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Sample records for 3d cloud model

  1. a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between 3d Model and 3d Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.

  2. Underwater 3d Modeling: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of 3D models for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in 3D modeling software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created 3D models from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four models have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference model, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved models and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved models versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  3. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  4. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System, 3D Cloud-Resolving Model and Cloud Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud- resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF in being developed and production runs will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes, ( 2 ) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), (3) A cloud library generated by Goddard MMF, and 3D GCE model, and (4) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  5. Coupled fvGCM-GCE Modeling System, 3D Cloud-Resolving Model and Cloud Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional singlecolumn models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from Merent geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloudscale model (termed a super-parameterization or multiscale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameteridon NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. A seed fund is available at NASA Goddard to build a MMF based on the 2D Goddard cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM). A prototype MMF in being developed and production nms will be conducted at the beginning of 2005. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), (3) A cloud library generated by Goddard MMF, and 3D GCE model, and (4) A brief discussion on the GCE model on developing a global cloud simulator.

  6. Do Fractal Models of Clouds Produces the Right 3D Radiative Effects?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stochastic fractal models of clouds are often used to study 3D radiative effects and their influence on the remote sensing of cloud properties. Since it is important that the cloud models produce a correct radiative response, some researchers require the model parameters to match observed cloud properties such as scale-independent optical thickness variability. Unfortunately, matching these properties does not necessarily imply that the cloud models will cause the right 3D radiative effects. First, the matched properties alone only influence the 3D effects but do not completely determine them. Second, in many cases the retrieved cloud properties have been already biased by 3D radiative effects, and so the models may not match the true real clouds. Finally, the matched cloud properties cannot be considered independent from the scales at which they have been retrieved. This paper proposes an approach that helps ensure that fractal cloud models are realistic and produce the right 3D effects. The technique compares the results of radiative transfer simulations for the model clouds to new direct observations of 3D radiative effects in satellite images.

  7. 3D modeling of clouds in GJ1214b's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, Benjamin; Meadows, Victoria; leconte, Jérémy; Misra, Amit; Arney, Giada

    2015-11-01

    GJ1214b is a warm mini-Neptune/waterworld and one of the few low-mass exoplanets whose atmosphere is characterizable by current telescopes. Recent observations indicated a flat transit spectrum in near-infrared which has been interpreted as the presence of high and thick condensate clouds of KCl or ZnS or photochemical hazes. However, the formation of such high clouds/hazes would require a strong vertical mixing linked to the atmospheric circulation. In order to understand the transport, distribution and observational implications of such clouds/haze, we studied the atmospheric circulation and cloud formation on GJ1214b for H-dominated and water-dominated atmospheres using the Generic LMDZ GCM.Firstly, we analyzed cloud-free atmospheres. We showed that the zonal mean meridional circulation corresponds to an anti-Hadley circulation in most of the atmosphere with upwelling at midlatitude and downwelling at the equator. This circulation should strongly impact cloud formation and distribution, leading to a minimum of cloud at the equator. We also derived 1D equivalent eddy diffusion coefficients. The corresponding values should favor an efficient formation of photochemical haze in the upper atmosphere of GJ1214b.Secondly, we simulated cloudy atmospheres including latent heat release and radiative effects for KCl and ZnS clouds. We analyzed their impacts on the thermal structure. In particular, we fund that ZnS clouds may lead to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion. We showed that flat transit spectra consistent with HST observations are possible for cloud particle radii around 0.5 microns. Using the outputs of our GCM, we also generated emission and reflection spectra and phases curves.Finally, our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by JWST should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.

  8. 3D modeling of clouds in GJ1214b's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, Benjamin; Meadows, Victoria; leconte, Jérémy; Misra, Amit; Arnay, Giada

    2015-12-01

    GJ1214b is a warm mini-Neptune/waterworld and one of the few low-mass exoplanets whose atmosphere is characterizable by current telescopes. Recent observations indicated a flat transit spectrum in near-infrared which has been interpreted as the presence of high and thick condensate clouds of KCl or ZnS or photochemical hazes [1]. However, the formation of such high clouds/hazes would require a strong vertical mixing linked to the atmospheric circulation [2]. In order to understand the transport, distribution and observational implications of such clouds/haze, we studied the atmospheric circulation and cloud formation on GJ1214b for H-dominated and water-dominated atmospheres using the Generic LMDZ GCM.Firstly, we analyzed cloud-free atmospheres [3]. We showed that the zonal mean meridional circulation corresponds to an anti-Hadley circulation in most of the atmosphere with upwelling at midlatitude and downwelling at the equator. This circulation should strongly impact cloud formation and distribution, leading to a minimum of cloud at the equator. We also derived 1D equivalent eddy diffusion coefficients. The corresponding values should favor an efficient formation of photochemical haze in the upper atmosphere of GJ1214b.Secondly, we simulated cloudy atmospheres including latent heat release and radiative effects for KCl and ZnS clouds [4]. We analyzed their distribution and their impacts on the thermal structure. In particular, a stratospheric thermal inversion should likely be formed by absorption of stellar radiation by ZnS clouds. We showed that flat transit spectra consistent with HST observations are possible for cloud particle radii around 0.5 microns. Using the outputs of our GCM, we also generated emission and reflection spectra and phases curves.Finally, our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by JWST should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.references:[1] Kreidberg et al

  9. The Engelbourg's ruins: from 3D TLS point cloud acquisition to 3D virtual and historic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    The Castle of Engelbourg was built at the beginning of the 13th century, at the top of the Schlossberg. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Thann (France), at the crossroads of Alsace and Lorraine, and dominates the outlet of the valley of Thur. Its strategic position was one of the causes of its systematic destructions during the 17th century, and Louis XIV finished his fate by ordering his demolition in 1673. Today only few vestiges remain, of which a section of the main tower from about 7m of diameter and 4m of wide laying on its slice, unique characteristic in the regional castral landscape. It is visible since the valley, was named "the Eye of the witch", and became a key attraction of the region. The site, which extends over approximately one hectare, is for several years the object of numerous archaeological studies and is at the heart of a project of valuation of the vestiges today. It was indeed a key objective, among the numerous planned works, to realize a 3D model of the site in its current state, in other words, a virtual model "such as seized", exploitable as well from a cultural and tourist point of view as by scientists and in archaeological researches. The team of the ICube/INSA lab had in responsibility the realization of this model, the acquisition of the data until the delivery of the virtual model, thanks to 3D TLS and topographic surveying methods. It was also planned to integrate into this 3D model, data of 2D archives, stemming from series of former excavations. The objectives of this project were the following ones: • Acquisition of 3D digital data of the site and 3D modelling • Digitization of the 2D archaeological data and integration in the 3D model • Implementation of a database connected to the 3D model • Virtual Visit of the site The obtained results allowed us to visualize every 3D object individually, under several forms (point clouds, 3D meshed objects and models, etc.) and at several levels of detail

