Outcome Measures Breast cancer deaths averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, false positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations, costs, costs per QALY gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Supplemental ultrasound screening after a negative mammogram for women aged 50–74 with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts averted 0.36 additional breast cancer deaths (range across models: 0.14–0.75), gained 1.7 QALYs (0.9–4.7), and resulted in 354 false-positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations (345–421) per 1000 women with dense breasts compared with biennial screening by mammography alone. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $325,000 per QALY gained ($112,000-$766,000). Restricting supplemental ultrasound screening to women with extremely dense breasts cost $246,000 per QALY gained ($74,000-$535,000). Results of Sensitivity Analysis The conclusions were not sensitive to ultrasound performance characteristics, screening frequency, or starting age. Limitations Provider costs for coordinating supplemental ultrasound were not considered. Conclusions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts undergoing

  16. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are

  17. Development of transrectal diffuse optical tomography combined with 3D-transrectal ultrasound imaging to monitor the photocoagulation front during interstitial photothermal therapy of primary focal prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie; Weersink, Robert; Veilleux, Israel; Mayo, Kenwrick; Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Alam, Adeel; Trachtenberg, John; Wilson, Brian C.

    2013-03-01

    Interstitial near-infrared laser thermal therapy (LITT) is currently undergoing clinical trials as an alternative to watchful waiting or radical surgery in patients with low-risk focal prostate cancer. Currently, we use magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based thermography to monitor treatment delivery and determine indirectly the completeness of the target tissue destruction while avoiding damage to adjacent normal tissues, particularly the rectal wall. However, incomplete tumor destruction has occurred in a significant fraction of patients due to premature termination of treatment, since the photocoagulation zone is not directly observed. Hence, we are developing transrectal diffuse optical tomography (TRDOT), in combination with transrectal 3D ultrasound (3D-TRUS), to address his limitation. This is based on the large changes in optical scattering expected upon tissue coagulation. Here, we present forward simulations of a growing coagulated lesion with optical scattering contrast, using an established finite element analysis software platform (NIRFAST). The simulations were validated in tissue-simulating phantoms, with measurements acquired by a state-of-the-art continuous wave (CW) TRDOT system and a recently assembled bench-top CW-DOT system, with specific source-detector configurations. Two image reconstruction schemes were investigated and evaluated, specifically for the accurate delineation of the posterior boundary of the coagulation zone as the critical parameter for treatment guidance in this clinical application.

  18. A 3-D finite-element model for computation of temperature profiles and regions of thermal damage during focused ultrasound surgery exposures.

    PubMed

    Meaney, P M; Clarke, R L; ter Haar, G R; Rivens, I H

    1998-11-01

    Although there have been numerous models implemented for modeling thermal diffusion effects during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), most have limited themselves to representing simple situations for which analytical solutions and the use of cylindrical geometries sufficed. For modeling single lesion formation and the heating patterns from a single exposure, good results were achieved in comparison with experimental results for predicting lesion size, shape and location. However, these types of approaches are insufficient when considering the heating of multiple sites with FUS exposures when the time interval between exposures is short. In such cases, the heat dissipation patterns from initial exposures in the lesion array formation can play a significant role in the heating patterns for later exposures. Understanding the effects of adjacent lesion formation, such as this, requires a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the bioheat equation. Thus, we have developed a 3-D finite-element representation for modeling the thermal diffusion effects during FUS exposures in clinically relevant tissue volumes. The strength of this approach over past methods is its ability to represent arbitrarily shaped 3-D situations. Initial simulations have allowed calculation of the temperature distribution as a function of time for adjacent FUS exposures in excised bovine liver, with the individually computed point temperatures comparing favorably with published measurements. In addition to modeling these temperature distributions, the model was implemented in conjunction with an algorithm for calculating the thermal dose as a way of predicting lesion shape. Although used extensively in conventional hyperthermia applications, this thermal dose criterion has only been applied in a limited number of simulations in FUS for comparison with experimental measurements. In this study, simulations were run for focal depths 2 and 3 cm below the surface of pig's liver, using multiple

  19. Multiple capture locations for 3D ultrasound-guided robotic retrieval of moving bodies from a beating heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienphrapa, Paul; Ramachandran, Bharat; Elhawary, Haytham; Taylor, Russell H.; Popovic, Aleksandra

    2012-02-01

    Free moving bodies in the heart pose a serious health risk as they may be released in the arteries causing blood flow disruption. These bodies may be the result of various medical conditions and trauma. The conventional approach to removing these objects involves open surgery with sternotomy, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, and a wide resection of the heart muscle. We advocate a minimally invasive surgical approach using a flexible robotic end effector guided by 3D transesophageal echocardiography. In a phantom study, we track a moving body in a beating heart using a modified normalized cross-correlation method, with mean RMS errors of 2.3 mm. We previously found the foreign body motion to be fast and abrupt, rendering infeasible a retrieval method based on direct tracking. We proposed a strategy based on guiding a robot to the most spatially probable location of the fragment and securing it upon its reentry to said location. To improve efficacy in the context of a robotic retrieval system, we extend this approach by exploring multiple candidate capture locations. Salient locations are identified based on spatial probability, dwell time, and visit frequency; secondary locations are also examined. Aggregate results indicate that the location of highest spatial probability (50% occupancy) is distinct from the longest-dwelled location (0.84 seconds). Such metrics are vital in informing the design of a retrieval system and capture strategies, and they can be computed intraoperatively to select the best capture location based on constraints such as workspace, time, and device manipulability. Given the complex nature of fragment motion, the ability to analyze multiple capture locations is a desirable capability in an interventional system.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each

  1. Ultrasound as an Adjunct to Mammography for Breast Cancer Screening: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening with mammography can detect breast cancer early, before clinical symptoms appear. Some cancers, however, are not captured with mammography screening alone. Ultrasound has been suggested as a safe adjunct screening tool that can detect breast cancers missed on mammography. We investigated the benefits, harms, cost-effectiveness, and cost burden of ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography compared with mammography alone for screening women at average risk and at high risk for breast cancer. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, EBM Reviews, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, from January 1998 to June 2015, for evidence of effectiveness, harms, diagnostic accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. Only studies evaluating the use of ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography in the specified populations were included. We also conducted a cost analysis to estimate the costs in Ontario over the next 5 years to fund ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography in breast cancer screening for high-risk women who are contraindicated for MRI, the current standard of care to supplement mammography. Results No studies in average-risk women met the inclusion criteria of the clinical review. We included 5 prospective, paired cohort studies in high-risk women, 4 of which were relevant to the Ontario context. Adjunct ultrasound identified between 2.3 and 5.9 additional breast cancers per 1,000 screens. The average pooled sensitivity of mammography and ultrasound was 53%, a statistically significant increase relative to mammography alone (absolute increase 13%; P < .05). The average pooled specificity of the combined test was 96%, an absolute increase in the false-positive rate of 2% relative to mammography screening alone. The GRADE for this body of evidence was low. Additional annual costs of using breast ultrasound as an adjunct to mammography for high-risk women in Ontario contraindicated for MRI would range from $15,500 to $30,250 in the next 5 years

