Science.gov

Sample records for 3d cad software

  1. Right approach to 3D modeling using CAD tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddam, Mounica Reddy

    The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable 3D modeling approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in 3D domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different 3D modeling approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).

  2. Implant Restoration of Edentulous Jaws with 3D Software Planning, Guided Surgery, Immediate Loading, and CAD-CAM Full Arch Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    De Riu, Giacomo; Pisano, Milena; Campus, Guglielmo; Tullio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 23 edentulous jaws treated with 3D software planning, guided surgery, and immediate loading and restored with CAD-CAM full arch frameworks. Materials and Methods. This work was designed as a prospective case series clinical study. Twenty patients have been consecutively rehabilitated with an immediately loaded implant supported fixed full prosthesis. A total of 120 fixtures supporting 23 bridges were placed. 117 out of 120 implants were immediately loaded. Outcome measures were implants survival, radiographic marginal bone levels and remodeling, soft tissue parameters, and complications. Results. 114 of 117 implants reached a 30 months follow-up, and no patients dropped out from the study. The cumulative survival rate was 97.7%; after 30 months, mean marginal bone level was 1.25 ± 0.31 mm, mean marginal bone remodeling value was 1.08 ± 0.34, mean PPD value was 2.84 ± 0.55 mm, and mean BOP value was 4% ± 2.8%. Only minor prosthetic complications were recorded. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that computer-guided surgery and immediate loading seem to represent a viable option for the immediate rehabilitations of completely edentulous jaws with fixed implant supported restorations. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01866696. PMID:23983690

  3. Generation and use of human 3D-CAD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf

    2002-05-01

    Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human modeling as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human modeling software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized models generated and analyzed in 3D computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.

  4. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

  5. A Survey of CAD Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) has been around for a number of years. An overview is provided of a number of major computer-aided design programs. A short analysis of each program includes the addresses of the software producers. (MLF)

  6. Maxillary implant-supported bar overdenture and mandibular implant-retained fixed denture using CAD/CAM technology and 3-D design software: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulou, Panagiota-Eirini; Razzoog, Michael E; Duff, Renée E; Chronaios, Dimitrios; Saglik, Berna; Tarrazzi, Daler E

    2011-06-01

    The implant-supported bar overdenture and the implant-retained fixed complete denture are appropriate treatment choices for patients with inadequate bone volume in the posterior maxilla and mandible, respectively. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has broadened the scope and application of those treatment options, allowing for prosthodontically-driven implant placement and ideal substructure design for optimal esthetics and biomechanics. This report describes the fabrication of a maxillary implant-supported milled titanium bar with attachments and an overdenture, and a mandibular implant-retained fixed complete denture with milled titanium substructure. PMID:21640235

  7. An open source implementation of colon CAD in 3D slicer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiyong; Gage, H. Donald; Santago, Pete

    2010-03-01

    Most colon CAD (computer aided detection) software products, especially commercial products, are designed for use by radiologists in a clinical environment. Therefore, those features that effectively assist radiologists in finding polyps are emphasized in those tools. However, colon CAD researchers, many of whom are engineers or computer scientists, are working with CT studies in which polyps have already been identified using CT Colonography (CTC) and/or optical colonoscopy (OC). Their goal is to utilize that data to design a computer system that will identify all true polyps with no false positive detections. Therefore, they are more concerned with how to reduce false positives and to understand the behavior of the system than how to find polyps. Thus, colon CAD researchers have different requirements for tools not found in current CAD software. We have implemented a module in 3D Slicer to assist these researchers. As with clinical colon CAD implementations, the ability to promptly locate a polyp candidate in a 2D slice image and on a 3D colon surface is essential for researchers. Our software provides this capability, and uniquely, for each polyp candidate, the prediction value from a classifier is shown next to the 3D view of the polyp candidate, as well as its CTC/OC finding. This capability makes it easier to study each false positive detection and identify its causes. We describe features in our colon CAD system that meets researchers' specific requirements. Our system uses an open source implementation of a 3D Slicer module, and the software is available to the pubic for use and for extension (http://www2.wfubmc.edu/ctc/download/).

  8. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  9. A comparative analysis of 2D and 3D CAD for calcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Conant, Emily F.

    2015-03-01

    Many medical centers offer digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and 2D digital mammography acquired under the same compression (i.e., "Combo" examination) for screening. This paper compares a conventional 2D CAD algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® CAD v9.4) for calcification detection against a prototype 3D algorithm (Hologic® ImageChecker® 3D Calc CAD v1.0). Due to the newness of DBT, the development of this 3D CAD algorithm is ongoing, and it is currently not FDA-approved in the United States. For this study, DBT screening cases with suspicious calcifications were identified retrospectively at the University of Pennsylvania. An expert radiologist (E.F.C.) reviewed images with both 2D and DBT CAD marks, and compared the marks to biopsy results. Control cases with one-year negative follow-up were also studied; these cases either possess clearly benign calcifications or lacked calcifications. To allow the user to alter the sensitivity for cancer detection, an operating point is assigned to each CAD mark. As expected from conventional 2D CAD, increasing the operating point in 3D CAD increases sensitivity and reduces specificity. Additionally, we showed that some cancers are occult to 2D CAD at all operating points. By contrast, 3D CAD allows for detection of some cancers that are missed on 2D CAD. We also demonstrated that some non-cancerous CAD marks in 3D are not present at analogous locations in the 2D image. Hence, there are additional marks when using both 2D and 3D CAD in combination, leading to lower specificity than with conventional 2D CAD alone.

  10. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to…

  11. Performance testing of 3D point cloud software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-10-01

    LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the engineering field: civil engineering, cultural heritage, mining, industry and environmental engineering. One of the most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing, especially for large mobile LiDAR datasets. Several software solutions for data managing are available in the market, including open source suites, however, users often unknown methodologies to verify their performance properly. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and four different suites are studied: QT Modeler, VR Mesh, AutoCAD 3D Civil and the Point Cloud Library running in software developed at the University of Vigo (SITEGI). The software based on the Point Cloud Library shows better results in the loading time of the point clouds and CPU usage. However, it is not as strong as commercial suites in working set and commit size tests.

  12. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  13. CAD software lights up the environmental scene

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.

    1996-01-01

    There seems to be a natural affinity between the data requirements of environmental work and computer-aided design (CAD) software. Perhaps the best example of this is the famous shots of the ozone hole produced by computer-enhanced satellite imagery in the mid-1980s. Once this image was published, the highly abstract discussion of ozone concentrations and arctic wind patterns suddenly became very real. On ground level, in the day-to-day work of environmental managers and site restorers, CAD software is proving its value over and over. Graphic images are a convenient, readily understandable way of presenting the large volumes of data produced by environmental projects. With the latest CAD systems, the work of specifying process equipment or subsurface conditions can be reused again and again as projects move from the study and design phase to the construction or remediation phases. An important subset of CAD is geographic information systems (GIS), which are used to organize data on a site-specific basis. Like CAD itself, GIS reaches out beyond the borders of the computer screen or printout, in such ways making use of the Geostationary Positioning System (a global method of locating position precisely), and matching current with historical data. Good GIS software can also make use of the large database of geological data produced by government and industry, thus saving on surveying costs and exploratory well construction.

  14. Quantitative Evaluation of Tissue Surface Adaption of CAD-Designed and 3D Printed Wax Pattern of Maxillary Complete Denture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hu; Wang, Han; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantitatively evaluate the tissue surface adaption of a maxillary complete denture wax pattern produced by CAD and 3DP. Methods. A standard edentulous maxilla plaster cast model was used, for which a wax pattern of complete denture was designed using CAD software developed in our previous study and printed using a 3D wax printer, while another wax pattern was manufactured by the traditional manual method. The cast model and the two wax patterns were scanned in the 3D scanner as “DataModel,” “DataWaxRP,” and “DataWaxManual.” After setting each wax pattern on the plaster cast, the whole model was scanned for registration. After registration, the deviations of tissue surface between “DataModel” and “DataWaxRP” and between “DataModel” and “DataWaxManual” were measured. The data was analyzed by paired t-test. Results. For both wax patterns produced by the CAD&RP method and the manual method, scanning data of tissue surface and cast surface showed a good fit in the majority. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between the CAD&RP method and the manual method. Conclusions. Wax pattern of maxillary complete denture produced by the CAD&3DP method is comparable with traditional manual method in the adaption to the edentulous cast model. PMID:26583108

  15. Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique 3D-CAD-SAFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, V.; Kröning, M.; Chakhlov, S.; Fischer, W.

    2000-05-01

    Till the 80's ultrasonic holography has been used as an analyzing technique, a procedure which has been replaced by the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique "SAFT." This technique has been applied on metallic components in different power plants, mostly on pipe systems on pressure vessels or on specimen made of composite or concrete material. SAFT exists in different versions, either in 2D or 3D, for plane or arbitrarily shaped surfaces, for pulse echo or pitch- and catch arrangements. The defect sizes ranged from 100 μm in turbine shafts till fractures of meters in research pressure vessels. The paper covers the lastest results of the SAFT-reconstruction technique under Windows NT which has been guided by the experience obtained in the field. It contributes to the currently discussed question of the possible benefit using TOFD—techniques versus pulse echo techniques; the target has been a fatigue crack in a pipe segment which was investigated by different insonification angles, wave modes and probe arrangements. The results are evaluated with respect to signal-to-noise ratio improvement; problems of TOFD are demonstrated using an animation procedure which allows to walk through the weld in three orthogonal directions. A special example will be shown from a bore hole inspection of water power station valves where the reconstruction procedure follows the radial axial insonification planes. The multi-line SAFT images can be cut according to the situation of the crack position and orientation.

  16. CAD Tools for Creating Space-filing 3D Escher Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Howison, Mark; Sequin, Carlo H.

    2009-04-10

    We discuss the design and implementation of CAD tools for creating decorative solids that tile 3-space in a regular, isohedral manner. Starting with the simplest case of extruded 2D tilings, we describe geometric algorithms used for maintaining boundary representations of 3D tiles, including a Java implementation of an interactive constrained Delaunay triangulation library and a mesh-cutting algorithm used in layering extruded tiles to create more intricate designs. Finally, we demonstrate a CAD tool for creating 3D tilings that are derived from cubic lattices. The design process for these 3D tiles is more constrained, and hence more difficult, than in the 2D case, and it raises additional user interface issues.

  17. 3-D Human body models in C.A.D. : Anthropometric Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, C.; Steck, R.; Pineau, J. C.

    1986-07-01

    Modeling and simulation methods of man-machine systems are developed at the laboratory by interactive infography and C.A.D. technics. In order to better apprehend the morphological variability of populations we have enriched the 3-D model with a parametric function using classical anthropometric dimensions. We have selected reference, associate and complementary dimensions : lengths, breadths, circumferences and depths, which depend on operator's tasks and characteristics of workplaces. All anthropometric values come from the International Data Bank of Human Biometry of ERGODATA System. The utilization of the parametric function brings a quick and accurate description of morphology for theoretic subjects and can be used in C.A.D. analysis.

  18. Generation of geometric representations of 3D objects in CAD/CAM by digital photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongxing

    This paper presents a method for the generation of geometric representations of 3D objects by digital photogrammetry. In CAD/CAM systems geometric modelers are usually used to create three-dimensional (3D) geometric representations for design and manufacturing purposes. However, in cases where geometric information such as dimensions and shapes of objects are not available, measurements of physically existing objects become necessary. In this paper, geometric parameters of primitives of 3D geometric representations such as Boundary Representation (B-rep), Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG), and digital surface models are determined by digital image matching techniques. An algorithm for reconstruction of surfaces with discontinuities is developed. Interfaces between digital photogrammetric data and these geometric representations are realized. This method can be applied to design and manufacturing in mechanical engineering, automobile industry, robot technology, spatial information systems and others.

  19. 3D object optonumerical acquisition methods for CAD/CAM and computer graphics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Pawlowski, Michal E.; Woznicki, Jerzy M.

    1999-08-01

    The creation of a virtual object for CAD/CAM and computer graphics on the base of data gathered by full-field optical measurement of 3D object is presented. The experimental co- ordinates are alternatively obtained by combined fringe projection/photogrammetry based system or fringe projection/virtual markers setup. The new and fully automatic procedure which process the cloud of measured points into triangular mesh accepted by CAD/CAM and computer graphics systems is presented. Its applicability for various classes of objects is tested including the error analysis of virtual objects generated. The usefulness of the method is proved by applying the virtual object in rapid prototyping system and in computer graphics environment.

  20. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  1. Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2016-06-01

    UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.

  2. CAD/CAM/CAE representation of 3D objects measured by fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancewicz, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    1998-07-01

    In the paper the creation of a virtual object on the base of optical measurement of 3D object by fringe projection technique coupled with the capabilities of CAD systems is presented. Basic stages of that task, being the most important part of the reverse engineering process, are discussed and the procedure is formulated by terms and definitions of theory of optimal algorithms. The quality criteria of a virtual object are defined and the influence of consecutive stages of the task on the quality of the virtual object is discussed.

  3. Development of visual 3D virtual environment for control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirose, Michitaka; Myoi, Takeshi; Amari, Haruo; Inamura, Kohei; Stark, Lawrence

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environments for software visualization may enable complex programs to be created and maintained. A typical application might be for control of regional electric power systems. As these encompass broader computer networks than ever, construction of such systems becomes very difficult. Conventional text-oriented environments are useful in programming individual processors. However, they are obviously insufficient to program a large and complicated system, that includes large numbers of computers connected to each other; such programming is called 'programming in the large.' As a solution for this problem, the authors are developing a graphic programming environment wherein one can visualize complicated software in virtual 3D world. One of the major features of the environment is the 3D representation of concurrent process. 3D representation is used to supply both network-wide interprocess programming capability (capability for 'programming in the large') and real-time programming capability. The authors' idea is to fuse both the block diagram (which is useful to check relationship among large number of processes or processors) and the time chart (which is useful to check precise timing for synchronization) into a single 3D space. The 3D representation gives us a capability for direct and intuitive planning or understanding of complicated relationship among many concurrent processes. To realize the 3D representation, a technology to enable easy handling of virtual 3D object is a definite necessity. Using a stereo display system and a gesture input device (VPL DataGlove), our prototype of the virtual workstation has been implemented. The workstation can supply the 'sensation' of the virtual 3D space to a programmer. Software for the 3D programming environment is implemented on the workstation. According to preliminary assessments, a 50 percent reduction of programming effort is achieved by using the virtual 3D environment. The authors expect that the 3D

  4. [Development of a software for 3D virtual phantom design].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lian; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Qi

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D virtual phantom design software, which was developed based on object-oriented programming methodology and dedicated to medical physics research. This software was named Magical Phan tom (MPhantom), which is composed of 3D visual builder module and virtual CT scanner. The users can conveniently construct any complex 3D phantom, and then export the phantom as DICOM 3.0 CT images. MPhantom is a user-friendly and powerful software for 3D phantom configuration, and has passed the real scene's application test. MPhantom will accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculation in radiation therapy and X ray imaging reconstruction algorithm research. PMID:24804488

  5. 3D virtual planning in orthognathic surgery and CAD/CAM surgical splints generation in one patient with craniofacial microsomia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Francisco; Scherzberg, Jessica; Cavaleiro, João; Sanz, David; Caramelo, Francisco; Maló, Luísa; Marcelino, João Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this case report, the feasibility and precision of tridimensional (3D) virtual planning in one patient with craniofacial microsomia is tested using Nemoceph 3D-OS software (Software Nemotec SL, Madrid, Spain) to predict postoperative outcomes on hard tissue and produce CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) surgical splints. Methods: The clinical protocol consists of 3D data acquisition of the craniofacial complex by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and surface scanning of the plaster dental casts. The ''virtual patient'' created underwent virtual surgery and a simulation of postoperative results on hard tissues. Surgical splints were manufactured using CAD/CAM technology in order to transfer the virtual surgical plan to the operating room. Intraoperatively, both CAD/CAM and conventional surgical splints are comparable. A second set of 3D images was obtained after surgery to acquire linear measurements and compare them with measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results virtually. Results: It was found a high similarity between both types of surgical splints with equal fitting on the dental arches. The linear measurements presented some discrepancies between the actual surgical outcomes and the predicted results from the 3D virtual simulation, but caution must be taken in the analysis of these results due to several variables. Conclusions: The reported case confirms the clinical feasibility of the described computer-assisted orthognathic surgical protocol. Further progress in the development of technologies for 3D image acquisition and improvements on software programs to simulate postoperative changes on soft tissue are required. PMID:27007767

  6. 3D CAD model retrieval method based on hierarchical multi-features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ran; Wang, Qingwen

    2015-12-01

    The classical "Shape Distribution D2" algorithm takes the distance between two random points on a surface of CAD model as statistical features, and based on that it generates a feature vector to calculate the dissimilarity and achieve the retrieval goal. This algorithm has a simple principle, high computational efficiency and can get a better retrieval results for the simple shape models. Based on the analysis of D2 algorithm's shape distribution curve, this paper enhances the algorithm's descriptive ability for a model's overall shape through the statistics of the angle between two random points' normal vectors, especially for the distinctions between the model's plane features and curved surface features; meanwhile, introduce the ratio that a line between two random points cut off by the model's surface to enhance the algorithm's descriptive ability for a model's detailed features; finally, integrating the two shape describing methods with the original D2 algorithm, this paper proposes a new method based the hierarchical multi-features. Experimental results showed that this method has bigger improvements and could get a better retrieval results compared with the traditional 3D CAD model retrieval method.

  7. SOAX: A software for quantification of 3D biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Tsai, Feng-Ching; Koenderink, Gijsje H.; Nie, Wei; Yusuf, Eddy; I-Ju Lee; Wu, Jian-Qiu; Huang, Xiaolei

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous biopolymer networks in cells and tissues are routinely imaged by confocal microscopy. Image analysis methods enable quantitative study of the properties of these curvilinear networks. However, software tools to quantify the geometry and topology of these often dense 3D networks and to localize network junctions are scarce. To fill this gap, we developed a new software tool called “SOAX”, which can accurately extract the centerlines of 3D biopolymer networks and identify network junctions using Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs). It provides an open-source, user-friendly platform for network centerline extraction, 2D/3D visualization, manual editing and quantitative analysis. We propose a method to quantify the performance of SOAX, which helps determine the optimal extraction parameter values. We quantify several different types of biopolymer networks to demonstrate SOAX's potential to help answer key questions in cell biology and biophysics from a quantitative viewpoint. PMID:25765313

  8. Using Computer-Aided Design Software and 3D Printers to Improve Spatial Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsio-Loudis, Petros; Jones, Millie

    2015-01-01

    Many articles have been published on the use of 3D printing technology. From prefabricated homes and outdoor structures to human organs, 3D printing technology has found a niche in many fields, but especially education. With the introduction of AutoCAD technical drawing programs and now 3D printing, learners can use 3D printed models to develop…

  9. Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.

    2011-02-01

    Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.

  10. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system with a 3D algorithm for small acute intracranial hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ximing; Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Acute Intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) requires urgent diagnosis in the emergency setting to mitigate eventual sequelae. However, experienced radiologists may not always be available to make a timely diagnosis. This is especially true for small AIH, defined as lesion smaller than 10 mm in size. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of small AIH would facilitate timely diagnosis. A previously developed 2D algorithm shows high false positive rates in the evaluation based on LAC/USC cases, due to the limitation of setting up correct coordinate system for the knowledge-based classification system. To achieve a higher sensitivity and specificity, a new 3D algorithm is developed. The algorithm utilizes a top-hat transformation and dynamic threshold map to detect small AIH lesions. Several key structures of brain are detected and are used to set up a 3D anatomical coordinate system. A rule-based classification of the lesion detected is applied based on the anatomical coordinate system. For convenient evaluation in clinical environment, the CAD module is integrated with a stand-alone system. The CAD is evaluated by small AIH cases and matched normal collected in LAC/USC. The result of 3D CAD and the previous 2D CAD has been compared.

  11. 3D planning in orthognathic surgery: CAD/CAM surgical splints and prediction of the soft and hard tissues results - our experience in 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Hosn Centenero, Samir; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the advantages of 3D planning in predicting postoperative results and manufacturing surgical splints using CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology in orthognathic surgery when the software program Simplant OMS 10.1 (Materialise(®), Leuven, Belgium) was used for the purpose of this study which was carried out on 16 patients. A conventional preoperative treatment plan was devised for each patient following our Centre's standard protocol, and surgical splints were manufactured. These splints were used as study controls. The preoperative treatment plans devised were then transferred to a 3D-virtual environment on a personal computer (PC). Surgery was simulated, the prediction of results on soft and hard tissue produced, and surgical splints manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. In the operating room, both types of surgical splints were compared and the degree of similitude in results obtained in three planes was calculated. The maxillary osteotomy line was taken as the point of reference. The level of concordance was used to compare the surgical splints. Three months after surgery a second set of 3D images were obtained and used to obtain linear and angular measurements on screen. Using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient these postoperative measurements were compared with the measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results. Results showed that a high degree of correlation in 15 of the 16 cases. A high coefficient of correlation was obtained in the majority of predictions of results in hard tissue, although less precise results were obtained in measurements in soft tissue in the labial area. The study shows that the software program used in the study is reliable for 3D planning and for the manufacture of surgical splints using CAD/CAM technology. Nevertheless, further progress in the development of technologies for the acquisition of 3D images, new versions of software programs

  12. FROMS3D: New Software for 3-D Visualization of Fracture Network System in Fractured Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Y. H.; Um, J. G.; Choi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A new software (FROMS3D) is presented to visualize fracture network system in 3-D. The software consists of several modules that play roles in management of borehole and field fracture data, fracture network modelling, visualization of fracture geometry in 3-D and calculation and visualization of intersections and equivalent pipes between fractures. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013, Visual Studio.NET 2010 and the open source VTK library were utilized as development tools to efficiently implement the modules and the graphical user interface of the software. The results have suggested that the developed software is effective in visualizing 3-D fracture network system, and can provide useful information to tackle the engineering geological problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  13. Evaluation of 3-D graphics software: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lores, M. E.; Chasen, S. H.; Garner, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An efficient 3-D geometry graphics software package which is suitable for advanced design studies was developed. The advanced design system is called GRADE--Graphics for Advanced Design. Efficiency and ease of use are gained by sacrificing flexibility in surface representation. The immediate options were either to continue development of GRADE or to acquire a commercially available system which would replace or complement GRADE. Test cases which would reveal the ability of each system to satisfy the requirements were developed. A scoring method which adequately captured the relative capabilities of the three systems was presented. While more complex multi-attribute decision methods could be used, the selected method provides all the needed information without being so complex that it is difficult to understand. If the value factors are modestly perturbed, system Z is a clear winner based on its overall capabilities. System Z is superior in two vital areas: surfacing and ease of interface with application programs.

  14. Software-based geometry operations for 3D computer graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Mihai; Iancu, Daniel; Glossner, John; Schulte, Michael; Mamidi, Suman

    2006-02-01

    In order to support a broad dynamic range and a high degree of precision, many of 3D renderings fundamental algorithms have been traditionally performed in floating-point. However, fixed-point data representation is preferable over floating-point representation in graphics applications on embedded devices where performance is of paramount importance, while the dynamic range and precision requirements are limited due to the small display sizes (current PDA's are 640 × 480 (VGA), while cell-phones are even smaller). In this paper we analyze the efficiency of a CORDIC-augmented Sandbridge processor when implementing a vertex processor in software using fixed-point arithmetic. A CORDIC-based solution for vertex processing exhibits a number of advantages over classical Multiply-and-Acumulate solutions. First, since a single primitive is used to describe the computation, the code can easily be vectorized and multithreaded, and thus fits the major Sandbridge architectural features. Second, since a CORDIC iteration consists of only a shift operation followed by an addition, the computation may be deeply pipelined. Initially, we outline the Sandbridge architecture extension which encompasses a CORDIC functional unit and the associated instructions. Then, we consider rigid-body rotation, lighting, exponentiation, vector normalization, and perspective division (which are some of the most important data-intensive 3D graphics kernels) and propose a scheme to implement them on the CORDIC-augmented Sandbridge processor. Preliminary results indicate that the performance improvement within the extended instruction set ranges from 3× to 10× (with the exception of rigid body rotation).

  15. CAD/CAM software for an industrial laser manufacturing tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassen Boehlen, Ines; Fieret, Jim; Holmes, Andrew S.; Lee, Kin W.

    2003-07-01

    A facility for rapid prototyping of MEMS devices is crucial for the development of novel miniaturized components in all sectors of high-tech industry, e.g. telecommunications, information technology, micro-optics and aerospace. To overcome the disadvantages of existing techniques in terms of cost and flexibility, a new approach has been taken to provide a tool for rapid prototyping and small-scale production: Complex CAD/CAM software has been developed that automatically generates the tool paths according to a CAD drawing of the MEMS device. As laser ablation is a much more complicated process than mechanical machining, for which such software has already been in use for many years, the generation of these tool paths relies not only on geometric considerations, but also on a sophisticated simulation module taking into account various material and laser parameters and micro-effects. The following laser machining options have been implemented: cutting, hole drilling, slot cutting, 2D area clearing, pocketing and 2½D surface machining. Once the tool paths are available, a post processor translates this information into CNC commands that control a scanner head. This scanner head then guides the beam of a UV solid-state laser to machine the desired structure by direct laser ablation.

  16. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  17. Multiple platform application of 3D CAD PIC simulations in pulsed power

    SciTech Connect

    Peratt, A.L.; Mostrom, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    With the availability of 80--125 MHz microprocessors, the methodology developed for the simulation of problems in pulsed power and plasma physics on modern day supercomputers is now amenable to application on a wide range of platforms including laptops and workstations. While execution speeds with these processors do not match those of large scale computing machines, resources such as computer-aided-design (CAD) and graphical analysis codes are available to automate simulation setup and process data. This paper reports on the adaptation of IVORY, a three-dimensional, fully-electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulation code, to this platform independent CAD environment. The primary purpose of this talk is to demonstrate how rapidly a pulsed power/plasma problem can be scoped out by an experimenter on a dedicated workstation. Demonstrations include a magnetically insulated transmission line, power flow in a graded insulator stack, a relativistic klystron oscillator, and the dynamics of a coaxial thruster for space applications.

  18. Complete-mouth rehabilitation using a 3D printing technique and the CAD/CAM double scanning method: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Joo, Han-Sung; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-07-01

    According to evolving computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, ceramic materials such as zirconia can be used to create fixed dental prostheses for partial removable dental prostheses. Since 3D printing technology was introduced a few years ago, dental applications of this technique have gradually increased. This clinical report presents a complete-mouth rehabilitation using 3D printing and the CAD/CAM double-scanning method. PMID:26946918

  19. Two-photon polymerization technique for microfabrication of CAD-designed 3D scaffolds from commercially available photosensitive materials.

    PubMed

    Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Schlie, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Haverich, Axel; Chichkov, Boris N

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine constructs using a two-photon polymerization technique (2PP). 2PP is a novel CAD/CAM technology allowing the fabrication of any computer-designed 3D structure from a photosensitive polymeric material. The flexibility of this technology and the ability to precisely define 3D construct geometry allows issues associated with vascularization and patient-specific tissue fabrication to be directly addressed. The fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures by 2PP is important for systematic studies of cellular processes and better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. In this study, 2PP was applied for the generation of 3D scaffold-like structures, using the photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer ORMOCER (ORganically MOdified CERamics) and epoxy-based SU8 materials. By comparing the proliferation rates of cells grown on flat material surfaces and under control conditions, it was demonstrated that ORMOCER and SU8 are not cytotoxic. Additional tests show that the DNA strand breaking of GFSHR-17 granulosa cells was not affected by the presence of ORMOCER. Furthermore, gap junction conductance measurements revealed that ORMOCER did not alter the formation of cell-cell junctions, critical for functional tissue growth. The possibilities of seeding 3D structures with cells were analysed. These studies demonstrate the great potential of 2PP technique for the manufacturing of scaffolds with controlled topology and properties. PMID:18265416

  20. Viewing CAD Drawings on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendau, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) has been producing 3-D models for years. AutoCAD software is frequently used to create sophisticated 3-D models. These CAD files can be exported as 3DS files for import into Autodesk's 3-D Studio Viz. In this program, the user can render and modify the 3-D model before exporting it out as a WRL (world file hyperlinked)…

  1. A New Total Digital Smile Planning Technique (3D-DSP) to Fabricate CAD-CAM Mockups for Esthetic Crowns and Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, F.; Gherlone, E. F.; Gastaldi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Recently, the request of patients is changed in terms of not only esthetic but also previsualization therapy planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new 3D-CAD-CAM digital planning technique that uses a total digital smile process. Materials and Methods. Study participants included 28 adult dental patients, aged 19 to 53 years, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. For each patient, 3 intra- and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Digital Smile System software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the 3D-Digital Smile System to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockups were milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockups as position guides. Results. The patients found both the digital smile design previsualization (64.3%) and the milling mockup test (85.7%) very effective. Conclusions. The new total 3D digital planning technique is a predictably and minimally invasive technique, allows easy diagnosis, and improves the communication with the patient and helps to reduce the working time and the errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step. PMID:27478442

  2. A New Total Digital Smile Planning Technique (3D-DSP) to Fabricate CAD-CAM Mockups for Esthetic Crowns and Veneers.

    PubMed

    Cattoni, F; Mastrangelo, F; Gherlone, E F; Gastaldi, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Recently, the request of patients is changed in terms of not only esthetic but also previsualization therapy planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new 3D-CAD-CAM digital planning technique that uses a total digital smile process. Materials and Methods. Study participants included 28 adult dental patients, aged 19 to 53 years, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. For each patient, 3 intra- and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Digital Smile System software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the 3D-Digital Smile System to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockups were milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockups as position guides. Results. The patients found both the digital smile design previsualization (64.3%) and the milling mockup test (85.7%) very effective. Conclusions. The new total 3D digital planning technique is a predictably and minimally invasive technique, allows easy diagnosis, and improves the communication with the patient and helps to reduce the working time and the errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step. PMID:27478442

  3. Beam dynamics study of RFQ for CADS with a 3D space-charge-effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Lei; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xian-Bo; He, Yuan; Yang, Lei

    2014-03-01

    The ADS (accelerator driven subcritical system) project was proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The initial proton beams delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively accelerated by 162.5 MHz 4.2 m long room temperature radio-frequency-quadrupoles (RFQ) operating in CW mode. To test the feasibility of this physical design, a new Fortran code for RFQ beam dynamics study, which is space charge dominated, was developed. This program is based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) technique in the time domain. Using the RFQ structure designed for the CADS project, the beam dynamics behavior is performed. The well-known simulation code TRACK is used for benchmarks. The results given by these two codes show good agreements. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented in this paper.

  4. Automated and integrated mask generation from a CAD constructed 3D model.

    SciTech Connect

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2005-03-01

    We have developed and implemented a method which given a three-dimensional object can infer from topology the two-dimensional masks needed to produce that object with surface micromachining. This design tool calculates the two-dimensional mask set required to produce a given three-dimensional model by investigating the vertical topology to the model. The 3D model is first separated into bodies that are non-intersecting, made from different materials or only linked through a ground plane. Next, for each body unique horizontal cross sections are located and arranged into a tree based on their topological relationship. A branch-wise search of the tree uncovers locations where deposition boundaries must lie and identifies candidate masks creating a generic mask set for the 3D model. Finally, in the last step specific process requirements are considered that may constrain the generic mask set.

  5. "High-precision, reconstructed 3D model" of skull scanned by conebeam CT: Reproducibility verified using CAD/CAM data.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Seiko; Sato, Keita; Ikawa, Tomoko; Yamamura, Keiko; Ando, Eriko; Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning has recently been introduced into forensic medicine and dentistry. However, the presence of metal restorations in the dentition can adversely affect the quality of three-dimensional reconstruction from CT scans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of a "high-precision, reconstructed 3D model" obtained from a conebeam CT scan of dentition, a method that might be particularly helpful in forensic medicine. We took conebeam CT and helical CT images of three dry skulls marked with 47 measuring points; reconstructed three-dimensional images; and measured the distances between the points in the 3D images with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) marker. We found that in comparison with the helical CT, conebeam CT is capable of reproducing measurements closer to those obtained from the actual samples. In conclusion, our study indicated that the image-reproduction from a conebeam CT scan was more accurate than that from a helical CT scan. Furthermore, the "high-precision reconstructed 3D model" facilitates reliable visualization of full-sized oral and maxillofacial regions in both helical and conebeam CT scans. PMID:26832374

  6. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim (Sunny), Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

  7. Simulation of excimer laser micromachined 3D surface using a CAD solid modeling package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, Richard G.; Iovenitti, Pio G.; Hayes, Jason P.; Harvey, Erol C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the research on the development of a visualisation tool to generate 3D solid models of structures produced by micromachining using an excimer laser system. Currently, the development of part programs to achieve a desired microstructure is by a trial and error approach. This simulation tool assists designers and excimer machine programmers to produce microstructures using the excimer laser. Users can develop their microstructures and part programs with the assistance of digital prototypes rather than designing products using expensive laser micromachining equipment. The methods to simulate micromachining using the solid modelling package, SolidWorks, are described, and simulation and actual machined examples are reported. A basic knowledge of the solid modelling package is required to develop the simulations, and complex models take time to prepare, however, the development time can be minimised by working from previous simulations. The models developed can be parameterised so that families of designs can be investigated for little additional effort to optimise the design before committing to laser micromachining.