  10. 3D campus modeling using LiDAR point cloud data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Yoshii, Satoshi; Funatsu, Yukihiro; Takemata, Kazuya

    2012-10-01

    The importance of having a 3D urban city model is recognized in many applications, such as management offices of risk and disaster, the offices for city planning and developing and others. As an example of urban model, we reconstructed 3D KIT campus manually in this study, by utilizing airborne LiDAR point cloud data. The automatic extraction of building shapes was left in future work.

  11. Image-Based Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Encoding for 3d Building Model Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Web 2.0 and cyber city modeling, an increasing number of 3D models have been available on web-based model-sharing platforms with many applications such as navigation, urban planning, and virtual reality. Based on the concept of data reuse, a 3D model retrieval system is proposed to retrieve building models similar to a user-specified query. The basic idea behind this system is to reuse these existing 3D building models instead of reconstruction from point clouds. To efficiently retrieve models, the models in databases are compactly encoded by using a shape descriptor generally. However, most of the geometric descriptors in related works are applied to polygonal models. In this study, the input query of the model retrieval system is a point cloud acquired by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems because of the efficient scene scanning and spatial information collection. Using Point clouds with sparse, noisy, and incomplete sampling as input queries is more difficult than that by using 3D models. Because that the building roof is more informative than other parts in the airborne LiDAR point cloud, an image-based approach is proposed to encode both point clouds from input queries and 3D models in databases. The main goal of data encoding is that the models in the database and input point clouds can be consistently encoded. Firstly, top-view depth images of buildings are generated to represent the geometry surface of a building roof. Secondly, geometric features are extracted from depth images based on height, edge and plane of building. Finally, descriptors can be extracted by spatial histograms and used in 3D model retrieval system. For data retrieval, the models are retrieved by matching the encoding coefficients of point clouds and building models. In experiments, a database including about 900,000 3D models collected from the Internet is used for evaluation of data retrieval. The results of the proposed method show a clear superiority

  12. Small-scale effects of underwater bubble clouds on ocean reflectance: 3-D modeling results.

    PubMed

    Piskozub, Jacek; Stramski, Dariusz; Terrill, Eric; Melville, W Kendall

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effect of individual bubble clouds on remote-sensing reflectance of the ocean with a 3-D Monte Carlo model of radiative transfer. The concentrations and size distribution of bubbles were defined based on acoustical measurements of bubbles in the surface ocean. The light scattering properties of bubbles for various void fractions were calculated using Mie scattering theory. We show how the spatial pattern, magnitude, and spectral behavior of remote-sensing reflectance produced by modeled bubble clouds change due to variations in their geometric and optical properties as well as the background optical properties of the ambient water. We also determined that for realistic sizes of bubble clouds, a plane-parallel horizontally homogeneous geometry (1-D radiative transfer model) is inadequate for modeling water-leaving radiance above the cloud. PMID:19582089

  13. 3DVEM Software Modules for Efficient Management of Point Clouds and Photorealistic 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabado, S.; Seguí, A. E.; Cabrelles, M.; Navarro, S.; García-De-San-Miguel, D.; Lerma, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural heritage managers in general and information users in particular are not usually used to deal with high-technological hardware and software. On the contrary, information providers of metric surveys are most of the times applying latest developments for real-life conservation and restoration projects. This paper addresses the software issue of handling and managing either 3D point clouds or (photorealistic) 3D models to bridge the gap between information users and information providers as regards the management of information which users and providers share as a tool for decision-making, analysis, visualization and management. There are not many viewers specifically designed to handle, manage and create easily animations of architectural and/or archaeological 3D objects, monuments and sites, among others. 3DVEM - 3D Viewer, Editor & Meter software will be introduced to the scientific community, as well as 3DVEM - Live and 3DVEM - Register. The advantages of managing projects with both sets of data, 3D point cloud and photorealistic 3D models, will be introduced. Different visualizations of true documentation projects in the fields of architecture, archaeology and industry will be presented. Emphasis will be driven to highlight the features of new userfriendly software to manage virtual projects. Furthermore, the easiness of creating controlled interactive animations (both walkthrough and fly-through) by the user either on-the-fly or as a traditional movie file will be demonstrated through 3DVEM - Live.

  14. Evaluation Model for Pavement Surface Distress on 3d Point Clouds from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pavement surface distress for maintenance planning of road pavement using 3D point clouds from Mobile Mapping System (MMS). The issue on maintenance planning of road pavement requires scheduled rehabilitation activities for damaged pavement sections to keep high level of services. The importance of this performance-based infrastructure asset management on actual inspection data is globally recognized. Inspection methodology of road pavement surface, a semi-automatic measurement system utilizing inspection vehicles for measuring surface deterioration indexes, such as cracking, rutting and IRI, have already been introduced and capable of continuously archiving the pavement performance data. However, any scheduled inspection using automatic measurement vehicle needs much cost according to the instruments' specification or inspection interval. Therefore, implementation of road maintenance work, especially for the local government, is difficult considering costeffectiveness. Based on this background, in this research, the methodologies for a simplified evaluation for pavement surface and assessment of damaged pavement section are proposed using 3D point clouds data to build urban 3D modelling. The simplified evaluation results of road surface were able to provide useful information for road administrator to find out the pavement section for a detailed examination and for an immediate repair work. In particular, the regularity of enumeration of 3D point clouds was evaluated using Chow-test and F-test model by extracting the section where the structural change of a coordinate value was remarkably achieved. Finally, the validity of the current methodology was investigated by conducting a case study dealing with the actual inspection data of the local roads.