  2. SU-F-BRE-13: Replacing Pre-Treatment Phantom QA with 3D In-Vivo Portal Dosimetry for IMRT Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stroom, J; Vieira, S; Greco, C; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Herk, M van; Moser, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pre-treatment QA of individual treatment plans requires costly linac time and physics effort. Starting with IMRT breast treatments, we aim to replace pre-treatment QA with in-vivo portal dosimetry. Methods: Our IMRT breast cancer plans are routinely measured using the ArcCheck device (SunNuclear). 2D-Gamma analysis is performed with 3%/3mm criteria and the percentage of points with gamma<1 (nG1) is calculated within the 50% isodose surface. Following AAPM recommendations, plans with nG1<90% are approved; others need further inspection and might be rejected. For this study, we used invivo portal dosimetry (IPD) to measure the 3D back-projected dose of the first three fractions for IMRT breast plans. Patient setup was online corrected before for all measured fractions. To reduce patient related uncertainties, the three IPD results were averaged and 3D-gamma analysis was applied with abovementioned criteria . For a subset of patients, phantom portal dosimetry (PPD) was also performed on a slab phantom. Results: Forty consecutive breast patients with plans that fitted the EPID were analysed. The average difference between planned and IPD dose in the reference point was −0.7+/−1.6% (1SD). Variation in nG1 between the 3 invivo fractions was about 6% (1SD). The average nG1 for IPD was 89+/−6%, worse than ArcCheck (95+/−3%). This can be explained by patient related factors such as changes in anatomy and/or model deficiencies due to e.g. inhomogeneities. For the 20 cases with PPD, mean nG1 was equal to ArcCheck values, which indicates that the two systems are equally accurate. These data therefore suggest that proper criteria for 3D invivo verification of breast treatments should be nG1>80% instead of nG1>90%, which, for our breast cases, would result in 5% (2/40) further inspections. Conclusion: First-fraction in-vivo portal dosimetry using new gamma-evaluation criteria will replace phantom measurements in our institution, saving resources and yielding 3D

  3. False-negative rate of combined mammography and ultrasound for women with palpable breast masses.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carlos H F; Coopey, Suzanne B; Freer, Phoebe E; Hughes, Kevin S

    2015-10-01

    Mammography and ultrasound are often used concurrently for patients with palpable breast masses. While mammography has a false-negative rate of approximately 15 %, the addition of breast ultrasound decreases this rate among patients with palpable breast masses. There are no recent outcome data regarding the use of combined reporting of ultrasound and mammography (CRUM) for palpable breast masses. In this study, female patients presenting with a palpable breast mass were retrospectively reviewed in a prospectively entered database at a single institution from June 2010 to July 2013. All cancer cases and false-negative cases using CRUM were identified. Cancer rates, false-negative rates, and negative predictive values were calculated based on CRUM breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) categories. One thousand two hundreds and twelve female patients presenting with a palpable breast mass were identified; 77 % of patients had CRUM and 73 % (682/932) were BI-RADS 1-2. Despite negative or benign BI-RADS, 9.5 % of patients with BI-RADS 1-2 (65/682) underwent biopsy, compared to 96 % of patients with a BI-RADS 4-5 designation. Eighty-one patients were found to have cancers; 2 had BI-RADS 1-2 imaging. The false-negative rate of CRUM was 2.4 % (2/81). Since 69 % (428/617) of BI-RADS 1-2 patients without tissue diagnosis had follow-up imaging and/or clinical exam (median: 27 months, range: 2-62 months) and none developed cancers, the cancer rate and negative predictive value of a palpable breast mass of BI-RADS 1-2 were estimated to be 0.3 % (2/682) and 99.7 %, respectively. In the modern era of combined imaging for breast masses, a patient with a low suspicion exam can be reassured with a negative CRUM report.

  4. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 3 Lesions Detected on Whole-Breast Screening Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang Yu; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Hahn, Soo Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the incidence and cancer rate of probably benign lesions detected on bilateral whole-breast screening ultrasound (US), which corresponded to US Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3, and evaluated the proper management of those lesions. Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board in our institution, which waived informed patient consent. We retrospectively reviewed US images of 1,666 patients who underwent bilateral whole-breast screening US as a supplemental screening test to negative screening mammography or screening US only. The incidence, clinical course, and cancer rate of screening US-detected probably benign lesions corresponding to US BI-RADS category 3 were investigated, and the size and multiplicity of screening US-detected category 3 lesions were evaluated. Results Probably benign lesions corresponding to US BI-RADS category 3 were detected in 689 of 1,666 patients (41.4%) who underwent screening US. Among them, 653 had follow-up US images for at least 24 months, and among these 653, 190 (29.1%) had multiple bilateral category 3 lesions. Moreover, 539 of 1,666 patients (32.4%) had lesions ≤1 cm in size and 114 of 1,666 (6.8%) had lesions >1 cm (median, 0.82 cm; range, 0.3–4.2 cm). Four of the 653 patients (0.6%) showed suspicious interval changes and were categorized into BI-RADS category 4. Biopsy analysis confirmed only one lesion as invasive ductal carcinoma at the 6-month follow-up; another lesion was an intraductal papilloma and the remaining two were fibroadenomas. Overall cancer rate of the screening US-detected BI-RADS category 3 lesions was 0.2%. Conclusion The incidence of category 3 lesions detected on screening US only was very high, but the cancer rate was very low. Therefore, in an average-risk population, routine screening US is preferable over short-term follow-up for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected on whole-breast screening US. PMID:27721880

  5. SU-E-J-55: End-To-End Effectiveness Analysis of 3D Surface Image Guided Voluntary Breath-Holding Radiotherapy for Left Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M; Feigenberg, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of using 3D-surface-image to guide breath-holding (BH) left-side breast treatment. Methods Two 3D surface image guided BH procedures were implemented and evaluated: normal-BH, taking BH at a comfortable level, and deep-inspiration-breath-holding (DIBH). A total of 20 patients (10 Normal-BH and 10 DIBH) were recruited. Patients received a BH evaluation using a commercialized 3D-surface- tracking-system (VisionRT, London, UK) to quantify the reproducibility of BH positions prior to CT scan. Tangential 3D/IMRT plans were conducted. Patients were initially setup under free-breathing (FB) condition using the FB surface obtained from the untaged CT to ensure a correct patient position. Patients were then guided to reach the planned BH position using the BH surface obtained from the BH CT. Action-levels were set at each phase of treatment process based on the information provided by the 3D-surface-tracking-system for proper interventions (eliminate/re-setup/ re-coaching). We reviewed the frequency of interventions to evaluate its effectiveness. The FB-CBCT and port-film were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of 3D-surface-guided setups. Results 25% of BH candidates with BH positioning uncertainty > 2mm are eliminated prior to CT scan. For >90% of fractions, based on the setup deltas from3D-surface-trackingsystem, adjustments of patient setup are needed after the initial-setup using laser. 3D-surface-guided-setup accuracy is comparable as CBCT. For the BH guidance, frequency of interventions (a re-coaching/re-setup) is 40%(Normal-BH)/91%(DIBH) of treatments for the first 5-fractions and then drops to 16%(Normal-BH)/46%(DIBH). The necessity of re-setup is highly patient-specific for Normal-BH but highly random among patients for DIBH. Overall, a −0.8±2.4 mm accuracy of the anterior pericardial shadow position was achieved. Conclusion 3D-surface-image technology provides effective intervention to the treatment process and ensures

  6. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  7. Feasibility of Using Volumetric Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound with a 3-D Transducer to Evaluate Therapeutic Response after Targeted Therapy in Rabbit Hepatic VX2 Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Jung Hoon; Yoon, Soon Ho; Choi, Won Seok; Kim, Young Jae; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung-Ihn