  8. 3D reconstruction software comparison for short sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupczewski, Adam; Czupryński, BłaŻej

    2014-11-01

    Large scale multiview reconstruction is recently a very popular area of research. There are many open source tools that can be downloaded and run on a personal computer. However, there are few, if any, comparisons between all the available software in terms of accuracy on small datasets that a single user can create. The typical datasets for testing of the software are archeological sites or cities, comprising thousands of images. This paper presents a comparison of currently available open source multiview reconstruction software for small datasets. It also compares the open source solutions with a simple structure from motion pipeline developed by the authors from scratch with the use of OpenCV and Eigen libraries.

  9. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  10. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  11. JULIDE: a software tool for 3D reconstruction and statistical analysis of autoradiographic mouse brain sections.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Delphine; Parafita, Julia; Charrier, Rémi; Magara, Fulvio; Magistretti, Pierre J; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In this article we introduce JULIDE, a software toolkit developed to perform the 3D reconstruction, intensity normalization, volume standardization by 3D image registration and voxel-wise statistical analysis of autoradiographs of mouse brain sections. This software tool has been developed in the open-source ITK software framework and is freely available under a GPL license. The article presents the complete image processing chain from raw data acquisition to 3D statistical group analysis. Results of the group comparison in the context of a study on spatial learning are shown as an illustration of the data that can be obtained with this tool. PMID:21124830

  12. R23D: An innovative solution for product data conversion from paper engineering drawings to 3D true-CAD models

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Chao-Hsiang; Mayer, R.J.; Keen, A.A.; Browne, D.

    1996-12-31

    The existing archives of legacy (mostly paper-based) engineering drawings are precious assets of product data in a manufacturing enterprise. However, for these assets to continue to pay dividends they must be converted to a form suitable for computer-aided applications such as CAD/CAE/CAM, simulation-based design, and virtual prototyping. Manually converting legacy engineering drawings into CAD-file format has become common practice to enable reuse of this legacy data and for maintaining it more cost effectively. However, directly reusing legacy drawings for many modem computer-aided applications is not feasible if the complete product data is not properly recovered (e.g., 3D true-CAD solid model). In this paper, a multiple-level drawing conversion methodology, R23D, is introduced to supply a complete solution to this problem. R23D, based upon semantic drawing interpretation modules, incorporates promising results in vectorization and 3D reconstruction to provide an integrated environment for drawing conversion. It is our conviction that the migration of legacy engineering drawings to 3D product data for CAD/CAE/CAM systems is possible only when the full 3D product model can be rapidly reconstructed through such intelligent and integrated drawing conversion support. This paper introduces the basic approaches, requirements, and major components of R23D.

  13. Reconstruction of defects of maxillary sinus wall after removal of a huge odontogenic lesion using prebended 3D titanium-mesh and CAD/CAM technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A 63 year-old male with a huge odontogenic lesion of sinus maxillaris was treated with computer-assisted surgery. After resection of the odontogenic lesion, the sinus wall was reconstructed with a prebended 3D titanium-mesh using CAD/CAM technique. This work provides a new treatment device for maxillary reconstruction via rapid prototyping procedures. PMID:22070833

  14. Spatial data software integration - Merging CAD/CAM/mapping with GIS and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of CAD/CAM/mapping with image processing using geographic information systems (GISs) as the interface is examined. Particular emphasis is given to the development of software interfaces between JPL's Video Image Communication and Retrieval (VICAR)/Imaged Based Information System (IBIS) raster-based GIS and the CAD/CAM/mapping system. The design and functions of the VICAR and IBIS are described. Vector data capture and editing are studied. Various software programs for interfacing between the VICAR/IBIS and CAD/CAM/mapping are presented and analyzed.

  15. On Fundamental Evaluation Using Uav Imagery and 3d Modeling Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, K.; Suzuki, H.; Tamino, T.; Chikatsu, H.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which have been widely used in recent years, can acquire high-resolution images with resolutions in millimeters; such images cannot be acquired with manned aircrafts. Moreover, it has become possible to obtain a surface reconstruction of a realistic 3D model using high-overlap images and 3D modeling software such as Context capture, Pix4Dmapper, Photoscan based on computer vision technology such as structure from motion and multi-view stereo. 3D modeling software has many applications. However, most of them seem to not have obtained appropriate accuracy control in accordance with the knowledge of photogrammetry and/or computer vision. Therefore, we performed flight tests in a test field using an UAV equipped with a gimbal stabilizer and consumer grade digital camera. Our UAV is a hexacopter and can fly according to the waypoints for autonomous flight and can record flight logs. We acquired images from different altitudes such as 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m. We obtained 3D reconstruction results of orthoimages, point clouds, and textured TIN models for accuracy evaluation in some cases with different image scale conditions using 3D modeling software. Moreover, the accuracy aspect was evaluated for different units of input image—course unit and flight unit. This paper describes the fundamental accuracy evaluation for 3D modeling using UAV imagery and 3D modeling software from the viewpoint of close-range photogrammetry.

  16. Some Methods of Applied Numerical Analysis to 3d Facial Reconstruction Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roşu, Şerban; Ianeş, Emilia; Roşu, Doina

    2010-09-01

    This paper deals with the collective work performed by medical doctors from the University Of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara and engineers from the Politechnical Institute Timisoara in the effort to create the first Romanian 3d reconstruction software based on CT or MRI scans and to test the created software in clinical practice.

  17. UNIQUIMER 3D, a software system for structural DNA nanotechnology design, analysis and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinhao; Wei, Bryan; Yuan, Yuan; Mi, Yongli

    2009-01-01

    A user-friendly software system, UNIQUIMER 3D, was developed to design DNA structures for nanotechnology applications. It consists of 3D visualization, internal energy minimization, sequence generation and construction of motif array simulations (2D tiles and 3D lattices) functionalities. The system can be used to check structural deformation and design errors under scaled-up conditions. UNIQUIMER 3D has been tested on the design of both existing motifs (holiday junction, 4 × 4 tile, double crossover, DNA tetrahedron, DNA cube, etc.) and nonexisting motifs (soccer ball). The results demonstrated UNIQUIMER 3D's capability in designing large complex structures. We also designed a de novo sequence generation algorithm. UNIQUIMER 3D was developed for the Windows environment and is provided free of charge to the nonprofit research institutions. PMID:19228709

  18. 3DVEM Software Modules for Efficient Management of Point Clouds and Photorealistic 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabado, S.; Seguí, A. E.; Cabrelles, M.; Navarro, S.; García-De-San-Miguel, D.; Lerma, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural heritage managers in general and information users in particular are not usually used to deal with high-technological hardware and software. On the contrary, information providers of metric surveys are most of the times applying latest developments for real-life conservation and restoration projects. This paper addresses the software issue of handling and managing either 3D point clouds or (photorealistic) 3D models to bridge the gap between information users and information providers as regards the management of information which users and providers share as a tool for decision-making, analysis, visualization and management. There are not many viewers specifically designed to handle, manage and create easily animations of architectural and/or archaeological 3D objects, monuments and sites, among others. 3DVEM - 3D Viewer, Editor & Meter software will be introduced to the scientific community, as well as 3DVEM - Live and 3DVEM - Register. The advantages of managing projects with both sets of data, 3D point cloud and photorealistic 3D models, will be introduced. Different visualizations of true documentation projects in the fields of architecture, archaeology and industry will be presented. Emphasis will be driven to highlight the features of new userfriendly software to manage virtual projects. Furthermore, the easiness of creating controlled interactive animations (both walkthrough and fly-through) by the user either on-the-fly or as a traditional movie file will be demonstrated through 3DVEM - Live.

  19. Internet-based hardware/software co-design framework for embedded 3D graphics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chi-Tsai; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Ing-Jer; Wong, Weng-Fai

    2011-12-01

    Advances in technology are making it possible to run three-dimensional (3D) graphics applications on embedded and handheld devices. In this article, we propose a hardware/software co-design environment for 3D graphics application development that includes the 3D graphics software, OpenGL ES application programming interface (API), device driver, and 3D graphics hardware simulators. We developed a 3D graphics system-on-a-chip (SoC) accelerator using transaction-level modeling (TLM). This gives software designers early access to the hardware even before it is ready. On the other hand, hardware designers also stand to gain from the more complex test benches made available in the software for verification. A unique aspect of our framework is that it allows hardware and software designers from geographically dispersed areas to cooperate and work on the same framework. Designs can be entered and executed from anywhere in the world without full access to the entire framework, which may include proprietary components. This results in controlled and secure transparency and reproducibility, granting leveled access to users of various roles.

  20. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software.

    PubMed

    Eulitz, Mona; Reiss, Gebhard

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) surface of an object to be examined is widely used for structure analysis in science and many biological questions require information about their true 3D structure. For Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) there has been no efficient non-destructive solution for reconstruction of the surface morphology to date. The well-known method of recording stereo pair images generates a 3D stereoscope reconstruction of a section, but not of the complete sample surface. We present a simple and non-destructive method of 3D surface reconstruction from SEM samples based on the principles of optical close range photogrammetry. In optical close range photogrammetry a series of overlapping photos is used to generate a 3D model of the surface of an object. We adapted this method to the special SEM requirements. Instead of moving a detector around the object, the object itself was rotated. A series of overlapping photos was stitched and converted into a 3D model using the software commonly used for optical photogrammetry. A rabbit kidney glomerulus was used to demonstrate the workflow of this adaption. The reconstruction produced a realistic and high-resolution 3D mesh model of the glomerular surface. The study showed that SEM micrographs are suitable for 3D reconstruction by optical photogrammetry. This new approach is a simple and useful method of 3D surface reconstruction and suitable for various applications in research and teaching. PMID:26073969

  1. Development of a new software for analyzing 3-D fracture network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Jeong-Gi; Noh, Young-Hwan; Choi, Yosoon

    2014-05-01

    A new software is presented to analyze fracture network in 3-D. Recently, we completed the software package based on information given in EGU2013. The software consists of several modules that play roles in management of borehole data, stochastic modelling of fracture network, construction of analysis domain, visualization of fracture geometry in 3-D, calculation of equivalent pipes and production of cross-section diagrams. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013, Visual Studio.NET 2010 and the open source VTK library were utilized as development tools to efficiently implement the modules and the graphical user interface of the software. A case study was performed to analyze 3-D fracture network system at the Upper Devonian Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada. The results have suggested that the developed software is effective in modelling and visualizing 3-D fracture network system, and can provide useful information to tackle the geomechanical problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviours of the fractured rock masses. This presentation describes the concept and details of the development and implementation of the software.

  2. Motion-Capture-Enabled Software for Gestural Control of 3D Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Luo, Victor; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Powell, Mark W.; Valderrama, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art systems use general-purpose input devices such as a keyboard, mouse, or joystick that map to tasks in unintuitive ways. This software enables a person to control intuitively the position, size, and orientation of synthetic objects in a 3D virtual environment. It makes possible the simultaneous control of the 3D position, scale, and orientation of 3D objects using natural gestures. Enabling the control of 3D objects using a commercial motion-capture system allows for natural mapping of the many degrees of freedom of the human body to the manipulation of the 3D objects. It reduces training time for this kind of task, and eliminates the need to create an expensive, special-purpose controller.

  3. Interfacing WIPL-D with Mechanical CAD Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliznyuk, Nataliya; Janic, Bojan

    2007-01-01

    of almost any popular CAD format, e.g. IGES, Parasolid, DXF, ACIS etc. The solid models are processed (simplified) and meshed in GiD(R), and then converted into WIPL-D Pro input file by simple Fortran or Matlab code. This algorithm allows the user to control the mesh of imported geometry, and to assign electric pperties to metalic and dielectric surfaces. Implementation of the algorithm is demonstrated by examples obtained from the NASA Discovery mission, Phoenix Lander 2008. Results for radiation pattern of Phoenix Lander UHF relay antenna with effect of Martian surface, both simulated in WIPL-D Pro and measured, are shown for comparison.

  4. CAD/CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haiguang; Han, Min

    2003-10-01

    We focus at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. The software can be used for training and education. We introduce mechanical CAD, optical CAD and electrical CAD, we show how to draw a circuit diagram, mechanical diagram and luminous transmission diagram, from 2D drawing to 3D drawing. We introduce how to create 2D and 3D parts for optomechatronics, how to edit tool paths, how to select parameters for process, how to run the post processor, dynamic show the tool path and generate the CNC programming. We introduce the joint application of CAD&CAM. We aim at how to match the requirement of optical, mechanical and electronics.

  5. Morphological and Volumetric Assessment of Cerebral Ventricular System with 3D Slicer Software.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo Domínguez, Miguel; Hernández, Cristina; Ruisoto, Pablo; Juanes, Juan A; Prats, Alberto; Hernández, Tomás

    2016-06-01

    We present a technological process based on the 3D Slicer software for the three-dimensional study of the brain's ventricular system with teaching purposes. It values the morphology of this complex brain structure, as a whole and in any spatial position, being able to compare it with pathological studies, where its anatomy visibly changes. 3D Slicer was also used to obtain volumetric measurements in order to provide a more comprehensive and detail representation of the ventricular system. We assess the potential this software has for processing high resolution images, taken from Magnetic Resonance and generate the three-dimensional reconstruction of ventricular system. PMID:27147517

  6. Analysis of the Hexapod Work Space using integration of a CAD/CAE system and the LabVIEW software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the problems related to the integration of a CAD/CAE system with the LabVIEW software. The purpose of the integration is to determine the workspace of a hexapod model basing on a mathematical model describing it motion. In the first stage of the work concerning the integration task the 3D model to simulate movements of a hexapod was elaborated. This phase of the work was done in the “Motion Simulation” module of the CAD/CAE/CAM Siemens NX system. The first step was to define the components of the 3D model in the form of “links”. Individual links were defined according to the nature of the hexapod elements action. In the model prepared for movement simulation were created links corresponding to such elements as: electric actuator, top plate, bottom plate, ball-and-socket joint, toggle joint Phillips. Then were defined the constraints of the “joint” type (e.g.: revolute joint, slider joint, spherical joint) between the created component of the “link” type, so that the computer simulation corresponds to the operation of a real hexapod. The next stage of work included implementing the mathematical model describing the functioning of a hexapod in the LabVIEW software. At this stage, particular attention was paid to determining procedures for integrating the virtual 3D hexapod model with the results of calculations performed in the LabVIEW. The results relate to specific values of the jump of electric actuators depending on the position of the car on the hexapod. The use of integration made it possible to determine the safe operating space of a stationary hexapod taking into consideration the security of a person in the driving simulator designed for the disabled.

  7. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  8. Visualizer: 3D Gridded Data Visualization Software for Geoscience Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, C.; Billen, M. I.; Kreylos, O.; Jadamec, M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Kellogg, L. H.; Hamann, B.

    2008-12-01

    In both research and education learning is an interactive and iterative process of exploring and analyzing data or model results. However, visualization software often presents challenges on the path to learning because it assumes the user already knows the locations and types of features of interest, instead of enabling flexible and intuitive examination of results. We present examples of research and teaching using the software, Visualizer, specifically designed to create an effective and intuitive environment for interactive, scientific analysis of 3D gridded data. Visualizer runs in a range of 3D virtual reality environments (e.g., GeoWall, ImmersaDesk, or CAVE), but also provides a similar level of real-time interactivity on a desktop computer. When using Visualizer in a 3D-enabled environment, the software allows the user to interact with the data images as real objects, grabbing, rotating or walking around the data to gain insight and perspective. On the desktop, simple features, such as a set of cross-bars marking the plane of the screen, provide extra 3D spatial cues that allow the user to more quickly understand geometric relationships within the data. This platform portability allows the user to more easily integrate research results into classroom demonstrations and exercises, while the interactivity provides an engaging environment for self-directed and inquiry-based learning by students. Visualizer software is freely available for download (www.keckcaves.org) and runs on Mac OSX and Linux platforms.

  9. 3D Game-Based Learning System for Improving Learning Achievement in Software Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su,Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, such that students could better learn curriculum by 3-dimension virtual reality. To enhance software engineering learning, this paper develops a 3D game-based learning system to assist teaching and assess the students' motivation, satisfaction and learning…

  10. Scipion: A software framework toward integration, reproducibility and validation in 3D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa-Trevín, J M; Quintana, A; Del Cano, L; Zaldívar, A; Foche, I; Gutiérrez, J; Gómez-Blanco, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Cuenca-Alba, J; Abrishami, V; Vargas, J; Otón, J; Sharov, G; Vilas, J L; Navas, J; Conesa, P; Kazemi, M; Marabini, R; Sorzano, C O S; Carazo, J M

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) has undergone a revolution in instrumentation and methodology. One of the central players in this wide-reaching change is the continuous development of image processing software. Here we present Scipion, a software framework for integrating several 3DEM software packages through a workflow-based approach. Scipion allows the execution of reusable, standardized, traceable and reproducible image-processing protocols. These protocols incorporate tools from different programs while providing full interoperability among them. Scipion is an open-source project that can be downloaded from http://scipion.cnb.csic.es. PMID:27108186

  11. TINA manual landmarking tool: software for the precise digitization of 3D landmarks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in the placing of landmarks and subsequent morphometric analyses of shape for 3D data has increased with the increasing accessibility of computed tomography (CT) scanners. However, current computer programs for this task suffer from various practical drawbacks. We present here a free software tool that overcomes many of these problems. Results The TINA Manual Landmarking Tool was developed for the digitization of 3D data sets. It enables the generation of a modifiable 3D volume rendering display plus matching orthogonal 2D cross-sections from DICOM files. The object can be rotated and axes defined and fixed. Predefined lists of landmarks can be loaded and the landmarks identified within any of the representations. Output files are stored in various established formats, depending on the preferred evaluation software. Conclusions The software tool presented here provides several options facilitating the placing of landmarks on 3D objects, including volume rendering from DICOM files, definition and fixation of meaningful axes, easy import, placement, control, and export of landmarks, and handling of large datasets. The TINA Manual Landmark Tool runs under Linux and can be obtained for free from http://www.tina-vision.net/tarballs/. PMID:22480150

  12. An application of enhanced 3D-CAD methods with integrated geometry creation algorithms for PVC-seams in automotive body in white design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frener, Gernot; Thum, Katharina; Hirz, Mario; Harrich, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    State of the art automotive development processes are based on virtual product models, which include a digital representation of complete vehicle geometry and structures. Increasing computation performance and continuously growing demands on virtual development processes lead to the application of precise product representation within common CAD software packages. A specific challenge represents the creation of PVC-seams, which are used for corrosion protection of sheet metal components in automotive body in white design. Besides the high requirements of accurate geometric modeling in digital representation, modern development processes call for an increasing level of design automation. To fit both, the present approach introduces a method for an automatic generation of PVC-seams using the functionalities of commercial CAD software. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. The capture and dissemination of integrated 3D geospatial knowledge at the British Geological Survey using GSI3D software and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Holger; Mathers, Steve; Sobisch, Hans-Georg

    2009-06-01

    The Geological Surveying and Investigation in 3 Dimensions (GSI3D) software tool and methodology has been developed over the last 15 years. Since 2001 this has been in cooperation with the British Geological Survey (BGS). To-date over a hundred BGS geologists have learned to use the software that is now routinely deployed in building systematic and commercial 3D geological models. The success of the GSI3D methodology and software is based on its intuitive design and the fact that it utilises exactly the same data and methods, albeit in digital forms, that geologists have been using for two centuries in order to make geological maps and cross-sections. The geologist constructs models based on a career of observation of geological phenomena, thereby incorporating tacit knowledge into the model. This knowledge capture is a key element to the GSI3D approach. In BGS GSI3D is part of a much wider set of systems and work processes that together make up the cyberinfrastructure of a modern geological survey. The GSI3D software is not yet designed to cope with bedrock structures in which individual stratigraphic surfaces are repeated or inverted, but the software is currently being extended by BGS to encompass these more complex geological scenarios. A further challenge for BGS is to enable its 3D geological models to become part of the semantic Web using GML application schema like GeoSciML. The biggest benefits of widely available systematic geological models will be an enhanced public understanding of the sub-surface in 3D, and the teaching of geoscience students.

  14. An open-source deconvolution software package for 3-D quantitative fluorescence microscopy imaging

    PubMed Central

    SUN, Y.; DAVIS, P.; KOSMACEK, E. A.; IANZINI, F.; MACKEY, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Deconvolution techniques have been widely used for restoring the 3-D quantitative information of an unknown specimen observed using a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Deconv, an open-source deconvolution software package, was developed for 3-D quantitative fluorescence microscopy imaging and was released under the GNU Public License. Deconv provides numerical routines for simulation of a 3-D point spread function and deconvolution routines implemented three constrained iterative deconvolution algorithms: one based on a Poisson noise model and two others based on a Gaussian noise model. These algorithms are presented and evaluated using synthetic images and experimentally obtained microscope images, and the use of the library is explained. Deconv allows users to assess the utility of these deconvolution algorithms and to determine which are suited for a particular imaging application. The design of Deconv makes it easy for deconvolution capabilities to be incorporated into existing imaging applications. PMID:19941558

  15. 3D modeling of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) system. The model is characterized by the E-J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the model in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the 3D model, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our model to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D models. The new 3D model could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.

  16. The Performance Evaluation of Multi-Image 3d Reconstruction Software with Different Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, V.; Khosravi, M.; Ahmadi, M.; Noori, N.; Naveh, A. Hosseini; Varshosaz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, multi-image 3D reconstruction is an active research field and generating three dimensional model of the objects is one the most discussed issues in Photogrammetry and Computer Vision that can be accomplished using range-based or image-based methods. Very accurate and dense point clouds generated by range-based methods such as structured light systems and laser scanners has introduced them as reliable tools in the industry. Image-based 3D digitization methodologies offer the option of reconstructing an object by a set of unordered images that depict it from different viewpoints. As their hardware requirements are narrowed down to a digital camera and a computer system, they compose an attractive 3D digitization approach, consequently, although range-based methods are generally very accurate, image-based methods are low-cost and can be easily used by non-professional users. One of the factors affecting the accuracy of the obtained model in image-based methods is the software and algorithm used to generate three dimensional model. These algorithms are provided in the form of commercial software, open source and web-based services. Another important factor in the accuracy of the obtained model is the type of sensor used. Due to availability of mobile sensors to the public, popularity of professional sensors and the advent of stereo sensors, a comparison of these three sensors plays an effective role in evaluating and finding the optimized method to generate three-dimensional models. Lots of research has been accomplished to identify a suitable software and algorithm to achieve an accurate and complete model, however little attention is paid to the type of sensors used and its effects on the quality of the final model. The purpose of this paper is deliberation and the introduction of an appropriate combination of a sensor and software to provide a complete model with the highest accuracy. To do this, different software, used in previous studies, were compared and

  17. Development of 3-D fracture network visualization software based on graphical user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young-Hwan, Noh; Jeong-Gi, Um; Yosoon, Choi; Myong-Ho, Park; Jaeyoung, Choi

    2013-04-01

    A sound understanding of the structural characteristics of fractured rock masses is important in designing and maintaining earth structures because their strength, deformability, and hydraulic behavior depend mainly on the characteristics of discontinuity network structures. Despite considerable progress in understanding the structural characteristics of rock masses, the complexity of discontinuity patterns has prevented satisfactory analysis based on a 3-D rock mass visualization model. This research presents the results of studies performed to develop rock mass visualization in 3-D to analysis the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of fractured rock masses. General and particular solutions of non-linear equations of disk-shaped fractures have been derived to calculated lines of intersection and equivalent pipes. Also, program modules of DISK3D, FNTWK3D, BOUNDARY and BDM(borehole data management) have been developed to perform the visualization of fracture network and corresponding equivalent pipes for DFN based fluid flow model. The developed software for the 3-D fractured rock mass visualization model based on MS visual studio can be used to characterize rock mass geometry and network systems effectively. The results obtained in this study will be refined and then combined for use as a tool for assessing geomechanical problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the 2011 Energy Efficiency and Resources Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant.

  18. Scalable, High-performance 3D Imaging Software Platform: System Architecture and Application to Virtual Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2013-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems: multi-core, clusters, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable, high-performance computing, our platform (1) employs size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D image processing algorithms; (2) supports task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing; and (3) consists of a layered parallel software libraries that allow a wide range of medical applications to share the same functionalities. We evaluated the performance of our platform by applying it to an electronic cleansing system in virtual colonoscopy, with initial experimental results showing a 10 times performance improvement on an 8-core workstation over the original sequential implementation of the system. PMID:23366803

  19. Web-based interactive 2D/3D medical image processing and visualization software.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Seyyed Ehsan; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Rahmani, Roohollah; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrooz; Taimouri, Vahid; Sabouri, Ahmad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    There are many medical image processing software tools available for research and diagnosis purposes. However, most of these tools are available only as local applications. This limits the accessibility of the software to a specific machine, and thus the data and processing power of that application are not available to other workstations. Further, there are operating system and processing power limitations which prevent such applications from running on every type of workstation. By developing web-based tools, it is possible for users to access the medical image processing functionalities wherever the internet is available. In this paper, we introduce a pure web-based, interactive, extendable, 2D and 3D medical image processing and visualization application that requires no client installation. Our software uses a four-layered design consisting of an algorithm layer, web-user-interface layer, server communication layer, and wrapper layer. To compete with extendibility of the current local medical image processing software, each layer is highly independent of other layers. A wide range of medical image preprocessing, registration, and segmentation methods are implemented using open source libraries. Desktop-like user interaction is provided by using AJAX technology in the web-user-interface. For the visualization functionality of the software, the VRML standard is used to provide 3D features over the web. Integration of these technologies has allowed implementation of our purely web-based software with high functionality without requiring powerful computational resources in the client side. The user-interface is designed such that the users can select appropriate parameters for practical research and clinical studies. PMID:20022133

  20. OS3D/GIMRT software for modeling multicomponent-multidimensional reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    CI Steefel; SB Yabusaki

    2000-05-17

    OS3D/GIMRT is a numerical software package for simulating multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. The package consists of two principal components: (1) the code OS3D (Operator Splitting 3-Dimensional Reactive Transport) which simulates reactive transport by either splitting the reaction and transport steps in time, i.e., the classic time or operator splitting approach, or by iterating sequentially between reactions and transport, and (2) the code GIMRT (Global Implicit Multicomponent Reactive Transport) which treats up to two dimensional reactive transport with a one step or global implicit approach. Although the two codes do not yet have totally identical capabilities, they can be run from the same input file, allowing comparisons to be made between the two approaches in many cases. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed more fully below, but in general OS3D is designed for simulation of transient concentration fronts, particularly under high Peclet number transport conditions, because of its use of a total variation diminishing or TVD transport algorithm. GIMRT is suited for simulating water-rock alteration over long periods of time where the aqueous concentration field is at or close to a quasi-stationary state and the numerical transport errors are less important. Where water-rock interaction occurs over geological periods of time, GIMRT may be preferable to OS3D because of its ability to take larger time steps.

  1. Remote measurement methods for 3-D modeling purposes using BAE Systems' Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Stewart; Pietrzak, Arleta

    2015-06-01

    Efficient, accurate data collection from imagery is the key to an economical generation of useful geospatial products. Incremental developments of traditional geospatial data collection and the arrival of new image data sources cause new software packages to be created and existing ones to be adjusted to enable such data to be processed. In the past, BAE Systems' digital photogrammetric workstation, SOCET SET®, met fin de siècle expectations in data processing and feature extraction. Its successor, SOCET GXP®, addresses today's photogrammetric requirements and new data sources. SOCET GXP is an advanced workstation for mapping and photogrammetric tasks, with automated functionality for triangulation, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction, orthorectification and mosaicking, feature extraction and creation of 3-D models with texturing. BAE Systems continues to add sensor models to accommodate new image sources, in response to customer demand. New capabilities added in the latest version of SOCET GXP facilitate modeling, visualization and analysis of 3-D features.

  2. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  3. Coupling Photon Monte Carlo Simulation and CAD Software. Application to X-ray Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabary, J.; Glière, A.

    A Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation program, EGS Nova, and a Computer Aided Design software, BRL-CAD, have been coupled within the framework of Sindbad, a Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) simulation system. In its current status, the program is very valuable in a NDE laboratory context, as it helps simulate the images due to the uncollided and scattered photon fluxes in a single NDE software environment, without having to switch to a Monte Carlo code parameters set. Numerical validations show a good agreement with EGS4 computed and published data. As the program's major drawback is the execution time, computational efficiency improvements are foreseen.

  4. Deriving 3d Point Clouds from Terrestrial Photographs - Comparison of Different Sensors and Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Mokroš, Martin; Lange, Julia; Petschko, Helene; Prasicek, Günther; Oude Elberink, Sander

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry nowadays offers a reasonably cheap, intuitive and effective approach to 3D-modelling. However, the important choice, which sensor and which software to use is not straight forward and needs consideration as the choice will have effects on the resulting 3D point cloud and its derivatives. We compare five different sensors as well as four different state-of-the-art software packages for a single application, the modelling of a vegetated rock face. The five sensors represent different resolutions, sensor sizes and price segments of the cameras. The software packages used are: (1) Agisoft PhotoScan Pro (1.16), (2) Pix4D (2.0.89), (3) a combination of Visual SFM (V0.5.22) and SURE (1.2.0.286), and (4) MicMac (1.0). We took photos of a vegetated rock face from identical positions with all sensors. Then we compared the results of the different software packages regarding the ease of the workflow, visual appeal, similarity and quality of the point cloud. While PhotoScan and Pix4D offer the user-friendliest workflows, they are also "black-box" programmes giving only little insight into their processing. Unsatisfying results may only be changed by modifying settings within a module. The combined workflow of Visual SFM, SURE and CloudCompare is just as simple but requires more user interaction. MicMac turned out to be the most challenging software as it is less user-friendly. However, MicMac offers the most possibilities to influence the processing workflow. The resulting point-clouds of PhotoScan and MicMac are the most appealing.

  5. Software for Building Models of 3D Objects via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramer, Tim; Jensen, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    The Virtual EDF Builder (where EDF signifies Electronic Development Fixture) is a computer program that facilitates the use of the Internet for building and displaying digital models of three-dimensional (3D) objects that ordinarily comprise assemblies of solid models created previously by use of computer-aided-design (CAD) programs. The Virtual EDF Builder resides on a Unix-based server computer. It is used in conjunction with a commercially available Web-based plug-in viewer program that runs on a client computer. The Virtual EDF Builder acts as a translator between the viewer program and a database stored on the server. The translation function includes the provision of uniform resource locator (URL) links to other Web-based computer systems and databases. The Virtual EDF builder can be used in two ways: (1) If the client computer is Unix-based, then it can assemble a model locally; the computational load is transferred from the server to the client computer. (2) Alternatively, the server can be made to build the model, in which case the server bears the computational load and the results are downloaded to the client computer or workstation upon completion.

  6. Using 3D Geometric Models to Teach Spatial Geometry Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoline, Gary R.

    1991-01-01

    An explanation of 3-D Computer Aided Design (CAD) usage to teach spatial geometry concepts using nontraditional techniques is presented. The software packages CADKEY and AutoCAD are described as well as their usefulness in solving space geometry problems. (KR)

  7. Reliable and Fault-Tolerant Software-Defined Network Operations Scheme for Remote 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Gil, Joon-Min

    2015-03-01

    The recent wide expansion of applicable three-dimensional (3D) printing and software-defined networking (SDN) technologies has led to a great deal of attention being focused on efficient remote control of manufacturing processes. SDN is a renowned paradigm for network softwarization, which has helped facilitate remote manufacturing in association with high network performance, since SDN is designed to control network paths and traffic flows, guaranteeing improved quality of services by obtaining network requests from end-applications on demand through the separated SDN controller or control plane. However, current SDN approaches are generally focused on the controls and automation of the networks, which indicates that there is a lack of management plane development designed for a reliable and fault-tolerant SDN environment. Therefore, in addition to the inherent advantage of SDN, this paper proposes a new software-defined network operations center (SD-NOC) architecture to strengthen the reliability and fault-tolerance of SDN in terms of network operations and management in particular. The cooperation and orchestration between SDN and SD-NOC are also introduced for the SDN failover processes based on four principal SDN breakdown scenarios derived from the failures of the controller, SDN nodes, and connected links. The abovementioned SDN troubles significantly reduce the network reachability to remote devices (e.g., 3D printers, super high-definition cameras, etc.) and the reliability of relevant control processes. Our performance consideration and analysis results show that the proposed scheme can shrink operations and management overheads of SDN, which leads to the enhancement of responsiveness and reliability of SDN for remote 3D printing and control processes.