  15. Precipitation Processes Developed During ARM (1997), TOGA COARE (1992) GATE (1974), SCSMEX (1998), and KWAJEX (1999): Consistent 3D, Semi-3D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Hou, A.; Atlas, R.; Starr, D.; Sud, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D) have been used to study the response of clouds to large-scale forcing. IN these 3D simulators, the model domain was small, and the integration time was 6 hours. Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical clouds systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and at NASA Goddard Space Center. At Goddard, a 3D cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE, GATE, SCSMEX, ARM, and KWAJEX using a 512 by 512 km domain (with 2-km resolution). The result indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are very similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulation. The major objective of this paper are: (1) to assess the performance of the super-parametrization technique, (2) calculate and examine the surface energy (especially radiation) and water budget, and (3) identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between simulated 2D and 3D cloud systems.

  16. Momentum Transport: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to investigate the momentum budgets associated with several convective systems that developed during the TOGA COARE IOP (west Pacific warm pool region) and GATE (east Atlantic region). The tool for this study is the improved Goddard Cumulas Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, explicit cloud radiative interactive processes and air-sea interactive surface processes. The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (with 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km) in the vertical. The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations were performed over a 7-day time period (December 19-26, 1992, for TOGA COARE and September 1-7, 1994 for GATE). Cyclic literal boundary conditions are required for this type of long-term integration. Two well organized squall systems (TOGA, COARE February 22, 1993, and GATE September 12, 1994) were also simulated using the 3D GCE model. Only 9 h simulations were required to cover the life time of the squall systems. the lateral boundary conditions were open for these two squall systems simulations. the following will be examined: (1) the momentum budgets in the convective and stratiform regions, (2) the relationship between momentum transport and cloud organization (i.e., well organized squall lines versus less organized convective), (3) the differences and similarities in momentum transport between 2D and 3D simulated convective systems, and (4) the differences and similarities in momentum budgets between cloud systems simulated with open and cyclic lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that there are only small differences between 2D and 3D simulated momentum budgets. Major differences occur, however, between momentum budgets associated with squall systems simulated using different lateral boundary conditions.

  17. Indoor Navigation from Point Clouds: 3d Modelling and Obstacle Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Boguslawski, P.; Khoshelham, K.; Lorenzo, H.; Mahdjoubi, L.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent years, indoor modelling and navigation has become a research of interest because many stakeholders require navigation assistance in various application scenarios. The navigational assistance for blind or wheelchair people, building crisis management such as fire protection, augmented reality for gaming, tourism or training emergency assistance units are just some of the direct applications of indoor modelling and navigation. Navigational information is traditionally extracted from 2D drawings or layouts. Real state of indoors, including opening position and geometry for both windows and doors, and the presence of obstacles is commonly ignored. In this work, a real indoor-path planning methodology based on 3D point clouds is developed. The value and originality of the approach consist on considering point clouds not only for reconstructing semantically-rich 3D indoor models, but also for detecting potential obstacles in the route planning and using these for readapting the routes according to the real state of the indoor depictured by the laser scanner.

  18. 3D modeling of building indoor spaces and closed doors from imagery and point clouds.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vilariño, Lucía; Khoshelham, Kourosh; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    3D models of indoor environments are increasingly gaining importance due to the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected: from redesign and visualization to monitoring and simulation. These models usually exist only for newly constructed buildings; therefore, the development of automatic approaches for reconstructing 3D indoors from imagery and/or point clouds can make the process easier, faster and cheaper. Among the constructive elements defining a building interior, doors are very common elements and their detection can be very useful either for knowing the environment structure, to perform an efficient navigation or to plan appropriate evacuation routes. The fact that doors are topologically connected to walls by being coplanar, together with the unavoidable presence of clutter and occlusions indoors, increases the inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors based on point clouds and images. The methodology analyses the visibility problem of indoor environments and goes in depth with door candidate detection. The presented approach is tested in real data sets showing its potential with a high door detection rate and applicability for robust and efficient envelope reconstruction. PMID:25654723

  19. 3D Modeling of Building Indoor Spaces and Closed Doors from Imagery and Point Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Vilariño, Lucía; Khoshelham, Kourosh; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    3D models of indoor environments are increasingly gaining importance due to the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected: from redesign and visualization to monitoring and simulation. These models usually exist only for newly constructed buildings; therefore, the development of automatic approaches for reconstructing 3D indoors from imagery and/or point clouds can make the process easier, faster and cheaper. Among the constructive elements defining a building interior, doors are very common elements and their detection can be very useful either for knowing the environment structure, to perform an efficient navigation or to plan appropriate evacuation routes. The fact that doors are topologically connected to walls by being coplanar, together with the unavoidable presence of clutter and occlusions indoors, increases the inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors based on point clouds and images. The methodology analyses the visibility problem of indoor environments and goes in depth with door candidate detection. The presented approach is tested in real data sets showing its potential with a high door detection rate and applicability for robust and efficient envelope reconstruction. PMID:25654723

  20. Modeling the Impact of Drizzle and 3D Cloud Structure on Remote Sensing of Effective Radius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Zinner, Tobias; Ackerman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of cloud particle size with passive sensors like MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave infrared channels. MODIS observations sometimes show significantly larger effective radii in marine boundary layer cloud fields derived from the 1.6 and 2.1 pm channel observations than for 3.7 pm retrievals. Possible explanations range from 3D radiative transport effects and sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity to the impact of drizzle formation on the droplet distribution. To investigate the potential influence of these factors, we use LES boundary layer cloud simulations in combination with 3D Monte Carlo simulations of MODIS observations. LES simulations of warm cloud spectral microphysics for cases of marine stratus and broken stratocumulus, each for two different values of cloud condensation nuclei density, produce cloud structures comprising droplet size distributions with and without drizzle size drops. In this study, synthetic MODIS observations generated from 3D radiative transport simulations that consider the full droplet size distribution will be generated for each scene. The operational MODIS effective radius retrievals will then be applied to the simulated reflectances and the results compared with the LES microphysics.

  1. Self-Consistent 3D Modeling of Electron Cloud Dynamics and Beam Response

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Miguel; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Molvik, A.; Stoltz, P.

    2007-04-02

    We present recent advances in the modeling of beam electron-cloud dynamics, including surface effects such as secondary electron emission, gas desorption, etc, and volumetric effects such as ionization of residual gas and charge-exchange reactions. Simulations for the HCX facility with the code WARP/POSINST will be described and their validity demonstrated by benchmarks against measurements. The code models a wide range of physical processes and uses a number of novel techniques, including a large-timestep electron mover that smoothly interpolates between direct orbit calculation and guiding-center drift equations, and a new computational technique, based on a Lorentz transformation to a moving frame, that allows the cost of a fully 3D simulation to be reduced to that of a quasi-static approximation.