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) with a 3-D transducer to evaluate therapeutic responses to targeted therapy. Rabbits with hepatic VX2 carcinomas, divided into a treatment group (n = 22, 30 mg/kg/d sorafenib) and a control group (n = 13), were evaluated with DCE-US using 2-D and 3-D transducers and computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging at baseline and 1 d after the first treatment. Perfusion parameters were collected, and correlations between parameters were analyzed. In the treatment group, both volumetric and 2-D DCE-US perfusion parameters, including peak intensity (33.2 ± 19.9 vs. 16.6 ± 10.7, 63.7 ± 20.0 vs. 30.1 ± 19.8), slope (15.3 ± 12.4 vs. 5.7 ± 4.5, 37.3 ± 20.4 vs. 15.7 ± 13.0) and area under the curve (AUC; 1004.1 ± 560.3 vs. 611.4 ± 421.1, 1332.2 ± 708.3 vs. 670.4 ± 388.3), had significantly decreased 1 d after the first treatment (p = 0.00). In the control group, 2-D DCE-US revealed that peak intensity, time to peak and slope had significantly changed (p < 0.05); however, volumetric DCE-US revealed that peak intensity, time-intensity AUC, AUC during wash-in and AUC during wash-out had significantly changed (p = 0.00). CT perfusion imaging parameters, including blood flow, blood volume and permeability of the capillary vessel surface, had significantly decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.00); however, in the control group, peak intensity and blood volume had significantly increased (p = 0.00). It is feasible to use DCE-US with a 3-D transducer to predict early therapeutic response after targeted therapy because perfusion parameters, including peak intensity, slope and AUC, significantly decreased, which is similar to the trend observed for 2-D DCE-US and CT perfusion imaging parameters. PMID:26365926

  8. Enhancing Macrophage Drug Delivery Efficiency via Co-Localization of Cells and Drug-Loaded Microcarriers in 3D Resonant Ultrasound Field.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel synthetic 3D molecular transfer system which involved the use of model drug calcein-AM-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (CAPMs) and resonant ultrasound field (RUF) with frequency of 1 MHz and output intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 for macrophage drug delivery was explored. We hypothesized that the efficiency of CAPMs-mediated drug delivery aided by RUF can be promoted by increasing the contact opportunities between cells and the micrometer-sized drug carriers due to effects of acoustic radiation forces generated by RUF. Through the fluoromicroscopic and flow cytometric analyses, our results showed that both DH82 macrophages and CAPMs can be quickly brought to acoustic pressure nodes within 20 sec under RUF exposure, and were consequently aggregated throughout the time course. The efficacy of cellular uptake of CAPMs was enhanced with increased RUF exposure time where a 3-fold augmentation (P < 0.05) was obtained after 15 min of RUF exposure. We further demonstrated that the enhanced CAPM delivery efficiency was mainly contributed by the co-localization of cells and CAPMs resulting from the application of the RUF, rather than from sonoporation. In summary, the developed molecular delivery approach provides a feasible means for macrophage drug delivery. PMID:26267789

  9. Enhancing Macrophage Drug Delivery Efficiency via Co-Localization of Cells and Drug-Loaded Microcarriers in 3D Resonant Ultrasound Field

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel synthetic 3D molecular transfer system which involved the use of model drug calcein-AM-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (CAPMs) and resonant ultrasound field (RUF) with frequency of 1 MHz and output intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 for macrophage drug delivery was explored. We hypothesized that the efficiency of CAPMs-mediated drug delivery aided by RUF can be promoted by increasing the contact opportunities between cells and the micrometer-sized drug carriers due to effects of acoustic radiation forces generated by RUF. Through the fluoromicroscopic and flow cytometric analyses, our results showed that both DH82 macrophages and CAPMs can be quickly brought to acoustic pressure nodes within 20 sec under RUF exposure, and were consequently aggregated throughout the time course. The efficacy of cellular uptake of CAPMs was enhanced with increased RUF exposure time where a 3-fold augmentation (P < 0.05) was obtained after 15 min of RUF exposure. We further demonstrated that the enhanced CAPM delivery efficiency was mainly contributed by the co-localization of cells and CAPMs resulting from the application of the RUF, rather than from sonoporation. In summary, the developed molecular delivery approach provides a feasible means for macrophage drug delivery. PMID:26267789

  10. 3D Reconstruction of Chick Embryo Vascular Geometries Using Non-invasive High-Frequency Ultrasound for Computational Fluid Dynamics Studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Germaine Xin Yi; Jamil, Muhammad; Tee, Nicole Gui Zhen; Zhong, Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2015-11-01

    Recent animal studies have provided evidence that prenatal blood flow fluid mechanics may play a role in the pathogenesis of congenital cardiovascular malformations. To further these researches, it is important to have an imaging technique for small animal embryos with sufficient resolution to support computational fluid dynamics studies, and that is also non-invasive and non-destructive to allow for subject-specific, longitudinal studies. In the current study, we developed such a technique, based on ultrasound biomicroscopy scans on chick embryos. Our technique included a motion cancelation algorithm to negate embryonic body motion, a temporal averaging algorithm to differentiate blood spaces from tissue spaces, and 3D reconstruction of blood volumes in the embryo. The accuracy of the reconstructed models was validated with direct stereoscopic measurements. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed to model fluid flow in the generated construct of a Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 27 embryo. Simulation results showed that there were divergent streamlines and a low shear region at the carotid duct, which may be linked to the carotid duct's eventual regression and disappearance by HH stage 34. We show that our technique has sufficient resolution to produce accurate geometries for computational fluid dynamics simulations to quantify embryonic cardiovascular fluid mechanics.

  11. Volumetric breast density evaluation by ultrasound tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myc, Lukasz; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Ranger, Bryan; Lupinacci, Jessica; Schmidt, Steven; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    Since a 1976 study by Wolfe, high breast density has gained recognition as a factor strongly correlating with an increased incidence of breast cancer. These observations have led to mammographic density being designated a "risk factor" for breast cancer. Clinically, the exclusive reliance on mammography for breast density measurement has forestalled the inclusion of breast density into statistical risk models. This exclusion has in large part been due to the ionizing radiation associated with the method. Additionally, the use of mammography as valid tool for measuring a three dimensional characteristic (breast density) has been criticized for its prima facie incongruity. These shortfalls have prompted MRI studies of breast density as an alternative three-dimensional method of assessing breast density. Although, MRI is safe and can be used to measure volumetric density, its cost has prohibited its use in screening. Here, we report that sound speed measurements using a prototype ultrasound tomography device have potential for use as surrogates for breast density measurement. Accordingly, we report a strong positive linear correlation between volume-averaged sound speed of the breast and percent glandular tissue volume as assessed by MR.

  12. Biofield potential simulation as a novel adjunt modality for continuous monitoring of breast lesions: a 3D numerical model.

    PubMed

    Ng, E Y K; Ng, W K; Acharya, U Rajendra

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. Early detection of this disease is the most effective way to reduce mortality. Although several new technologies show promise for improved capability of diagnosis, none have yet proved superior to traditional, X-ray film mammography in screening for breast cancer. More evaluation and development of new imaging tools and of promising skin surface electrical potential techniques is required and warranted. In the present study, we propose a theoretical three-dimensional, simplified and realistic model of the female breast to distinguish the surface biopotential in different types of breast abnormalities. We developed an inhomogeneous female breast model, closer to the actual, by considering the breast as a hemisphere with various layers of unequal thickness in supine condition. In order to determine the potential distribution developed, isotropic homogeneous conductivity was assigned to each of these compartments and the volume conductor problem was solved using finite element method. Richardson extrapolation for grid invariance test was used to ensure the results are of reliable accuracy. The simulation results show that the surface potentials are sensitive to the presence of tumour, location and placement of the electrodes.

  13. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Automated Breast Volume Scanner Compared with Handheld Ultrasound in Pre-Operative Breast Invasive Ductal Carcinomas: A Pilot Study of 51 Cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoli; Wei, Shuping; Xie, Yingdong; Guan, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the work described here was to compare the accuracy of conventional handheld ultrasound (HHUS) with that of an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) in 3-D assessment of pre-operative invasive ductal carcinomas. HHUS and ABVS were used in 51 patients to obtain the largest tumor diameter, tumor volume and tumor surface area. The volumetric measurement was also obtained from ABVS data with medical software. With tumor size and volume on pathology as the gold standard, Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare variability. Correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curves were established for all measurements for T2 classification. The correlation coefficients of all ABVS measurements were stronger than those of HHUS measurements, with the ABVS volumetric measurement significantly different with a higher accuracy of 88.24% (45/51) and predicting T-classification with higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (0.936). Therefore, 3-D measurements provide stronger correlations with pathology in tumor size measurement. However, more clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings.