  8. True-Depth: a new type of true 3D volumetric display system suitable for CAD, medical imaging, and air-traffic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgoff, Eugene

    1998-04-01

    Floating Images, Inc. is developing a new type of volumetric monitor capable of producing a high-density set of points in 3D space. Since the points of light actually exist in space, the resulting image can be viewed with continuous parallax, both vertically and horizontally, with no headache or eyestrain. These 'real' points in space are always viewed with a perfect match between accommodation and convergence. All scanned points appear to the viewer simultaneously, making this display especially suitable for CAD, medical imaging, air-traffic control, and various military applications. This system has the potential to display imagery so accurately that a ruler could be placed within the aerial image to provide precise measurement in any direction. A special virtual imaging arrangement allows the user to superimpose 3D images on a solid object, making the object look transparent. This is particularly useful for minimally invasive surgery in which the internal structure of a patient is visible to a surgeon in 3D. Surgical procedures can be carried out through the smallest possible hole while the surgeon watches the procedure from outside the body as if the patient were transparent. Unlike other attempts to produce volumetric imaging, this system uses no massive rotating screen or any screen at all, eliminating down time due to breakage and possible danger due to potential mechanical failure. Additionally, it is also capable of displaying very large images.

  9. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  10. A Comprehensive Software System for Interactive, Real-time, Visual 3D Deterministic and Stochastic Groundwater Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.

    2002-05-01

    Taking advantage of the recent developments in groundwater modeling research and computer, image and graphics processing, and objected oriented programming technologies, Dr. Li and his research group have recently developed a comprehensive software system for unified deterministic and stochastic groundwater modeling. Characterized by a new real-time modeling paradigm and improved computational algorithms, the software simulates 3D unsteady flow and reactive transport in general groundwater formations subject to both systematic and "randomly" varying stresses and geological and chemical heterogeneity. The software system has following distinct features and capabilities: Interactive simulation and real time visualization and animation of flow in response to deterministic as well as stochastic stresses. Interactive, visual, and real time particle tracking, random walk, and reactive plume modeling in both systematically and randomly fluctuating flow. Interactive statistical inference, scattered data interpolation, regression, and ordinary and universal Kriging, conditional and unconditional simulation. Real-time, visual and parallel conditional flow and transport simulations. Interactive water and contaminant mass balance analysis and visual and real-time flux update. Interactive, visual, and real time monitoring of head and flux hydrographs and concentration breakthroughs. Real-time modeling and visualization of aquifer transition from confined to unconfined to partially de-saturated or completely dry and rewetting Simultaneous and embedded subscale models, automatic and real-time regional to local data extraction; Multiple subscale flow and transport models Real-time modeling of steady and transient vertical flow patterns on multiple arbitrarily-shaped cross-sections and simultaneous visualization of aquifer stratigraphy, properties, hydrological features (rivers, lakes, wetlands, wells, drains, surface seeps), and dynamically adjusted surface flooding area

  11. A graphic user interface for efficient 3D photo-reconstruction based on free software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael; Gómez, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, different studies have stressed the applicability of 3D photo-reconstruction based on Structure from Motion algorithms in a wide range of geoscience applications. For the purpose of image photo-reconstruction, a number of commercial and freely available software packages have been developed (e.g. Agisoft Photoscan, VisualSFM). The workflow involves typically different stages such as image matching, sparse and dense photo-reconstruction, point cloud filtering and georeferencing. For approaches using open and free software, each of these stages usually require different applications. In this communication, we present an easy-to-use graphic user interface (GUI) developed in Matlab® code as a tool for efficient 3D photo-reconstruction making use of powerful existing software: VisualSFM (Wu, 2015) for photo-reconstruction and CloudCompare (Girardeau-Montaut, 2015) for point cloud processing. The GUI performs as a manager of configurations and algorithms, taking advantage of the command line modes of existing software, which allows an intuitive and automated processing workflow for the geoscience user. The GUI includes several additional features: a) a routine for significantly reducing the duration of the image matching operation, normally the most time consuming stage; b) graphical outputs for understanding the overall performance of the algorithm (e.g. camera connectivity, point cloud density); c) a number of useful options typically performed before and after the photo-reconstruction stage (e.g. removal of blurry images, image renaming, vegetation filtering); d) a manager of batch processing for the automated reconstruction of different image datasets. In this study we explore the advantages of this new tool by testing its performance using imagery collected in several soil erosion applications. References Girardeau-Montaut, D. 2015. CloudCompare documentation accessed at http://cloudcompare.org/ Wu, C. 2015. VisualSFM documentation access at http://ccwu.me/vsfm/doc.html#.

  12. Interface Of Optical Design Programs To CAD/CAE/CAM Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Timothy D.

    1988-06-01

    CAD/CAM systems permit the manufacture of real physical parts on a milling, or other shop, machine which has received its instructions from the design system. However, a persistent problem has been the lack of a link between the optical CAD software and the mechanical CAD software. A past paperl described software which bridges this gap by producing an Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) file from the neutral plot files of the optical model. This IGES file can then be directly read into the mechanical drafting and design programs, ANVIL and GEOMOD. Although the latest enhancements to this older interface will be addressed, the main thrust of the paper is the description of three completely new capabilities: 1) the ability to directly read NASTRAN-generated strain data for optical surfaces into the optical design program CODE-V, 2) the direct passage of a standard lens prescription in CODE-V to the program APART for stray light analysis, and 3) the entry of mechanical drafting data directly into APART via IGES files. This last interface is particularly exciting because it allows, for the first time, completely graphical entry of structural data into an optical analysis program. A description of the typical procedures used to accomplish the transfer of data is provided along with several examples. Plans are presented to use these new software links to achieve paperless manufacture of opto-mechanical systems. Since the current algorithms have been designed with an eye on eventual improvements, an assessment of current limitations and future enhancements is also included.

  13. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  14. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chervin, Christopher N; Parker, Joseph F; Nelson, Eric S; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-29

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode-a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte. PMID:26987282

  15. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervin, Christopher N.; Parker, Joseph F.; Nelson, Eric S.; Rolison, Debra R.; Long, Jeffrey W.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode—a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  16. Evaluation of an improved algorithm for producing realistic 3D breast software phantoms: Application for mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Bliznakova, K.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Karellas, A.; Pallikarakis, N.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: This work presents an improved algorithm for the generation of 3D breast software phantoms and its evaluation for mammography. Methods: The improved methodology has evolved from a previously presented 3D noncompressed breast modeling method used for the creation of breast models of different size, shape, and composition. The breast phantom is composed of breast surface, duct system and terminal ductal lobular units, Cooper's ligaments, lymphatic and blood vessel systems, pectoral muscle, skin, 3D mammographic background texture, and breast abnormalities. The key improvement is the development of a new algorithm for 3D mammographic texture generation. Simulated images of the enhanced 3D breast model without lesions were produced by simulating mammographic image acquisition and were evaluated subjectively and quantitatively. For evaluation purposes, a database with regions of interest taken from simulated and real mammograms was created. Four experienced radiologists participated in a visual subjective evaluation trial, as they judged the quality of the simulated mammograms, using the new algorithm compared to mammograms, obtained with the old modeling approach. In addition, extensive quantitative evaluation included power spectral analysis and calculation of fractal dimension, skewness, and kurtosis of simulated and real mammograms from the database. Results: The results from the subjective evaluation strongly suggest that the new methodology for mammographic breast texture creates improved breast models compared to the old approach. Calculated parameters on simulated images such as {beta} exponent deducted from the power law spectral analysis and fractal dimension are similar to those calculated on real mammograms. The results for the kurtosis and skewness are also in good coincidence with those calculated from clinical images. Comparison with similar calculations published in the literature showed good agreement in the majority of cases. Conclusions: The

  17. A software tool for automatic classification and segmentation of 2D/3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelecki, Michal; Szczypinski, Piotr; Materka, Andrzej; Klepaczko, Artur

    2013-02-01

    Modern medical diagnosis utilizes techniques of visualization of human internal organs (CT, MRI) or of its metabolism (PET). However, evaluation of acquired images made by human experts is usually subjective and qualitative only. Quantitative analysis of MR data, including tissue classification and segmentation, is necessary to perform e.g. attenuation compensation, motion detection, and correction of partial volume effect in PET images, acquired with PET/MR scanners. This article presents briefly a MaZda software package, which supports 2D and 3D medical image analysis aiming at quantification of image texture. MaZda implements procedures for evaluation, selection and extraction of highly discriminative texture attributes combined with various classification, visualization and segmentation tools. Examples of MaZda application in medical studies are also provided.

  18. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents. PMID:26530842

  19. Use of 3D imaging in CT of the acute trauma patient: impact of a PACS-based software package.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jorge A; Lucey, Brain C; Stuhlfaut, Joshua W; Varghese, Jose C

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a picture archiving and communication systems (PACS)-based software package on the requests for 3D reconstructions of multidetector CT (MDCT) data sets in the emergency radiology of a level 1 trauma center, we reviewed the number and type of physician requests for 3D reconstructions of MDCT data sets for patients admitted after sustaining multiple trauma, during a 12-month period (January 2003-December 2003). During the first 5 months of the study, 3D reconstructions were performed in dedicated workstations located separately from the emergency radiology CT interpretation area. During the last 7 months of the study, reconstructions were performed online by the attending radiologist or resident on duty, using a software package directly incorporated into the PACS workstations. The mean monthly number of 3D reconstructions requested during the two time periods was compared using Student's t test. The monthly mean +/- SD of 3D reconstructions performed before and after 3D software incorporation into the PACS was 34+/-7 (95% CI, 10-58) and 132+/-31 (95% CI, 111-153), respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). In the multiple trauma patient, implementation of PACS-integrated software increases utilization of 3D reconstructions of MDCT data sets. PMID:16028324

  20. IGMAS+ A New 3D Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, H.; Schmidt, S.; Fichler, C.; Alvers, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them. Three-dimensional (3D) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using triangulated polyhedra and/or triangulated grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of constraining data into interactive modeling processes

  1. IGMAS+ a new 3D Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Fichler, Christine; Planka, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them Three-dimensional (3D) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using triangulated polyhedra and/or triangulated grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of constraining data into interactive modeling processes

  2. Designing Spatial Visualisation Tasks for Middle School Students with a 3D Modelling Software: An Instrumental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih; Uygan, Candas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, certain task designs to enhance middle school students' spatial visualisation ability, in the context of an instrumental approach, have been developed. 3D modelling software, SketchUp®, was used. In the design process, software tools were focused on and, thereafter, the aim was to interpret the instrumental genesis and spatial…

  3. Evaluating Dense 3d Reconstruction Software Packages for Oblique Monitoring of Crop Canopy Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, S.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Crop Surface Models (CSMs) are 2.5D raster surfaces representing absolute plant canopy height. Using multiple CMSs generated from data acquired at multiple time steps, a crop surface monitoring is enabled. This makes it possible to monitor crop growth over time and can be used for monitoring in-field crop growth variability which is useful in the context of high-throughput phenotyping. This study aims to evaluate several software packages for dense 3D reconstruction from multiple overlapping RGB images on field and plot-scale. A summer barley field experiment located at the Campus Klein-Altendorf of University of Bonn was observed by acquiring stereo images from an oblique angle using consumer-grade smart cameras. Two such cameras were mounted at an elevation of 10 m and acquired images for a period of two months during the growing period of 2014. The field experiment consisted of nine barley cultivars that were cultivated in multiple repetitions and nitrogen treatments. Manual plant height measurements were carried out at four dates during the observation period. The software packages Agisoft PhotoScan, VisualSfM with CMVS/PMVS2 and SURE are investigated. The point clouds are georeferenced through a set of ground control points. Where adequate results are reached, a statistical analysis is performed.

  4. Improved vision in forensic documentation: forensic 3D/CAD-supported photogrammetry of bodily injury external surfaces combined with volumetric radiologic scanning of bodily injury internal structures provides more investigative leads and stronger forensic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thali, Michael J.; Braun, Marcel; Kneubuehl, Beat P.; Brueschweiler, Walter; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2000-05-01

    In the field of the documentation of forensics-relevant injuries, from the reconstructive point of view, the Forensic, 3D/CAD-supported Photometry plays an important role; particularly so when a detailed 3D reconstruction is vital. This was demonstrated with an experimentally-produced 'injury' to a head model, the 'skin-skull-brain model'. The injury-causing instrument, drawn from a real forensic case, was a specifically formed weapon.

  5. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  6. The polyGeVero® software for fast and easy computation of 3D radiotherapy dosimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The polyGeVero® software package was elaborated for calculations of 3D dosimetry data such as the polymer gel dosimetry. It comprises four workspaces designed for: i) calculating calibrations, ii) storing calibrations in a database, iii) calculating dose distribution 3D cubes, iv) comparing two datasets e.g. a measured one with a 3D dosimetry with a calculated one with the aid of a treatment planning system. To accomplish calculations the software was equipped with a number of tools such as the brachytherapy isotopes database, brachytherapy dose versus distance calculation based on the line approximation approach, automatic spatial alignment of two 3D dose cubes for comparison purposes, 3D gamma index, 3D gamma angle, 3D dose difference, Pearson's coefficient, histograms calculations, isodoses superimposition for two datasets, and profiles calculations in any desired direction. This communication is to briefly present the main functions of the software and report on the speed of calculations performed by polyGeVero®.

  7. The Use of Pro/Engineer CAD Software and Fishbowl Tool Kit in Ray-tracing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nounu, Hatem N.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    This document is designed as a manual for a user who wants to operate the Pro/ENGINEER (ProE) Wildfire 3.0 with the NASA Space Radiation Program's (SRP) custom-designed Toolkit, called 'Fishbowl', for the ray tracing of complex spacecraft geometries given by a ProE CAD model. The analysis of spacecraft geometry through ray tracing is a vital part in the calculation of health risks from space radiation. Space radiation poses severe risks of cancer, degenerative diseases and acute radiation sickness during long-term exploration missions, and shielding optimization is an important component in the application of radiation risk models. Ray tracing is a technique in which 3-dimensional (3D) vehicle geometry can be represented as the input for the space radiation transport code and subsequent risk calculations. In ray tracing a certain number of rays (on the order of 1000) are used to calculate the equivalent thickness, say of aluminum, of the spacecraft geometry seen at a point of interest called the dose point. The rays originate at the dose point and terminate at a homogenously distributed set of points lying on a sphere that circumscribes the spacecraft and that has its center at the dose point. The distance a ray traverses in each material is converted to aluminum or other user-selected equivalent thickness. Then all equivalent thicknesses are summed up for each ray. Since each ray points to a direction, the aluminum equivalent of each ray represents the shielding that the geometry provides to the dose point from that particular direction. This manual will first list for the user the contact information for help in installing ProE and Fishbowl in addition to notes on the platform support and system requirements information. Second, the document will show the user how to use the software to ray trace a Pro/E-designed 3-D assembly and will serve later as a reference for troubleshooting. The user is assumed to have previous knowledge of ProE and CAD modeling.

  8. 3D rendering of passive millimeter-wave scenes using modified open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakowski, Maciej; Wilson, John; Murakowski, Janusz; Schneider, Garrett; Schuetz, Christopher; Prather, Dennis

    2011-05-01

    As millimeter-wave imaging technology becomes more mature, several applications are emerging for which this technology may be useful. However, effectively predicting the nuances of millimeter-wave phenomenology on the usefulness for a given application remains a challenge. To this end, an accurate millimeter-wave scene simulator would have tremendous value in predicting imager requirements for a given application. Herein, we present a passive millimeter-wave scene simulator built on the open-source 3d modeling software Blender. We describe the changes made to the Blender rendering engine to make it suitable for this purpose, including physically accurate reflections at each material interface, volumetric absorption and scattering, and tracking of both s and p polarizations. In addition, we have incorporated a mmW material database and world model that emulates the effects of cold sky profiles for varying weather conditions and frequencies of operation. The images produced by this model have been validated against calibrated experimental imagery captured by a passive scanning millimeter-wave imager for maritime, desert, and standoff detection applications.

  9. Data acquisition electronics and reconstruction software for real time 3D track reconstruction within the MIMAC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Bosson, G.; Grignon, C.; Bouly, J. L.; Richer, J. P.; Guillaudin, O.; Mayet, F.; Billard, J.; Santos, D.

    2011-11-01

    Directional detection of non-baryonic Dark Matter requires 3D reconstruction of low energy nuclear recoils tracks. A gaseous micro-TPC matrix, filled with either 3He, CF4 or C4H10 has been developed within the MIMAC project. A dedicated acquisition electronics and a real time track reconstruction software have been developed to monitor a 512 channel prototype. This auto-triggered electronic uses embedded processing to reduce the data transfer to its useful part only, i.e. decoded coordinates of hit tracks and corresponding energy measurements. An acquisition software with on-line monitoring and 3D track reconstruction is also presented.

  10. CBT Pilot Program Instructional Guide. Basic Drafting Skills Curriculum Delivered through CAD Workstations and Artificial Intelligence Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard J.; Sauer, Mardelle A.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in using computer-aided design (CAD) workstations and artificial intelligence software to teach basic drafting skills. The guide outlines a 7-unit shell program that may also be used as a generic authoring system capable of supporting computer-based training (CBT) in other subject areas. The first section…

  11. i3Drefine Software for Protein 3D Structure Refinement and Its Assessment in CASP10

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cheng, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure refinement refers to the process of improving the qualities of protein structures during structure modeling processes to bring them closer to their native states. Structure refinement has been drawing increasing attention in the community-wide Critical Assessment of techniques for Protein Structure prediction (CASP) experiments since its addition in 8th CASP experiment. During the 9th and recently concluded 10th CASP experiments, a consistent growth in number of refinement targets and participating groups has been witnessed. Yet, protein structure refinement still remains a largely unsolved problem with majority of participating groups in CASP refinement category failed to consistently improve the quality of structures issued for refinement. In order to alleviate this need, we developed a completely automated and computationally efficient protein 3D structure refinement method, i3Drefine, based on an iterative and highly convergent energy minimization algorithm with a powerful all-atom composite physics and knowledge-based force fields and hydrogen bonding (HB) network optimization technique. In the recent community-wide blind experiment, CASP10, i3Drefine (as ‘MULTICOM-CONSTRUCT’) was ranked as the best method in the server section as per the official assessment of CASP10 experiment. Here we provide the community with free access to i3Drefine software and systematically analyse the performance of i3Drefine in strict blind mode on the refinement targets issued in CASP10 refinement category and compare with other state-of-the-art refinement methods participating in CASP10. Our analysis demonstrates that i3Drefine is only fully-automated server participating in CASP10 exhibiting consistent improvement over the initial structures in both global and local structural quality metrics. Executable version of i3Drefine is freely available at http://protein.rnet.missouri.edu/i3drefine/. PMID:23894517

  12. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  13. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (<300Euros) Windows tablets. However, the lack of flexibility in data structure makes for cumbersome workflows when trying to interface our existing shapefile-centric data structures to Move. Nonetheless, in spring 2014 we will experiment with full-3D immersion in the field using the full Move software package in combination with ground based LiDAR and photogrammetry. One new workflow suggested by our initial experiments is that field geologists should consider using photogrammetry software to capture 3D visualizations of key outcrops. This process is now straightforward in several software packages, and

  14. Software Development: 3D Animations and Creating User Interfaces for Realistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2015-01-01

    My fall 2015 semester was spent at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center working in the Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL). My first project was to create a video animation that could tell the story of OMICS. OMICS is a term being used in the field of biomedical science to describe the collective technologies that study biological systems, such as what makes up a cell and how it functions with other systems. In the IGOAL I used a large 23 inch Wacom monitor to draw storyboards, graphics, and line art animations. I used Blender as the 3D environment to sculpt, shape, cut or modify the several scenes and models for the video. A challenge creating this video was to take a term used in biomedical science and describe it in such a way that an 8th grade student can understand. I used a line art style because it would visually set the tone for what we thought was an educational style. In order to get a handle on the perspective and overall feel for the animation without overloading my workspace, I split up the 2 minute animation into several scenes. I used Blender's python scripting capabilities which allowed for the addition of plugins to add or modify tools. The scripts can also directly interact with the objects to create naturalistic patterns or movements. After collecting the rendered scenes, I used Blender's built-in video editing workspace to output the animation. My second project was to write software that emulates a physical system's interface. The interface was to simulate a boat, ROV, and winch system. Simulations are a time and cost effective way to test complicated data and provide training for operators without having to use expensive hardware. We created the virtual controls with 3-D Blender models and 2-D graphics, and then add functionality in C# using the Unity game engine. The Unity engine provides several essential behaviors of a simulator, such as the start and update functions. A framework for Unity, which was developed in

  15. A Software System for Filling Complex Holes in 3D Meshes by Flexible Interacting Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Daisuke; Savchenko, Vladimir

    3D meshes generated by acquisition devices such as laser range scanners often contain holes due to occlusion, etc. In practice, these holes are extremely geometrically and topologically complex. We propose a heuristic hole filling technique using particle systems to fill complex holes with arbitrary topology in 3D meshes. Our approach includes the following steps: hole identification, base surface creation, particle distribution, triangulation, and mesh refinement. We demonstrate the functionality of the proposed surface retouching system on synthetic and real data.

  16. 3D Imaging for hand gesture recognition: Exploring the software-hardware interaction of current technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periverzov, Frol; Ilieş, Horea T.

    2012-09-01

    Interaction with 3D information is one of the fundamental and most familiar tasks in virtually all areas of engineering and science. Several recent technological advances pave the way for developing hand gesture recognition capabilities available to all, which will lead to more intuitive and efficient 3D user interfaces (3DUI). These developments can unlock new levels of expression and productivity in all activities concerned with the creation and manipulation of virtual 3D shapes and, specifically, in engineering design. Building fully automated systems for tracking and interpreting hand gestures requires robust and efficient 3D imaging techniques as well as potent shape classifiers. We survey and explore current and emerging 3D imaging technologies, and focus, in particular, on those that can be used to build interfaces between the users' hands and the machine. The purpose of this paper is to categorize and highlight the relevant differences between these existing 3D imaging approaches in terms of the nature of the information provided, output data format, as well as the specific conditions under which these approaches yield reliable data. Furthermore we explore the impact of each of these approaches on the computational cost and reliability of the required image processing algorithms. Finally we highlight the main challenges and opportunities in developing natural user interfaces based on hand gestures, and conclude with some promising directions for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Introducing 3D U-statistic method for separating anomaly from background in exploration geochemical data with associated software development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghannadpour, Seyyed Saeed; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2016-03-01

    The U-statistic method is one of the most important structural methods to separate the anomaly from the background. It considers the location of samples and carries out the statistical analysis of the data without judging from a geochemical point of view and tries to separate subpopulations and determine anomalous areas. In the present study, to use U-statistic method in three-dimensional (3D) condition, U-statistic is applied on the grade of two ideal test examples, by considering sample Z values (elevation). So far, this is the first time that this method has been applied on a 3D condition. To evaluate the performance of 3D U-statistic method and in order to compare U-statistic with one non-structural method, the method of threshold assessment based on median and standard deviation (MSD method) is applied on the two example tests. Results show that the samples indicated by U-statistic method as anomalous are more regular and involve less dispersion than those indicated by the MSD method. So that, according to the location of anomalous samples, denser areas of them can be determined as promising zones. Moreover, results show that at a threshold of U = 0, the total error of misclassification for U-statistic method is much smaller than the total error of criteria of bar {x}+n× s. Finally, 3D model of two test examples for separating anomaly from background using 3D U-statistic method is provided. The source code for a software program, which was developed in the MATLAB programming language in order to perform the calculations of the 3D U-spatial statistic method, is additionally provided. This software is compatible with all the geochemical varieties and can be used in similar exploration projects.

  18. Spatial 3D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Won-Suk; Napoli, Joshua; Cossairt, Oliver S.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Purtell, Thomas J., II; Schooler, James F.; Banker, Yigal; Favalora, Gregg E.

    2005-03-01

    We present a software and hardware foundation to enable the rapid adoption of 3-D displays. Different 3-D displays - such as multiplanar, multiview, and electroholographic displays - naturally require different rendering methods. The adoption of these displays in the marketplace will be accelerated by a common software framework. The authors designed the SpatialGL API, a new rendering framework that unifies these display methods under one interface. SpatialGL enables complementary visualization assets to coexist through a uniform infrastructure. Also, SpatialGL supports legacy interfaces such as the OpenGL API. The authors" first implementation of SpatialGL uses multiview and multislice rendering algorithms to exploit the performance of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) to enable real-time visualization of 3-D graphics from medical imaging, oil & gas exploration, and homeland security. At the time of writing, SpatialGL runs on COTS workstations (both Windows and Linux) and on Actuality"s high-performance embedded computational engine that couples an NVIDIA GeForce 6800 Ultra GPU, an AMD Athlon 64 processor, and a proprietary, high-speed, programmable volumetric frame buffer that interfaces to a 1024 x 768 x 3 digital projector. Progress is illustrated using an off-the-shelf multiview display, Actuality"s multiplanar Perspecta Spatial 3D System, and an experimental multiview display. The experimental display is a quasi-holographic view-sequential system that generates aerial imagery measuring 30 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm, providing 198 horizontal views.

  19. Multimedia software design of automobile construction based on 3D engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guo-dong; Chi, Xiao-xia

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces the methods of three-dimensional modeling, assembling and simulating design of an automobile based on 3D engine, Pro/Engineer and 3DSMax. Research is also carried out on the order and the route of virtual assembling as well the corresponding processes.

  20. Teaching for CAD Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    CAD (Computer Aided Design) has now become an integral part of Technology Education. The recent introduction of highly sophisticated, low-cost CAD software and CAM hardware capable of running on desktop computers has accelerated this trend. There is now quite widespread introduction of solid modeling CAD software into secondary schools but how…

  1. Comparative study of software techniques for 3D mapping of perforators in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap planning

    PubMed Central

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) is widely considered the gold standard imaging modality for preoperative planning autologous breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap. Improved anatomical understanding from CTA has translated to enhanced clinical outcomes. To achieve this, the use of appropriate CT hardware and software is vital. Various CT scanners and contrast materials have been demonstrated to consistently produce adequate scan data. However, the availability of affordable and easily accessible imaging software capable of generating 3D volume-rendered perforator images to clinically useful quality has been lacking. Osirix (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) is a free, readily available medical image processing software that shows promise. We have previously demonstrated in a case report the usefulness of Osirix in localizing perforators and their course. Methods In the current case series of 50 consecutive CTA scans, we compare the accuracy of Osirix to a commonly used proprietary 3D imaging software, Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), in identifying perforator number and location. Moreover, we compared both programs to intraoperative findings. Results We report a high rate of concordance with Osirix and Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (99.6%). Both programs correlated closely with operative findings (92.2%). Most of the discrepancies were found in the lateral row perforators (90%). Conclusions In the current study, we report the accuracy of Osirix that is comparable to Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D, a proprietary software, in mapping perforators. However, it provides an added advantage of being free, easy-to-use, portable, and potentially a superior quality of 3D reconstructed image. PMID:27047778

  2. A Software Demonstration of 'rap': Preparing CAD Geometries for Overlapping Grid Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Anders Petersson, N.

    2002-02-15

    We demonstrate the application code ''rap'' which is part of the ''Overture'' library. A CAD geometry imported from an IGES file is first cleaned up and simplified to suit the needs of mesh generation. Thereafter, the topology of the model is computed and a water-tight surface triangulation is created on the CAD surface. This triangulation is used to speed up the projection of points onto the CAD surface during the generation of overlapping surface grids. From each surface grid, volume grids are grown into the domain using a hyperbolic marching procedure. The final step is to fill any remaining parts of the interior with background meshes.

  3. Status of the phenomena representation, 3D modeling, and cloud-based software architecture development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Kvarfordt, Kellie; Sampath, Ram; Larson, Katie

    2015-09-01

    Early in 2013, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory outlined a technical framework to support the implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment to predict the safety performance of advanced small modular reactors. From that vision of the advanced framework for risk analysis, specific tasks have been underway in order to implement the framework. This report discusses the current development of a several tasks related to the framework implementation, including a discussion of a 3D physics engine that represents the motion of objects (including collision and debris modeling), cloud-based analysis tools such as a Bayesian-inference engine, and scenario simulations. These tasks were performed during 2015 as part of the technical work associated with the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  4. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  5. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo; Michele, Mangiameli Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito

    2015-03-10

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue.

  6. SF3M 2.0: improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction interface based on freely available software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael R.; Pérez, Rafael; Gómez, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    During recent years, a number of tools based on Structure-from-Motion algorithms have been released for full image-based 3D reconstruction either freely (e.g. Bundler, PMVS2, VisualSFM, MicMac) or commercially (e.g. Agisoft PhotoScan). The SF3M interface was developed in Matlab® to use link software developments (VisualSFM, CloudCompare) and new applications to create a semi-automated workflow including reconstruction, georeferencing and point-cloud filtering, and has been tested for gully erosion assessment with terrestrial images (Castillo et al., 2015). The main aim of this work to provide an improved freely-available and easy-to-use alternative for 3D reconstruction intended for public agencies, non-profit organisations, researchers and other stakeholders interested in 3D modelling. In this communication we present SF3M 2.0, a new version of the graphical user interface. In this case, the SfM module is based on MicMac, an open-software tool (Pierrot-Deseilligny and Cléry, 2011) which provides advanced features such as camera calibration and constrained bundle adjustment using ground control points. SF3M 2.0 will be tested in two scenarios: a) using the same ground-based image set tested in Castillo et al. (2015) to compare the performance of both versions and b) using aerial images taken from a helium balloon to assess a gully network in a 40-hectares catchment. In this study we explore the advantages of SF3M 2.0, explain its operation and evaluate its accuracy and performance. This tool will be also available for free download. References Castillo, C., James, M.R., Redel-Macías, M. D., Pérez, R., and Gómez, J.A.: SF3M software: 3-D photo-reconstruction for non-expert users and its application to a gully network, SOIL, 1, 583-594. Pierrot-Deseilligny, M and Cléry, I. APERO, an Open Source Bundle Adjusment Software for Automatic Calibration and Orientation of a Set of Images. Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission V Symposium, Image Engineering and Vision

  7. Simulation of 3D flows past hypersonic vehicles in FlowVision software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. A.; Zhluktov, S. V.; Savitskiy, D. V.; Bartenev, G. Y.; Pokhilko, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    A new implicit velocity-pressure split method is discussed in the given presentation. The method implies using conservative velocities, obtained at the given time step, for integration of the momentum equation and other convection-diffusion equations. This enables simulation of super- and hypersonic flows with account of motion of solid boundaries. Calculations of known test cases performed in the FlowVision software are demonstrated. It is shown that the method allows one to carry out calculations at high Mach numbers with integration step essentially exceeding the explicit time step.

  8. Standard and fenestrated endograft sizing in EVAR planning: Description and validation of a semi-automated 3D software.

    PubMed

    Macía, Iván; de Blas, Mariano; Legarreta, Jon Haitz; Kabongo, Luis; Hernández, Óscar; Egaña, José María; Emparanza, José Ignacio; García-Familiar, Ainhoa; Graña, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta that may lead to a rupture with fatal consequences. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure consisting of the deployment and fixation of a stent-graft that isolates the damaged vessel wall from blood circulation. The technique requires adequate endovascular device sizing, which may be performed by vascular analysis and quantification on Computerized Tomography Angiography (CTA) scans. This paper presents a novel 3D CTA image-based software for AAA inspection and EVAR sizing, eVida Vascular, which allows fast and accurate 3D endograft sizing for standard and fenestrated endografts. We provide a description of the system and its innovations, including the underlying vascular image analysis and visualization technology, functional modules and user interaction. Furthermore, an experimental validation of the tool is described, assessing the degree of agreement with a commercial, clinically validated software, when comparing measurements obtained for standard endograft sizing in a group of 14 patients. PMID:25747803

  9. 3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.M.; Ashby, E.

    1997-03-01

    Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools.