  2. Status of the phenomena representation, 3D modeling, and cloud-based software architecture development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Kvarfordt, Kellie; Sampath, Ram; Larson, Katie

    2015-09-01

    Early in 2013, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory outlined a technical framework to support the implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment to predict the safety performance of advanced small modular reactors. From that vision of the advanced framework for risk analysis, specific tasks have been underway in order to implement the framework. This report discusses the current development of a several tasks related to the framework implementation, including a discussion of a 3D physics engine that represents the motion of objects (including collision and debris modeling), cloud-based analysis tools such as a Bayesian-inference engine, and scenario simulations. These tasks were performed during 2015 as part of the technical work associated with the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  3. Automatic 3D Building Detection and Modeling from Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaohui

    Urban reconstruction, with an emphasis on man-made structure modeling, is an active research area with broad impact on several potential applications. Urban reconstruction combines photogrammetry, remote sensing, computer vision, and computer graphics. Even though there is a huge volume of work that has been done, many problems still remain unsolved. Automation is one of the key focus areas in this research. In this work, a fast, completely automated method to create 3D watertight building models from airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) point clouds is presented. The developed method analyzes the scene content and produces multi-layer rooftops, with complex rigorous boundaries and vertical walls, that connect rooftops to the ground. The graph cuts algorithm is used to separate vegetative elements from the rest of the scene content, which is based on the local analysis about the properties of the local implicit surface patch. The ground terrain and building rooftop footprints are then extracted, utilizing the developed strategy, a two-step hierarchical Euclidean clustering. The method presented here adopts a "divide-and-conquer" scheme. Once the building footprints are segmented from the terrain and vegetative areas, the whole scene is divided into individual pendent processing units which represent potential points on the rooftop. For each individual building region, significant features on the rooftop are further detected using a specifically designed region-growing algorithm with surface smoothness constraints. The principal orientation of each building rooftop feature is calculated using a minimum bounding box fitting technique, and is used to guide the refinement of shapes and boundaries of the rooftop parts. Boundaries for all of these features are refined for the purpose of producing strict description. Once the description of the rooftops is achieved, polygonal mesh models are generated by creating surface patches with outlines defined by detected

  4. Precipitation processes developed during TOGA COARE (1992), GATE (1974), SCSMEX (1998), and KWAJEX (1999): 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.

    2006-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D). A few 3D CRMs have been used to study the response of clouds to large-scale forcing. In these 3D simulations, the model domain was small, and the integration time was 6 hours. Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), NOAA GFDL, the U.K. Met. Office, Colorado State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. An improved 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was recently used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE (December 19-27, 1992), GATE (september 1-7, 1974), SCSMEX (May 18-26, June 2-11, 1998) and KWAJEX (August 7-13, August 18-21, and August 29-September 12, 1999) using a 512 by 512 km domain and 41 vertical layers. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the differences and similarities in the simulated precipitation processes and their associated surface and water energy budgets in TOGA COARE, GATE, KWAJEX, and SCSMEX, and (2) to asses the impact of microphysics, radiation budget and surface fluxes on the organization of convection in tropics.

  5. 3D Modeling of interactions between Jupiter’s ammonia clouds and large anticyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, Csaba; Dowling, Timothy E.; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2014-04-01

    The motions of Jupiter’s tropospheric jets and vortices are made visible by its outermost clouds, which are expected to be largely composed of ammonia ice. Several groups have demonstrated that much of this dynamics can be reproduced in the vorticity fields of high-resolution models that, surprisingly, do not contain any clouds. While this reductionist approach is valuable, it has natural limitations. Here we report on numerical simulations that use the EPIC Jupiter model with a realistic ammonia-cloud microphysics module, focusing on how observable ammonia clouds interact with the Great Red Spot (GRS) and Oval BA. Maps of column-integrated ammonia-cloud density in the model resemble visible-band images of Jupiter and potential-vorticity maps. On the other hand, vertical cross sections through the model vortices reveal considerable heterogeneity in cloud density values between pressure levels in the vicinity of large anticyclones, and interestingly, ammonia snow appears occasionally. Away from the vortices, the ammonia clouds form at the levels expected from traditional one-dimensional models, and inside the vortices, the clouds are elevated and thick, in agreement with Galileo NIMS observations. However, rather than gathering slowly into place as a result of Jupiter’s weak secondary circulation, the ammonia clouds instead form high and thick inside the large anticyclones as soon as the cloud microphysics module is enabled. This suggests that any weak secondary circulation that might be present in Jupiter’s anticyclones, such as may arise because of radiative damping of their temperature anomalies, may have little or no direct effect on the altitude or thickness of the ammonia clouds. Instead, clouds form at those locations because the top halves of large anticyclones must be cool for the vortex to be able to fit under the tropopause, which is a primary-circulation, thermal-wind-shear effect of the stratification, not a secondary-circulation thermal feature

  6. Precipitation Processes developed during ARM (1997), TOGA COARE (1992), GATE (1974), SCSMEX (1998), and KWAJEX (1999), Consistent 2D, semi-3D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Hou, A.; Atlas, R.; Starr, D.; Sud, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D). A few 3D CRMs have been used to study the response of clouds to large-scale forcing. In these 3D simulations, the model domain was small, and the integration time was 6 hours. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to assess the performance of the super-parameterization technique (i.e. is 2D or semi-3D CRM appropriate for the super-parameterization?); (2) calculate and examine the surface energy (especially radiation) and water budgets; (3) identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between simulated 2D and 3D cloud systems.

  7. 3D Modeling of GJ1214b’s Atmosphere: Formation of Inhomogeneous High Clouds and Observational Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Meadows, V.; Misra, A.; Leconte, J.; Arney, G.

    2015-11-01

    The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum that may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4-0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with Hubble Space Telescope observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 μm, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths >3 μm. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit the observed spectra we generate transit, emission, and reflection spectra and phase curves for GJ1214b. We show that a stratospheric thermal inversion would be readily accessible in near- and mid-infrared atmospheric spectral windows. We find that the amplitude of the thermal phase curves is strongly dependent on metallicity, but only slightly impacted by clouds. Our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by the James Webb Space Telescope in the near- to mid-infrared should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.