  14. Noninvasive Characterization of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Using Textural Analysis of Quantitative Ultrasound Parametric Images

    PubMed Central

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The identification of tumor pathologic characteristics is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning but currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, we investigated a noninvasive quantitative ultrasound method for the characterization of breast tumors in terms of their histologic grade, which can be used with clinical diagnostic ultrasound data. METHODS: Tumors of 57 locally advanced breast cancer patients were analyzed as part of this study. Seven quantitative ultrasound parameters were determined from each tumor region from the radiofrequency data, including mid-band fit, spectral slope, 0-MHz intercept, scatterer spacing, attenuation coefficient estimate, average scatterer diameter, and average acoustic concentration. Parametric maps were generated corresponding to the region of interest, from which four textural features, including contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation, were determined as further tumor characterization parameters. Data were examined on the basis of tumor subtypes based on histologic grade (grade I versus grade II to III). RESULTS: Linear discriminant analysis of the means of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 79%. On the other hand, the linear combination of the texture features of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 82%. Finally, when both the means and textures of the parametric maps were combined, the best classification accuracy was obtained (86%). CONCLUSIONS: Textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provided discriminant information about different types of breast tumors. The use of texture features significantly improved the results of ultrasonic tumor characterization compared to conventional mean values. Thus, this study suggests that texture-based quantitative ultrasound analysis of in vivo breast tumors can provide complementary diagnostic information about tumor histologic characteristics

  15. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  16. Computer-aided assessment of tumor grade for breast cancer in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dar-Ren; Chien, Cheng-Liang; Kuo, Yan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an A Z of 0.7940.

  17. Database-guided breast tumor detection and segmentation in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Brunke, Shelby; Lowery, Carol; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasonography is a valuable technique for diagnosing breast cancer. Computer-aided tumor detection and segmentation in ultrasound images can reduce labor cost and streamline clinic workflows. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic system to detect and segment breast tumors in 2D ultrasound images. Our system, based on database-guided techniques, learns the knowledge of breast tumor appearance exemplified by expert annotations. For tumor detection, we train a classifier to discriminate between tumors and their background. For tumor segmentation, we propose a discriminative graph cut approach, where both the data fidelity and compatibility functions are learned discriminatively. The performance of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated on a large set of 347 images, achieving a mean contour-to-contour error of 3.75 pixels with about 4.33 seconds.

  18. Quantitative ultrasound characterization of locally advanced breast cancer by estimation of its scatterer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory; Wirtzfeld, Lauren; Wright, Frances C.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor

  19. Ultrasound image-guided core biopsy of the breast.

    PubMed

    Klimberg, V Suzanne; Rivere, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Results of partial mastectomy or lumpectomy including margin negativity are improved when preoperative diagnosis is obtained. This article describes the various techniques, instruments, utility and complications of the techniques. Emphasis is given to ultrasound (US) usefulness and effectiveness.

  20. Three-dimensional Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Response Assessment for Breast Cancer: A Comparison with Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wan-Ru; Tang, Lei; Wang, Deng-Bin; Chai, Wei-Min; Fei, Xiao-Chun; He, Jian-Rong; Chen, Man; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To compare the capabilities of three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MRI) in predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) among breast cancer patients, 48 patients with unilateral breast cancer were recruited for 3D-CEUS and DCE-MRI examinations both before and after NAC; pathology was used to validate the results. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Imaging feature changes and pathological vascularity response, including microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were calculated. Pathological complete response (pCR) and major histological response (MHR) were used as references. The 3D-CEUS score, DCE-MRI score, MVD and VEGF significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) after NAC. The correlations between Δ3D-CEUS and ΔDCE-MRI with pCR (r = 0.649, P < 0.0001; r = 0.639, P < 0.0001) and MHR (r = 0.863, P < 0.0001; r = 0.836, P < 0.0001) were significant. All scores showed significant differences between the pCR and non-pCR groups with folder changes of 0.1, 0.1, 2.4, and 2.3, respectively (P = 0.0001, <0.0001, <0.0001 and <0.0001). In conclusion, 3D-CEUS is effective in assessing the response of breast cancer patients undergoing NAC. PMID:27652518

  1. Simultaneous estimation of size, radial and angular locations of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast - A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Mishra, Subhash C

    2015-08-01

    This article reports a numerical study pertaining to simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of a malignant tumor in a 3-D human breast. The breast skin surface temperature profile is specific to a tumor of specific size and location. The temperature profiles are always the Gaussian one, though their peak magnitudes and areas differ according to the size and location of the tumor. The temperature profiles are obtained by solving the Pennes bioheat equation using the finite element method based solver COMSOL 4.3a. With temperature profiles known, simultaneous estimation of size, radial location and angular location of the tumor is done using the curve fitting method. Effect of measurement errors is also included in the study. Estimations are accurate, and since in the inverse analysis, the curve fitting method does not require solution of the governing bioheat equation, the estimation is very fast. PMID:26267509

  2. Comparison of breast density measurements made using ultrasound tomography and mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Krycia, Mark; Sherman, Mark E.; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-03-01

    Women with elevated mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue area to total breast area on a mammogram are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of a patient's breast, which can then be used to measure breast density. These sound speed images are useful because physical tissue density is directly proportional to sound speed. The work presented here updates previous results that compared mammographic breast density measurements with UST breast density measurements within an ongoing study. The current analysis has been expanded to include 158 women with negative digital mammographic screens who then underwent a breast UST scan. Breast density was measured for both imaging modalities and preliminary analysis demonstrated strong and positive correlations (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = 0.703). Additional mammographic and UST related imaging characteristics were also analyzed and used to compare the behavior of both imaging modalities. Results suggest that UST can be used among women with negative mammographic screens as a quantitative marker of breast density that may avert shortcomings of mammography.

  3. 3D-Pharmacophore Mapping Using 4D-QSAR Analysis for the Cytotoxicity of Lamellarins Against Human Hormone-Dependent T47D Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thipnate, Poonsiri; Liu, Jianzhong; Hannongbua, Supa; Hopfinger, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    4D-QSAR and 3D-pharmacophore models were built and investigated for the cytotoxicity using a training set of 25 lamellarins against human hormone dependent T47D breast cancer cells. Receptor-independent (RI) 4D-QSAR models were first constructed from the exploration of eight possible receptor binding alignments for the entire training set. Since the training set is small (25 compounds), the generality of the 4D-QSAR paradigm was then exploited to devise a strategy to maximize the extraction of binding information from the training set, and to also permit virtual screening of diverse lamellarin chemistry. 4D-QSAR models were sought for only six of the most potent lamellarins of the training set as well as another subset composed of lamellarins with constrained ranges in molecular weight and lipophilicty. This overall modeling strategy has permitted maximizing 3D-pharmacophore information from this small set of structurally complex lamellarins that can be used to drive future analog synthesis and the selection of alternate scaffolds. Overall, it was found that formation of an intermolecular hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions for substituents on the E ring most modulate the cytotoxicity against T47D breast cancer cells. Hydrophobic substitutions on the F-ring can also enhance cytotoxic potency. A complementary high throughput virtual screen to the 3D-pharmacophore models, a 4D-fingerprint QSAR model, was constructed using absolute molecular similarity. This 4D-fingerprint virtual high throughput screen permits a larger range of chemistry diversity to be assayed than the 4D-QSAR models. The optimized 4D-QSAR 3D-pharmacophore model has a LOO cross-correlation value of xv-r2 = 0.947, while the optimized 4D-fingerprint virtual screening model has a value of xv-r2 = 0.719. This work reveals that it is possible to develop significant QSAR, 3D-pharmacophore and virtual screening models for a small set of lamellarins showing cytotoxic behavior in breast cancer screens