  10. 3D-Assisted Quantitative Assessment of Orbital Volume Using an Open-Source Software Platform in a Taiwanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Hsu, Chung-En; Chen, Chih-hao; Chen, Chien-Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Orbital volume evaluation is an important part of pre-operative assessments in orbital trauma and congenital deformity patients. The availability of the affordable, open-source software, OsiriX, as a tool for preoperative planning increased the popularity of radiological assessments by the surgeon. A volume calculation method based on 3D volume rendering-assisted region-of-interest computation was used to determine the normal orbital volume in Taiwanese patients after reorientation to the Frankfurt plane. Method one utilized 3D points for intuitive orbital rim outlining. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 24.3±1.51 ml and 24.7±1.17 ml in male and 21.0±1.21 ml and 21.1±1.30 ml in female subjects. Another method (method two) based on the bilateral orbital lateral rim was also used to calculate orbital volume and compared with method one. The mean normal orbital volume for left and right orbits was 19.0±1.68 ml and 19.1±1.45 ml in male and 16.0±1.01 ml and 16.1±0.92 ml in female subjects. The inter-rater reliability and intra-rater measurement accuracy between users for both methods was found to be acceptable for orbital volume calculations. 3D-assisted quantification of orbital volume is a feasible technique for orbital volume assessment. The normal orbital volume can be used as controls in cases of unilateral orbital reconstruction with a mean size discrepancy of less than 3.1±2.03% in females and 2.7±1.32% in males. The OsiriX software can be used reliably by the individual surgeon as a comprehensive preoperative planning and imaging tool for orbital volume measurement and computed tomography reorientation. PMID:25774683

  11. WARP3D-Release 10.8: Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Solids using a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppenhoefer, Kyle C.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Ruggieri, Claudio; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Healy, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction facility to model crack growth, nonlinear material models including viscoplastic effects, and the Gurson-Tver-gaard dilatant plasticity model for void growth. The nonlinear, dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative, implicit formulation with full Newton iterations to eliminate residual nodal forces. The history integration of the nonlinear equations of motion is accomplished with Newmarks Beta method. A central feature of WARP3D involves the use of a linear-preconditioned conjugate gradient (LPCG) solver implemented in an element-by-element format to replace a conventional direct linear equation solver. This software architecture dramatically reduces both the memory requirements and CPU time for very large, nonlinear solid models since formation of the assembled (dynamic) stiffness matrix is avoided. Analyses thus exhibit the numerical stability for large time (load) steps provided by the implicit formulation coupled with the low memory requirements characteristic of an explicit code. In addition to the much lower memory requirements of the LPCG solver, the CPU time required for solution of the linear equations during each Newton iteration is generally one-half or less of the CPU time required for a traditional direct solver. All other computational aspects of the code (element stiffnesses, element strains, stress updating, element internal forces) are implemented in the element-by- element, blocked architecture. This greatly improves

  12. Software architecture as a freedom for 3D content providers and users along with independency on purposes and used devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Razia; Christ, Andreas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in the hardware and software of communication devices have allowed running Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) applications on those. Nowadays, it is possible to overlay synthetic information on real images, or even to play 3D on-line games on smart phones or some other mobile devices. Hence the use of 3D data for business and specially for education purposes is ubiquitous. Due to always available at hand and always ready to use properties of mobile phones, those are considered as most potential communication devices. The total numbers of mobile phone users are increasing all over the world every day and that makes mobile phones the most suitable device to reach a huge number of end clients either for education or for business purposes. There are different standards, protocols and specifications to establish the communication among different communication devices but there is no initiative taken so far to make it sure that the send data through this communication process will be understood and used by the destination device. Since all the devices are not able to deal with all kind of 3D data formats and it is also not realistic to have different version of the same data to make it compatible with the destination device, it is necessary to have a prevalent solution. The proposed architecture in this paper describes a device and purpose independent 3D data visibility any time anywhere to the right person in suitable format. There is no solution without limitation. The architecture is implemented in a prototype to make an experimental validation of the architecture which also shows the difference between theory and practice.

  13. RVA. 3-D Visualization and Analysis Software to Support Management of Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, Donald A.; Shaffer, Eric G.; Storsved, Brynne; Vanmoer, Mark; Angrave, Lawrence; Damico, James R.; Grigsby, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    A free software application, RVA, has been developed as a plugin to the US DOE-funded ParaView visualization package, to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed as an open-source plugin to the 64 bit Windows version of ParaView 3.14. RVA was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including

  14. 3D profilometric characterization of the aged skin surface using a skin replica and alicona Mex software.

    PubMed

    Pirisinu, Marco; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2016-05-01

    The skin's surface is characterized by a network of furrows and wrinkles showing different height and depth. Different studies showed that processes such as aging, photo aging and cancer may alter dermal ultrastructure surface. The quantitative analysis of skin topography is a key point for understanding health condition of the skin. Here, for the first time, the skin fine structure was studied via a new approach where replica method was combined with Mex Alicona software and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The skin texture of cheek and forearm were studied in 120 healthy sardinian volunteers. Patients were divided into three different aged groups. The skin areas of interest were reproduced by the silicone replica method, each replica was explored by SEM and digital images were taken. By using Mex Alicona software were created 3D imagine and a list of 24 surface texture parameters were obtained, of these the most representative were chosen in order to assess eventual changes between groups. The skin's texture of forearm and cheek showed a gradually loss of its typical polyhedric mesh with increasing age group. In particular, the photoexposition increased loss of dermal texture. At today, Alicona mex technology was exclusively used on palaeontology studies, our results showed that a deep analyze of skin texture was performed and support Mex alicona software as a new promising tool on dermatological research. This new analytical approach provided an easy and fast process to appreciate skin texture and its changes, by using high quality 3D dimension images. SCANNING 38:213-220, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26258960

  15. Development of fast patient position verification software using 2D-3D image registration and its clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinichiro; Kumagai, Motoki; Miki, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Riki; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2015-09-01

    To improve treatment workflow, we developed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-based patient positional verification software application and integrated it into carbon-ion scanning beam treatment. Here, we evaluated the basic performance of the software. The algorithm provides 2D/3D registration matching using CT and orthogonal X-ray flat panel detector (FPD) images. The participants were 53 patients with tumors of the head and neck, prostate or lung receiving carbon-ion beam treatment. 2D/3D-ITchi-Gime (ITG) calculation accuracy was evaluated in terms of computation time and registration accuracy. Registration calculation was determined using the similarity measurement metrics gradient difference (GD), normalized mutual information (NMI), zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC), and their combination. Registration accuracy was dependent on the particular metric used. Representative examples were determined to have target registration error (TRE) = 0.45 ± 0.23 mm and angular error (AE) = 0.35 ± 0.18° with ZNCC + GD for a head and neck tumor; TRE = 0.12 ± 0.07 mm and AE = 0.16 ± 0.07° with ZNCC for a pelvic tumor; and TRE = 1.19 ± 0.78 mm and AE = 0.83 ± 0.61° with ZNCC for lung tumor. Calculation time was less than 7.26 s.The new registration software has been successfully installed and implemented in our treatment process. We expect that it will improve both treatment workflow and treatment accuracy. PMID:26081313

  16. Development of fast patient position verification software using 2D-3D image registration and its clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shinichiro; Kumagai, Motoki; Miki, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Riki; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    To improve treatment workflow, we developed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-based patient positional verification software application and integrated it into carbon-ion scanning beam treatment. Here, we evaluated the basic performance of the software. The algorithm provides 2D/3D registration matching using CT and orthogonal X-ray flat panel detector (FPD) images. The participants were 53 patients with tumors of the head and neck, prostate or lung receiving carbon-ion beam treatment. 2D/3D-ITchi-Gime (ITG) calculation accuracy was evaluated in terms of computation time and registration accuracy. Registration calculation was determined using the similarity measurement metrics gradient difference (GD), normalized mutual information (NMI), zero-mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC), and their combination. Registration accuracy was dependent on the particular metric used. Representative examples were determined to have target registration error (TRE) = 0.45 ± 0.23 mm and angular error (AE) = 0.35 ± 0.18° with ZNCC + GD for a head and neck tumor; TRE = 0.12 ± 0.07 mm and AE = 0.16 ± 0.07° with ZNCC for a pelvic tumor; and TRE = 1.19 ± 0.78 mm and AE = 0.83 ± 0.61° with ZNCC for lung tumor. Calculation time was less than 7.26 s.The new registration software has been successfully installed and implemented in our treatment process. We expect that it will improve both treatment workflow and treatment accuracy. PMID:26081313

  17. Modeling Coastal Salinity in Quasi 2D and 3D Using a DUALEM-421 and Inversion Software.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gareth; Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando Acacio; Triantafilis, John

    2015-01-01

    Rising sea levels, owing to climate change, are a threat to fresh water coastal aquifers. This is because saline intrusions are caused by increases and intensification of medium-large scale influences including sea level rise, wave climate, tidal cycles, and shifts in beach morphology. Methods are therefore required to understand the dynamics of these interactions. While traditional borehole and galvanic contact resistivity (GCR) techniques have been successful they are time-consuming. Alternatively, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FEM) induction is potentially useful as physical contact with the ground is not required. A DUALEM-421 and EM4Soil inversion software package are used to develop a quasi two- (2D) and quasi three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic conductivity images (EMCI) across Long Reef Beach located north of Sydney Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. The quasi 2D models discern: the dry sand (<10 mS/m) associated with the incipient dune; sand with fresh water (10 to 20 mS/m); mixing of fresh and saline water (20 to 500 mS/m), and; saline sand of varying moisture (more than 500 mS/m). The quasi 3D EMCIs generated for low and high tides suggest that daily tidal cycles do not have a significant effect on local groundwater salinity. Instead, the saline intrusion is most likely influenced by medium-large scale drivers including local wave climate and morphology along this wave-dominated beach. Further research is required to elucidate the influence of spring-neap tidal cycles, contrasting beach morphological states and sea level rise. PMID:25053423

  18. Display system software for the integration of an ADAGE 3000 programmable display generator into the solid modeling package C.A.D. software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Lane, H. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A software system that integrates an ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator into a C.A.D. software package known as the Solid Modeling Program is described. The Solid Modeling Program (SMP) is an interactive program that is used to model complex solid object through the composition of primitive geomeentities. In addition, SMP provides extensive facilities for model editing and display. The ADAGE 3000 Programmable Display Generator (PDG) is a color, raster scan, programmable display generator with a 32-bit bit-slice, bipolar microprocessor (BPS). The modularity of the system architecture and the width and speed of the system bus allow for additional co-processors in the system. These co-processors combine to provide efficient operations on and rendering of graphics entities. The resulting software system takes advantage of the graphics capabilities of the PDG in the operation of SMP by distributing its processing modules between the host and the PDG. Initially, the target host computer was a PRIME 850, which was later substituted with a VAX-11/785. Two versions of the software system were developed, a phase 1 and a phase 2. In phase 1, the ADAGE 3000 is used as a frame buffer. In phase II, SMP was functionally partitioned and some of its functions were implemented in the ADAGE 3000 by means of ADAGE's SOLID 3000 software package.

  19. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  20. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  1. PONDEROSA-C/S: client-server based software package for automated protein 3D structure determination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woonghee; Stark, Jaime L; Markley, John L

    2014-11-01

    Peak-picking Of Noe Data Enabled by Restriction Of Shift Assignments-Client Server (PONDEROSA-C/S) builds on the original PONDEROSA software (Lee et al. in Bioinformatics 27:1727-1728. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btr200, 2011) and includes improved features for structure calculation and refinement. PONDEROSA-C/S consists of three programs: Ponderosa Server, Ponderosa Client, and Ponderosa Analyzer. PONDEROSA-C/S takes as input the protein sequence, a list of assigned chemical shifts, and nuclear Overhauser data sets ((13)C- and/or (15)N-NOESY). The output is a set of assigned NOEs and 3D structural models for the protein. Ponderosa Analyzer supports the visualization, validation, and refinement of the results from Ponderosa Server. These tools enable semi-automated NMR-based structure determination of proteins in a rapid and robust fashion. We present examples showing the use of PONDEROSA-C/S in solving structures of four proteins: two that enable comparison with the original PONDEROSA package, and two from the Critical Assessment of automated Structure Determination by NMR (Rosato et al. in Nat Methods 6:625-626. doi: 10.1038/nmeth0909-625 , 2009) competition. The software package can be downloaded freely in binary format from http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download_packages.html. Registered users of the National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison can submit jobs to the PONDEROSA-C/S server at http://ponderosa.nmrfam.wisc.edu, where instructions, tutorials, and instructions can be found. Structures are normally returned within 1-2 days. PMID:25190042

  2. Real time 3D scanner: investigations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Taoufik; Pflug, Leopold

    1993-12-01

    This article presents a concept of reconstruction of 3-D objects using non-invasive and touch loss techniques. The principle of this method is to display parallel interference optical fringes on an object and then to record the object under two angles of view. According to an appropriated treatment one reconstructs the 3-D object even when the object has no symmetrical plan. The 3-D surface data is available immediately in digital form for computer- visualization and for analysis software tools. The optical set-up for recording the 3-D object, the 3-D data extraction and treatment, as well as the reconstruction of the 3-D object are reported and commented on. This application is dedicated for reconstructive/cosmetic surgery, CAD, animation and research purposes.

  3. Immersive CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  4. SedWorks: A 3-D visualisation software package to help students link surface processes with depositional product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. A.; Edwards, A.; Boulton, P.

    2010-12-01

    Helping students to develop a cognitive and intuitive feel for the different temporal and spatial scales of processes through which the rock record is assembled is a primary goal of geoscience teaching. SedWorks is a 3-D virtual geoscience world that integrates both quantitative modelling and field-based studies into one interactive package. The program aims to help students acquire scientific content, cultivate critical thinking skills, and hone their problem solving ability, while also providing them with the opportunity to practice the activities undertaken by professional earth scientists. SedWorks is built upon a game development platform used for constructing interactive 3-D applications. Initially the software has been developed for teaching the sedimentology component of a Geoscience degree and consists of a series of continents or land masses each possessing sedimentary environments which the students visit on virtual field trips. The students are able to interact with the software to collect virtual field data from both the modern environment and the stratigraphic record, and to formulate hypotheses based on their observations which they can test through virtual physical experimentation within the program. The program is modular in design in order to enhance its adaptability and to allow scientific content to be updated so that the knowledge and skills acquired are at the cutting edge. We will present an example module in which students undertake a virtual field study of a 2-km long stretch of a river to observe how sediment is transported and deposited. On entering the field area students are able to observe different bedforms in different parts of the river as they move up- and down-stream, as well as in and out of the river. As they explore, students discover ‘hot spots’ at which particular tools become available to them. This includes tools for measuring the physical parameters of the flow and sediment bed (e.g. velocity, depth, grain size, bed

  5. NOTE: A software tool for 2D/3D visualization and analysis of phase-space data generated by Monte Carlo modelling of medical linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neicu, Toni; Aljarrah, Khaled M.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2005-10-01

    A computer program has been developed for novel 2D/3D visualization and analysis of the phase-space parameters of Monte Carlo simulations of medical accelerator radiation beams. The software is written in the IDL language and reads the phase-space data generated in the BEAMnrc/BEAM Monte Carlo code format. Contour and colour-wash plots of the fluence, mean energy, energy fluence, mean angle, spectra distribution, energy fluence distribution, angular distribution, and slices and projections of the 3D ZLAST distribution can be calculated and displayed. Based on our experience of using it at Massachusetts General Hospital, the software has proven to be a useful tool for analysis and verification of the Monte Carlo generated phase-space files. The software is in the public domain.

  6. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  7. Integrating structure-from-motion photogrammetry with geospatial software as a novel technique for quantifying 3D ecological characteristics of coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Delparte, D; Gates, RD; Takabayashi, M

    2015-01-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs plays a major role in the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional metrics with 2-dimensional properties are inadequate for characterization of reef structural complexity. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach can better quantify topography, rugosity and other structural characteristics that play an important role in the ecology of coral reef communities. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) is an emerging low-cost photogrammetric method for high-resolution 3D topographic reconstruction. This study utilized SfM 3D reconstruction software tools to create textured mesh models of a reef at French Frigate Shoals, an atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The reconstructed orthophoto and digital elevation model were then integrated with geospatial software in order to quantify metrics pertaining to 3D complexity. The resulting data provided high-resolution physical properties of coral colonies that were then combined with live cover to accurately characterize the reef as a living structure. The 3D reconstruction of reef structure and complexity can be integrated with other physiological and ecological parameters in future research to develop reliable ecosystem models and improve capacity to monitor changes in the health and function of coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26207190

  8. Integrating structure-from-motion photogrammetry with geospatial software as a novel technique for quantifying 3D ecological characteristics of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jhr; Delparte, D; Gates, R D; Takabayashi, M

    2015-01-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs plays a major role in the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional metrics with 2-dimensional properties are inadequate for characterization of reef structural complexity. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach can better quantify topography, rugosity and other structural characteristics that play an important role in the ecology of coral reef communities. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) is an emerging low-cost photogrammetric method for high-resolution 3D topographic reconstruction. This study utilized SfM 3D reconstruction software tools to create textured mesh models of a reef at French Frigate Shoals, an atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The reconstructed orthophoto and digital elevation model were then integrated with geospatial software in order to quantify metrics pertaining to 3D complexity. The resulting data provided high-resolution physical properties of coral colonies that were then combined with live cover to accurately characterize the reef as a living structure. The 3D reconstruction of reef structure and complexity can be integrated with other physiological and ecological parameters in future research to develop reliable ecosystem models and improve capacity to monitor changes in the health and function of coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26207190

  9. Development of problem-oriented software packages for numerical studies and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Gyrotrons are the most powerful sources of coherent CW (continuous wave) radiation in the frequency range situated between the long-wavelength edge of the infrared light (far-infrared region) and the microwaves, i.e., in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum which is usually called the THz-gap (or T-gap), since the output power of other devices (e.g., solid-state oscillators) operating in this interval is by several orders of magnitude lower. In the recent years, the unique capabilities of the sub-THz and THz gyrotrons have opened the road to many novel and future prospective applications in various physical studies and advanced high-power terahertz technologies. In this paper, we present the current status and functionality of the problem-oriented software packages (most notably GYROSIM and GYREOSS) used for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of gyrotrons for diverse applications. They consist of a hierarchy of codes specialized to modelling and simulation of different subsystems of the gyrotrons (EOS, resonant cavity, etc.) and are based on adequate physical models, efficient numerical methods and algorithms.

  10. CAD/CAE Integration Enhanced by New CAD Services Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell W.

    2002-01-01

    A Government-industry team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a computer interface standard for accessing data from computer-aided design (CAD) systems. The Object Management Group, an international computer standards organization, has adopted this CAD services standard. The new standard allows software (e.g., computer-aided engineering (CAE) and computer-aided manufacturing software to access multiple CAD systems through one programming interface. The interface is built on top of a distributed computing system called the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). CORBA allows the CAD services software to operate in a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment.

  11. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  12. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  13. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  14. Normal-mode function representation of global 3-D data sets: open-access software for the atmospheric research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, N.; Kasahara, A.; Terasaki, K.; Tribbia, J.; Tanaka, H.

    2015-04-01

    This article presents new software for the analysis of global dynamical fields in (re)analyses, weather forecasts and climate models. A new diagnostic tool, developed within the MODES project, allows one to diagnose properties of balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) circulations across many scales. In particular, the IG spectrum, which has only recently become observable, can be studied simultaneously in the mass and wind fields while considering the whole model depth in contrast to the majority of studies. The paper includes the theory of normal-mode function (NMF) expansion, technical details of the Fortran 90 code, examples of namelists which control the software execution and outputs of the software application on the ERA Interim reanalysis data set. The applied libraries and default compiler are from the open-source domain. A limited understanding of Fortran suffices for the successful implementation of the software. The presented application of the software to the ERA Interim data set reveals several aspects of the large-scale circulation after it has been partitioned into the linearly balanced and IG components. The global energy distribution is dominated by the balanced energy while the IG modes contribute around 10% of the total wave energy. However, on sub-synoptic scales, IG energy dominates and it is associated with the main features of tropical variability on all scales. The presented energy distribution and features of the zonally averaged and equatorial circulation provide a reference for the validation of climate models.

  15. Normal-mode function representation of global 3-D datasets: an open-access software for atmospheric research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, N.; Kasahara, A.; Terasaki, K.; Tribbia, J.; Tanaka, H.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents new software for the analysis of global dynamical fields in (re)analyses, weather forecasts and climate models. A new diagnostic tool, developed within the MODES project, allows one to diagnose properties of balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) circulation across many scales. In particular, the IG spectrum, which has only recently become observable, can be studied simultaneously in the mass field and wind field and considering the whole model depth in contrary to majority of studies. The paper presentation includes the theory of normal-mode function expansion, technical details of the Fortran 90 code, examples of namelists which control the software execution and outputs of the software application on the reanalysis dataset ERA Interim. The applied libraries and default compiler are from the open-source domain. A limited understanding of Fortran suffices for the successful implementation of the software. The presented application of the software to the ERA Interim dataset show some features of the large-scale circulation after it has been split into the balanced and IG components. The global energy distribution is dominated by the balanced energy with IG modes making less than 10% of the total wave energy. However, on subsynoptic scales IG energy dominates and it is associated with the main features of tropical variability on all scales. The presented energy distribution and features of the zonally-averaged and equatorial circulation provide a reference for the validation of climate models.

  16. IP4DI: A software for time-lapse 2D/3D DC-resistivity and induced polarization tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Tsourlos, P.; Werkema, D. D.; Minsley, B. J.

    2013-04-01

    We propose a 2D/3D forward modelling and inversion package to invert direct current (DC)-resistivity, time-domain induced polarization (TDIP), and frequency-domain induced polarization (FDIP) data. Each cell used for the discretization of the 2D/3D problems is characterized by a DC-resistivity value and a chargeability or complex conductivity for TDIP/FDIP problems, respectively. The governing elliptic partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method, which can be applied for both real and complex numbers. The inversion can be performed either for a single snapshot of data or for a sequence of snapshots in order to monitor a dynamic process such as a salt tracer test. For the time-lapse inversion, we have developed an active time constrained (ATC) approach that is very efficient in filtering out noise in the data that is not correlated over time. The forward algorithm is benchmarked with simple analytical solutions. The inversion package IP4DI is benchmarked with three tests, two including simple geometries. The last one corresponds to a time-lapse resistivity problem for cross-well tomography during enhanced oil recovery. The algorithms are based on MATLAB® code package and a graphical user interface (GUI).

  17. How Students Solve Problems in Spatial Geometry while Using a Software Application for Visualizing 3D Geometric Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widder, Mirela; Gorsky, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In schools, learning spatial geometry is usually dependent upon a student's ability to visualize three dimensional geometric configurations from two dimensional drawings. Such a process, however, often creates visual obstacles which are unique to spatial geometry. Useful software programs which realistically depict three dimensional geometric…

  18. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  19. Computer-assisted 3D design software for teaching neuro-ophthalmology of the oculomotor system and training new retinal surgery techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glittenberg, Carl; Binder, Susanne

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To create a more effective method of demonstrating complex subject matter in ophthalmology with the use of high end, 3-D, computer aided animation and interactive multimedia technologies. Specifically, to explore the possibilities of demonstrating the complex nature of the neuroophthalmological basics of the human oculomotor system in a clear and non confusing way, and to demonstrate new forms of retinal surgery in a manner that makes the procedures easier to understand for other retinal surgeons. Methods and Materials: Using Reflektions 4.3, Monzoom Pro 4.5, Cinema 4D XL 5.03, Cinema 4D XL 8 Studio Bundle, Mediator 4.0, Mediator Pro 5.03, Fujitsu-Siemens Pentium III and IV, Gericom Webgine laptop, M.G.I. Video Wave 1.0 and 5, Micrografix Picture Publisher 6.0 and 8, Amorphium 1.0, and Blobs for Windows, we created 3-D animations showing the origin, insertion, course, main direction of pull, and auxiliary direction of pull of the six extra-ocular eye muscles. We created 3-D animations that (a) show the intra-cranial path of the relevant oculomotor cranial nerves and which muscles are supplied by them, (b) show which muscles are active in each of the ten lines of sight, (c) demonstrate the various malfunctions of oculomotor systems, as well as (d) show the surgical techniques and the challenges in radial optic neurotomies and subretinal surgeries. Most of the 3-D animations were integrated in interactive multimedia teaching programs. Their effectiveness was compared to conventional teaching methods in a comparative study performed at the University of Vienna. We also performed a survey to examine the response of students being taught with the interactive programs. We are currently in the process of placing most of the animations in an interactive web site in order to make them freely available to everyone who is interested. Results: Although learning how to use complex 3-D computer animation and multimedia authoring software can be very time consuming and

  20. ASTRID: A 3D Eulerian software for subcooled boiling modelling - comparison with experimental results in tubes and annuli

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, E.; Larrauri, D.; Olive, J.

    1995-09-01

    For about four years, Electricite de France has been developing a 3-D computer code for the Eulerian simulation of two-phase flows. This code, named ASTRID, is based on the six-equation two-fluid model. Boiling water flows, such as those encountered in nuclear reactors, are among the main applications of ASTRID. In order to provide ASTRID with closure laws and boundary conditions suitable for boiling flows, a boiling model has been developed by EDF and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse. In the fluid, the heat and mass transfer between a bubble and the liquid is being modelled. At the heating wall, the incipient boiling point is determined according to Hsu`s criterion and the boiling heat flux is split into three additive terms: a convective term, a quenching term and a vaporisation term. This model uses several correlations. EDF`s program in boiling two-phase flows also includes experimental studies, some of which are performed in collaboration with other laboratories. Refrigerant subcooled boiling both in tubular (DEBORA experiment, CEN Grenoble) and in annular geometry (Arizona State University Experiment) have been computed with ASTRID. The simulations show the satisfactory results already obtained on void fraction and liquid temperature. Ways of improvement of the model are drawn especially on the dynamical part.

  1. Evaluation of Structure from Motion Software to Create 3D Models of Late Nineteenth Century Great Lakes Shipwrecks Using Archived Diver-Acquired Video Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, J.; Thomsen, T.; Gulley, J.

    2014-12-01

    Here we demonstrate the ability to use archived video surveys to create photorealistic 3D models of submerged archeological sites. We created 3D models of two nineteenth century Great Lakes shipwrecks using diver-acquired video surveys and Structure from Motion (SfM) software. Models were georeferenced using archived hand survey data. Comparison of hand survey measurements and digital measurements made using the models demonstrate that spatial analysis produces results with reasonable accuracy when wreck maps are available. Error associated with digital measurements displayed an inverse relationship to object size. Measurement error ranged from a maximum of 18 % (on 0.37 m object) and a minimum of 0.56 % (on a 4.21 m object). Our results demonstrate SfM can generate models of large maritime archaeological sites that for research, education and outreach purposes. Where site maps are available, these 3D models can be georeferenced to allow additional spatial analysis long after on-site data collection.

  2. Measurement of Channel Morphology in a Headwater Stream using Low-Altitude Photography and a 3D Model Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidaira, K.; Hiraoka, M.; Gomi, T.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method for measuring detail channel morphology using a low elevation photographic scanning. This study was conducted in a 36-m step-pool channel segment in a headwater stream of Ooborazawa watershed located in 20 km south of Tokyo. The channels were covered by Boenninghausenia japonica and Oplismenus undulatifolius var. undulatifolius. Therefore, topographic measurement in high altitude (up to 5 m) using a drone is not applicable. D50 and D90 of channel substrates were 4 cm and 21 cm, respectively. A plastic case that equipped with two digital cameras (RICOH CX5) is mounted at the top of 2.2 m of a glass fiber pole. Photos were taken every 5 seconds from 1.8 m above ground surface. Eleven ground control points (GCP) were installed and measured coordinates. We developed digital 3D topographic model using PhotoScan Pro edition version 1.0.0 and the developed 1 cm contour map using ArcGIS version 10.2. Furthermore, we measured the number, height, and length of steps for examining the accuracy of data. Resolution of obtained topographic model was from 9 to 11 mm per pixel. 1 cm of particle was identified using photo was 1 cm. Estimated step height was agreed to the measured step height in the field. We detected maximum channel scour from October to December, 2014 with (146.5 mm/day for maximum daily rain) occurred at pools with 13cm changes , while 5 to 10 cm of changes in sediment deposition occurred from Mya to June, 2015 with 78.5 mm/day of maximum daily rain. Disposition of sediment was concentration within the sequences of step structures. Our method allows us for understanding detail sediment movement and resultant localized channel changes in steep channels.

  3. Use of CAD systems in design of Space Station and space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, Suren N.; Yadav, P.; Jones, Gary; Travis, Elmer W.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of CAD systems is traced. State-of-the-art CAD systems are reviewed and various advanced CAD facilities and supplementing systems being used at NASA-Goddard are described. CAD hardware, computer software, and protocols are detailed.

  4. Surveying and mapping a cave using 3d laser scanner: the open challenge with free and open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosso, T.; Ferrando, I.; Orlando, A.

    2014-06-01

    The present work is part of a series of activities involving different skills, in order to explore and document in detail one of the most visited caves in Liguria Region. In this context, in addition to speleologists, geologists, videographers, the geomatic expertise has also been involved to carry out a laser scanner survey, in order to produce a three-dimensional model of the two more easily accessible rooms of the cave. The survey was carried out using Z+F IMAGER® 5010 instrument and the post processing operations related to registration of point clouds have been made with Z+F LaserControl®. Subsequently, two different free and open source software were used: MeshLab, to merge the point clouds and to obtain the final mesh, and CloudCompare, to make filtering on the previous results and to extract sections.

  5. A free software for pore-scale modelling: solving Stokes equation for velocity fields and permeability values in 3D pore geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Khirevich, Siarhei; Karsanina, Marina; Collins, Daniel; Korost, Dmitry; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we introduce a novel free software which solves the Stokes equation to obtain velocity fields for low Reynolds-number flows within externally generated 3D pore geometries. Provided with velocity fields, one can calculate permeability for known pressure gradient boundary conditions via Darcy's equation. Finite-difference schemes of 2nd and 4th order of accuracy are used together with an artificial compressibility method to iteratively converge to a steady-state solution of Stokes' equation. This numerical approach is much faster and less computationally demanding than the majority of open-source or commercial softwares employing other algorithms (finite elements/volumes, lattice Boltzmann, etc.) The software consists of two parts: 1) a pre and post-processing graphical interface, and 2) a solver. The latter is efficiently parallelized to use any number of available cores (the speedup on 16 threads was up to 10-12 depending on hardware). Due to parallelization and memory optimization our software can be used to obtain solutions for 300x300x300 voxels geometries on modern desktop PCs. The software was successfully verified by testing it against lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical solutions. To illustrate the software's applicability for numerous problems in Earth Sciences, a number of case studies have been developed: 1) identifying the representative elementary volume for permeability determination within a sandstone sample, 2) derivation of permeability/hydraulic conductivity values for rock and soil samples and comparing those with experimentally obtained values, 3) revealing the influence of the amount of fine-textured material such as clay on filtration properties of sandy soil. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (pore-scale modelling) and RFBR grants 13-04-00409-a and 13-05-01176-a.

  6. Using semi-automated photogrammetry software to generate 3D surfaces from oblique and vertical photographs at Mount St. Helens, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, S.; Diefenbach, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Photogrammetry has been used to generate contours and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to monitor change at Mount St. Helens, WA since the 1980 eruption. We continue to improve techniques to monitor topographic changes within the crater. During the 2004-2008 eruption, 26 DEMs were used to track volume and rates of growth of a lava dome and changes of Crater Glacier. These measurements constrained seismogenic extrusion models and were compared with geodetic deflation volume to constrain magma chamber behavior. We used photogrammetric software to collect irregularly spaced 3D points primarily by hand and, in reasonably flat areas, by automated algorithms, from commercial vertical aerial photographs. These models took days to months to complete and the areal extent of each surface was determined by visual inspection. Later in the eruption, we pioneered the use of different software to generate irregularly spaced 3D points manually from oblique images captured by a hand-held digital camera. In each case, the irregularly spaced points and intervening interpolated points formed regular arrays of cells or DEMs. Calculations using DEMs produced from the hand-held images duplicated volumetric and rate results gleaned from the vertical aerial photographs. This manual point capture technique from oblique hand-held photographs required only a few hours to generate a model over a focused area such as the lava dome, but would have taken perhaps days to capture data over the entire crater. Here, we present results from new photogrammetric software that uses robust image-matching algorithms to produce 3D surfaces automatically after inner, relative, and absolute orientations between overlapping photographs are completed. Measurements using scans of vertical aerial photographs taken August 10, 2005 produced dome volume estimates within two percent of those from a surface generated using the vertical aerial photograph manual method. The new August 10th orientations took less than 8

  7. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  8. Automated generation of NC part programs for excimer laser ablation micromachining from known 3D surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutapcic, Emir; Iovenitti, Pio G.; Hayes, Jason P.