  8. Simulated KWAJEX Convective Systems Using a 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model and Their Comparisons with Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shie, Chung-Lin; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    The 1999 Kwajalein Atoll field experiment (KWAJEX), one of several major TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) field experiments, has successfully obtained a wealth of information and observation data on tropical convective systems over the western Central Pacific region. In this paper, clouds and convective systems that developed during three active periods (Aug 7-12, Aug 17-21, and Aug 29-Sep 13) around Kwajalein Atoll site are simulated using both 2D and 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) models. Based on numerical results, the clouds and cloud systems are generally unorganized and short lived. These features are validated by radar observations that support the model results. Both the 2D and 3D simulated rainfall amounts and their stratiform contribution as well as the heat, water vapor, and moist static energy budgets are examined for the three convective episodes. Rainfall amounts are quantitatively similar between the two simulations, but the stratiform contribution is considerably larger in the 2D simulation. Regardless of dimension, fo all three cases, the large-scale forcing and net condensation are the two major physical processes that account for the evolution of the budgets with surface latent heat flux and net radiation solar and long-wave radiation)being secondary processes. Quantitative budget differences between 2D and 3D as well as between various episodes will be detailed.Morover, simulated radar signatures and Q1/Q2 fields from the three simulations are compared to each other and with radar and sounding observations.

  9. Precipitation Processes Developed During ARM (1997), TOGA COARE (1992), GATE (1974), SCSMEX (1998), and KWAJEX (1999): Consistent 2D, Semi-3D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W-K.

    2003-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D). A few 3D CRMs have been used to study the response of clouds to large-scale forcing. In these 3D simulations, the model domain was small, and the integration time was 6 hours. Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NACAR) and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center . At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE, SCSMEX and KWAJEX using 512 by 512 km domain (with 2 km resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are very similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. The reason for the strong similarity between the 2D and 3D CRM simulations is that the same observed large-scale advective tendencies of potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and horizontal momentum were used as the main focusing in both the 2D and 3D models. Interestingly, the 2D and 3D versions of the CRM used at CSU showed significant differences in the rainfall and cloud statistics for three ARM cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to assess the performance of the super-parameterization technique, (2) calculate and examine the surface energy (especially radiation) and water budgets, and (3) identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between simulated 2D and 3D cloud systems.

  10. Visualisation of Complex 3d City Models on Mobile Webbrowsers Using Cloud-Based Image Provisioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, M.; Nebiker, S.

    2015-08-01

    Rendering large city models with high polygon count and a vast amount of textures at interactive frame rates is a rather difficult to impossible task as it highly depends on the client hardware, which is often insufficient, even if out-of-core rendering techniques and level of detail approaches are used. Rendering complex city models on mobile devices is even more challenging. An approach of rendering and caching very large city models in the cloud using ray-tracing based image provisioning is introduced. This allows rendering large scenes efficiently, including on mobile devices. With this approach, it is possible to render cities with nearly unlimited number of polygons and textures.

  11. A Coupled fcGCM-GCE Modeling System: A 3D Cloud Resolving Model and a Regional Scale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and ore sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. The Goddard MMF is based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), and it has started production runs with two years results (1998 and 1999). Also, at Goddard, we have implemented several Goddard microphysical schemes (21CE, several 31CE), Goddard radiation (including explicity calculated cloud optical properties), and Goddard Land Information (LIS, that includes the CLM and NOAH land surface models) into a next generation regional scale model, WRF. In this talk, I will present: (1) A Brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes (microphysical and land processes), (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications), and (4) The characteristics of the four-dimensional cloud data

  12. Historical Buildings Models and Their Handling via 3d Survey: from Points Clouds to User-Oriented Hbim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiabrando, F.; Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper retraces some research activities and application of 3D survey techniques and Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the environment of Cultural Heritage. It describes the diffusion of as-built BIM approach in the last years in Heritage Assets management, the so-called Built Heritage Information Modelling/Management (BHIMM or HBIM), that is nowadays an important and sustainable perspective in documentation and administration of historic buildings and structures. The work focuses the documentation derived from 3D survey techniques that can be understood like a significant and unavoidable knowledge base for the BIM conception and modelling, in the perspective of a coherent and complete management and valorisation of CH. It deepens potentialities, offered by 3D integrated survey techniques, to acquire productively and quite easilymany 3D information, not only geometrical but also radiometric attributes, helping the recognition, interpretation and characterization of state of conservation and degradation of architectural elements. From these data, they provide more and more high descriptive models corresponding to the geometrical complexity of buildings or aggregates in the well-known 5D (3D + time and cost dimensions). Points clouds derived from 3D survey acquisition (aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, LiDAR and their integration) are reality-based models that can be use in a semi-automatic way to manage, interpret, and moderately simplify geometrical shapes of historical buildings that are examples, as is well known, of non-regular and complex geometry, instead of modern constructions with simple and regular ones. In the paper, some of these issues are addressed and analyzed through some experiences regarding the creation and the managing of HBIMprojects on historical heritage at different scales, using different platforms and various workflow. The paper focuses on LiDAR data handling with the aim to manage and extract geometrical information; on

  13. Incremental Refinement of FAÇADE Models with Attribute Grammar from 3d Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbi, Y.; Staat, C.; Mandtler, L.; Pl¨umer, L.

    2016-06-01

    Data acquisition using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has gotten more and more attention over the last years. Especially in the field of building reconstruction the incremental interpretation of such data is a demanding task. In this context formal grammars play an important role for the top-down identification and reconstruction of building objects. Up to now, the available approaches expect offline data in order to parse an a-priori known grammar. For mapping on demand an on the fly reconstruction based on UAV data is required. An incremental interpretation of the data stream is inevitable. This paper presents an incremental parser of grammar rules for an automatic 3D building reconstruction. The parser enables a model refinement based on new observations with respect to a weighted attribute context-free grammar (WACFG). The falsification or rejection of hypotheses is supported as well. The parser can deal with and adapt available parse trees acquired from previous interpretations or predictions. Parse trees derived so far are updated in an iterative way using transformation rules. A diagnostic step searches for mismatches between current and new nodes. Prior knowledge on façades is incorporated. It is given by probability densities as well as architectural patterns. Since we cannot always assume normal distributions, the derivation of location and shape parameters of building objects is based on a kernel density estimation (KDE). While the level of detail is continuously improved, the geometrical, semantic and topological consistency is ensured.