  4. Establishment of a heterotypic 3D culture system to evaluate the interaction of TREG lymphocytes and NK cells with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tanya N; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel; Candy, Geoffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to investigate breast tumour progression are yielding information more reminiscent of the in vivo microenvironment. We have established a 3D Matrigel system to determine the interactions of luminal phenotype MCF-7 cells and basal phenotype MDA-MB-231 cells with regulatory T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Immune cells were isolated from peripheral blood using magnetic cell sorting and their phenotype validated using flow cytometry both before and after activation with IL-2 and phytohaemagglutinin. Following the establishment of the heterotypic culture system, tumour cells displayed morphologies and cell-cell associations distinct to that observed in 2D monolayer cultures, and associated with tissue remodelling and invasion processes. We found that the level of CCL4 secretion was influenced by breast cancer phenotype and immune stimulation. We further established that for RNA extraction, the use of proteinase K in conjunction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and only off-column DNA digestion gave the best RNA yield, purity and integrity. We also investigated the efficacy of the culture system for immunolocalisation of the biomarkers oestrogen receptor-α and the glycoprotein mucin 1 in luminal phenotype breast cancer cells; and epidermal growth factor receptor in basal phenotype breast cancer cells, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax embedded cultures. The expression of these markers was shown to vary under immune mediation. We thus demonstrate the feasibility of using this co-culture system for downstream applications including cytokine analysis, immunolocalisation of tumour biomarkers on serial sections and RNA extraction in accordance with MIQE guidelines. PMID:26215372

  5. Establishment of a heterotypic 3D culture system to evaluate the interaction of TREG lymphocytes and NK cells with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tanya N; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel; Candy, Geoffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to investigate breast tumour progression are yielding information more reminiscent of the in vivo microenvironment. We have established a 3D Matrigel system to determine the interactions of luminal phenotype MCF-7 cells and basal phenotype MDA-MB-231 cells with regulatory T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Immune cells were isolated from peripheral blood using magnetic cell sorting and their phenotype validated using flow cytometry both before and after activation with IL-2 and phytohaemagglutinin. Following the establishment of the heterotypic culture system, tumour cells displayed morphologies and cell-cell associations distinct to that observed in 2D monolayer cultures, and associated with tissue remodelling and invasion processes. We found that the level of CCL4 secretion was influenced by breast cancer phenotype and immune stimulation. We further established that for RNA extraction, the use of proteinase K in conjunction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and only off-column DNA digestion gave the best RNA yield, purity and integrity. We also investigated the efficacy of the culture system for immunolocalisation of the biomarkers oestrogen receptor-α and the glycoprotein mucin 1 in luminal phenotype breast cancer cells; and epidermal growth factor receptor in basal phenotype breast cancer cells, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax embedded cultures. The expression of these markers was shown to vary under immune mediation. We thus demonstrate the feasibility of using this co-culture system for downstream applications including cytokine analysis, immunolocalisation of tumour biomarkers on serial sections and RNA extraction in accordance with MIQE guidelines.

  6. Biological Modeling Based Outcome Analysis (BMOA) in 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT) Treatments for Lung and Breast Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyakuryal, Anil; Chen, Chiu-Hao; Dhungana, Sudarshan

    2010-03-01

    3DCRT treatments are the most commonly used techniques in the treatment of lung and breast cancers. The purpose of this study was to perform the BMOA of the 3DCRT plans designed for the treatment of breast and lung cancers utilizing HART program (Med. Phys. 36, p.2547(2009)). The BMOA parameters include normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), tumor control probability (TCP), and the complication-free tumor control probability (P+). The 3DCRT plans were designed for (i) the palliative treatment of 8 left lung cancer patients (CPs) at early stage (m=8), (ii) the curative treatment of 8 left lung CPs at stages II and III (k=8), and (iii) the curative treatment of 8 left breast CPs (n=8). The NTCPs were noticeably small (<2%) for heart, lungs and cord in both types of treatments except for the esophagus in lung CPs (k=8). Assessments of the TCPs and P+s also indicated good improvements in local tumor control in all plans. Homogeneous target coverage and improved dose conformality were the major advantages of such techniques in the treatment of breast cancer. These achievements support the efficacy of the 3DCRT techniques for the efficient treatment of various types of cancer.

  7. Generation of a suite of 3D computer-generated breast phantoms from a limited set of human subject data

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Christina M. L.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Segars, W. Paul; Veress, Alexander I.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously reported on a three-dimensional computer-generated breast phantom, based on empirical human image data, including a realistic finite-element based compression model that was capable of simulating multimodality imaging data. The computerized breast phantoms are a hybrid of two phantom generation techniques, combining empirical breast CT (bCT) data with flexible computer graphics techniques. However, to date, these phantoms have been based on single human subjects. In this paper, the authors report on a new method to generate multiple phantoms, simulating additional subjects from the limited set of original dedicated breast CT data. The authors developed an image morphing technique to construct new phantoms by gradually transitioning between two human subject datasets, with the potential to generate hundreds of additional pseudoindependent phantoms from the limited bCT cases. The authors conducted a preliminary subjective assessment with a limited number of observers (n= 4) to illustrate how realistic the simulated images generated with the pseudoindependent phantoms appeared. Methods: Several mesh-based geometric transformations were developed to generate distorted breast datasets from the original human subject data. Segmented bCT data from two different human subjects were used as the 'base' and 'target' for morphing. Several combinations of transformations were applied to morph between the 'base' and 'target' datasets such as changing the breast shape, rotating the glandular data, and changing the distribution of the glandular tissue. Following the morphing, regions of skin and fat were assigned to the morphed dataset in order to appropriately assign mechanical properties during the compression simulation. The resulting morphed breast was compressed using a finite element algorithm and simulated mammograms were generated using techniques described previously. Sixty-two simulated mammograms, generated from morphing three human

  8. Imaging results of multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system designed for breast diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Opieliński, Krzysztof J; Pruchnicki, Piotr; Gudra, Tadeusz; Podgórski, Przemysław; Kurcz, Jacek; Kraśnicki, Tomasz; Sąsiadek, Marek; Majewski, Jarosław

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, in the era of common computerization, transmission and reflection methods are intensively developed in addition to improving classical ultrasound methods (US) for imaging of tissue structure, in particular ultrasound transmission tomography UTT (analogous to computed tomography CT which uses X-rays) and reflection tomography URT (based on the synthetic aperture method used in radar imaging techniques). This paper presents and analyses the results of ultrasound transmission tomography imaging of the internal structure of the female breast biopsy phantom CIRS Model 052A and the results of the ultrasound reflection tomography imaging of a wire sample. Imaging was performed using a multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system developed with the participation of a private investor. The results were compared with the results of imaging obtained using dual energy CT, MR mammography and conventional US method. The obtained results indicate that the developed UTT and URT methods, after the acceleration of the scanning process, thus enabling in vivo examination, may be successfully used for detection and detailed characterization of breast lesions in women. PMID:25759234

  9. Minimum slice spacing required to reconstruct 3D shape for serial sections of breast tissue for comparison with medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Sara; Eiben, Bjoern; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Hipwell, John; Hermsen, Meyke; van der Laak, Jeroen; Pinder, Sarah; Bult, Peter; Hawkes, David

    2015-03-01

    There is currently an increasing interest in combining the information obtained from radiology and histology with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how different tumour morphologies can lead to distinctive radiological signs which might predict overall treatment outcome. Relating information at different resolution scales is challenging. Reconstructing 3D volumes from histology images could be the key to interpreting and relating the radiological image signal to tissue microstructure. The goal of this study is to determine the minimum sampling (maximum spacing between histological sections through a fixed surgical specimen) required to create a 3D reconstruction of the specimen to a specific tolerance. We present initial results for one lumpectomy specimen case where 33 consecutive histology slides were acquired.