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this research project is to improve the capability of the laser micromachinning process, so that any desired 3D surface can be produced by taking the 3D information from a CAD system and automatically generating the NC part programs. In addition, surface quality should be able to be controlled by specifying optimised parameters. This paper presents the algorithms and a software system, which processes 3D geometry in an STL file format from a CAD system and produces the NC part program to mill the surface using the Excimer laser ablation process. Simple structures are used to demonstrate the prototype system's part programming capabilities, and an actual surface is machined.

  9. 3D city models for CAAD-supported analysis and design of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinning-Meister, M.; Gruen, A.; Dan, H.

    A joint research project was conducted at ETH Zurich to develop a user-friendly software environment for the representation, visual manipulation, analysis and design of urban areas. Three groups were involved in the project: (1) the 'Architecture and Planning' group defined the requirements and expectations for the system; (2) the 'Photogrammetry' group acquired and processed raster and 3D vector data to form a 3D model of the urban area; and (3) the 'CAAD' (Computer Aided Architectural Design) group embedded the data into AutoCAD and implemented database functionality. Results of the photogrammetry group are presented, including the implementation of a 'topology builder' which automatically fits roof planes to manually or semi-automatically measured roof points in order to create AutoCAD-compatible 3D building models. Digital orthoimages and derived products such as perspective views, and the geometric correction of house roofs in digital orthoimages also were generated for test sites in Switzerland.

  10. Effect of software version and parameter settings on the marginal and internal adaptation of crowns fabricated with the CAD/CAM system

    PubMed Central

    SHIM, Ji Suk; Jin Sook, LEE; Jeong Yol, LEE; CHOI, Yeon Jo; SHIN, Sang Wan; Jae Jun, RYU

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the marginal and internal adaptation of individual dental crowns fabricated using a CAD/CAM system (Sirona’s BlueCam), also evaluating the effect of the software version used, and the specific parameter settings in the adaptation of crowns. Material and Methods Forty digital impressions of a master model previously prepared were acquired using an intraoral scanner and divided into four groups based on the software version and on the spacer settings used. The versions 3.8 and 4.2 of the software were used, and the spacer parameter was set at either 40 μm or 80 μm. The marginal and internal fit of the crowns were measured using the replica technique, which uses a low viscosity silicone material that simulates the thickness of the cement layer. The data were analyzed using a Friedman two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-tests with significance level set at p<0.05. Results The two-way ANOVA analysis showed the software version (p<0.05) and the spacer parameter (p<0.05) significantly affected the crown adaptation. The crowns designed with the version 4.2 of the software showed a better fit than those designed with the version 3.8, particularly in the axial wall and in the inner margin. The spacer parameter was more accurately represented in the version 4.2 of the software than in the version 3.8. In addition, the use of the version 4.2 of the software combined with the spacer parameter set at 80 μm showed the least variation. On the other hand, the outer margin was not affected by the variables. Conclusion Compared to the version 3.8 of the software, the version 4.2 can be recommended for the fabrication of well-fitting crown restorations, and for the appropriate regulation of the spacer parameter. PMID:26537722

  11. Toward fast color-shaded images of CAD/CAM geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, P.; Wozny, M. J.

    1983-11-01

    It is pointed out that the growing demand for advanced three-dimensional (3-D) geometric modeling capabilities in mechanical CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing) systems is related to the need to attack complex design problems more directly and automatically. The advantages are being recognized of having an effective human-computer interface for handling complex 3-D geometry with a color-shaded image capability, in addition to a highly interactive line-drawing capability. A description is given of a software processor for rendering high-quality, color-shaded 'snapshots' directly and rapidly from commercial 3-D CAD/CAM systems. Attention is given to the importance of color-shaded images, the software processor architecture, color and illumination attributes, geometry-defining data, display type associativities, viw definition, polygonal approximation, scan conversion, and the Raster 4K rendering algorithm, and Raster4K performance.

  12. CAD for small hydro projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, N.A. Jr. )

    1994-04-01

    Over the past decade, computer-aided design (CAD) has become a practical and economical design tool. Today, specifying CAD hardware and software is relatively easy once you know what the design requirements are. But finding experienced CAD professionals is often more difficult. Most CAD users have only two or three years of design experience; more experienced design personnel are frequently not CAD literate. However, effective use of CAD can be the key to lowering design costs and improving design quality--a quest familiar to every manager and designer. By emphasizing computer-aided design literacy at all levels of the firm, a Canadian joint-venture company that specializes in engineering small hydroelectric projects has cut costs, become more productive and improved design quality. This article describes how they did it.

  13. CAD Skills Increased through Multicultural Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how students in a college-entry-level CAD course researched four generations of their family histories and documented cultural and symbolic influences within their family backgrounds. AutoCAD software was then used to manipulate those cultural and symbolic images to create the design for a multicultural area rug. AutoCAD was…

  14. 3D surface digitizing and modeling development at ITRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Wen-Jean

    2000-06-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research and development activities in 3D surface digitizing and modeling conducted at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of Taiwan in the past decade. As a major technology and consulting service provider of the area, ITRI has developed 3D laser scanning digitizers ranging from low-cost compacts, industrial CAD/CAM digitizing, to large human body scanner, with in-house 3D surface modeling software to provide total solution in reverse engineering that requires processing capabilities of large number of 3D data. Based on both hardware and software technologies in scanning, merging, registration, surface fitting, reconstruction, and compression, ITRI is now exploring innovative methodologies that provide higher performances, including hardware-based correlation algorithms with advanced camera designs, animation surface model reconstruction, and optical tracking for motion capture. It is expected that the need for easy and fast high-quality 3D information in the near future will grow exponentially, at the same amazing rate as the internet and the human desire for realistic and natural images.

  15. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  16. 3D finite element analysis of porous Ti-based alloy prostheses.

    PubMed

    Mircheski, Ile; Gradišar, Marko

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, novel designs of porous acetabular cups are created and tested with 3D finite element analysis (FEA). The aim is to develop a porous acetabular cup with low effective radial stiffness of the structure, which will be near to the architectural and mechanical behavior of the natural bone. For the realization of this research, a 3D-scanner technology was used for obtaining a 3D-CAD model of the pelvis bone, a 3D-CAD software for creating a porous acetabular cup, and a 3D-FEA software for virtual testing of a novel design of the porous acetabular cup. The results obtained from this research reveal that a porous acetabular cup from Ti-based alloys with 60 ± 5% porosity has the mechanical behavior and effective radial stiffness (Young's modulus in radial direction) that meet and exceed the required properties of the natural bone. The virtual testing with 3D-FEA of a novel design with porous structure during the very early stage of the design and the development of orthopedic implants, enables obtaining a new or improved biomedical implant for a relatively short time and reduced price. PMID:27015664

  17. FIRE: an open-software suite for real-time 2D/3D image registration for image guided radiotherapy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, H.; Gendrin, C.; Spoerk, J.; Steiner, E.; Underwood, T.; Kuenzler, T.; Georg, D.; Birkfellner, W.

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatments have changed at a tremendously rapid pace. Dose delivered to the tumor has escalated while organs at risk (OARs) are better spared. The impact of moving tumors during dose delivery has become higher due to very steep dose gradients. Intra-fractional tumor motion has to be managed adequately to reduce errors in dose delivery. For tumors with large motion such as tumors in the lung, tracking is an approach that can reduce position uncertainty. Tumor tracking approaches range from purely image intensity based techniques to motion estimation based on surrogate tracking. Research efforts are often based on custom designed software platforms which take too much time and effort to develop. To address this challenge we have developed an open software platform especially focusing on tumor motion management. FLIRT is a freely available open-source software platform. The core method for tumor tracking is purely intensity based 2D/3D registration. The platform is written in C++ using the Qt framework for the user interface. The performance critical methods are implemented on the graphics processor using the CUDA extension. One registration can be as fast as 90ms (11Hz). This is suitable to track tumors moving due to respiration (~0.3Hz) or heartbeat (~1Hz). Apart from focusing on high performance, the platform is designed to be flexible and easy to use. Current use cases range from tracking feasibility studies, patient positioning and method validation. Such a framework has the potential of enabling the research community to rapidly perform patient studies or try new methods.

  18. New portable FELIX 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Knut; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Bahr, Detlef; Vogt, Carsten; Blohm, Christian; Scharschmidt, Karl-Heinz

    1998-04-01

    An improved generation of our 'FELIX 3D Display' is presented. This system is compact, light, modular and easy to transport. The created volumetric images consist of many voxels, which are generated in a half-sphere display volume. In that way a spatial object can be displayed occupying a physical space with height, width and depth. The new FELIX generation uses a screen rotating with 20 revolutions per second. This target screen is mounted by an easy to change mechanism making it possible to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose of the display. An acousto-optic deflection unit with an integrated small diode pumped laser draws the images on the spinning screen. Images can consist of up to 10,000 voxels at a refresh rate of 20 Hz. Currently two different hardware systems are investigated. The first one is based on a standard PCMCIA digital/analog converter card as an interface and is controlled by a notebook. The developed software is provided with a graphical user interface enabling several animation features. The second, new prototype is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications. It includes the development of a new high speed hardware interface suitable for state-of-the- art fast and high resolution scanning devices, which require high data rates. A true 3D volume display as described will complement the broad range of 3D visualization tools, such as volume rendering packages, stereoscopic and virtual reality techniques, which have become widely available in recent years. Potential applications for the FELIX 3D display include imaging in the field so fair traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design, science as well as entertainment.

  19. Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha

    2013-04-01

    Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.

  20. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  1. Polish Experience with Advanced Digital Heritage Recording Methodology, including 3D Laser Scanning, CAD, and GIS Application, as the Most Accurate and Flexible Response for Archaeology and Conservation Needs at Jan III Sobieski's Residence in Wilanów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, P.; Czajkowski, K.; Gładki, M.; Morysiński, T.; Szambelan, R.; Rzonca, A.

    Review of recent critical points for introduction of laser technology into the field of heritage documentation, management, conservation, and archaeology will be discussed. The relationship of benefit versus cost of 3D laser scanning technique for complex multitask heritage recording project at Wilanow is presented. Definition of basic criteria for the successful use of such heritage detailed record as laser scanning is given.

  2. Experience of CAD application for the software design of a control and measuring system with changeable configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. I.; Papazyan, Yu. V.; Savochkin, V. N.

    1994-12-01

    A method of software design for measurement and control systems with changeable configuration is presented. This method is used for the data acquisition system of the pulse thermonuclear "ANGARA-5" installation. The description of the system composition is produced by means of a computer-aided design tool. This description is saved in the special data base and is used by the system software for automatic initialisation of the real hardware. Any change of the connection scheme and device types does not require a new design of the system software. It is only necessary to edit the scheme inside the data base. This method requires object-oriented programming techniques and the hierarchical structure of the system. At the same time the full documentation about the system structure is produced.

  3. The unstoppable progress of CAD/CAM - Results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.

    1982-08-01

    The state of CAD/CAM technology in the construction and machinery industries is clarified by means of a few examples using PROREN software. The use of CAD in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional design is discussed, and CAD/CAM's potential for determining control information for numerically controlled milling is assessed. The design of parts by CAD is pictorially shown.

  4. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  5. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  6. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  7. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  8. Performance testing of LiDAR exploitation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-04-01

    Mobile LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the field of geoscience. One of most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing. Several software solutions for data processing are available in the market, but users are often unknown about the methodologies to verify their performance accurately. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and six different suites are studied: QT Modeler, AutoCAD Civil 3D, Mars 7, Fledermaus, Carlson and TopoDOT (all of them in x64). Results depict as QTModeler, TopoDOT and AutoCAD Civil 3D allow the loading of large datasets, while Fledermaus, Mars7 and Carlson do not achieve these powerful performance. AutoCAD Civil 3D needs large loading time in comparison with the most powerful softwares such as QTModeler and TopoDOT. Carlson suite depicts the poorest results among all the softwares under study, where point clouds larger than 5 million points cannot be loaded and loading time is very large in comparison with the other suites even for the smaller datasets. AutoCAD Civil 3D, Carlson and TopoDOT show more threads than other softwares like QTModeler, Mars7 and Fledermaus.

  9. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences. PMID:26664361

  10. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences. PMID:26664361

  11. Web-based CAD and CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min; Zhou, Hai-Guang

    2001-10-01

    CAD & CAM technologies are being used in design and manufacturing process, and are receiving increasing attention from industries and education. We have been researching to develop a new kind of software that is for web-course CAD & CAM. It can be used either in industries or in training, it is supported by IE. Firstly, we aim at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. That is a new kind of software in China. Secondly, we have developed a kind of software for web-course CAD & CAM, we introduce the basis of CAD, the commands of CAD, the programming, CAD/CAM for optomechatronics, the joint application of CAD & CAM. We introduce the functions of MasterCAM, show the whole processes of CAD/CAM/CNC by examples. Following the steps showed on the web, the trainer can not miss. CAD & CAM are widely used in many areas, development of web-course CAD & CAM is necessary for long- distance education and public education. In 1992, China raised: CAD technique, as an important part of electronic technology, is a new key technique to improve the national economic and the modernization of national defence. As so for, the education. Of CAD & CAM is mainly involved in manufacturing industry in China. But with the rapidly development of new technology, especially the development of optics and electronics, CAD & CAM will receive more attention from those areas.

  12. Purchasing Computer-Aided Design Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a model for the purchase of computer-aided design (CAD) software: collect general information, observe CAD in use, arrange onsite demonstrations, select CAD software and hardware, and choose a vendor. (JOW)

  13. Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement: A new, minimally-invasive corticotomy technique using a 3D-printed surgical template

    PubMed Central

    Giansanti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Background A reduction in orthodontic treatment time can be attained using corticotomies. The aggressive nature of corticotomy due to the elevation of muco-periosteal flaps and to the duration of the surgery raised reluctance for its employ among patients and dental community. This study aims to provide detailed information on the design and manufacture of a 3D-printed CAD-CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) surgical guide which can aid the clinician in achieving a minimally-invasive, flapless corticotomy. Material and Methods An impression of dental arches was created; the models were digitally-acquired using a 3D scanner and saved as STereoLithography ( STL ) files. The patient underwent cone beam computed tomography (CBCT): images of jaws and teeth were transformed into 3D models and saved as an STL file. An acrylic template with the design of a surgical guide was manufactured and scanned. The STLs of jaws, scanned casts, and acrylic templates were matched. 3D modeling software allowed the view of the 3D models from different perspectives and planes with perfect rendering. The 3D model of the acrylic template was transformed into a surgical guide with slots designed to guide, at first, a scalpel blade and then a piezoelectric cutting insert. The 3D STL model of the surgical guide was printed. Results This procedure allowed the manufacturing of a 3D-printed CAD/CAM surgical guide, which overcomes the disadvantages of the corticotomy, removing the need for flap elevation. No discomfort, early surgical complications or unexpected events were observed. Conclusions The effectiveness of this minimally-invasive surgical technique can offer the clinician a valid alternative to other methods currently in use. Key words:Corticotomy, orthodontics, CAD/CAM, minimally invasive, surgical template, 3D printer. PMID:27031067

  14. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  15. Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2008-07-01

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  16. The Digital Space Shuttle, 3D Graphics, and Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.; Keller, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Shuttle is a knowledge management project that seeks to define symbiotic relationships between 3D graphics and formal knowledge representations (ontologies). 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content, in 2D and 3D CAD forms, and the capability to display systems knowledge. Because the data is so heterogeneous, and the interrelated data structures are complex, 3D graphics combined with ontologies provides mechanisms for navigating the data and visualizing relationships.

  17. dc3dm: Software to efficiently form and apply a 3D DDM operator for a nonuniformly discretized rectangular planar fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    My poster will describe dc3dm, a free open source software (FOSS) package that efficiently forms and applies the linear operator relating slip and traction components on a nonuniformly discretized rectangular planar fault in a homogeneous elastic (HE) half space. This linear operator implements what is called the displacement discontinuity method (DDM). The key properties of dc3dm are: 1. The mesh can be nonuniform. 2. Work and memory scale roughly linearly in the number of elements (rather than quadratically). 3. The order of accuracy of my method on a nonuniform mesh is the same as that of the standard method on a uniform mesh. Property 2 is achieved using my FOSS package hmmvp [AGU 2012]. A nonuniform mesh (property 1) is natural for some problems. For example, in a rate-state friction simulation, nucleation length, and so required element size, scales reciprocally with effective normal stress. Property 3 assures that if a nonuniform mesh is more efficient than a uniform mesh (in the sense of accuracy per element) at one level of mesh refinement, it will remain so at all further mesh refinements. I use the routine DC3D of Y. Okada, which calculates the stress tensor at a receiver resulting from a rectangular uniform dislocation source in an HE half space. On a uniform mesh, straightforward application of this Green's function (GF) yields a DDM I refer to as DDMu. On a nonuniform mesh, this same procedure leads to artifacts that degrade the order of accuracy of the DDM. I have developed a method I call IGA that implements the DDM using this GF for a nonuniformly discretized mesh having certain properties. Importantly, IGA's order of accuracy on a nonuniform mesh is the same as DDMu's on a uniform one. Boundary conditions can be periodic in the surface-parallel direction (in both directions if the GF is for a whole space), velocity on any side, and free surface. The mesh must have the following main property: each uniquely sized element must tile each element

  18. The CAD-EGS Project: Using CAD Geometrics in EGS4

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, Willy G.J.

    2002-03-28

    The objective of the CAD-EGS project is to provide a way to use a CAD system to create 3D geometries for use within EGS4. In this report, we describe an approach based on an intermediate file, written out by the CAD system, that is read by an EGS4 user code designed for the purpose. A prototype solution was implemented using a commonly used CAD system and the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as an intermediate file format. We report results from the prototype, and discuss various problems arising from both the approach and the particular choices made.

  19. NON-NRC FUNDED RELAP5-3D VERSION 4.x.x SOFTWARE REACTOR EXCURSION AND LEAK ANALYSIS PACKAGE - THREE DIMENSIONAL

    2012-03-26

    The RELAP5-3D Version 3.x code has been developed for best-estimate transient simulation of nuclear reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems including pressurized watermore » reactors, boiling water reactors, Soviet-designed reactors, heavy water reactors, gas-cooled reactors, liquid metal and molten salt cooled reactors, and even fusion reactors. Numerical models include multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, 1- and 2-D heat transfer in metal walls, 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-D neutron kinetics, trips, and control systems. Secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems.« less

  20. NON-NRC FUNDED RELAP5-3D VERSION 4.x.x SOFTWARE REACTOR EXCURSION AND LEAK ANALYSIS PACKAGE - THREE DIMENSIONAL

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-26

    The RELAP5-3D Version 3.x code has been developed for best-estimate transient simulation of nuclear reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, Soviet-designed reactors, heavy water reactors, gas-cooled reactors, liquid metal and molten salt cooled reactors, and even fusion reactors. Numerical models include multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, 1- and 2-D heat transfer in metal walls, 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-D neutron kinetics, trips, and control systems. Secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems.

  1. CAD systems simplify engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.

    1986-10-01

    Computer assisted drafting systems, with today's technology, provide high-quality, timely drawings that can be justified by the lower costs for the final product. The author describes Exxon Pipeline Co.'s experience in deciding on hardware and software for a CAD system installation and the benefits effected by this procedure and equipment.

  2. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  3. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  4. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  5. CAD/CAM systems in machine construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig, H.-E.; Paulus, M.

    1985-09-01

    A description is provided of the present status of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology, taking into account applications, and risks related to the introduction and employment of CAD/CAM methods. The employment of CAD/CAM systems in the area of machine construction is discussed, giving attention to the situation in West Germany. With respect to the system component 'hardware', the transition to a new hardware generation is taking place. In addition to computer centers with large-scale computers, minicomputers and superminicomputers, designed especially for technical applications, have become available. However, existing CAD software does not yet permit the full exploitation of the changes in hardware technology. Attention is given to CAD potential and current utilization in various application areas, developments related to graphics and geometry, advantages of a suitable macro language, the current employment of CAD/CAM technology, and cost considerations.

  6. PC Board Layout and Electronic Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jimmy

    This teacher's guide contains 11 units of instruction for a course on computer electronics and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) using a personal computer (PC). The course covers the following topics: introduction to electronic drafting with CAD; CAD system and software; basic electronic theory; component identification; basic integrated circuit…

  7. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  8. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. PMID:22389618

  9. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a "sensor fusion" approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. PMID:22389618

  10. 3D-modeling in the production of custom-made implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. G.; Kovalev, V. A.; Anisenya, I. I.; Mitrichenko, D. V.; Prosolov, A. B.; Khlusov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this work was to design, develop and test practical solutions that could become the core of computer-aided design (CAD) software, simulating to meet the challenges of preoperative preparation in the shortest time. Its basis was adapted to clinical and technical requirements of the diagnostic image processing algorithm in cancer patients with the following construction of the model and manufacture of the replacement implant on the basis of its 3D-prototype. The results are useful for preoperative planning and production of anatomically accurate individual implants and endoprosthesis.

  11. A CAD interface for GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Poole, C M; Cornelius, I; Trapp, J V; Langton, C M

    2012-09-01

    Often CAD models already exist for parts of a geometry being simulated using GEANT4. Direct import of these CAD models into GEANT4 however, may not be possible and complex components may be difficult to define via other means. Solutions that allow for users to work around the limited support in the GEANT4 toolkit for loading predefined CAD geometries have been presented by others, however these solutions require intermediate file format conversion using commercial software. Here within we describe a technique that allows for CAD models to be directly loaded as geometry without the need for commercial software and intermediate file format conversion. Robustness of the interface was tested using a set of CAD models of various complexity; for the models used in testing, no import errors were reported and all geometry was found to be navigable by GEANT4. PMID:22956356

  12. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  13. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    completed 3D instruments - CIRPASS, GMOS, PMAS and SPIFFI. Work on 3D software, being developed as part of the Euro3D RTN, was also described and demonstrated. This proceedings volume, consisting of carefully refereed and edited manuscripts, represents the bulk of the talks at the conference and amply demonstrates that 3D spectroscopy is a lively and burgeoning field of optical observation.

  14. 3D-CANVENT: An interactive mine ventilation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Hardcastle, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    3D-CANVENT is a software package that integrates advanced computer aided design (ACAD) true 3D graphics with a mine ventilation simulator. The package runs as a Windows{trademark} application to access its printer drivers environment and does not need third party CAD software. It is composed of two primary modules: DMVENT and MINEDESIGNER. DMVENT is a traditional Fortran coded Hardy-Cross iterative ventilation network solver written in 1980 with thermodynamic capabilities. This module is relatively unchanged with the traditional data input options for branch type, specified or calculated resistances, fixed flows, and fixed or variable pressure fans. MINEDESIGNER is the graphics engine that optimizes the ventilation design process. It performs the front-end transformation of input data entered in the graphical interface into the correct format for the solver. At the back-end it reconverts the historically standard tabular data output from the solver into an easily viewed graphical format. ACAD features of MINEDESIGNER are used to generate a 3D wire-frame node and branch network of the mine`s ventilation system. The network can be displayed in up to 4 views orientated to XYZ planes or a 3D view. AU the views have zoom, pan, slice and rotate options. The graphical interface efficiently permits data entry and editing via a mouse with pick-and-point item selection. Branches can be found or added with {open_quotes}search{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}join{close_quotes} options. Visual interpretation is enhanced by the 16 colour options for branches and numerous graphical attributes. Network locations are readily identified by alpha-numeric names for branches, junctions and fans, and also the logical numbering of junctions. The program is also readily expandable for pollutant simulation and control/monitoring applications.

  15. Shape optimization and CAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, John

    1990-01-01

    available for the solution of single problems. By implementing collections of the available techniques into general software systems, operational environments for structural optimization have been created. The forthcoming years must bring solutions to the problem of integrating such systems into more general design environments. The result of this work should be CAD systems for rational design in which structural optimization is one important design tool among many others.

  16. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  17. Open Source Software and Design-Based Research Symbiosis in Developing 3D Virtual Learning Environments: Examples from the iSocial Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Galyen, Krista; Laffey, James; Babiuch, Ryan; Schmidt, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) and open source software are both acknowledged as potentially productive ways for advancing learning technologies. These approaches have practical benefits for the design and development process and for building and leveraging community to augment and sustain design and development. This report presents a case study of…

  18. 3D CAD: A Plus for STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planchard, Marie

    2007-01-01

    At some point in their education, pre-engineering students will take physics and/or calculus. For many freshmen who aren't certain about their career paths, taking these courses is a litmus test to determine whether they have the aptitude or desire to pursue an engineering degree. Therein lies the challenge for many students in the U.S. Science,…

  19. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  20. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  3. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Linking to the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) RT3D and MT3DMS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2007-08-08

    Linkages to the Groundwater Modeling System have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to more realistically assess the risk to the public of radioactive contaminants at NRC-licensed sites. Common software tools presently in use are limited in that they cannot assess contaminant migration through complex natural environments. The purpose of this initiative is to provide NRC with a licensing safety-analysis tool with sufficient power, flexibility, and utility that it can serve as the primary software platform for analyzing the hazards associated with licensing actions at those “complex” sites at which the traditional tools are inappropriate. As a tool designed to realistically approximate prospective doses to the public, this initiative addresses NRC’s safety-performance goal by confirming that licensing actions do not result in undue risk to the public.

  4. Preoperative planning for DIEP breast reconstruction: early experience of the use of computerised tomography angiography with VoNavix 3D software for perforator navigation.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, M D; See, M S; Cavale, N; Collyer, J; Francis, I; Jones, M E; Hazari, A; Boorman, J G; Smith, R W

    2009-11-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is normally the first choice in breast reconstruction; however, due to the considerable vascular anatomical variation and the learning curve for the procedure, muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps are still frequently performed to reduce the rate of complications. Accurate preoperative investigation of the perforators would allow better operative preparation and possibly shorten the learning curve. In an effort to increase accuracy of preoperative planning and to aid preoperative decision-making in free abdominal flap breast reconstruction, we have acquired the use of VoNavix, software that creates three dimensional images from computerised tomography angiography (CTA) data. The use of the VoNavix software for analysis of CTA provides superior imaging that can be viewed in theatre. It, together with CTA, enables decisions to be made preoperatively, including: which side to raise the flap; whether to aim for a medial or lateral row perforator; whether to take a segment of muscle and whether to expect an easy or difficult dissection. We have now performed over 60 free abdominal flap breast reconstructions aided with CTA, and 10 of these cases also used VoNavix technology. This paper presents our initial experience with the use of this software, illustrated with three patient examples. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:18708309

  5. Use of the surface-based registration function of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing software in medical simulation software for three-dimensional simulation of orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Moon-Key

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography image models are helpful in reproducing the maxillofacial area; however, they do not necessarily provide an accurate representation of dental occlusion and the state of the teeth. Recent efforts have focused on improvement of dental imaging by replacement of computed tomography with other detailed digital images. Unfortunately, despite the advantages of medical simulation software in dentofacial analysis, diagnosis, and surgical simulation, it lacks adequate registration tools. Following up on our previous report on orthognathic simulation surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, we recently used the registration functions of a CAD/CAM platform in conjunction with surgical simulation software. Therefore, we would like to introduce a new technique, which involves use of the registration functions of CAD/CAM software followed by transfer of the images into medical simulation software. This technique may be applicable when using various registration function tools from different software platforms. PMID:24471043

  6. Use of the surface-based registration function of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing software in medical simulation software for three-dimensional simulation of orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Moon-Key

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography image models are helpful in reproducing the maxillofacial area; however, they do not necessarily provide an accurate representation of dental occlusion and the state of the teeth. Recent efforts have focused on improvement of dental imaging by replacement of computed tomography with other detailed digital images. Unfortunately, despite the advantages of medical simulation software in dentofacial analysis, diagnosis, and surgical simulation, it lacks adequate registration tools. Following up on our previous report on orthognathic simulation surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, we recently used the registration functions of a CAD/CAM platform in conjunction with surgical simulation software. Therefore, we would like to introduce a new technique, which involves use of the registration functions of CAD/CAM software followed by transfer of the images into medical simulation software. This technique may be applicable when using various registration function tools from different software platforms. PMID:24471043

  7. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  8. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  9. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  10. CIRCE2/DEKGEN2: A software package for facilitated optical analysis of 3-D distributed solar energy concentrators. Theory and user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.J.

    1994-03-01

    CIRCE2 is a computer code for modeling the optical performance of three-dimensional dish-type solar energy concentrators. Statistical methods are used to evaluate the directional distribution of reflected rays from any given point on the concentrator. Given concentrator and receiver geometries, sunshape (angular distribution of incident rays from the sun), and concentrator imperfections such as surface roughness and random deviation in slope, the code predicts the flux distribution and total power incident upon the target. Great freedom exists in the variety of concentrator and receiver configurations that can be modeled. Additionally, provisions for shading and receiver aperturing are included.- DEKGEN2 is a preprocessor designed to facilitate input of geometry, error distributions, and sun models. This manual describes the optical model, user inputs, code outputs, and operation of the software package. A user tutorial is included in which several collectors are built and analyzed in step-by-step examples.

  11. 3D ultrasound imaging for prosthesis fabrication and diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, A.K.; Bow, W.J.; Strong, D.S.

    1995-06-01

    The fabrication of a prosthetic socket for a below-the-knee amputee requires knowledge of the underlying bone structure in order to provide pressure relief for sensitive areas and support for load bearing areas. The goal is to enable the residual limb to bear pressure with greater ease and utility. Conventional methods of prosthesis fabrication are based on limited knowledge about the patient`s underlying bone structure. A 3D ultrasound imaging system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The imaging system provides information about the location of the bones in the residual limb along with the shape of the skin surface. Computer assisted design (CAD) software can use this data to design prosthetic sockets for amputees. Ultrasound was selected as the imaging modality. A computer model was developed to analyze the effect of the various scanning parameters and to assist in the design of the overall system. The 3D ultrasound imaging system combines off-the-shelf technology for image capturing, custom hardware, and control and image processing software to generate two types of image data -- volumetric and planar. Both volumetric and planar images reveal definition of skin and bone geometry with planar images providing details on muscle fascial planes, muscle/fat interfaces, and blood vessel definition. The 3D ultrasound imaging system was tested on 9 unilateral below-the- knee amputees. Image data was acquired from both the sound limb and the residual limb. The imaging system was operated in both volumetric and planar formats. An x-ray CT (Computed Tomography) scan was performed on each amputee for comparison. Results of the test indicate beneficial use of ultrasound to generate databases for fabrication of prostheses at a lower cost and with better initial fit as compared to manually fabricated prostheses.

  12. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  13. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  14. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  15. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  16. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six software packages. Includes (1) "Plain Vanilla Statistics"; (2) "MathCAD 2.0"; (3) "GrFx"; (4) "Trigonometry"; (5) "Algebra II"; (6) "Algebra Drill and Practice I, II, and III." (PK)

  18. Vane Pump Casing Machining of Dumpling Machine Based on CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yusen; Li, Shilong; Li, Chengcheng; Yang, Zhen

    Automatic dumpling forming machine is also called dumpling machine, which makes dumplings through mechanical motions. This paper adopts the stuffing delivery mechanism featuring the improved and specially-designed vane pump casing, which can contribute to the formation of dumplings. Its 3D modeling in Pro/E software, machining process planning, milling path optimization, simulation based on UG and compiling post program were introduced and verified. The results indicated that adoption of CAD/CAM offers firms the potential to pursue new innovative strategies.

  19. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  20. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  1. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  2. Indoor Modelling Benchmark for 3D Geometry Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.

    2014-06-01

    A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate 3D parametric models of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and modelling of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created model. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference model. The datasets can be found at: http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench.

  3. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  4. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  5. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  6. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  7. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in

  8. Mackay campus of environmental education and digital cultural construction: the application of 3D virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Shao-Chi; Chung, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Jun-Yi; Chang, Jhih-Ting; He, Cai-Ying; Cheng, Yi-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This study uses 3D virtual reality technology to create the "Mackay campus of the environmental education and digital cultural 3D navigation system" for local historical sites in the Tamsui (Hoba) area, in hopes of providing tourism information and navigation through historical sites using a 3D navigation system. We used Auto CAD, Sketch Up, and SpaceEyes 3D software to construct the virtual reality scenes and create the school's historical sites, such as the House of Reverends, the House of Maidens, the Residence of Mackay, and the Education Hall. We used this technology to complete the environmental education and digital cultural Mackay campus . The platform we established can indeed achieve the desired function of providing tourism information and historical site navigation. The interactive multimedia style and the presentation of the information will allow users to obtain a direct information response. In addition to showing the external appearances of buildings, the navigation platform can also allow users to enter the buildings to view lifelike scenes and textual information related to the historical sites. The historical sites are designed according to their actual size, which gives users a more realistic feel. In terms of the navigation route, the navigation system does not force users along a fixed route, but instead allows users to freely control the route they would like to take to view the historical sites on the platform.