  14. Hail formation and growth in a 3D cloud model with hail-bin microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xueliang; Huang, Meiyuan

    The hailstorm of 22 July 1976 in Colorado was studied using a three-dimensional compressible nonhydrostatic cloud model with hail-bin microphysics and parameterized bulk hail microphysics. Results show that observed storm features, such as long-lasting, transient weak-echo vaults and a pronounced forward overhang structure can be better simulated in the model with hail-bin microphysics. The role of a feeder updraft in forming and transferring graupel into a main updraft is analyzed using three-dimensional information on hail and graupel locations and corresponding wind field data from the simulations with hail-bin microphysics. It is found that the formation of a feeder cell with weaker updraft along the side of a main cell has two important roles in forming of hail in the simulated multicellular hailstorm. One is to efficiently transfer graupel descended along the edge of the main updraft or from a massive forward overhang region into the main updraft by preventing the rapid fall of graupel to the surface, and by lifting the low-level inflow by which graupel can be advected into the main updraft. Second, to evolve as a daughter cell in which hail from the decaying old cell can continue their growth. Based on the study, the primary role of a feeder cell is to transfer hail embryos originally formed in a main cell to reenter the main cell rather than to generate initial hail embryos as proposed by previous studies.

  15. Cloud Property Retrieval and 3D Radiative Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Cloud thickness and photon mean-free-path together determine the scale of "radiative smoothing" of cloud fluxes and radiances. This scale is observed as a change in the spatial spectrum of cloud radiances, and also as the "halo size" seen by off beam lidar such as THOR and WAIL. Such of beam lidar returns are now being used to retrieve cloud layer thickness and vertical scattering extinction profile. We illustrate with recent measurements taken at the Oklahoma ARM site, comparing these to the-dependent 3D simulations. These and other measurements sensitive to 3D transfer in clouds, coupled with Monte Carlo and other 3D transfer methods, are providing a better understanding of the dependence of radiation on cloud inhomogeneity, and to suggest new retrieval algorithms appropriate for inhomogeneous clouds. The international "Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes" or I3RC, program is coordinating and evaluating the variety of 3D radiative transfer methods now available, and to make them more widely available. Information is on the Web at: http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Input consists of selected cloud fields derived from data sources such as radar, microwave and satellite, and from models involved in the GEWEX Cloud Systems Studies. Output is selected radiative quantities that characterize the large-scale properties of the fields of radiative fluxes and heating. Several example cloud fields will be used to illustrate. I3RC is currently implementing an "open source" 3d code capable of solving the baseline cases. Maintenance of this effort is one of the goals of a new 3DRT Working Group under the International Radiation Commission. It is hoped that the 3DRT WG will include active participation by land and ocean modelers as well, such as 3D vegetation modelers participating in RAMI.

  16. Precipitation Processes developed during ARM (1997), TOGA COARE(1992), GATE(1 974), SCSMEX(1998) and KWAJEX(1999): Consistent 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Shie, C.-H.; Simpson, J.; Starr, D.; Johnson, D.; Sud, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Real clouds and clouds systems are inherently three dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D). A few 3D CRMs have been used to study the response of clouds to large-scale forcing. In these 3D simulations, the model domain was small, and the integration time was 6 hours. Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud system with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are very similar between the 2D and 3D simulations of these same cases. The reason for the strong similarity between the 2D and 3D CRM simulations is that the observed large-scale advective tendencies of potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and horizontal momentum were used as the main forcing in both the 2D and 3D models. Interestingly, the 2D and 3D versions of the CRM used in CSU and U.K. Met Office showed significant differences in the rainfall and cloud statistics for three ARM cases. The major objectives of this project are to calculate and axamine: (1)the surface energy and water budgets, (2) the precipitation processes in the convective and stratiform regions, (3) the cloud upward and downward mass fluxes in the convective and stratiform regions; (4) cloud characteristics such as size, updraft intensity and lifetime, and (5) the entrainment and detrainment rates associated with clouds and cloud systems that developed in TOGA COARE, GATE, SCSMEX, ARM and KWAJEX. Of special note is that the analyzed (model generated) data sets are all produced by the same current version of the GCE model, i.e. consistent model physics and configurations. Trajectory analyse and inert tracer calculation will be conducted to identify the differences and similarities in the organization of convection between simulated 2D and 3D cloud systems.

  17. Combination of Tls Point Clouds and 3d Data from Kinect v2 Sensor to Complete Indoor Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachat, E.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2016-06-01

    The combination of data coming from multiple sensors is more and more applied for remote sensing issues (multi-sensor imagery) but also in cultural heritage or robotics, since it often results in increased robustness and accuracy of the final data. In this paper, the reconstruction of building elements such as window frames or door jambs scanned thanks to a low cost 3D sensor (Kinect v2) is presented. Their combination within a global point cloud of an indoor scene acquired with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is considered. If the added elements acquired with the Kinect sensor enable to reach a better level of detail of the final model, an adapted acquisition protocol may also provide several benefits as for example time gain. The paper aims at analyzing whether the two measurement techniques can be complementary in this context. The limitations encountered during the acquisition and reconstruction steps are also investigated.

  18. 3D Building Reconstruction Using Dense Photogrammetric Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malihi, S.; Valadan Zoej, M. J.; Hahn, M.; Mokhtarzade, M.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional models of urban areas play an important role in city planning, disaster management, city navigation and other applications. Reconstruction of 3D building models is still a challenging issue in 3D city modelling. Point clouds generated from multi view images of UAV is a novel source of spatial data, which is used in this research for building reconstruction. The process starts with the segmentation of point clouds of roofs and walls into planar groups. By generating related surfaces and using geometrical constraints plus considering symmetry, a 3d model of building is reconstructed. In a refinement step, dormers are extracted, and their models are reconstructed. The details of the 3d reconstructed model are in LoD3 level, with respect to modelling eaves, fractions of roof and dormers.