  10. Multiple imputation as a means to assess Mammographic vs. Ultrasound technology in Determine Breast Cancer Recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helenowski, Irene B.; Demirtas, Hakan; Khan, Seema; Eladoumikdachi, Firas; Shidfar, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Tumor size based on mammographic and ultrasound data are two methods used in predicting recurrence in breast cancer patients. Which technology offers better determination of diagnosis is an ongoing debate among radiologists, biophysicists, and other clinicians, however. Further complications in assessing the performance of each technology arise from missing data. One approach to remedy this problem may involve multiple imputation. Here, we therefore examine how imputation affects our assessment of the relationship between recurrence and tumor size determined either by mammography of ultrasound technology. We specifically employ the semi-parametric approach for imputing mixed continuous and binary data as presented in Helenowski and Demirtas (2013).

  11. Using ultrasound tomography to identify the distributions of density throughout the breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark E.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2016-04-01

    Women with high breast density are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. Breast density has usually been defined using mammography as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue to total breast area. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can also be used to measure breast density. UST creates tomographic sound speed images of the patient's breast which is useful as sound speed is directly proportional to tissue density. Furthermore, the volumetric and quantitative information contained in the sound speed images can be used to describe the distribution of breast density. The work presented here measures the UST sound speed density distributions of 165 women with negative screening mammography. Frequency distributions of the sound speed voxel information were examined for each patient. In a preliminary analysis, the UST sound speed distributions were averaged across patients and grouped by various patient and density-related factors (e.g., age, body mass index, menopausal status, average mammographic breast density). It was found that differences in the distribution of density could be easily visualized for different patient groupings. Furthermore, findings suggest that the shape of the distributions may be used to identify participants with varying amounts of dense and non-dense tissue.

  12. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  13. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and reconstruct images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  14. Fourier-based shape feature extraction technique for computer-aided B-Mode ultrasound diagnosis of breast tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Chang, Chu-Ho; Park, Jinman; Park, Moonho; Woo, Kyoung-Gu; Ko, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of breast tumor is critical in determining the best possible treatment approach. Due to its superiority compared with mammography in its possibility to detect lesions in dense breast tissue, ultrasound imaging has become an important modality in breast tumor detection and classification. This paper discusses the novel Fourier-based shape feature extraction techniques that provide enhanced classification accuracy for breast tumor in the computer-aided B-mode ultrasound diagnosis system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were performed using 4,107 ultrasound images with 2,508 malignancy cases. Experimental results show that the breast tumor classification accuracy of the proposed technique was 15.8%, 5.43%, 17.32%, and 13.86% higher than the previous shape features such as number of protuberances, number of depressions, lobulation index, and dissimilarity, respectively. PMID:23367430

  15. Fourier-based shape feature extraction technique for computer-aided B-Mode ultrasound diagnosis of breast tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Chang, Chu-Ho; Park, Jinman; Park, Moonho; Woo, Kyoung-Gu; Ko, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of breast tumor is critical in determining the best possible treatment approach. Due to its superiority compared with mammography in its possibility to detect lesions in dense breast tissue, ultrasound imaging has become an important modality in breast tumor detection and classification. This paper discusses the novel Fourier-based shape feature extraction techniques that provide enhanced classification accuracy for breast tumor in the computer-aided B-mode ultrasound diagnosis system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were performed using 4,107 ultrasound images with 2,508 malignancy cases. Experimental results show that the breast tumor classification accuracy of the proposed technique was 15.8%, 5.43%, 17.32%, and 13.86% higher than the previous shape features such as number of protuberances, number of depressions, lobulation index, and dissimilarity, respectively.

  16. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  17. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two- ... sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother's pregnancy ...

  18. SU-E-T-632: A Dosimetric Comparison of the 3D-CRT Planning of Chest Wall in Post-Mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients, with and Without Breast Board Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Muzaffar, Ambreen; Masood, Asif; Ullah, Haseeb; Mehmood, Kashif; Qasim, Uzma; Afridi, M. Ali; Khan, Salim; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Breast boards are used in breast radiation which increases normal lung and heart doses, when supraclavicular field is included. Therefore, in this study through dose volume histogram (DVHs), lung and heart doses comparison was done between two different setups i.e. with and without breast board, for the treatment of left chest wall and supraclavicular fossa in postmastectomy left breast cancer. Methods: In this study, CT-Simulation scans of ten breast cancer patients were done with and without breast board, at Shifa International Hospitals Islamabad, to investigate the differences between the two different setups of the irradiation of left chest wall in terms of lung and heart doses. For immobilization, support under the neck, shoulders and arms was used. Precise PLAN 2.15 treatment planning system (TPS) was used for 3D-CRT planning. The total prescribed dose for both the plans was 5000 cGy/25 fractions. The chest wall was treated with a pair of tangential photon fields and the upper supraclavicular nodal regions were treated with an anterior photon field. A mono-isocentric technique was used to match the tangential fields with the anterior field at the isocentre. The dose volume histogram was used to compare the doses of heart and ipsilateral lung. Results: Both the plans of each patient were generated and compared. DVH results showed that for the same PTV dose coverage, plans without breast board resulted in a reduction of lung and heart doses compared with the plans with breast board. There was significant reductions in V20, V<25 and mean doses for lung and V<9 and mean doses for heart. Conclusion: In comparison of both the plans, setup without breast board significantly reduced the dose-volume of the ipsilateral lung and heart in left chest wall patients. Waived registration request has been submitted.

  19. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Wu; Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue; Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  20. Tracking the dynamic seroma cavity using fiducial markers in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to perform an analysis of the changes in the dynamic seroma cavity based on fiducial markers in early stage breast cancer patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods: A prospective, single arm trial was designed to investigate the utility of gold fiducial markers in image guided APBI using 3D-CRT. At the time of lumpectomy, four to six suture-type gold fiducial markers were sutured to the walls of the cavity. Patients were treated with a fractionation scheme consisting of 15 fractions with a fractional dose of 333 cGy. Treatment design and planning followed NSABP/RTOG B-39 guidelines. During radiation treatment, daily kV imaging was performed and the markers were localized and tracked. The change in distance between fiducial markers was analyzed based on the planning CT and daily kV images. Results: Thirty-four patients were simulated at an average of 28 days after surgery, and started the treatment on an average of 39 days after surgery. The average intermarker distance (AiMD) between fiducial markers was strongly correlated to seroma volume. The average reduction in AiMD was 19.1% (range 0.0%-41.4%) and 10.8% (range 0.0%-35.6%) for all the patients between simulation and completion of radiotherapy, and between simulation and beginning of radiotherapy, respectively. The change of AiMD fits an exponential function with a half-life of seroma shrinkage. The average half-life for seroma shrinkage was 15 days. After accounting for the reduction which started to occur after surgery through CT simulation and treatment, radiation was found to have minimal impact on the distance change over the treatment course. Conclusions: Using the marker distance change as a surrogate for seroma volume, it appears that the seroma cavity experiences an exponential reduction in size. The change in seroma size has implications in the size of

  1. High-resolution quantitative whole-breast ultrasound: in vivo application using frequency-domain waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gursharan Y. S.; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Duric, Neb

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography is a promising modality for breast imaging. Many current ultrasound tomography imaging algorithms are based on ray theory and assume a homogeneous background which is inaccurate for complex heterogeneous regions. They fail when the size of lesions approaches the wavelength of ultrasound used. Therefore, to accurately image small lesions, wave theory must be used in ultrasound imaging algorithms to properly handle the heterogeneous nature of breast tissue and the diffraction effects that it induces. Using frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography, we present sound speed reconstructions of both a tissue-mimicking breast phantom and in vivo data sets. Significant improvements in contrast and resolution are made upon the previous ray based methods. Where it might have been difficult to differentiate a high sound speed tumor from bulk breast parenchyma using ray based methods, waveform tomography improves the shape and margins of a tumor to help more accurately differentiate it from the bulk breast tissue. Waveform tomography sound speed imaging might improve the ability of finding lesions in very dense tissues, a difficult environment for mammography. By comparing the sound speed images produced by waveform tomography to MRI, we see that the complex structures in waveform tomography are consistent with those in MRI. The robustness of the method is established by reconstructing data acquired by two different ultrasound tomography prototypes.