  9. An integrated CAD/CAM/robotic milling method for custom cementless femoral prostheses.

    PubMed

    Wen-ming, Xi; Ai-min, Wang; Qi, Wu; Chang-hua, Liu; Jian-fei, Zhu; Fang-fang, Xia

    2015-09-01

    Aseptic loosening is the primary cause of cementless femoral prosthesis failure and is related to the primary stability of the cementless femoral prosthesis in the femoral cavity. The primary stability affects both the osseointegration and the long-term stability of cementless femoral prostheses. A custom cementless femoral prosthesis can improve the fit and fill of the prosthesis in the femoral cavity and decrease the micromotion of the proximal prosthesis such that the primary stability of the custom prosthesis can be improved, and osseointegration of the proximal prosthesis is achieved. These results will help to achieve long-term stability in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this paper, we introduce an integrated CAD/CAM/robotic method of milling custom cementless femoral prostheses. The 3D reconstruction model uses femoral CT images and 3D design software to design a CAD model of the custom prosthesis. After the transformation matrices between two units of the robotic system are calibrated, consistency between the CAM software and the robotic system can be achieved, and errors in the robotic milling can be limited. According to the CAD model of the custom prosthesis, the positions of the robotic tool points are produced by the CAM software of the CNC machine. The normal vector of the three adjacent robotic tool point positions determines the pose of the robotic tool point. In conclusion, the fit rate of custom pig femur stems in the femoral cavities was 90.84%. After custom femoral prostheses were inserted into the femoral cavities, the maximum gaps between the prostheses and the cavities measured less than 1 mm at the diaphysis and 1.3 mm at the metaphysis. PMID:26210779

  10. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  11. 3D scene modeling from multiple range views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.

  12. Making a Case for CAD in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, K. Denise

    1995-01-01

    Computer-assisted design (CAD) technology is transforming the apparel industry. Students of fashion merchandising and clothing design must be prepared on state-of-the-art equipment. ApparelCAD software is one example of courseware for instruction in pattern design and production. (SK)

  13. From Bad to CAD: Maintaining Records of Maintenance Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Diane C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-assisted design (CAD) software program is used in a Connecticut school district to graphically provide information on maintenance projects by school and category of project over time. CAD supplies a computerized building plan, a "foot-print," used as a recordkeeping system for maintenance projects. (MLF)

  14. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  15. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  16. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  17. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  18. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  19. 3D Model Generation From the Engineering Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaský, Jozef; Eliáš, Michal; Bezák, Pavol; Červeňanská, Zuzana; Izakovič, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    The contribution deals with the transformation of engineering drawings in a paper form into a 3D computer representation. A 3D computer model can be further processed in CAD/CAM system, it can be modified, archived, and a technical drawing can be then generated from it as well. The transformation process from paper form to the data one is a complex and difficult one, particularly owing to the different types of drawings, forms of displayed objects and encountered errors and deviations from technical standards. The algorithm for 3D model generating from an orthogonal vector input representing a simplified technical drawing of the rotational part is described in this contribution. The algorithm was experimentally implemented as ObjectARX application in the AutoCAD system and the test sample as the representation of the rotational part was used for verificaton.

  20. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  1. An efficient and robust 3D mesh compression based on 3D watermarking and wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrouba, Ezzeddine; Ben Jabra, Saoussen; Didi, Yosra

    2011-06-01

    The compression and watermarking of 3D meshes are very important in many areas of activity including digital cinematography, virtual reality as well as CAD design. However, most studies on 3D watermarking and 3D compression are done independently. To verify a good trade-off between protection and a fast transfer of 3D meshes, this paper proposes a new approach which combines 3D mesh compression with mesh watermarking. This combination is based on a wavelet transformation. In fact, the used compression method is decomposed to two stages: geometric encoding and topologic encoding. The proposed approach consists to insert a signature between these two stages. First, the wavelet transformation is applied to the original mesh to obtain two components: wavelets coefficients and a coarse mesh. Then, the geometric encoding is done on these two components. The obtained coarse mesh will be marked using a robust mesh watermarking scheme. This insertion into coarse mesh allows obtaining high robustness to several attacks. Finally, the topologic encoding is applied to the marked coarse mesh to obtain the compressed mesh. The combination of compression and watermarking permits to detect the presence of signature after a compression of the marked mesh. In plus, it allows transferring protected 3D meshes with the minimum size. The experiments and evaluations show that the proposed approach presents efficient results in terms of compression gain, invisibility and robustness of the signature against of many attacks.

  2. Airport Viz - a 3D Tool to Enhance Security Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In the summer of 2000, the National Safe Skies Alliance (NSSA) awarded a project to the Applied Visualization Center (AVC) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) to develop a 3D computer tool to assist the Federal Aviation Administration security group, now the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), in evaluating new equipment and procedures to improve airport checkpoint security. A preliminary tool was demonstrated at the 2001 International Aviation Security Technology Symposium. Since then, the AVC went on to construct numerous detection equipment models as well as models of several airports. Airport Viz has been distributed by the NSSA to a number of airports around the country which are able to incorporate their own CAD models into the software due to its unique open architecture. It provides a checkpoint design and passenger flow simulation function, a layout design and simulation tool for checked baggage and cargo screening, and a means to assist in the vulnerability assessment of airport access points for pedestrians and vehicles.

  3. Using Cabri3D Diagrams for Teaching Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accascina, Giuseppe; Rogora, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Cabri3D is a potentially very useful software for learning and teaching 3D geometry. The dynamic nature of the digital diagrams produced with it provides a useful aid for helping students to better develop concept images of geometric concepts. However, since any Cabri3D diagram represents three-dimensional objects on the two dimensional screen of…

  4. Interactive photogrammetric system for mapping 3D objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Dave E.

    1990-08-01

    A new system, FOTO-G, has been developed for 3D photogrammetric applications. It is a production-oriented software system designed to work with highly unconventional photogrammetric image configurations which result when photographing 3D objects. A demonstration with imagery from an actual 3D-mapping project is reported.

  5. CDMS - CAD data set management system test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, E.L.

    1994-11-01

    This document will define the system test plan for the necessary modifications made to a commercial software product that manages and controls engineering drawings. Modifications include the ability to interface with the final plotting of CAD Data Sets.

  6. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  7. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  8. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  9. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD) assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs. PMID:22373390

  10. CAD/CAM/CNC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, Dave; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Quick Start CNC (computer numerical control) with a Vacuum Filter and Laminated Plastic" (Domermuth); "School and Industry Cooperate for Mutual Benefit" (Buckler); and "CAD (computer-assisted drafting) Careers--What Professionals Have to Say" (Skinner). (JOW)

  11. Annotation and retrieval system of CAD models based on functional semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhansong; Tian, Ling; Duan, Wenrui

    2014-11-01

    CAD model retrieval based on functional semantics is more significant than content-based 3D model retrieval during the mechanical conceptual design phase. However, relevant research is still not fully discussed. Therefore, a functional semantic-based CAD model annotation and retrieval method is proposed to support mechanical conceptual design and design reuse, inspire designer creativity through existing CAD models, shorten design cycle, and reduce costs. Firstly, the CAD model functional semantic ontology is constructed to formally represent the functional semantics of CAD models and describe the mechanical conceptual design space comprehensively and consistently. Secondly, an approach to represent CAD models as attributed adjacency graphs(AAG) is proposed. In this method, the geometry and topology data are extracted from STEP models. On the basis of AAG, the functional semantics of CAD models are annotated semi-automatically by matching CAD models that contain the partial features of which functional semantics have been annotated manually, thereby constructing CAD Model Repository that supports model retrieval based on functional semantics. Thirdly, a CAD model retrieval algorithm that supports multi-function extended retrieval is proposed to explore more potential creative design knowledge in the semantic level. Finally, a prototype system, called Functional Semantic-based CAD Model Annotation and Retrieval System(FSMARS), is implemented. A case demonstrates that FSMARS can successfully botain multiple potential CAD models that conform to the desired function. The proposed research addresses actual needs and presents a new way to acquire CAD models in the mechanical conceptual design phase.

  12. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  13. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  14. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  15. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  16. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  17. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  18. Topographical surveys: Classical method versus 3D laser scanning. Case study - An application in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoraş, I.-R.; Covăsnianu, A.; Pleşu, G.; Benedict, B.

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes an experiment which took place in Iasi town, Romania, consisted in two different topographical survey techniques applied for one and the same objective placed in a block within the city (western part) - a thermal power station. The purpose was to compare those methods and to determine which one is proper to be used in this domain in terms of fastness, optimization and speed of data processing. First technique applied for our survey was the classical one, with a total station. Using the CAD technique, we obtained a final product (a dwg file) and a list of coordinates (a text file). The second method, which we focused our attention more, was the measurement with a very precise 3D laser scanstation, also very suitable in archeology. The data obtained were processed with special software. Result was a 3D model of the thermal power plant composed of measurable cloud point data. Finally, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each method, we came to the conclusion that the 3D laser scanning which we used matches well the application, in this case civil engineering, but the future of accepting and implementing this technique is in the hands of Romanian authorities.

  19. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  20. Rethinking Design Process: Using 3D Digital Models as an Interface in Collaborative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital models. The collaborative session took place in a 3D AutoCAD class for a real world project. The 3D models served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…

  1. Robust hashing for 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.

  2. Complex light in 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Christophe; Delrot, Paul; Loterie, Damien; Morales Delgado, Edgar; Modestino, Miguel; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-03-01

    3D printing as a tool to generate complicated shapes from CAD files, on demand, with different materials from plastics to metals, is shortening product development cycles, enabling new design possibilities and can provide a mean to manufacture small volumes cost effectively. There are many technologies for 3D printing and the majority uses light in the process. In one process (Multi-jet modeling, polyjet, printoptical©), a printhead prints layers of ultra-violet curable liquid plastic. Here, each nozzle deposits the material, which is then flooded by a UV curing lamp to harden it. In another process (Stereolithography), a focused UV laser beam provides both the spatial localization and the photo-hardening of the resin. Similarly, laser sintering works with metal powders by locally melting the material point by point and layer by layer. When the laser delivers ultra-fast focused pulses, nonlinear effects polymerize the material with high spatial resolution. In these processes, light is either focused in one spot and the part is made by scanning it or the light is expanded and covers a wide area for photopolymerization. Hence a fairly "simple" light field is used in both cases. Here, we give examples of how "complex light" brings additional level of complexity in 3D printing.

  3. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  4. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  5. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  6. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2010-12-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  7. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2011-05-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 μm) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  8. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  9. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  10. bioWeb3D: an online webGL 3D data visualisation tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data visualization is critical for interpreting biological data. However, in practice it can prove to be a bottleneck for non trained researchers; this is especially true for three dimensional (3D) data representation. Whilst existing software can provide all necessary functionalities to represent and manipulate biological 3D datasets, very few are easily accessible (browser based), cross platform and accessible to non-expert users. Results An online HTML5/WebGL based 3D visualisation tool has been developed to allow biologists to quickly and easily view interactive and customizable three dimensional representations of their data along with multiple layers of information. Using the WebGL library Three.js written in Javascript, bioWeb3D allows the simultaneous visualisation of multiple large datasets inputted via a simple JSON, XML or CSV file, which can be read and analysed locally thanks to HTML5 capabilities. Conclusions Using basic 3D representation techniques in a technologically innovative context, we provide a program that is not intended to compete with professional 3D representation software, but that instead enables a quick and intuitive representation of reasonably large 3D datasets. PMID:23758781

  11. Dental scanning in CAD/CAM technologies: laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Faur, Nicolae; Negru, Radu; Romînu, Mihai; Cozarov, Dalibor

    2008-02-01

    Scanning, also called digitizing, is the process of gathering the requisite data from an object. Many different technologies are used to collect three dimensional data. They range from mechanical and very slow, to radiation-based and highly-automated. Each technology has its advantages and disadvantages, and their applications and specifications overlap. The aims of this study are represented by establishing a viable method of digitally representing artifacts of dental casts, proposing a suitable scanner and post-processing software and obtaining 3D Models for the dental applications. The method is represented by the scanning procedure made by different scanners as the implicated materials. Scanners are the medium of data capture. 3D scanners aim to measure and record the relative distance between the object's surface and a known point in space. This geometric data is represented in the form of point cloud data. The contact and no contact scanners were presented. The results show that contact scanning procedures uses a touch probe to record the relative position of points on the objects' surface. This procedure is commonly used in Reverse engineering applications. Its merits are represented by efficiency for objects with low geometric surface detail. Disadvantages are represented by time consuming, this procedure being impractical for artifacts digitization. The non contact scanning procedure implies laser scanning (laser triangulation technology) and photogrammetry. As a conclusion it can be drawn that different types of dental structure needs different types of scanning procedures in order to obtain a competitive complex 3D virtual model that can be used in CAD/CAM technologies.

  12. 3-D Geometric Modeling for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Holly K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes new geometric computer models used in contemporary computer-aided design (CAD) software including wire frame, surface, solid, and parametric models. Reviews their use in engineering design and discusses the impact of these new technologies on the engineering design graphics curriculum. (Author/CCM)

  13. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  15. Maxillary ridge augmentation with custom-made CAD/CAM scaffolds. A 1-year prospective study on 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Francesco; Macchi, Aldo; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Luongo, Giuseppe; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Caprioglio, Alberto; Mangano, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Several procedures have been proposed to achieve maxillary ridge augmentation. These require bone replacement materials to be manually cut, shaped, and formed at the time of implantation, resulting in an expensive and time-consuming process. In the present study, we describe a technique for the design and fabrication of custom-made scaffolds for maxillary ridge augmentation, using three-dimensional computerized tomography (3D CT) and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). CT images of the atrophic maxillary ridge of 10 patients were acquired and modified into 3D reconstruction models. These models were transferred as stereolithographic files to a CAD program, where a virtual 3D reconstruction of the alveolar ridge was generated, producing anatomically shaped, custom-made scaffolds. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for manufacture by a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the reconstruction, starting from porous hydroxyapatite blocks. The custom-made scaffolds were of satisfactory size, shape, and appearance; they matched the defect area, suited the surgeon's requirements, and were easily implanted during surgery. This helped reduce the time for surgery and contributed to the good healing of the defects. PMID:23343341

  16. Computer Use and CAD in Assisting Schools in the Creation of Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Robert H.; Essex, Nathan

    1987-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) programs are powerful drafting tools, but are also able to assist with many other facility planning functions. Describes the hardware, software, and the learning process that led to understanding the CAD software at the University of Alabama. (MLF)

  17. The 3D Radiation Dose Analysis For Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenbo; Lin, Guocheng; Chen, Guozhen; Liu, Xia

    2002-01-01

    hence, it is too simple to guide satellite radiation protection and ground experiments only based on the 1D radiation analysis results. To comprehend the radiation dose status of satellite adequately, it's essential to perform 3D radiation analysis for satellites. using computer software. From this 3D layout, the satellite model can be simplified appropriately. First select the point to be analyzed in the simplified satellite model, and extend many lines to the outside space, which divides the 4 space into many corresponding small areas with a certain solid angle. Then the shielding masses through the satellite equipment and structures along each direction are calculated, resulting in the shielding mass distribution in all space directions based on the satellite layout. Finally, using the relationship between radiation dose and shielding thickness from the 1D analysis, calculate the radiation dose in each area represented by each line. After we obtain the radiation dose and its space distribution for the point of interest, the 3D satellite radiation analysis is completed. radiation analysis based on satellite 3D CAD layout has larger benefit for engineering applications than the 1D analysis based on the solid sphere shielding model. With the 3D model, the analysis of space environment and its effect is combined closely with actual satellite engineering. The 3D radiation analysis not only provides valuable engineering data for satellite radiation design and protection, but also provides possibility to apply new radiation protection approaches, which expands technology horizon and broadens ways for technology development.

  18. Interior Reconstruction Using the 3d Hough Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, R.-C.; Borrmann, D.; Nüchter, A.

    2013-02-01

    Laser scanners are often used to create accurate 3D models of buildings for civil engineering purposes, but the process of manually vectorizing a 3D point cloud is time consuming and error-prone (Adan and Huber, 2011). Therefore, the need to characterize and quantify complex environments in an automatic fashion arises, posing challenges for data analysis. This paper presents a system for 3D modeling by detecting planes in 3D point clouds, based on which the scene is reconstructed at a high architectural level through removing automatically clutter and foreground data. The implemented software detects openings, such as windows and doors and completes the 3D model by inpainting.

  19. Refocusing CAD and CAE on O and M

    SciTech Connect

    Podczerwinski, C.A.; Wittenauer, J.P.; Irish, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    In the late 1980s, computer-aided design (CAD) software started to migrate from larger computer equipment to personal computers. Since then, competition in the desktop computer market transformed the personal computer (PC) into an office equipment commodity. The technological improvements accompanying that change transformed CAD from an expensive, specialized tool to an office software commodity that is a graphical counterpart to the word processor. The cost reductions and performance improvements have made many application concepts, previously too cumbersome to apply, cost effective and helpful. Applying these ideas has increased the level of CAD usage in their offices dramatically. Part of that growth has been an increasing number of projects directly aimed at helping reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs. This paper describes those projects and discusses the application of CAD to O and M work.

  20. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  1. The VE/CAD synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, R.B.

    1993-03-19

    Value Engineering (VE) and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) can be used synergistically to reduce costs and improve facilities designs. The cost and schedule impacts of implementing alternative design ideas developed by VE teams can be greatly reduced when the drawings have been produced with interactive CAD systems. To better understand the interrelationship between VE and CAD, the fundamentals of the VE process are explained; and example of a VE proposal is described and the way CAD drawings facilitated its implementation is illustrated.

  2. A specification of 3D manipulation in virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S. Augustine; Furuta, Richard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the modeling of three basic kinds of 3-D manipulations in the context of a logical hand device and our virtual panel architecture. The logical hand device is a useful software abstraction representing hands in virtual environments. The virtual panel architecture is the 3-D component of the 2-D window systems. Both of the abstractions are intended to form the foundation for adaptable 3-D manipulation.

  3. Full 3D microwave quasi-holographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Juan-Carlos; Tardivel, Francois

    A full 3D quasi-holographic image processing technique developed by ONERA is described. A complex backscattering coefficient of a drone scale model was measured for discrete values of the 3D backscattered wave vector in a frequency range between 4.5-8 GHz. The 3D image processing is implemented on a HP 1000 mini-computer and will be part of LASER 2 software to be used in three RCS measurement indoor facilities.

  4. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  5. Scalable Multi-Platform Distribution of Spatial 3d Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimke, J.; Hagedorn, B.; Döllner, J.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models provide powerful user interfaces for communication of 2D and 3D geoinformation. Providing high quality visualization of massive 3D geoinformation in a scalable, fast, and cost efficient manner is still a challenging task. Especially for mobile and web-based system environments, software and hardware configurations of target systems differ significantly. This makes it hard to provide fast, visually appealing renderings of 3D data throughout a variety of platforms and devices. Current mobile or web-based solutions for 3D visualization usually require raw 3D scene data such as triangle meshes together with textures delivered from server to client, what makes them strongly limited in terms of size and complexity of the models they can handle. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for provisioning of massive, virtual 3D city models on different platforms namely web browsers, smartphones or tablets, by means of an interactive map assembled from artificial oblique image tiles. The key concept is to synthesize such images of a virtual 3D city model by a 3D rendering service in a preprocessing step. This service encapsulates model handling and 3D rendering techniques for high quality visualization of massive 3D models. By generating image tiles using this service, the 3D rendering process is shifted from the client side, which provides major advantages: (a) The complexity of the 3D city model data is decoupled from data transfer complexity (b) the implementation of client applications is simplified significantly as 3D rendering is encapsulated on server side (c) 3D city models can be easily deployed for and used by a large number of concurrent users, leading to a high degree of scalability of the overall approach. All core 3D rendering techniques are performed on a dedicated 3D rendering server, and thin-client applications can be compactly implemented for various devices and platforms.

  6. 3D TRUMP - A GBI launch window tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karels, Steven N.; Hancock, John; Matchett, Gary

    3D TRUMP is a novel GPS and communicatons-link software analysis tool developed for the SDIO's Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI) program. 3D TRUMP uses a computationally efficient analysis tool which provides key GPS-based performance measures for an entire GBI mission's reentry vehicle and interceptor trajectories. Algorithms and sample outputs are presented.

  7. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  8. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark.

    SciTech Connect

    Domm, T.C.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-10-13

    The Benchmark Project was created from a desire to identify best practices and improve the overall efficiency and performance of the Y-12 Plant's systems and personnel supporting the manufacturing mission. The mission of the benchmark team was to search out industry leaders in manufacturing and evaluate their engineering practices and processes to determine direction and focus for Y-12 modernization efforts. The companies visited included several large established companies and a new, small, high-tech machining firm. As a result of this effort, changes are recommended that will enable Y-12 to become a more modern, responsive, cost-effective manufacturing facility capable of supporting the needs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) into the 21st century. The benchmark team identified key areas of interest, both focused and general. The focus areas included Human Resources, Information Management, Manufacturing Software Tools, and Standards/Policies and Practices. Areas of general interest included Infrastructure, Computer Platforms and Networking, and Organizational Structure. The results of this benchmark showed that all companies are moving in the direction of model-based engineering and manufacturing. There was evidence that many companies are trying to grasp how to manage current and legacy data. In terms of engineering design software tools, the companies contacted were somewhere between 3-D solid modeling and surfaced wire-frame models. The manufacturing computer tools were varied, with most companies using more than one software product to generate machining data and none currently performing model-based manufacturing (MBM) from a common model. The majority of companies were closer to identifying or using a single computer-aided design (CAD) system than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Internet was a technology that all companies were looking to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for

  9. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  10. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Domm, T.D.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-04-26

    The Benehmark Project was created from a desire to identify best practices and improve the overall efficiency and performance of the Y-12 Plant's systems and personnel supprting the manufacturing mission. The mission of the benchmark team was to search out industry leaders in manufacturing and evaluate lheir engineering practices and processes to determine direction and focus fm Y-12 modmizadon efforts. The companies visited included several large established companies and anew, small, high-tech machining firm. As a result of this efforL changes are recommended that will enable Y-12 to become a more responsive cost-effective manufacturing facility capable of suppordng the needs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NW@) and Work Fw Others into the 21' century. The benchmark team identified key areas of interest, both focused and gencml. The focus arm included Human Resources, Information Management, Manufacturing Software Tools, and Standarda/ Policies and Practices. Areas of general interest included Inhstructure, Computer Platforms and Networking, and Organizational Structure. The method for obtaining the desired information in these areas centered on the creation of a benchmark questionnaire. The questionnaire was used throughout each of the visits as the basis for information gathering. The results of this benchmark showed that all companies are moving in the direction of model-based engineering and manufacturing. There was evidence that many companies are trying to grasp how to manage current and legacy data. In terms of engineering design software tools, the companies contacted were using both 3-D solid modeling and surfaced Wire-frame models. The manufacturing computer tools were varie4 with most companies using more than one software product to generate machining data and none currently performing model-based manufacturing (MBM) ftom a common medel. The majority of companies were closer to identifying or using a single computer-aided design (CAD) system than a

  11. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  12. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    projection in the high-latitude ionosphere. EISCAT_3D can also be used to study solar system properties. Thanks to the high power and great accuracy, mapping of objects like the Moon and asteroids is possible. With the high power and large antenna aperture, incoherent scatter radars can be extraordinarily good monitors of extraterrestrial dust and its interaction with the atmosphere. Although incoherent scatter radars, such as EISCAT_3D, are few in number, the power and versatility of their measurement technique mean that they can measure parameters which are not obtainable otherwise, and thus also be a cornerstone in the international efforts to measure and predict space weather effects. Finally, over the years the EISCAT radars have served as a testbed for new ideas in radar coding and data analysis. EISCAT_3D will be the first of a new generation of "software radars" whose advanced capabilities will be realised not by its hardware but by the flexibility and adaptability of the scheduling, beam-forming, signal processing and analysis software used to control the radar and process its data. Thus, new techniques will be developed into standard observing applications for implementation in the next generation of software radars.

  13. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  14. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  15. The Subsurface 3D Modelling of the Handeresi (Kalkim-Canakkale) Area, NW of Turkey, Pb-Zn-Cu Ore Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiska, Sinan; Sayili, Ä.°. Sönmez; Demirela, Gökhan

    2010-05-01

    A number of 3D softwares are available for subsurface modelling. Some of the complete 3D softwares are GoCAD, LYNX, TECHBASE, VULCAN, GeoBLOCK, MVS, MICROMINE and RockWorks. These softwares have their own merits and demerits. RockWorks, one of these softwares, has efficient data management capabilities. It facilitates easy entry of different types of subsurface data such as lithological, geophysical, and geochemical data. It has a simple and well organised structure to handle these data. As a result, it takes comparatively less time to develop a model. Therefore, this software is selected for this research. The topographic map of the studied area, which has been digitized before, worked up into 3D topographic surface modelling by the aid of RockWorks2006 software. After this modelling, the 25 borehole data which has been taken from the MTA's (General Directorate of Mineral Research & Exploration of Turkey) boreholes were input the software. Firstly, the ore zones in the subsurface modeled with solid modelling. But, because of the boreholes numbers were not enough, it's arguable that the accuracy of the areas modelling which has been outside of the boreholes. In this case, with the aim of supporting the modelling more, %Pb, %Zn, and %Cu data were input the software and the distribution of these elements in the subsurface were 3D modeled. The values of these elements were modeled with the cut off grades which have %Pb≥7, %Zn≥4, and %Cu≥0.3 values and this model was superposed with ore subsurface solid model. Finally, the intersecting areas were marked. As a result, there were two ore zones which have seen intensively in this area. One of them indicates the area in which the galleries are operated now. The other one comes across the area in which has been never operated. By the help of this modelling, the new ore zone has been determined which had not been detected before. The only deficiency of this modelling is the structural factors could not be reflected to

  16. Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A NASA contractor and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) participant has converted its research into commercial software products for auto design, structural analysis and other applications. ViGYAN, Inc., utilizing the aeronautical research principle of computational fluid dynamics, has created - with VGRID3D and VPLOT3D - an easier alternative to conventional structured grids for fluid dynamic calculations.

  17. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  18. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  19. LLNL-Earth3D

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  20. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  1. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  2. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  3. CAD-centric Computation Management System for a Virtual TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakanth Munipalli; K.Y. Szema; P.Y. Huang; C.M. Rowell; A.Ying; M. Abdou

    2011-05-03

    HyPerComp Inc. in research collaboration with TEXCEL has set out to build a Virtual Test Blanket Module (VTBM) computational system to address the need in contemporary fusion research for simulating the integrated behavior of the blanket, divertor and plasma facing components in a fusion environment. Physical phenomena to be considered in a VTBM will include fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, neutronics, structural mechanics and electromagnetics. We seek to integrate well established (third-party) simulation software in various disciplines mentioned above. The integrated modeling process will enable user groups to interoperate using a common modeling platform at various stages of the analysis. Since CAD is at the core of the simulation (as opposed to computational meshes which are different for each problem,) VTBM will have a well developed CAD interface, governing CAD model editing, cleanup, parameter extraction, model deformation (based on simulation,) CAD-based data interpolation. In Phase-I, we built the CAD-hub of the proposed VTBM and demonstrated its use in modeling a liquid breeder blanket module with coupled MHD and structural mechanics using HIMAG and ANSYS. A complete graphical user interface of the VTBM was created, which will form the foundation of any future development. Conservative data interpolation via CAD (as opposed to mesh-based transfer), the regeneration of CAD models based upon computed deflections, are among the other highlights of phase-I activity.

  4. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  5. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  6. Inspection of 3D parts using high accuracy range data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Flavio; Lepage, Richard; Boulanger, Pierre; Redarce, Tanneguy

    2000-03-01

    The use of a laser range sensor in the 3D part digitalization process for inspection tasks allows very significant improvement in acquisition speed and in 3D measurement points density but does not equal the accuracy obtained with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Inspection consists in verifying the accuracy of a part related to a given set of tolerances. It is thus necessary that the 3D measurements be accurate. In the 3D capture of a part, several sources of error can alter the measured values. So, we have to find and model the most influent parameters affecting the accuracy of the range sensor in the digitalization process. This model is used to produce a sensing plan to acquire completely and accurately the geometry of a part. The sensing plan is composed of the set of viewpoints which defines the exact position and orientation of the camera relative to the part. The 3D cloud obtained from the sensing plan is registered with the CAD model of the part and then segmented according to the different surfaces. Segmentation results are used to check tolerances of the part. By using the noise model, we introduce a dispersion value for each 3D point acquired according to the sensing plan. This value of dispersion is shown as a weight factor in the inspection results.

  7. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  8. Advanced optical system simulation in a coupled CAD/optical analysis package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Michael A.; Campillo, Chris J.; Jenkins, David G.

    1999-05-01

    Software packages capable of simulating complex optical systems have the power to shorten the design process for non-imaging illumination, projection display, and other imaging illumination systems, Breault Research Organization's Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) and Robert McNeel and Associates' Rhinoceros computer aided design software, together, allow complicated optical systems to be simulated and analyzed. Through the use of Rhinoceros, an optical system can be accurately modeled in a 3D design environment. ASAP is then used to assign optical properties to the Rhinoceros CAD model. After the optical system has been characterized, it can be analyzed and optimized, by way of features specific to the ASAP optical analysis engine. Using this simulation technique, an HID arc source manufactured by Ushio America, Inc. is accurately represented. 2D CCD images are gathered for the source's emitting-volume across its spectral bandwidth. The images are processed within ASAP, via the inverse Abel command, to produce a 3D emitting-volume. This emitting-volume is combined with an accurate model of the source geometry and its optical properties, to finalize a functioning virtual source model. The characterized source is then joined with a simulated optical system for detailed performance analysis: namely, a projection display system.

  9. Development to integrate conceptual design tools and a CAD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, V. H.; Ríos, J.; Vizán, A.; Pérez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The information supported by PLM/CAD systems is mainly related to Embodiment and Detail Design Phases. Information related to the Conceptual Design Phase is mainly limited to requirement specification documents and system architecture diagram documents. This work aims helping in the integration of the Conceptual Design process and its associated information flow into a commercial software system. It proposes a development framework to integrate Quality Function Deployment, Axiomatic Design, and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis into a PLM/CAD system. This communication presents the methodology used in the development, the software development environment, the modeling of the proposed application and the first results of a pilot implementation.

  10. Meshing Preprocessor for the Mesoscopic 3D Finite Element Simulation of 2D and Interlock Fabric Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.

  11. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  12. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  13. 3D Finite Element Trajectory Code with Adaptive Meshing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Bauer, Andy; Shephard, Mark; Beal, Mark; Tran, Hien

    2004-11-01

    Beam Optics Analysis, a new, 3D charged particle program is available and in use for the design of complex, 3D electron guns and charged particle devices. The code reads files directly from most CAD and solid modeling programs, includes an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI), and a robust mesh generator that is fully automatic. Complex problems can be set up, and analysis initiated in minutes. The program includes a user-friendly post processor for displaying field and trajectory data using 3D plots and images. The electrostatic solver is based on the standard nodal finite element method. The magnetostatic field solver is based on the vector finite element method and is also called during the trajectory simulation process to solve for self magnetic fields. The user imports the geometry from essentially any commercial CAD program and uses the GUI to assign parameters (voltages, currents, dielectric constant) and designate emitters (including work function, emitter temperature, and number of trajectories). The the mesh is generated automatically and analysis is performed, including mesh adaptation to improve accuracy and optimize computational resources. This presentation will provide information on the basic structure of the code, its operation, and it's capabilities.

  14. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  15. Computerized design of CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, B. E.; Pham, T. A.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized ballistic design technique for CAD/PAD is described by which a set of ballistic design parameters are determined, all of which satisfy a particular performance requirement. In addition, the program yields the remaining performance predictions, so that only a very few computer runs of the design program can quickly bring the ballistic design within the specification limits prescribed. An example is presented for a small propulsion device, such as a remover or actuator, for which the input specifications define a maximum allowable thrust and minimum end-of-stroke velocity. The resulting output automatically satisfies the input requirements, and will always yield an acceptable ballistic design.