  19. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  20. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  1. Ice Formation in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Insights from a 3-D Cloud-Resolving Model with Size-Resolved Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Khain, Alexander

    2009-02-27

    The single-layer mixed-phase clouds observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) are simulated with a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) coupled with an explicit bin microphysics scheme and a radar-lidar simulator. Two possible ice enhancement mechanisms – activation of droplet evaporation residues by condensation-followed-by-freezing and droplet freezing by contact freezing inside-out, are scrutinized by extensive comparisons with aircraft and radar and lidar measurements. The locations of ice initiation associated with each mechanism and the role of ice nuclei (IN) in the evolution of mixed-phase clouds are mainly addressed. Simulations with either mechanism agree well with the in-situ and remote sensing measurements on ice microphysical properties but liquid water content is slightly underpredicted. These two mechanisms give very similar cloud microphysical, macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative properties, although the ice nucleation properties (rate, frequency and location) are completely different. Ice nucleation from activation of evaporation nuclei is most efficient near cloud top areas concentrated on the edges of updrafts, while ice initiation from the drop freezing process has no significant location preference (occurs anywhere that droplet evaporation is significant). Both enhanced nucleation mechanisms contribute dramatically to ice formation with ice particle concentration of 10-15 times higher relative to the simulation without either of them. The contribution of ice nuclei (IN) recycling from ice particle evaporation to IN and ice particle concentration is found to be very significant in this case. Cloud can be very sensitive to IN initially and form a nonquilibrium transition condition, but become much less sensitive as cloud evolves to a steady mixed-phase condition. The parameterization of Meyers et al. [1992] with the observed

  2. Automatic 3D Building Detection and Modeling from Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shaohui

    2013-01-01

    Urban reconstruction, with an emphasis on man-made structure modeling, is an active research area with broad impact on several potential applications. Urban reconstruction combines photogrammetry, remote sensing, computer vision, and computer graphics. Even though there is a huge volume of work that has been done, many problems still remain…

  3. 3D modelling of the early martian climate under a denser CO2 atmosphere: Temperatures and CO2 ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.; Millour, E.; Madeleine, J.-B.; Kerber, L.; Leconte, J.; Marcq, E.; Haberle, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of geological evidence, it is often stated that the early martian climate was warm enough for liquid water to flow on the surface thanks to the greenhouse effect of a thick atmosphere. We present 3D global climate simulations of the early martian climate performed assuming a faint young Sun and a CO2 atmosphere with surface pressure between 0.1 and 7 bars. The model includes a detailed radiative transfer model using revised CO2 gas collision induced absorption properties, and a parameterisation of the CO2 ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties. A wide range of possible climates is explored using various values of obliquities, orbital parameters, cloud microphysic parameters, atmospheric dust loading, and surface properties. Unlike on present day Mars, for pressures higher than a fraction of a bar, surface temperatures vary with altitude because of the adiabatic cooling and warming of the atmosphere when it moves vertically. In most simulations, CO2 ice clouds cover a major part of the planet. Previous studies had suggested that they could have warmed the planet thanks to their scattering greenhouse effect. However, even assuming parameters that maximize this effect, it does not exceed +15 K. Combined with the revised CO2 spectroscopy and the impact of surface CO2 ice on the planetary albedo, we find that a CO2 atmosphere could not have raised the annual mean temperature above 0 °C anywhere on the planet. The collapse of the atmosphere into permanent CO2 ice caps is predicted for pressures higher than 3 bar, or conversely at pressure lower than 1 bar if the obliquity is low enough. Summertime diurnal mean surface temperatures above 0 °C (a condition which could have allowed rivers and lakes to form) are predicted for obliquity larger than 40° at high latitudes but not in locations where most valley networks or layered sedimentary units are observed. In the absence of other warming mechanisms, our climate model results are thus consistent

  4. The Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) - A fast approach for the calculation of 3D thermal heating rates in cloud resolving models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Carolin; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Due to computational costs, radiation is usually neglected or solved in plane parallel 1D approximation in today's numerical weather forecast and cloud resolving models. We present a fast and accurate method to calculate 3D heating and cooling rates in the thermal spectral range that can be used in cloud resolving models. The parameterization considers net fluxes across horizontal box boundaries in addition to the top and bottom boundaries. Since the largest heating and cooling rates occur inside the cloud, close to the cloud edge, the method needs in first approximation only the information if a grid box is at the edge of a cloud or not. Therefore, in order to calculate the heating or cooling rates of a specific grid box, only the directly neighboring columns are used. Our so-called Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) is an analytical consideration of cloud side effects which can be considered a convolution of a 1D radiative transfer result with a kernel or radius of 1 grid-box (5 pt stencil) and which does usually not break the parallelization of a cloud resolving model. The NCA can be easily applied to any cloud resolving model that includes a 1D radiation scheme. Due to the neglect of horizontal transport of radiation further away than one model column, the NCA works best for model resolutions of about 100 m or lager. In this paper we describe the method and show a set of applications of LES cloud field snap shots. Correction terms, gains and restrictions of the NCA are described. Comprehensive comparisons to the 3D Monte Carlo Model MYSTIC and a 1D solution are shown. In realistic cloud fields, the full 3D simulation with MYSTIC shows cooling rates up to -150 K/d (100 m resolution) while the 1D solution shows maximum coolings of only -100 K/d. The NCA is capable of reproducing the larger 3D cooling rates. The spatial distribution of the heating and cooling is improved considerably. Computational costs are only a factor of 1.5-2 higher compared to a 1D

  5. Production of Lightning NO(x) and its Vertical Distribution Calculated from 3-D Cloud-scale Chemical Transport Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley; Pickering, Kenneth; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Allen, Dale; DeCaria, Alex; Ridley, Brian; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lang, Steve; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D cloud scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NO(x), based on observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four field projects. Production per intracloud (P(sub IC) and cloud-to-ground (P(sub CG)) flash is estimated by assuming various values of P(sub IC) and P(sub CG) for each storm and determining which production scenario yields NO(x) mixing ratios that compare most favorably with in-cloud aircraft observations. We obtain a mean P(sub CG) value of 500 moles NO (7 kg N) per flash. The results of this analysis also suggest that on average, P(sub IC) may be nearly equal to P(sub CG), which is contrary to the common assumption that intracloud flashes are significantly less productive of NO than are cloud-to-ground flashes. This study also presents vertical profiles of the mass of lightning NO(x), after convection based on 3-D cloud-scale model simulations. The results suggest that following convection, a large percentage of lightning NO(x), remains in the middle and upper troposphere where it originated, while only a small percentage is found near the surface. The results of this work differ from profiles calculated from 2-D cloud-scale model simulations with a simpler lightning parameterization that were peaked near the surface and in the upper troposphere (referred to as a "C-shaped" profile). The new model results (a backward C-shaped profile) suggest that chemical transport models that assume a C-shaped vertical profile of lightning NO(x) mass may place too much mass neat the surface and too little in the middle troposphere.