  2. MRI-compatible ultrasound heating system with ring-shaped phased arrays for breast tumor thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Nien; Chen, Guan-Ming; Lin, Bo-Sian; Lien, Pi-Hsien; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Chen, Gin-Shin; Lin, Win-Li

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound transducers can carry out precise and efficient power deposition for tumor thermal therapy under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging. For a better heating, organ-specific ultrasound transducers with precision location control system should be developed for tumors located at various organs. It is feasible to perform a better heating for breast tumor thermal therapy with a ring-shaped ultrasound phased-array transducer. In this study, we developed ring-shaped phased-array ultrasound transducers with 1.0 and 2.5 MHz and a precision location control system to drive the transducers to the desired location to sonicate the designated region. Both thermo-sensitive hydrogel phantom and ex vivo fresh pork were used to evaluate the heating performance of the transducers. The results showed that the ring-shaped phased array ultrasound transducers were very promising for breast tumor heating with the variation of heating patterns and without overheating the ribs.

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a breast cancer targeting contrast agent for ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgroom, Andrew Carson

    Current clinical use of ultrasound for breast cancer diagnostics is strictly limited to a role as a supplementary detection method to other modalities, such as mammography or MRI. A major reason for ultrasound’s role as a secondary method is its inability to discern between cancerous and non-cancerous bodies of similar density, like dense calcifications or benign fibroadenomas. Its detection capabilities are further diminished by the variable density of the surrounding breast tissue with the progression of age. Preliminary studies suggest that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are a good candidate as an in situ contrast agent for ultrasound. By tagging the silica particle surface with the cancer-targeting antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin), suspect regions of interest can be better identified in real time with standard ultrasound equipment. Once the silica-antibody conjugate is injected into the bloodstream and enters the cancerous growth’s vasculature, the antibody arm will bind to HER2, a cell surface receptor known to be dysfunctional or overexpressed in certain types of breast cancer. As more particles aggregate at the cell surface, backscatter of the ultrasonic waves increases as a result of the higher porous silica concentration. This translates to an increased contrast around the lesion boundary. Tumor detection through ultrasound contrast enhancement provides a tremendous advantage over current cancer diagnostics because is it significantly cheaper and can be monitored in real time. Characterization of MCM-41 type MSNs suggests that these particles have sufficient stability and particle size distribution to penetrate through fenestrated tumor vasculature and accumulate in HER2+ breast cancer cells through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. A study of acoustic properties showed that particle concentration is linearly correlated to image contrast in clinical frequency-range ultrasound, although less pronounced than typical microbubble

  4. Partial dependence of breast tumor malignancy on ultrasound image features derived from boosted trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Su; Li, Wenying; Chen, Yaqing; Lu, Hongtao; Chen, Wufan; Chen, Yazhu

    2010-04-01

    Various computerized features extracted from breast ultrasound images are useful in assessing the malignancy of breast tumors. However, the underlying relationship between the computerized features and tumor malignancy may not be linear in nature. We use the decision tree ensemble trained by the cost-sensitive boosting algorithm to approximate the target function for malignancy assessment and to reflect this relationship qualitatively. Partial dependence plots are employed to explore and visualize the effect of features on the output of the decision tree ensemble. In the experiments, 31 image features are extracted to quantify the sonographic characteristics of breast tumors. Patient age is used as an external feature because of its high clinical importance. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the tree ensembles can reach 0.95 with sensitivity of 0.95 (61/64) at the associated specificity 0.74 (77/104). The partial dependence plots of the four most important features are demonstrated to show the influence of the features on malignancy, and they are in accord with the empirical observations. The results can provide visual and qualitative references on the computerized image features for physicians, and can be useful for enhancing the interpretability of computer-aided diagnosis systems for breast ultrasound.

  5. Breast density measurements using ultrasound tomography for patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Sherman, Mark; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Women with high breast density have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women treated with the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer experience a 50% reduction in risk of contralateral breast cancer and overall reduction of similar magnitude has been identified among high-risk women receiving the drug for prevention. Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce mammographic density, and in the IBIS-1 chemoprevention trial, risk reduction and decline in density were significantly associated. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of the breast. These sound speed images are useful because breast density is proportional to sound speed. The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between USTmeasured breast density and the use of tamoxifen. So far, preliminary results for a small number of patients have been observed and are promising. Correlations between the UST-measured density and mammographic density are strong and positive, while relationships between UST density with some patient specific risk factors behave as expected. Initial results of UST examinations of tamoxifen treated patients show that approximately 45% of the patients have a decrease in density in the contralateral breast after only several months of treatment. The true effect of tamoxifen on UST-measured density cannot yet be fully determined until more data are collected. However, these promising results suggest that UST can be used to reliably assess quantitative changes in breast density over short intervals and therefore suggest that UST may enable rapid assessment of density changes associated with therapeutic and preventative interventions.

  6. Ultrasound Thermotherapy of Breast: Theoretical Design of Transducer and Numerical Simulation of Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrab, Behnia; Farzan, Ghalichi; Ashkan, Bonabi; Amin, Jafari

    2006-03-01

    The absorbed ultrasound energy is changed into heat in a dissipative medium. This could be of great advantage in treating tumors in a noninvasive manner, by raising their temperature to cytotoxic levels. In this study we investigated whether using a fixed-focus transducer can destroy breast tumor cells, especially in early stages, in a cost-effective manner and reduce treatment time significantly. An appropriate fixed-focus transducer was designed, and the resultant acoustic pressure was calculated by solving the Rayleigh integral. A two-dimensional breast model was constructed from the magnetic resonance image (MRI) of a cancerous breast. Then, the induced temperature elevation was calculated using the bioheat equation and applying the finite element method (FEM) to the model. Results demonstrate that this transducer can generate a temperature of up to 61 °C in 3 s, which is sufficient to destroy cancer cells, particularly in early stages.

  7. GPU-based 3D SAFT reconstruction including attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzek, E.; Hopp, T.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (3D USCT) promises reproducible high-resolution images for early detection of breast tumors. The KIT prototype provides three different modalities: reflectivity, speed of sound, and attenuation. The reflectivity images are reconstructed using a Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm. For high-resolution re ectivity images, with spatially homogeneous reflectivity, attenuation correction is necessary. In this paper we present a GPU accelerated attenuation correction for 3D USCT and evaluate the method by means of image quality metrics; i.e. absolute error, contrast and spatially homogeneous reflectivity. A threshold for attenuation correction was introduced to preserve a high contrast. Simulated and in-vivo data were used for analysis of the image quality. Attenuation correction increases the image quality by improving spatially homogeneous reflectivity by 25 %. This leads to a factor 2.8 higher contrast for in-vivo data.