  16. Research on the key technologies of 3D spatial data organization and management for virtual building environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jun; Zhu, Qing

    2006-10-01

    As the special case of VGE in the fields of AEC (architecture, engineering and construction), Virtual Building Environment (VBE) has been broadly concerned. Highly complex, large-scale 3d spatial data is main bottleneck of VBE applications, so 3d spatial data organization and management certainly becomes the core technology for VBE. This paper puts forward 3d spatial data model for VBE, and the performance to implement it is very high. Inherent storage method of CAD data makes data redundant, and doesn't concern efficient visualization, which is a practical bottleneck to integrate CAD model, so An Efficient Method to Integrate CAD Model Data is put forward. Moreover, Since the 3d spatial indices based on R-tree are usually limited by their weakness of low efficiency due to the severe overlap of sibling nodes and the uneven size of nodes, a new node-choosing algorithm of R-tree are proposed.

  17. 3D printed polymers toxicity profiling: a caution for biodevice applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Skommer, Joanna; Friedrich, Timo; Kaslin, Jan; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    A recent revolution in additive manufacturing technologies and access to 3D Computer Assisted Design (CAD) software has spurred an explosive growth of new technologies in biomedical engineering. This includes biomodels for diagnosis, surgical training, hard and soft tissue replacement, biodevices and tissue engineering. Moreover, recent developments in high-definition additive manufacturing systems such as Multi-Jet Modelling (MJM) and Stereolithography (SLA), capable of reproducing feature sizes close to 100 μm, promise brand new capabilities in fabrication of optical-grade biomicrofluidic Lab-on-a-Chip and MEMS devices. Compared with other rapid prototyping technologies such as soft lithography and infrared laser micromachining in PMMA, SLA and MJM systems can enable user-friendly production of prototypes, superior feature reproduction quality and comparable levels of optical transparency. Prospectively they can revolutionize fabrication of microfluidic devices with complex geometric features and eliminate the need to use clean room environment and conventional microfabrication techniques. In this work we demonstrate preliminary data on toxicity profiling of a panel of common polymers used in 3D printing applications. The main motivation of our work was to evaluate toxicity profiles of most commonly used polymers using standardized biotests according to OECD guidelines for testing of chemic risk assessment. Our work for the first time provides a multispecies view of potential dangers and limitation for building biocompatible devices using FDM, SLA and MJM additive manufacturing systems. Our work shows that additive manufacturing holds significant promise for fabricating LOC and MEMS but requires caution when selecting systems and polymers due to toxicity exhibited by some 3D printing polymers.

  18. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  19. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  20. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  1. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  2. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  3. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  4. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  8. Identifying novel sequence variants of RNA 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zirbel, Craig L.; Roll, James; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Pirrung, Meg; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting RNA 3D structure from sequence is a major challenge in biophysics. An important sub-goal is accurately identifying recurrent 3D motifs from RNA internal and hairpin loop sequences extracted from secondary structure (2D) diagrams. We have developed and validated new probabilistic models for 3D motif sequences based on hybrid Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Markov Random Fields (SCFG/MRF). The SCFG/MRF models are constructed using atomic-resolution RNA 3D structures. To parameterize each model, we use all instances of each motif found in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas and annotations of pairwise nucleotide interactions generated by the FR3D software. Isostericity relations between non-Watson–Crick basepairs are used in scoring sequence variants. SCFG techniques model nested pairs and insertions, while MRF ideas handle crossing interactions and base triples. We use test sets of randomly-generated sequences to set acceptance and rejection thresholds for each motif group and thus control the false positive rate. Validation was carried out by comparing results for four motif groups to RMDetect. The software developed for sequence scoring (JAR3D) is structured to automatically incorporate new motifs as they accumulate in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas when new structures are solved and is available free for download. PMID:26130723

  9. Identifying novel sequence variants of RNA 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Zirbel, Craig L; Roll, James; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Pirrung, Meg; Leontis, Neocles B

    2015-09-01

    Predicting RNA 3D structure from sequence is a major challenge in biophysics. An important sub-goal is accurately identifying recurrent 3D motifs from RNA internal and hairpin loop sequences extracted from secondary structure (2D) diagrams. We have developed and validated new probabilistic models for 3D motif sequences based on hybrid Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Markov Random Fields (SCFG/MRF). The SCFG/MRF models are constructed using atomic-resolution RNA 3D structures. To parameterize each model, we use all instances of each motif found in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas and annotations of pairwise nucleotide interactions generated by the FR3D software. Isostericity relations between non-Watson-Crick basepairs are used in scoring sequence variants. SCFG techniques model nested pairs and insertions, while MRF ideas handle crossing interactions and base triples. We use test sets of randomly-generated sequences to set acceptance and rejection thresholds for each motif group and thus control the false positive rate. Validation was carried out by comparing results for four motif groups to RMDetect. The software developed for sequence scoring (JAR3D) is structured to automatically incorporate new motifs as they accumulate in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas when new structures are solved and is available free for download. PMID:26130723

  10. TRAD or CAD? A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resetarits, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Studies whether traditional drafting equipment (TRAD) or computer aided drafting equipment (CAD) is more effective. Proposes that students using only CAD can learn principles of drafting as well as students using only TRAD. Reports no significant difference either on achievement or attitude. (MVL)

  11. CAD/CAM data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  12. A CAD approach to magnetic bearing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeyaseelan, M.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A design methodology has been developed at the Magnetic Bearing Research Laboratory for designing magnetic bearings using a CAD approach. This is used in the algorithm of an interactive design software package. The package is a design tool developed to enable the designer to simulate the entire process of design and analysis of the system. Its capabilities include interactive input/modification of geometry, finding any possible saturation at critical sections of the system, and the design and analysis of a control system that stabilizes and maintains magnetic suspension.

  13. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. Advanced Data Visualization in Astrophysics: The X3D Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Owen, Chris I.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-02-01

    Most modern astrophysical data sets are multi-dimensional; a characteristic that can nowadays generally be conserved and exploited scientifically during the data reduction/simulation and analysis cascades. However, the same multi-dimensional data sets are systematically cropped, sliced, and/or projected to printable two-dimensional diagrams at the publication stage. In this article, we introduce the concept of the “X3D pathway” as a mean of simplifying and easing the access to data visualization and publication via three-dimensional (3D) diagrams. The X3D pathway exploits the facts that (1) the X3D 3D file format lies at the center of a product tree that includes interactive HTML documents, 3D printing, and high-end animations, and (2) all high-impact-factor and peer-reviewed journals in astrophysics are now published (some exclusively) online. We argue that the X3D standard is an ideal vector for sharing multi-dimensional data sets because it provides direct access to a range of different data visualization techniques, is fully open source, and is a well-defined standard from the International Organization for Standardization. Unlike other earlier propositions to publish multi-dimensional data sets via 3D diagrams, the X3D pathway is not tied to specific software (prone to rapid and unexpected evolution), but instead is compatible with a range of open-source software already in use by our community. The interactive HTML branch of the X3D pathway is also actively supported by leading peer-reviewed journals in the field of astrophysics. Finally, this article provides interested readers with a detailed set of practical astrophysical examples designed to act as a stepping stone toward the implementation of the X3D pathway for any other data set.

  17. Framework for quantitative evaluation of 3D vessel segmentation approaches using vascular phantoms in conjunction with 3D landmark localization and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörz, Stefan; Hoegen, Philipp; Liao, Wei; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Rohr, Karl

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a framework for quantitative evaluation of 3D vessel segmentation approaches using vascular phantoms. Phantoms are designed using a CAD system and created with a 3D printer, and comprise realistic shapes including branches and pathologies such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). To transfer ground truth information to the 3D image coordinate system, we use a landmark-based registration scheme utilizing fiducial markers integrated in the phantom design. For accurate 3D localization of the markers we developed a novel 3D parametric intensity model that is directly fitted to the markers in the images. We also performed a quantitative evaluation of different vessel segmentation approaches for a phantom of an AAA.

  18. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  19. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  20. I-125 ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: Validation of a commercial 3D ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent dose calculation software with GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Poder, Joel; Corde, Stéphanie

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions for different Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services, Australia (ROPES) type eye plaques loaded with I-125 (model 6711) seeds using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films, in order to verify the dose distributions in the Plaque Simulator™ (PS) ophthalmic 3D treatment planning system. The brachytherapy module of RADCALC{sup ®} was used to independently check the dose distributions calculated by PS. Correction factors were derived from the measured data to be used in PS to account for the effect of the stainless steel ROPES plaque backing on the 3D dose distribution.Methods: Using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films inserted in a specially designed Solid Water™ eye ball phantom, dose distributions were measured three-dimensionally both along and perpendicular to I-125 (model 6711) loaded ROPES eye plaque's central axis (CAX) with 2 mm depth increments. Each measurement was performed in full scatter conditions both with and without the stainless steel plaque backing attached to the eye plaque, to assess its effect on the dose distributions. Results were compared to the dose distributions calculated by Plaque Simulator™ and checked independently with RADCALC{sup ®}.Results: The EBT3 film measurements without the stainless steel backing were found to agree with PS and RADCALC{sup ®} to within 2% and 4%, respectively, on the plaque CAX. Also, RADCALC{sup ®} was found to agree with PS to within 2%. The CAX depth doses measured using EBT3 film with the stainless steel backing were observed to result in a 4% decrease relative to when the backing was not present. Within experimental uncertainty, the 4% decrease was found to be constant with depth and independent of plaque size. Using a constant dose correction factor of T= 0.96 in PS, where the calculated dose for the full water scattering medium is reduced by 4% in every voxel in the dose grid, the effect of the plaque backing was accurately

  1. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics.

    PubMed

    Patrick, William G; Nielsen, Alec A K; Keating, Steven J; Levy, Taylor J; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A; Voigt, Christopher A; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts-DNA assembly-is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  2. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Nielsen, Alec A. K.; Keating, Steven J.; Levy, Taylor J.; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J.; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts—DNA assembly—is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  3. Two Eyes, 3D: Stereoscopic Design Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Subbarao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two Eyes, 3D is a NSF-funded research project about how people perceive highly spatial objects when shown with 2D or stereoscopic ("3D") representations. As part of the project, we produced a short film about SN 2011fe. The high definition film has been rendered in both 2D and stereoscopic formats. It was developed according to a set of stereoscopic design principles we derived from the literature and past experience producing and studying stereoscopic films. Study participants take a pre- and post-test that involves a spatial cognition assessment and scientific knowledge questions about Type-1a supernovae. For the evaluation, participants use iPads in order to record spatial manipulation of the device and look for elements of embodied cognition. We will present early results and also describe the stereoscopic design principles and the rationale behind them. All of our content and software is available under open source licenses. More information is at www.twoeyes3d.org.

  4. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  5. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-03

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  6. Joint 3d Estimation of Vehicles and Scene Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menze, M.; Heipke, C.; Geiger, A.

    2015-08-01

    driving. While much progress has been made in recent years, imaging conditions in natural outdoor environments are still very challenging for current reconstruction and recognition methods. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach which reasons jointly about 3D scene flow as well as the pose, shape and motion of vehicles in the scene. Towards this goal, we incorporate a deformable CAD model into a slanted-plane conditional random field for scene flow estimation and enforce shape consistency between the rendered 3D models and the parameters of all superpixels in the image. The association of superpixels to objects is established by an index variable which implicitly enables model selection. We evaluate our approach on the challenging KITTI scene flow dataset in terms of object and scene flow estimation. Our results provide a prove of concept and demonstrate the usefulness of our method.

  7. Beam Optics Analysis — An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  8. Virtual VMASC: A 3D Game Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manepalli, Suchitra; Shen, Yuzhong; Garcia, Hector M.; Lawsure, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    The advantages of creating interactive 3D simulations that allow viewing, exploring, and interacting with land improvements, such as buildings, in digital form are manifold and range from allowing individuals from anywhere in the world to explore those virtual land improvements online, to training military personnel in dealing with war-time environments, and to making those land improvements available in virtual worlds such as Second Life. While we haven't fully explored the true potential of such simulations, we have identified a requirement within our organization to use simulations like those to replace our front-desk personnel and allow visitors to query, naVigate, and communicate virtually with various entities within the building. We implemented the Virtual VMASC 3D simulation of the Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) office building to not only meet our front-desk requirement but also to evaluate the effort required in designing such a simulation and, thereby, leverage the experience we gained in future projects of this kind. This paper describes the goals we set for our implementation, the software approach taken, the modeling contribution made, and the technologies used such as XNA Game Studio, .NET framework, Autodesk software packages, and, finally, the applicability of our implementation on a variety of architectures including Xbox 360 and PC. This paper also summarizes the result of our evaluation and the lessons learned from our effort.

  9. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  10. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  11. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  12. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology

  13. A lithostratigraphic geo-archaeological 3D model of the subsurface of a medieval mound in the city center of Vlaardingen (The Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roozen, Stan; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Soetens, Steven

    2013-04-01

    GSI3D modeling for archaeology A lithostratigraphic geo-archaeological 3D model of the subsurface of a medieval mound in the city center of Vlaardingen (The Netherlands). EGU 2013 Vienna Stan Roozen (UvA), Sjoerd Kluiving (VU), Steven Soetens (VU) In the medieval mound in the city centre of Vlaardingen, in the Netherlands , archaeological material is remarkably well preserved. It is remarkable because this elevated location has a high degree of humidity, which must remain intact to sustain the favourable conditions of the archaeology. For that reason, the centre of the city was cored when and where possible, and subsequently its archaeology and lithostratigraphy was modelled in 3D. In this presentation we demonstrate the difficulties and methodological restraints in 3D modelling to come to a workable method and future prospects. The municipality of Vlaardingen lies north of the Nieuwe Maas in the province of Zuid Holland close to the coast. It is one of the oldest Dutch urban areas known in Holland. The project makes use of coring (n=72), cone penetration test (n=127), C-dating, archaeological and paleogeographic data in order to create interpretative profiles containing both archaeological and lithostratigraphic layers in the mound and its broader context. With the available university's licence of ArcGIS 3D modeling is possible (ArcScene), but it is not an efficient subsurface software, while most ideal 3D software for such project (such as i.e. Petrol, GoCAD, Rockworks) are beyond archaeological budgetary limits. The most ideal software in our context was GSI3D (a software provided by the British Geological survey). Though it strictly is not a 3D model software (there are no 3D interpolation algorithms), it has the advantage that the user can interfere directly in the interpolation by using the profiles as a framework and by defining the extent of each layer. The following methodology is applied: • Based on depth information of coring and cone penetration

  14. USM3D Predictions of Supersonic Nozzle Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System CFD code (USM3D) capability to predict supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004 and 2009, investigated USM3D's results versus historical experimental data. This current study continued that comparison however focusing on the use of the volume souring to capture the shear layers and internal shock structure of the plume. This study was conducted using two benchmark axisymmetric supersonic jet experimental data sets. The study showed that with the use of volume sourcing, USM3D was able to capture and model a jet plume's shear layer and internal shock structure.

  15. S3D: An interactive surface grid generation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David

    1992-01-01

    S3D, an interactive software tool for surface grid generation, is described. S3D provides the means with which a geometry definition based either on a discretized curve set or a rectangular set can be quickly processed towards the generation of a surface grid for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. This is made possible as a result of implementing commonly encountered surface gridding tasks in an environment with a highly efficient and user friendly graphical interface. Some of the more advanced features of S3D include surface-surface intersections, optimized surface domain decomposition and recomposition, and automated propagation of edge distributions to surrounding grids.

  16. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  17. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  18. Met.3D - a new open-source tool for interactive 3D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Kern, Michael; Schäfler, Andreas; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    We introduce Met.3D, a new open-source tool for the interactive 3D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, however, is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output -- 3D visualisation, ensemble visualization, and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3D context. It implements methods that address the issue of spatial perception in the 3D view as well as approaches to using the ensemble in order to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to the Met.3D approach. The tool uses modern graphics hardware technology to achieve interactive visualization of present-day numerical weather prediction datasets on standard consumer hardware. Met.3D supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and operates directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the software --illustrated with short video examples--, and give information on its availability.

  19. Technical Note: Immunohistochemical evaluation of mouse brain irradiation targeting accuracy with 3D-printed immobilization device

    SciTech Connect

    Zarghami, Niloufar Jensen, Michael D.; Talluri, Srikanth; Dick, Frederick A.; Foster, Paula J.; Chambers, Ann F.; Wong, Eugene

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Small animal immobilization devices facilitate positioning of animals for reproducible imaging and accurate focal radiation therapy. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to fabricate a custom-designed mouse head restraint. The authors evaluate the accuracy of this device for the purpose of mouse brain irradiation. Methods: A mouse head holder was designed for a microCT couch using CAD software and printed in an acrylic based material. Ten mice received half-brain radiation while positioned in the 3D-printed head holder. Animal placement was achieved using on-board image guidance and computerized asymmetric collimators. To evaluate the precision of beam localization for half-brain irradiation, mice were sacrificed approximately 30 min after treatment and brain sections were stained for γ-H2AX, a marker for DNA breaks. The distance and angle of the γ-H2AX radiation beam border to longitudinal fissure were measured on histological samples. Animals were monitored for any possible trauma from the device. Results: Visualization of the radiation beam on ex vivo brain sections with γ-H2AX immunohistochemical staining showed a sharp radiation field within the tissue. Measurements showed a mean irradiation targeting error of 0.14 ± 0.09 mm (standard deviation). Rotation between the beam axis and mouse head was 1.2° ± 1.0° (standard deviation). The immobilization device was easily adjusted to accommodate different sizes of mice. No signs of trauma to the mice were observed from the use of tooth block and ear bars. Conclusions: The authors designed and built a novel 3D-printed mouse head holder with many desired features for accurate and reproducible radiation targeting. The 3D printing technology was found to be practical and economical for producing a small animal imaging and radiation restraint device and allows for customization for study specific needs.

  20. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  1. 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, B. R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the innovative use of Blender, a 3D graphics package, for astronomical visualization. With a Python API and feature rich interface, Blender lends itself well to many 3D data visualization scenarios including data cube rendering, N-body simulations, catalog displays, and surface maps. We focus on the aspects of the software most useful to astronomers such as visual data exploration, applying data to Blender object constructs, and using graphics processing units (GPUs) for rendering. We share examples from both observational data and theoretical models to illustrate how the software can fit into an astronomer's toolkit.

  2. Impact of IPAD on CAD/CAM database university research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, L. M.; Wozny, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    IPAD program has provided direction, focus and software products which impacted on CAD/CAM data base research and follow-on research. The relationship of IPAD to the research projects which involve the storage of geometric data in common data ase facilities such as data base machines, the exchange of data between heterogeneous data bases, the development of IGES processors, the migration of lrge CAD/CAM data base management systems to noncompatible hosts, and the value of RIM as a research tool is described.

  3. From 3D Scanning to Analytical Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaich, M.

    During the last few years, the number of historical and archaeological items recorded using innovative, three dimensional surveying technologies has increased considerably. Comprehensive digital, photo-realistic 3D recording and modelling yields a huge range of new possibilities for documenting, analysing and safeguarding items of cultural importance. ArcTron GmbH has specialised in electronic surveying and the development of CAD and database information systems for heritage and archaeology for over 12 years employing total stations, laser pantographs and photogrammetry, as well as a variety of laser scanning systems, to generate 3D recordings. Innovative complementary combinations of these technologies allow their respective strengths to be fully exploited. The data resulting from recording techniques of these kinds can be used as a basis for producing documentation of outstanding quality. 3D digital models with photo-realistic texturing, orthophotos, coloured point clouds, 3D damage mapping, rapid prototyping models and multi-media presentations are just some of the potential resulting forms of documentation. Historical monuments and items ranging from huge sections of terrain down to the smallest artefact can be reproduced with such accuracy and to such a high level of realism that documentation of this kind is not only extremely useful for archaeologists, conservators and architectural historians etc. but practically indispensable.

  4. Distributed 3D Information Visualization - Towards Integration of the Dynamic 3D Graphics and Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucinic, Dean; Deen, Danny; Oanta, Emil; Batarilo, Zvonimir; Lacor, Chris

    This paper focuses on visualization and manipulation of graphical content in distributed network environments. The developed graphical middleware and 3D desktop prototypes were specialized for situational awareness. This research was done in the LArge Scale COllaborative decision support Technology (LASCOT) project, which explored and combined software technologies to support human-centred decision support system for crisis management (earthquake, tsunami, flooding, airplane or oil-tanker incidents, chemical, radio-active or other pollutants spreading, etc.). The performed state-of-the-art review did not identify any publicly available large scale distributed application of this kind. Existing proprietary solutions rely on the conventional technologies and 2D representations. Our challenge was to apply the "latest" available technologies, such Java3D, X3D and SOAP, compatible with average computer graphics hardware. The selected technologies are integrated and we demonstrate: the flow of data, which originates from heterogeneous data sources; interoperability across different operating systems and 3D visual representations to enhance the end-users interactions.

  5. 3D Finite Element Study on: Bar Splinted Implants Supporting Partial Denture in the Reconstructed Mandible

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohamed; Ghali, Rami; Aboelnagga, Mona

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to estimate the stress patterns induced by the masticatory loads on a removable prosthesis supported and retained by bar splinted implants placed in the reconstructed mandible with two different clip materials and without clip, in the fibula-jaw bone and prosthesis using finite element analysis. METHODS: Two 3D finite element models were constructed, that models components were modeled on commercial CAD/CAM software then assembled into finite element package. Vertical loads were applied simulating the masticatory forces unilaterally in the resected site and bilaterally in the central fossa of the lower first molar as 100N (tension and compression). Analysis was based on the assumption full osseointegration between different types of bones, and between implants and fibula while fixing the top surface of the TMJ in place. RESULTS: The metallic bar connecting the three implants is insensitive to the clips material. Its supporting implants showed typical behavior with maximum stress values at the neck region. Fibula and jaw bone showed stresses within physiologic, while clips material effect seems to be very small due to its relatively small size. CONCLUSION: Switching loading force direction from tensile to compression did-not change the stresses and deformations distribution, but reversed their sign from positive to negative. PMID:27275353

  6. Mercury Lightcraft Project Update: 3-D Modeling, Systems Analysis and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckton, Thomas W.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a progress report on the laser-propelled Mercury Lightcraft Project at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The laser-propelled, 1-person craft has a diameter of 252-cm, height of 217-cm, internal volume of 3 m3, `dry' mass of 700 kg, and gross liftoff mass of 1 metric ton. Expendable liquids including 70 kg of liquid hydrogen, and an equivalent mass (at least) of de-ionized water serves as open-cycle coolants for the 520 MWe laser/electric power conversion system. Its hyper-energetic airbreathing engine can easily accelerate the vehicle at 10 Gs or more. The tractor-beam lightcraft is intended as a prototype for use in a future global aerospace transportation system based on a constellation of satellite solar power stations in geostationary orbit, with laser relay stations in low Earth orbit. Using SolidWorks® 3-D modeling software, several important features were successfully integrated into the Mercury lightcraft model - principally: a rotating shroud (for spin stabilization) simple actuation system for a new variable-geometry air inlet; refined optical train for the laser-heated H2 plasma generators; pneumatically deployed, robotic quadra-pod landing gear; ejection seat/pod/hatch system; and a more detailed airframe structural concept. The CAD effort has brought the Mercury Lightcraft concept one significant step closer to reality.

  7. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the evaluation of the packages and makes recommendations for…

  8. Recognition technology research based on 3D fingerprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qianxiao; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-11-01

    Fingerprint has been widely studied and applied to personal recognition in both forensics and civilian. However, the current widespread used fingerprint is identified by 2D (two-dimensional) fingerprint image and the mapping from 3D (three-dimensional) to 2D loses 1D information, which leads to low accurate and even wrong recognition. This paper presents a 3D fingerprint recognition method based on the fringe projection technique. A series of fringe patterns generated by software are projected onto a finger surface through a projecting system. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. The deformed fringe pattern images give the 3D shape data of the finger and the 3D fingerprint features. Through converting the 3D fingerprints to 2D space, traditional 2D fingerprint recognition method can be used to 3D fingerprints recognition. Experimental results on measuring and recognizing some 3D fingerprints show the accuracy and availability of the developed 3D fingerprint system.

  9. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  10. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  11. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  12. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  13. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  14. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  15. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  16. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  17. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  18. Restructuring of RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    George Mesina; Joshua Hykes

    2005-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D source code is unstructured with many interwoven logic flow paths. By restructuring the code, it becomes easier to read and understand, which reduces the time and money required for code development, debugging, and maintenance. A structured program is comprised of blocks of code with one entry and exit point and downward logic flow. IF tests and DO loops inherently create structured code, while GOTO statements are the main cause of unstructured code. FOR_STRUCT is a commercial software package that converts unstructured FORTRAN into structured programming; it was used to restructure individual subroutines. Primarily it transforms GOTO statements, ARITHMETIC IF statements, and COMPUTED GOTO statements into IF-ELSEIF-ELSE tests and DO loops. The complexity of RELAP5-3D complicated the task. First, FOR_STRUCT cannot completely restructure all the complex coding contained in RELAP5-3D. An iterative approach of multiple FOR_STRUCT applications gave some additional improvements. Second, FOR_STRUCT cannot restructure FORTRAN 90 coding, and RELAP5-3D is partially written in FORTRAN 90. Unix scripts for pre-processing subroutines into coding that FOR_STRUCT could handle and post-processing it back into FORTRAN 90 were written. Finally, FOR_STRUCT does not have the ability to restructure the RELAP5-3D code which contains pre-compiler directives. Variations of a file were processed with different pre-compiler options switched on or off, ensuring that every block of code was restructured. Then the variations were recombined to create a completely restructured source file. Unix scripts were written to perform these tasks, as well as to make some minor formatting improvements. In total, 447 files comprising some 180,000 lines of FORTRAN code were restructured. These showed significant reduction in the number of logic jumps contained as measured by reduction in the number of GOTO statements and line labels. The average number of GOTO statements per subroutine

  19. E3D, the Euro3D visualization tool II: Mosaics, VIMOS data and large IFUs of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the capabilities of E3D, the Euro3D visualization tool, to handle and display data created by large Integral Field Units (IFUs) and by mosaics consisting of multiple pointings. The reliability of the software has been tested with real data, originating from the PMAS instrument in mosaic mode and from the VIMOS instrument, which features the largest IFU currently available. The capabilities and limitations of the current software are examined in view of future large IFUs, which will produce extremely large datasets.

  20. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  2. High-resolution laser radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloging, reproduction, and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Roberto; Fantoni, Roberta; Ferri de Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Guarneri, Massimiliano; Poggi, Claudio

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution Amplitude Modulated Laser Radar (AM-LR) sensor has recently been developed, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The sensor sounding beam can be swept linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotating platform, enabling to obtain respectively linear and cylindrical range maps. Both amplitude and phase shift of the modulating wave of back-scattered light are collected and processed, providing respectively a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range image. The resolution of range measurements depends mainly on the laser modulation frequency, provided that the power of the backscattered light reaching the detector is at least a few nW (current best performances are ~100 μm). The complete object surface can be reconstructed from the sampled points by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloys, bones), with relevant applications in different fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics, to vision in hostile environments. Examples of artwork reconstructed models (pottery, marble statues) are presented and the relevance of this technology for reverse engineering applied to cultural heritage conservation and restoration are discussed. Final 3D models can be passed to numeric control machines for rapid-prototyping, exported in standard formats for CAD/CAM purposes and made available on the Internet by adopting a virtual museum paradigm, thus possibly enabling specialists to perform remote inspections on high resolution digital reproductions of hardly accessible masterpieces.

  3. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  4. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  5. A visual LISP program for voxelizing AutoCAD solid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschallinger, Robert; Jandrisevits, Carmen; Zobl, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    AutoCAD solid models are increasingly recognized in geological and geotechnical 3D modeling. In order to bridge the currently existing gap between AutoCAD solid models and the grid modeling realm, a Visual LISP program is presented that converts AutoCAD solid models into voxel arrays. Acad2Vox voxelizer works on a 3D-model that is made up of arbitrary non-overlapping 3D-solids. After definition of the target voxel array geometry, 3D-solids are scanned at grid positions and properties are streamed to an ASCII output file. Acad2Vox has a novel voxelization strategy that combines a hierarchical reduction of sampling dimensionality with an innovative use of AutoCAD-specific methods for a fast and memory-saving operation. Acad2Vox provides georeferenced, voxelized analogs of 3D design data that can act as regions-of-interest in later geostatistical modeling and simulation. The Supplement includes sample geological solid models with instructions for practical work with Acad2Vox.

  6. An Experimental Approach to Assess the Impact of Post Processing Variables on the Mechanical Characteristics of 3D Printed (Powder Binding Process) Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impens, David

    The study is designed to provide a robust understanding of the mechanical characteristic of a 3D printed part for selected post processing conditions. The `green' printed parts are generally very brittle and porous, therefore, infiltrates are introduced to alter the mechanical characteristics, which will introduce new opportunities for this technology. Exploratory testing is performed to shape the choices for post processing with the infiltrates. Specimen geometry, specific for tensile, compression and flexural testing were rendered in CAD software and printed on the Z-printer 450 (Zp150 powder / Zb59 binder) with three different build orientations (horizontal/ angled /vertical). Results show that infiltrates can significantly improve the mechanical characteristics and material-infiltrate performance varies per build orientation. It is now understood that this material does not react similar to other materials and cannot be easily predicted. Additional physical testing should be performed and this complete test set should be conducted for new infiltrates.

  7. Comparison of 3D Reconstructive Technologies Used for Morphometric Research and the Translation of Knowledge Using a Decision Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charys M.; Roach, Victoria A.; Nguyen, Ngan; Rice, Charles L.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) models for education, pre-operative assessment, presurgical planning, and measurement have become more prevalent. With the increase in prevalence of 3D models there has also been an increase in 3D reconstructive software programs that are used to create these models. These software programs differ in…

  8. LayTracks3D: A new approach for meshing general solids using medial axis transform

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2015-08-22

    This study presents an extension of the all-quad meshing algorithm called LayTracks to generate high quality hex-dominant meshes of general solids. LayTracks3D uses the mapping between the Medial Axis (MA) and the boundary of the 3D domain to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler domains called Tracks. Tracks in 3D have no branches and are symmetric, non-intersecting, orthogonal to the boundary, and the shortest path from the MA to the boundary. These properties of tracks result in desired meshes with near cube shape elements at the boundary, structured mesh along the boundary normal with any irregular nodes restricted to the MA, and sharp boundary feature preservation. The algorithm has been tested on a few industrial CAD models and hex-dominant meshes are shown in the Results section. Work is underway to extend LayTracks3D to generate all-hex meshes.

  9. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  10. Visualization of 3D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James

    2016-05-01

    We describe the visualization of 3D optical lattices based on Sisyphus cooling implemented with open source software. We plot the adiabatic light shift potentials found by diagonalizing the effective Hamiltonian for the light shift operator. Our program incorporates a variety of atomic ground state configurations with total angular momentum ranging from j = 1 / 2 to j = 4 and a variety of laser beam configurations including the two-beam lin ⊥ lin configuration, the four-beam umbrella configuration, and four beams propagating in two orthogonal planes. In addition to visualizing the lattice the program also evaluates lattice parameters such as the oscillation frequency for atoms trapped deep in the wells. The program is intended to help guide experimental implementations of optical lattices.

  11. Assessment of rhinoplasty techniques by overlay of before-and-after 3D images.

    PubMed

    Toriumi, Dean M; Dixon, Tatiana K

    2011-11-01

    This article describes the equipment and software used to create facial 3D imaging and discusses the validation and reliability of the objective assessments done using this equipment. By overlaying preoperative and postoperative 3D images, it is possible to assess the surgical changes in 3D. Methods are described to assess the 3D changes from the rhinoplasty techniques of nasal dorsal augmentation, increasing tip projection, narrowing the nose, and nasal lengthening. PMID:22004862

  12. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  14. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  15. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  16. CAD programs: a tool for crime scene processing and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggiano, Daniel; De Forest, Peter R.; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1997-02-01

    Computer aided drafting (CAD) programs have great potential for helping the forensic scientist. One of their most direct and useful applications is crime scene documentation, as an aid in rendering neat, unambiguous line drawings of crime scenes. Once the data has been entered, it can easily be displayed, printed, or plotted in a variety of formats. Final renditions from this initial data entry can take multiple forms and can have multiple uses. As a demonstrative aid, a CAD program can produce two dimensional (2-D) drawings of the scene from one's notes to scale. These 2-D renditions are court display quality and help to make the forensic scientists's testimony easily understood. Another use for CAD is as an analytical tool for scene reconstruction. More than just a drawing aid, CAD can generate useful information from the data input. It can help reconstruct bullet paths or locations of furniture in a room when it is critical to the reconstruction. Data entry at the scene, on a notebook computer, can assist in framing and answering questions so that the forensic scientist can test hypotheses while actively documenting the scene. Further, three dimensional (3-D) renditions of items can be viewed from many 'locations' by using the program to rotate the object and the observers' viewpoint.