  8. Effect of ultrasound treatment on functional properties of reduced-salt chicken breast meat batter.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Kang, Zhuang-Li; Zou, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ultrasound treatments (40 kHz, 300 W) for different times (10, 20, 30 and 40 min) combined with different salt contents (1.0 %, 1.5 % and 2.0 %) on gel properties and water holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast meat batter were investigated. Results showed salt level significantly (p < 0.05) affected the texture, storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), cooking loss and WHC. Ultrasound treatments for 10 min and 20 min improved the texture and WHC, and had higher G' values. Compared with the controls (2 % salt), ultrasound treatment for 20 min with reduced-salt (1.5 %) had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on texture, cooking loss or WHC. However, longer ultrasound (40 min) treatment resulted in a decrease in hardness, G' value and WHC. Microstructural analysis revealed that gels treated with ultrasound for 20 min had a compact structure whereas those treated for 40 min contained more protein aggregations and more cavities. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) indicated that ultrasound treatment for 20 min lowered the values of spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and increased the proportion of myofibillar water. Overall, high power ultrasound technology is a promising process which can improve the gelation properties and thereby allowing for a partial reduction in the salt levels in chicken meat gels. PMID:25892760

  9. Effect of ultrasound treatment on functional properties of reduced-salt chicken breast meat batter.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Kang, Zhuang-Li; Zou, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ultrasound treatments (40 kHz, 300 W) for different times (10, 20, 30 and 40 min) combined with different salt contents (1.0 %, 1.5 % and 2.0 %) on gel properties and water holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast meat batter were investigated. Results showed salt level significantly (p < 0.05) affected the texture, storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), cooking loss and WHC. Ultrasound treatments for 10 min and 20 min improved the texture and WHC, and had higher G' values. Compared with the controls (2 % salt), ultrasound treatment for 20 min with reduced-salt (1.5 %) had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on texture, cooking loss or WHC. However, longer ultrasound (40 min) treatment resulted in a decrease in hardness, G' value and WHC. Microstructural analysis revealed that gels treated with ultrasound for 20 min had a compact structure whereas those treated for 40 min contained more protein aggregations and more cavities. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) indicated that ultrasound treatment for 20 min lowered the values of spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and increased the proportion of myofibillar water. Overall, high power ultrasound technology is a promising process which can improve the gelation properties and thereby allowing for a partial reduction in the salt levels in chicken meat gels.

  10. The investigation of ultrasound technology to measure breast muscle depth as a correlated trait to breast meat yield in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Case, L A; Wood, B J; Miller, S P

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound measurements of muscle depth were analyzed to determine if these traits could be used to increase the rate of genetic gain in breast meat yield (BMY). Two measurements of breast depth, one taken horizontally across both breast lobes and one parallel to the keel, were captured using ultrasound. Heritabilities of muscle depth traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.70. These values were greater than heritabilities of conformation scores, which ranged from 0.25 to 0.47 within sex and line. The ultrasound traits also showed strong genetic correlations to BMY, ranging from 0.43 to 0.75, indicating that selection, using ultrasound depth as a correlated information source, could result in improved BMY. Including each ultrasound trait in a linear regression model predicting BMY increased the proportion of variation explained by the models by 0.08 to 0.17, relative to using conformation score as the only in vivo estimate. Based on results from a simulated turkey breeding program with selection pressure only on BMY, the ultrasound measures could increase the accuracy of a selection index for BMY by 0.02 to 0.16. As a result, ultrasound technology has the potential to improve the rate of genetic gain in BMY in a breeding program.

  11. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole MA; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing “blind” surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant

  12. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole Ma; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-02-10

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing "blind" surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast

  13. SOUND-SPEED AND ATTENUATION IMAGING OF BREAST TISSUE USING WAVEFORM TOMOGRAPHY OF TRANSMISSION ULTRASOUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, LIANJIE; PRATT, R. GERHARD; DURIC, NEB; LITTRUP, PETER

    2007-01-25

    Waveform tomography results are presented from 800 kHz ultrasound transmission scans of a breast phantom, and from an in vivo ultrasound breast scan: significant improvements are demonstrated in resolution over time-of-flight reconstructions. Quantitative reconstructions of both sound-speed and inelastic attenuation are recovered. The data were acquired in the Computed Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system, comprising a 20 cm diameter solid-state ultrasound ring array with 256 active, non-beamforming transducers. Waveform tomography is capable of resolving variations in acoustic properties at sub-wavelength scales. This was verified through comparison of the breast phantom reconstructions with x-ray CT results: the final images resolve variations in sound speed with a spatial resolution close to 2 mm. Waveform tomography overcomes the resolution limit of time-of-flight methods caused by finite frequency (diffraction) effects. The method is a combination of time-of-flight tomography, and 2-D acoustic waveform inversion of the transmission arrivals in ultrasonic data. For selected frequency components of the waveforms, a finite-difference simulation of the visco-acoustic wave equation is used to compute synthetic data in the current model, and the data residuals are formed by subtraction. The residuals are used in an iterative, gradient-based scheme to update the sound-speed and attenuation model to produce a reduced misfit to the data. Computational efficiency is achieved through the use of time-reversal of the data residuals to construct the model updates. Lower frequencies are used first, to establish the long wavelength components of the image, and higher frequencies are introduced later to provide increased resolution.

  14. Phenotypic transition maps of 3D breast acini obtained by imaging-guided agent-based modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jonathan; Enderling, Heiko; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Pham, Christopher; Polyzos, Aris; Chen, Chen-Yi; Costes, Sylvain V

    2011-02-18

    We introduce an agent-based model of epithelial cell morphogenesis to explore the complex interplay between apoptosis, proliferation, and polarization. By varying the activity levels of these mechanisms we derived phenotypic transition maps of normal and aberrant morphogenesis. These maps identify homeostatic ranges and morphologic stability conditions. The agent-based model was parameterized and validated using novel high-content image analysis of mammary acini morphogenesis in vitro with focus on time-dependent cell densities, proliferation and death rates, as well as acini morphologies. Model simulations reveal apoptosis being necessary and sufficient for initiating lumen formation, but cell polarization being the pivotal mechanism for maintaining physiological epithelium morphology and acini sphericity. Furthermore, simulations highlight that acinus growth arrest in normal acini can be achieved by controlling the fraction of proliferating cells. Interestingly, our simulations reveal a synergism between polarization and apoptosis in enhancing growth arrest. After validating the model with experimental data from a normal human breast line (MCF10A), the system was challenged to predict the growth of MCF10A where AKT-1 was overexpressed, leading to reduced apoptosis. As previously reported, this led to non growth-arrested acini, with very large sizes and partially filled lumen. However, surprisingly, image analysis revealed a much lower nuclear density than observed for normal acini. The growth kinetics indicates that these acini grew faster than the cells comprising it. The in silico model could not replicate this behavior, contradicting the classic paradigm that ductal carcinoma in situ is only the result of high proliferation and low apoptosis. Our simulations suggest that overexpression of AKT-1 must also perturb cell-cell and cell-ECM communication, reminding us that extracellular context can dictate cellular behavior.

  15. The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound are strongly correlated, but 2D overestimates thyroid volume in the presence of nodules.

    PubMed

    Rago, T; Bencivelli, W; Scutari, M; Di Cosmo, C; Rizzo, C; Berti, P; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P

    2006-05-01

    The newly developed three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) thyroid ultrasound (US) were compared in assessing thyroid volume (TV) in 104 patients: 53 had an isolated thyroid nodule, 32 toxic diffuse goiter, 17 non-toxic multinodular goiter, 1 toxic multinodular goiter and 1 a toxic adenoma. A real-time Technos apparatus (Esaote SpA, Italy) with a 7,5 MHz linear transducer was used. The volume of thyroid lobes by 2D was calculated according to the ellipsoid formula. In the same session, TV by 3D US was calculated using a probe tracking system (in vivo ScanNT Esaote 3.4 MedCom. Darmasdt) and software to reconstruct 3D images, directly giving the lobe volume. There was a very good agreement between 2D and 3D, but in 94/208 lobes with nodular lesions 2D showed a 10% systematic overestimation compared to 3D, the percentage error being higher in lobes with lower volumes. A possible explanation for this result is the inadequacy of the ellipsoid formula in forecasting the correct lobe profile in the presence of nodules. This intrinsic defect of 2D US should be taken into account when evaluating TV in patients with nodular goiter.