  17. CAD Services: an Industry Standard Interface for Mechanical CAD Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russell; Weitzer, Ilan

    2002-01-01

    Most organizations seek to design and develop new products in increasingly shorter time periods. At the same time, increased performance demands require a team-based multidisciplinary design process that may span several organizations. One approach to meet these demands is to use 'Geometry Centric' design. In this approach, design engineers team their efforts through one united representation of the design that is usually captured in a CAD system. Standards-based interfaces are critical to provide uniform, simple, distributed services that enable the 'Geometry Centric' design approach. This paper describes an industry-wide effort, under the Object Management Group's (OMG) Manufacturing Domain Task Force, to define interfaces that enable the interoperability of CAD, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. This critical link to enable 'Geometry Centric' design is called: Cad Services V1.0. This paper discusses the features of this standard and proposed application.

  18. Transforming 2d Cadastral Data Into a Dynamic Smart 3d Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2013-08-01

    3D property registration has become an imperative need in order to optimally reflect all complex cases of the multilayer reality of property rights and restrictions, revealing their vertical component. This paper refers to the potentials and multiple applications of 3D cadastral systems and explores the current state-of-the art, especially the available software with which 3D visualization can be achieved. Within this context, the Hellenic Cadastre's current state is investigated, in particular its data modeling frame. Presenting the methodologies and specifications addressing the registration of 3D properties, the operating cadastral system's shortcomings and merits are pointed out. Nonetheless, current technological advances as well as the availability of sophisticated software packages (proprietary or open source) call for 3D modeling. In order to register and visualize the complex reality in 3D, Esri's CityEngine modeling software has been used, which is specialized in the generation of 3D urban environments, transforming 2D GIS Data into Smart 3D City Models. The application of the 3D model concerns the Campus of the National Technical University of Athens, in which a complex ownership status is established along with approved special zoning regulations. The 3D model was built using different parameters based on input data, derived from cadastral and urban planning datasets, as well as legal documents and architectural plans. The process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the cadastral situation and built environment and proved to be a good practice example of 3D visualization.

  19. Computing Radiative Transfer in a 3D Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Allmen, Paul; Lee, Seungwon

    2012-01-01

    A package of software computes the time-dependent propagation of a narrow laser beam in an arbitrary three- dimensional (3D) medium with absorption and scattering, using the transient-discrete-ordinates method and a direct integration method. Unlike prior software that utilizes a Monte Carlo method, this software enables simulation at very small signal-to-noise ratios. The ability to simulate propagation of a narrow laser beam in a 3D medium is an improvement over other discrete-ordinate software. Unlike other direct-integration software, this software is not limited to simulation of propagation of thermal radiation with broad angular spread in three dimensions or of a laser pulse with narrow angular spread in two dimensions. Uses for this software include (1) computing scattering of a pulsed laser beam on a material having given elastic scattering and absorption profiles, and (2) evaluating concepts for laser-based instruments for sensing oceanic turbulence and related measurements of oceanic mixed-layer depths. With suitable augmentation, this software could be used to compute radiative transfer in ultrasound imaging in biological tissues, radiative transfer in the upper Earth crust for oil exploration, and propagation of laser pulses in telecommunication applications.

  20. Improved Surgery Planning Using 3-D Printing: a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A J; Shetty, V; Bhagavan, K R; Ragothaman, Ananthan; Shetty, V; Koneru, Ganesh; Agarwala, M

    2016-04-01

    The role of 3-D printing is presented for improved patient-specific surgery planning. Key benefits are time saved and surgery outcome. Two hard-tissue surgery models were 3-D printed, for orthopedic, pelvic surgery, and craniofacial surgery. We discuss software data conversion in computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) medical image for 3-D printing. 3-D printed models save time in surgery planning and help visualize complex pre-operative anatomy. Time saved in surgery planning can be as much as two thirds. In addition to improved surgery accuracy, 3-D printing presents opportunity in materials research. Other hard-tissue and soft-tissue cases in maxillofacial, abdominal, thoracic, cardiac, orthodontics, and neurosurgery are considered. We recommend using 3-D printing as standard protocol for surgery planning and for teaching surgery practices. A quick turnaround time of a 3-D printed surgery model, in improved accuracy in surgery planning, is helpful for the surgery team. It is recommended that these costs be within 20 % of the total surgery budget. PMID:27303117

  1. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©. PMID:26921815

  2. Accuracy of 3D scanners in tooth mark analysis.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ana; Martin-de-las-Heras, Stella

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of contact and laser 3D scanners in tooth mark analysis. Ten dental casts were scanned with both 3D scanners. Seven linear measurements were made from the 3D images of dental casts and biting edges generated with DentalPrint© software (University of Granada, Granada, Spain). The uncertainty value for contact 3D scanning was 0.833 for the upper dental cast and 0.660 mm for the lower cast; similar uncertainty values were found for 3D-laser scanning. Slightly higher uncertainty values were obtained for the 3D biting edges generated. The uncertainty values for single measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mm with the exception of the intercanine distance, in which higher values were obtained. Knowledge of the error rate in the 3D scanning of dental casts and biting edges is especially relevant to be applied in practical forensic cases. PMID:25388960

  3. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  4. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  5. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  6. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  7. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  9. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  10. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  11. Effect of Layer Thickness and Printing Orientation on Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Accuracy of 3D Printed Porous Samples for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Farzadi, Arghavan; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Asadi-Eydivand, Mitra; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Powder-based inkjet 3D printing method is one of the most attractive solid free form techniques. It involves a sequential layering process through which 3D porous scaffolds can be directly produced from computer-generated models. 3D printed products' quality are controlled by the optimal build parameters. In this study, Calcium Sulfate based powders were used for porous scaffolds fabrication. The printed scaffolds of 0.8 mm pore size, with different layer thickness and printing orientation, were subjected to the depowdering step. The effects of four layer thicknesses and printing orientations, (parallel to X, Y and Z), on the physical and mechanical properties of printed scaffolds were investigated. It was observed that the compressive strength, toughness and Young's modulus of samples with 0.1125 and 0.125 mm layer thickness were more than others. Furthermore, the results of SEM and μCT analyses showed that samples with 0.1125 mm layer thickness printed in X direction have more dimensional accuracy and significantly close to CAD software based designs with predefined pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity. PMID:25233468

  12. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  13. Surgical retained foreign object (RFO) prevention by computer aided detection (CAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marentis, Theodore C.; Hadjiiyski, Lubomir; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Rondon, Lucas; Chronis, Nikolaos; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Surgical Retained Foreign Objects (RFOs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with $1.5 billion annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. We address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three dimensional (3D) Gossypiboma Micro Tag (μTa) that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar 2D depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. We create a database of cadaveric radiographs with the μTag and other common man-made objects positioned randomly. We develop the CAD modules that include preprocessing, μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification and detection. The CAD can operate in a high specificity mode for the surgeon to allow for seamless workflow integration and function as a first reader. The CAD can also operate in a high sensitivity mode for the radiologist to ensure accurate detection. On a data set of 346 cadaveric radiographs, the CAD system performed at a high specificity (85.5% sensitivity, 0.02 FPs/image) for the OR and a high sensitivity (96% sensitivity, 0.73 FPs/image) for the radiologists.

  14. geomIO: A tool for geodynamicists to turn 2D cross-sections into 3D geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Tobias; Bauville, Arthur

    2016-04-01

    In numerical deformation models, material properties are usually defined on elements (e.g., in body-fitted finite elements), or on a set of Lagrangian markers (Eulerian, ALE or mesh-free methods). In any case, geometrical constraints are needed to assign different material properties to the model domain. Whereas simple geometries such as spheres, layers or cuboids can easily be programmed, it quickly gets complex and time-consuming to create more complicated geometries for numerical model setups, especially in three dimensions. geomIO (geometry I/O, http://geomio.bitbucket.org/) is a MATLAB-based library that has two main functionalities. First, it can be used to create 3D volumes based on series of 2D vector drawings similar to a CAD program; and second, it uses these 3D volumes to assign material properties to the numerical model domain. The drawings can conveniently be created using the open-source vector graphics software Inkscape. Adobe Illustrator is also partially supported. The drawings represent a series of cross-sections in the 3D model domain, for example, cross-sectional interpretations of seismic tomography. geomIO is then used to read the drawings and to create 3D volumes by interpolating between the cross-sections. In the second part, the volumes are used to assign material phases to markers inside the volumes. Multiple volumes can be created at the same time and, depending on the order of assignment, unions or intersections can be built to assign additional material phases. geomIO also offers the possibility to create 3D temperature structures for geodynamic models based on depth dependent parameterisations, for example the half space cooling model. In particular, this can be applied to geometries of subducting slabs of arbitrary shape. Yet, geomIO is held very general, and can be used for a variety of applications. We present examples of setup generation from pictures of micro-scale tectonics and lithospheric scale setups of 3D present-day model

  15. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  16. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  17. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP) with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface Modeling (DSM) and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g. X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  18. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  19. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system. PMID:22038364

  20. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  1. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  2. Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) CAD activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (Idaho Engineering Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B.

    1989-04-18

    June 1985 -- The drafting manager obtained approval to implement a cad system at the ICPP. He formed a committee to evaluate the various cad systems and recommend a system that would most benefit the ICPP. A PC'' (personal computer) based system using Autocad software was recommended in lieu of the much more expensive main frame based systems.

  3. Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) CAD activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (Idaho Engineering Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B.

    1989-04-18

    June 1985 -- The drafting manager obtained approval to implement a cad system at the ICPP. He formed a committee to evaluate the various cad systems and recommend a system that would most benefit the ICPP. A ``PC`` (personal computer) based system using Autocad software was recommended in lieu of the much more expensive main frame based systems.

  4. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  5. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  6. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  7. Classroom Experiences in an Engineering Design Graphics Course with a CAD/CAM Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald E.; Juricic, Davor

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the development of a new CAD/CAM laboratory experience for an Engineering Design Graphics (EDG) course. The EDG curriculum included freehand sketching, introduction to Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), and emphasized 3-D solid modeling. Reviews the project and reports on the testing of the new laboratory components which were…

  8. [Establishment of database with standard 3D tooth crowns based on 3DS MAX].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaosheng; An, Tao; Liao, Wenhe; Dai, Ning; Yu, Qing; Lu, Peijun

    2009-08-01

    The database with standard 3D tooth crowns has laid the groundwork for dental CAD/CAM system. In this paper, we design the standard tooth crowns in 3DS MAX 9.0 and create a database with these models successfully. Firstly, some key lines are collected from standard tooth pictures. Then we use 3DS MAX 9.0 to design the digital tooth model based on these lines. During the design process, it is important to refer to the standard plaster tooth model. After some tests, the standard tooth models designed with this method are accurate and adaptable; furthermore, it is very easy to perform some operations on the models such as deforming and translating. This method provides a new idea to build the database with standard 3D tooth crowns and a basis for dental CAD/CAM system. PMID:19813628

  9. 3D-printed guiding templates for improved osteosarcoma resection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Limin; Zhou, Ye; Zhu, Ye; Lin, Zefeng; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma resection is challenging due to the variable location of tumors and their proximity with surrounding tissues. It also carries a high risk of postoperative complications. To overcome the challenge in precise osteosarcoma resection, computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design patient-specific guiding templates for osteosarcoma resection on the basis of the computer tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the osteosarcoma of human patients. Then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate the guiding templates. The guiding templates were used to guide the osteosarcoma surgery, leading to more precise resection of the tumorous bone and the implantation of the bone implants, less blood loss, shorter operation time and reduced radiation exposure during the operation. Follow-up studies show that the patients recovered well to reach a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 27.125. PMID:26997197

  10. 3D vision assisted flexible robotic assembly of machine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogun, Philips S.; Usman, Zahid; Dharmaraj, Karthick; Jackson, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Robotic assembly systems either make use of expensive fixtures to hold components in predefined locations, or the poses of the components are determined using various machine vision techniques. Vision-guided assembly robots can handle subtle variations in geometries and poses of parts. Therefore, they provide greater flexibility than the use of fixtures. However, the currently established vision-guided assembly systems use 2D vision, which is limited to three degrees of freedom. The work reported in this paper is focused on flexible automated assembly of clearance fit machine components using 3D vision. The recognition and the estimation of the poses of the components are achieved by matching their CAD models with the acquired point cloud data of the scene. Experimental results obtained from a robot demonstrating the assembly of a set of rings on a shaft show that the developed system is not only reliable and accurate, but also fast enough for industrial deployment.

  11. 3D-printed guiding templates for improved osteosarcoma resection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Limin; Zhou, Ye; Zhu, Ye; Lin, Zefeng; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma resection is challenging due to the variable location of tumors and their proximity with surrounding tissues. It also carries a high risk of postoperative complications. To overcome the challenge in precise osteosarcoma resection, computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design patient-specific guiding templates for osteosarcoma resection on the basis of the computer tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the osteosarcoma of human patients. Then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate the guiding templates. The guiding templates were used to guide the osteosarcoma surgery, leading to more precise resection of the tumorous bone and the implantation of the bone implants, less blood loss, shorter operation time and reduced radiation exposure during the operation. Follow-up studies show that the patients recovered well to reach a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 27.125. PMID:26997197

  12. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  13. 3D-printed guiding templates for improved osteosarcoma resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Limin; Zhou, Ye; Zhu, Ye; Lin, Zefeng; Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-03-01

    Osteosarcoma resection is challenging due to the variable location of tumors and their proximity with surrounding tissues. It also carries a high risk of postoperative complications. To overcome the challenge in precise osteosarcoma resection, computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design patient-specific guiding templates for osteosarcoma resection on the basis of the computer tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the osteosarcoma of human patients. Then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate the guiding templates. The guiding templates were used to guide the osteosarcoma surgery, leading to more precise resection of the tumorous bone and the implantation of the bone implants, less blood loss, shorter operation time and reduced radiation exposure during the operation. Follow-up studies show that the patients recovered well to reach a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 27.125.

  14. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. PMID:26807414

  15. 3D Fiber Orientation Simulation for Plastic Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Baojiu; Jin, Xiaoshi; Zheng, Rong; Costa, Franco S.; Fan, Zhiliang

    2004-06-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer is widely used in the products made using injection molding processing. The distribution of fiber orientation inside plastic parts has direct effects on quality of molded parts. Using computer simulation to predict fiber orientation distribution is one of most efficient ways to assist engineers to do warpage analysis and to find a good design solution to produce high quality plastic parts. Fiber orientation simulation software based on 2-1/2D (midplane /Dual domain mesh) techniques has been used in industry for a decade. However, the 2-1/2D technique is based on the planar Hele-Shaw approximation and it is not suitable when the geometry has complex three-dimensional features which cannot be well approximated by 2D shells. Recently, a full 3D simulation software for fiber orientation has been developed and integrated into Moldflow Plastics Insight 3D simulation software. The theory for this new 3D fiber orientation calculation module is described in this paper. Several examples are also presented to show the benefit in using 3D fiber orientation simulation.

  16. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  17. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  18. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  19. TRI2SOLID: an application of reverse engineering methods to the creation of CAD models of bone segments.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, M; Zannoni, C; Pierotti, L

    1998-06-01

    For many biomechanical engineering activities it would be useful to have the three dimensional (3D) geometry of bone segments available in form of vectorial models within computer aided design (CAD) environments. In this paper a new method for the semi-automatic conversion of a stack of CT images of a femur into a CAD solid model is described. This method is relatively simple, accurate, and requires only a 3D CAD plus a few additional programs available in the public domain. The proposed method was used to convert the CT scan data set of a human femur into a valid CAD model; the resulting solid was two times more accurate than that obtained using the commonly used procedure based on 2D segmentation. PMID:9725647

  20. Improvements to the Unstructured Mesh Generator MESH3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott D.; Baker, Timothy J.; Cliff, Susan E.

    1999-01-01

    The AIRPLANE process starts with an aircraft geometry stored in a CAD system. The surface is modeled with a mesh of triangles and then the flow solver produces pressures at surface points which may be integrated to find forces and moments. The biggest advantage is that the grid generation bottleneck of the CFD process is eliminated when an unstructured tetrahedral mesh is used. MESH3D is the key to turning around the first analysis of a CAD geometry in days instead of weeks. The flow solver part of AIRPLANE has proven to be robust and accurate over a decade of use at NASA. It has been extensively validated with experimental data and compares well with other Euler flow solvers. AIRPLANE has been applied to all the HSR geometries treated at Ames over the course of the HSR program in order to verify the accuracy of other flow solvers. The unstructured approach makes handling complete and complex geometries very simple because only the surface of the aircraft needs to be discretized, i.e. covered with triangles. The volume mesh is created automatically by MESH3D. AIRPLANE runs well on multiple platforms. Vectorization on the Cray Y-MP is reasonable for a code that uses indirect addressing. Massively parallel computers such as the IBM SP2, SGI Origin 2000, and the Cray T3E have been used with an MPI version of the flow solver and the code scales very well on these systems. AIRPLANE can run on a desktop computer as well. AIRPLANE has a future. The unstructured technologies developed as part of the HSR program are now targeting high Reynolds number viscous flow simulation. The pacing item in this effort is Navier-Stokes mesh generation.

  1. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  2. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  3. 2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.

    2008-01-01

    Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.

  4. DspaceOgre 3D Graphics Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Myin, Steven; Pomerantz, Marc I.

    2011-01-01

    This general-purpose 3D graphics visualization C++ tool is designed for visualization of simulation and analysis data for articulated mechanisms. Examples of such systems are vehicles, robotic arms, biomechanics models, and biomolecular structures. DspaceOgre builds upon the open-source Ogre3D graphics visualization library. It provides additional classes to support the management of complex scenes involving multiple viewpoints and different scene groups, and can be used as a remote graphics server. This software provides improved support for adding programs at the graphics processing unit (GPU) level for improved performance. It also improves upon the messaging interface it exposes for use as a visualization server.

  5. Unified framework for generation of 3D web visualization for mechatronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severa, O.; Goubej, M.; Konigsmarkova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with development of a unified framework for generation of 3D visualizations of complex mechatronic systems. It provides a high-fidelity representation of executed motion by allowing direct employment of a machine geometry model acquired from a CAD system. Open-architecture multi-platform solution based on latest web standards is achieved by utilizing a web browser as a final 3D renderer. The results are applicable both for simulations and development of real-time human machine interfaces. Case study of autonomous underwater vehicle control is provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  6. 3D reconstruction on CBCT in the cystic pathology of the jaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioran, Doina; Nicoarǎ, Adrian; Roşu, Şerban; Cǎrligeriu, Virgil; Ianeş, Emilia

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents the image acquisition of Cone Beam Computer Tomography scans of human facial bones and their processing in order to obtain a 3D reconstruction model of the skull. The reconstructed model provides useful data to the physician in situations of maxillary cystic pathology but more important is the data about the relationship of the maxillary cyst with the surrounding anatomical elements. Using the B-splines a 3D volume model of the human facial bones can be achieved. This model can be exported in any CAD system, resulting a virtual model witch can be used in FEM analysis.

  7. Research on construction of Web 3D-GIS based on Skyline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    This paper further studies the construction, publishing and display of three-dimensional (3D) scenes and their implementation based on Skyline family of software, combining remote sensing images and DEM data. Among them, the SketchUp software is used to build landscape models and the JavaScript programming language is adopted to achieve web browsing of 3D scenes. The study provides a useful exploration for the establishment of Web 3D-GIS combining Web GIS technology and 3D visualization technology.

  8. Correlation between a Student's Performance on the Mental Cutting Test and Their 3D Parametric Modeling Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering graphics has historically been viewed as a challenging course to teach as students struggle to grasp and understand the fundamental concepts and then to master their proper application. The emergence of stable, fast, affordable 3D parametric modeling platforms such as CATIA, Pro-E, and AutoCAD while providing several pedagogical…

  9. Automated 3D reconstruction of interiors with multiple scan views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Ng, Kia C.; Wolfart, Erik; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Hogg, David C.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents two integrated solutions for realistic 3D model acquisition and reconstruction; an early prototype, in the form of a push trolley, and a later prototype in the form of an autonomous robot. The systems encompass all hardware and software required, from laser and video data acquisition, processing and output of texture-mapped 3D models in VRML format, to batteries for power supply and wireless network communications. The autonomous version is also equipped with a mobile platform and other sensors for the purpose of automatic navigation. The applications for such a system range from real estate and tourism (e.g., showing a 3D computer model of a property to a potential buyer or tenant) or as tool for content creation (e.g., creating 3D models of heritage buildings or producing broadcast quality virtual studios). The system can also be used in industrial environments as a reverse engineering tool to update the design of a plant, or as a 3D photo-archive for insurance purposes. The system is Internet compatible: the photo-realistic models can be accessed via the Internet and manipulated interactively in 3D using a common Web browser with a VRML plug-in. Further information and example reconstructed models are available on- line via the RESOLV web-page at http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/resolv/.

  10. Metrological validation for 3D modeling of dental plaster casts.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Nicola; Andreetto, Marco; Lucchese, Luca; Carmignato, Simone; Cortelazzo, Guido M

    2007-11-01

    The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents an automatic 3D modeling technique and (2) it advances a procedure for its metrological evaluation in the context of a medical application, the 3D modeling of dental plaster casts. The motivation for this work is the creation of a "virtual gypsotheque" where cumbersome dental plaster casts can be replaced by numerical 3D models, thereby alleviating storage and access problems and allowing dentists and orthodontists the use of novel and unprecedented software tools for their medical evaluations. Modeling free-form surfaces of anatomical interest is an intriguing mixture of open issues concerning 3D modeling, geometrical metrology, and medicine. Of general interest is both the fact that a widespread use of 3D modeling in non-engineering applications requires automatic procedures of the kind presented in this work and the adopted validation paradigm for free-form surfaces, rather useful for practical purposes. In this latter respect, the metrological analysis we advance is the first seminal attempt in the field of 3D modeling and can be readily extended to contexts other than the medical one discussed in this paper. PMID:17126062

  11. Using of Bezier Interpolation in 3D Reconstruction of Human Femur Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    The paper is focused on image acquisition and processing of CT scans of a human femur bone in order to obtain 3D reconstructions of the human femur. The objective of the presented study was to obtain 3D realistic model of the human femur bone. The reconstructed model provides useful data to the physician but more important are the data and 3D models that can be used for virtual testing of femoral implants and endoprosthesis. Using the B-spline patch a 3D volume model of the human femur bone can be achieved. This model can be easy imported in any CAD system, resulting a virtual femur model witch can be used in FEM analysis.

  12. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  13. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  14. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  15. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  16. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz

    2009-09-01

    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform. PMID:19328585

  17. Full-hemisphere automatic optical 3D measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Gerber, Joerg

    1997-09-01

    The measurement of 3D object shapes for the purpose of digitization of CAD-models and for the complete manufacturing control of components are important tasks of modern industrial inspection. The proposed 3D measurement system using structured-light illumination has the ability to avoid illumination-caused difficulties, like shadowing and excessive light intensities by light reflection and diffraction at the surface of the object, while measuring technical surfaces. For this purpose, the object under test is successively illuminated with a periodic grating structure from at least three different directions, using a telecentric projection system. At least three linearly independent phase-measurement values are measured by gray- code techniques to calculate the 3D coordinates of the object points. The experimental setup allows the determination of phase-measurement values with illuminations from up to 16 different directions. This is connected with a simultaneous variation of the intensity of the projected grating structures. Thus, areas of shadows are `shifted' across the object surface to spots where they have no influence on the result of the measurement, and also specular effects can be suppressed. Furthermore, in order to obtain the entire surface, the object to be digitized must be covered by many overlapping views taken from different directions. To view the entire surface, the object is moved into various measuring positions, using a second rotation axis. These views are merged within an object-centered coordinate system and are automatically rearranged into a uniform grid. For this purpose, a calibration procedure has been developed to measure absolute coordinates within a defined object coordinate system, so that the combination of the particular images is simple, because all measurements are performed within the same system of object coordinates. The power of this concept has been experimentally demonstrated, for example, by measuring the complete 3D shape

  18. Cool-and Unusual-CAD Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Ken

    2004-01-01

    This article describes several very useful applications of AutoCAD that may lie outside the normal scope of application. AutoCAD commands used in this article are based on AutoCAD 2000I. The author and his students used a Hewlett Packard 750C DesignJet plotter for plotting. (Contains 5 figures and 5 photos.)

  19. Incorporating CAD Instruction into the Drafting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    1990-01-01

    If education is to meet the challenged posed by the U.S. productivity crisis and the large number of computer-assisted design (CAD) workstations forecast as necessary in the future, schools must integrate CAD into the drafting curriculum and become aggressive in providing CAD training. Teachers need to maintain close contact with local industries…

  20. 3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

  1. Novel 3D modeling methods for virtual fabrication and EDA compatible design of MEMS via parametric libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröpfer, Gerold; Lorenz, Gunar; Rouvillois, Stéphane; Breit, Stephen

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of the state-of-the-art of MEMS-specific modeling techniques and describes the validation of new models for a parametric component library. Two recently developed 3D modeling tools are described in more detail. The first one captures a methodology for designing MEMS devices and simulating them together with integrated electronics within a standard electronic design automation (EDA) environment. The MEMS designer can construct the MEMS model directly in a 3D view. The resulting 3D model differs from a typical feature-based 3D CAD modeling tool in that there is an underlying behavioral model and parametric layout associated with each MEMS component. The model of the complete MEMS device that is shared with the standard EDA environment can be fully parameterized with respect to manufacturing- and design-dependent variables. Another recent innovation is a process modeling tool that allows accurate and highly realistic visualization of the step-by-step creation of 3D micro-fabricated devices. The novelty of the tool lies in its use of voxels (3D pixels) rather than conventional 3D CAD techniques to represent the 3D geometry. Case studies for experimental devices are presented showing how the examination of these virtual prototypes can reveal design errors before mask tape out, support process development before actual fabrication and also enable failure analysis after manufacturing.

  2. 3D texture analysis of solitary pulmonary nodules using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we have investigated a new approach for texture features extraction using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT image. Traditionally texture analysis is performed in 2D and is suitable for images collected from 2D imaging modality. The use of 3D imaging modalities provide the scope of texture analysis from 3D object and 3D texture feature are more realistic to represent 3D object. In this work, Haralick's texture features are extended in 3D and computed from volumetric data considering 26 neighbors. The optimal texture features to characterize the internal structure of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules (SPN) are selected based on area under curve (AUC) values of ROC curve and p values from 2-tailed Student's t-test. The selected texture feature in 3D to represent SPN can be used in efficient Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) design plays an important role in fast and accurate lung cancer screening. The reduced number of input features to the CAD system will decrease the computational time and classification errors caused by irrelevant features. In the present work, SPN are classified from Ground Glass Nodule (GGN) using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier considering top five 3D texture features and top five 2D texture features separately. The classification is performed on 92 SPN and 25 GGN from Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) public database and classification accuracy using 3D texture features and 2D texture features provide 97.17% and 89.1% respectively.

  3. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  4. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  5. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  6. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  7. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  8. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  9. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  10. VISRAD, 3-D Target Design and Radiation Simulation Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingjie; Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkin, Igor

    2015-11-01

    The 3-D view factor code VISRAD is widely used in designing HEDP experiments at major laser and pulsed-power facilities, including NIF, OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, ORION, LMJ, Z, and PLX. It simulates target designs by generating a 3-D grid of surface elements, utilizing a variety of 3-D primitives and surface removal algorithms, and can be used to compute the radiation flux throughout the surface element grid by computing element-to-element view factors and solving power balance equations. Target set-up and beam pointing are facilitated by allowing users to specify positions and angular orientations using a variety of coordinates systems (e.g., that of any laser beam, target component, or diagnostic port). Analytic modeling for laser beam spatial profiles for OMEGA DPPs and NIF CPPs is used to compute laser intensity profiles throughout the grid of surface elements. We will discuss recent improvements to the software package and plans for future developments.

  11. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  12. RELAP5-3D Developer Guidelines and Programming Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2014-03-01

    Our ultimate goal is to create and maintain RELAP5-3D as the best software tool available to analyze nuclear power plants. This begins with writing excellent programming and requires thorough testing. This document covers development of RELAP5-3D software, the behavior of the RELAP5-3D program that must be maintained, and code testing. RELAP5-3D must perform in a manner consistent with previous code versions with backward compatibility for the sake of the users. Thus file operations, code termination, input and output must remain consistent in form and content while adding appropriate new files, input and output as new features are developed. As computer hardware, operating systems, and other software change, RELAP5-3D must adapt and maintain performance. The code must be thoroughly tested to ensure that it continues to perform robustly on the supported platforms. The coding must be written in a consistent manner that makes the program easy to read to reduce the time and cost of development, maintenance and error resolution. The programming guidelines presented her are intended to institutionalize a consistent way of writing FORTRAN code for the RELAP5-3D computer program that will minimize errors and rework. A common format and organization of program units creates a unifying look and feel to the code. This in turn increases readability and reduces time required for maintenance, development and debugging. It also aids new programmers in reading and understanding the program. Therefore, when undertaking development of the RELAP5-3D computer program, the programmer must write computer code that follows these guidelines. This set of programming guidelines creates a framework of good programming practices, such as initialization, structured programming, and vector-friendly coding. It sets out formatting rules for lines of code, such as indentation, capitalization, spacing, etc. It creates limits on program units, such as subprograms, functions, and modules. It

  13. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  14. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  15. PMAS - Faint Object 3D Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, M. M.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.

    2002-01-01

    will describe PMAS (Potsdam Multiaperture Spectrophotometer) which was commissioned at the Calar Alto Observatory 3.5m Telescope on May 28-31, 2001. PMAS is a dedicated, highly efficient UV-visual integral field spectrograph which is optimized for the spectrophotometry of faint point sources, typically superimposed on a bright background. PMAS is ideally suited for the study of resolved stars in local group galaxies. I will present results of our preliminary work with MPFS at the Russian 6m Telescope in Selentchuk, involving the development of new 3D data reduction software, and observations of faint planetary nebulae in the bulge of M31 for the determination of individual chemical abundances of these objects. Using this data, it will be demonstrated that integral field spectroscopy provides superior techniques for background subtraction, avoiding the otherwise inevitable systematic errors of conventional slit spetroscopy. The results will be put in perspective of the study of resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies with a new generation of Extremely Large Telescopes.

  16. World Wind 3D Earth Viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Patrick; Maxwell, Christopher; Kim, Randolph; Gaskins, Tom

    2007-01-01

    World Wind allows users to zoom from satellite altitude down to any place on Earth, leveraging high-resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D. In addition to Earth, World Wind can also visualize other planets, and there are already comprehensive data sets for Mars and the Earth's moon, which are as easily accessible as those of Earth. There have been more than 20 million downloads to date, and the software is being used heavily by the Department of Defense due to the code s ability to be extended and the evolution of the code courtesy of NASA and the user community. Primary features include the dynamic access to public domain imagery and its ease of use. All one needs to control World Wind is a two-button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed through a simplified menu. A JAVA version will be available soon. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse, or by typing in any location to automatically zoom in to see it. The World Wind install package contains the necessary requirements such as the .NET runtime and managed DirectX library. World Wind can display combinations of data from a variety of sources, including Blue Marble, LandSat 7, SRTM, NASA Scientific Visualization Studio, GLOBE, and much more. A thorough list of features, the user manual, a key chart, and screen shots are available at http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov.

  17. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  18. CAD/CAM for MEMS and BioMEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Brian; Irwin, Bryan; Parkhill, Robert; Church, Kenneth H.; Nguyen, Michael N.; Kachurin, Anatoly; Warren, William L.

    2004-07-01

    Novel devices can be relatively simple in theory and modeling, but difficult and many times unfeasible to fabricate in a traditional cleanroom environment. We have developed a CAD/CAM tool capable of integrating multiple materials in the electronic, photonic, and biological regimes for applications in both MEMS and BioMEMS devices. Some materials are known and more fully characterized, such as thick film resistors or conductors, while other materials such as biodegradable scaffolding are new but showing promise to realize heterogenous tissue engineered constructs and drug delivery devices. The tool does not discriminate, but rather places these materials in specified locations with precision volumetric control, gently, conformally, and in 3-D. This paper will describe the enabling aspect of true 3-D maskless fabrication as well as describe multiple device structures and demonstrations.

  19. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  20. Testing Mercury Porosimetry with 3D Printed Porosity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical model underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. 3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate models, exactly what is required to build models of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity models (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on 3D printed versions of the same digital porosity models.