  6. Study of texture stitching in 3D modeling of lidar point cloud based on per-pixel linear interpolation along loop line buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianxin; Liang, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning creates a point cloud composed of thousands or millions of 3D points. Through pre-processing, generating TINs, mapping texture, a 3D model of a real object is obtained. When the object is too large, the object is separated into some parts. This paper mainly focuses on problem of gray uneven of two adjacent textures' intersection. The new algorithm is presented in the paper, which is per-pixel linear interpolation along loop line buffer .The experiment data derives from point cloud of stone lion which is situated in front of west gate of Henan Polytechnic University. The model flow is composed of three parts. First, the large object is separated into two parts, and then each part is modeled, finally the whole 3D model of the stone lion is composed of two part models. When the two part models are combined, there is an obvious fissure line in the overlapping section of two adjacent textures for the two models. Some researchers decrease brightness value of all pixels for two adjacent textures by some algorithms. However, some algorithms are effect and the fissure line still exists. Gray uneven of two adjacent textures is dealt by the algorithm in the paper. The fissure line in overlapping section textures is eliminated. The gray transition in overlapping section become more smoothly.

  7. Effect of Clouds on Optical Imaging of the Space Shuttle During the Ascent Phase: A Statistical Analysis Based on a 3D Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Lane, Robert E., Jr.; Winters, Katherine A.; Madura, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Clouds are highly effective in obscuring optical images of the Space Shuttle taken during its ascent by ground-based and airborne tracking cameras. Because the imagery is used for quick-look and post-flight engineering analysis, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) recommended the return-to-flight effort include an upgrade of the imaging system to enable it to obtain at least three useful views of the Shuttle from lift-off to at least solid rocket booster (SRB) separation (NASA 2003). The lifetimes of individual cloud elements capable of obscuring optical views of the Shuttle are typically 20 minutes or less. Therefore, accurately observing and forecasting cloud obscuration over an extended network of cameras poses an unprecedented challenge for the current state of observational and modeling techniques. In addition, even the best numerical simulations based on real observations will never reach "truth." In order to quantify the risk that clouds would obscure optical imagery of the Shuttle, a 3D model to calculate probabilistic risk was developed. The model was used to estimate the ability of a network of optical imaging cameras to obtain at least N simultaneous views of the Shuttle from lift-off to SRB separation in the presence of an idealized, randomized cloud field.

  8. Performance testing of 3D point cloud software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-10-01

    LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the engineering field: civil engineering, cultural heritage, mining, industry and environmental engineering. One of the most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing, especially for large mobile LiDAR datasets. Several software solutions for data managing are available in the market, including open source suites, however, users often unknown methodologies to verify their performance properly. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and four different suites are studied: QT Modeler, VR Mesh, AutoCAD 3D Civil and the Point Cloud Library running in software developed at the University of Vigo (SITEGI). The software based on the Point Cloud Library shows better results in the loading time of the point clouds and CPU usage. However, it is not as strong as commercial suites in working set and commit size tests.

  9. Feature-Based Quality Evaluation of 3d Point Clouds - Study of the Performance of 3d Registration Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridene, T.; Goulette, F.; Chendeb, S.

    2013-08-01

    The production of realistic 3D map databases is continuously growing. We studied an approach of 3D mapping database producing based on the fusion of heterogeneous 3D data. In this term, a rigid registration process was performed. Before starting the modeling process, we need to validate the quality of the registration results, and this is one of the most difficult and open research problems. In this paper, we suggest a new method of evaluation of 3D point clouds based on feature extraction and comparison with a 2D reference model. This method is based on tow metrics: binary and fuzzy.

  10. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  11. Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Park, Won Hyun; Seong, Sehyun; Ham, Sun-Jeong

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the Earth spectral bio-signatures provides an important reference datum for accurate de-convolution of collapsed spectral signals from potential earth-like planets of other star systems. This study presents a new ray tracing computation method including an improved 3D optical earth model constructed with the coastal line and vegetation distribution data from the Global Ecological Zone (GEZ) map. Using non-Lambertian bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) models, the input earth surface model is characterized with three different scattering properties and their annual variations depending on monthly changes in vegetation distribution, sea ice coverage and illumination angle. The input atmosphere model consists of one layer with Rayleigh scattering model from the sea level to 100 km in altitude and its radiative transfer characteristics is computed for four seasons using the SMART codes. The ocean scattering model is a combination of sun-glint scattering and Lambertian scattering models. The land surface scattering is defined with the semi empirical parametric kernel method used for MODIS and POLDER missions. These three component models were integrated into the final Earth model that was then incorporated into the in-house built integrated ray tracing (IRT) model capable of computing both spectral imaging and radiative transfer performance of a hypothetical space instrument as it observes the Earth from its designated orbit. The IRT model simulation inputs include variation in earth orientation, illuminated phases, and seasonal sea ice and vegetation distribution. The trial simulation runs result in the annual variations in phase dependent disk averaged spectra (DAS) and its associated bio-signatures such as NDVI. The full computational details are presented together with the resulting annual variation in DAS and its associated bio-signatures.

  12. 3-D Object Recognition from Point Cloud Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Walker, A. S.; Zhang, B.

    2011-09-01

    The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs). Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU) computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM) and digital elevation model (DEM), so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex roofs. Several case

  13. 3D Radiative Aspects of the Increased Aerosol Optical Depth Near Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Wen, Guoyong; Remer, Lorraine; Cahalan, Robert; Coakley, Jim

    2007-01-01

    To characterize aerosol-cloud interactions it is important to correctly retrieve aerosol optical depth in the vicinity of clouds. It is well reported in the literature that aerosol optical depth increases with cloud cover. Part of the increase comes from real physics as humidification; another part, however, comes from 3D cloud effects in the remote sensing retrievals. In many cases it is hard to say whether the retrieved increased values of aerosol optical depth are remote sensing artifacts or real. In the presentation, we will discuss how the 3D cloud affects can be mitigated. We will demonstrate a simple model that can assess the enhanced illumination of cloud-free columns in the vicinity of clouds. This model is based on the assumption that the enhancement in the cloud-free column radiance comes from the enhanced Rayleigh scattering due to presence of surrounding clouds. A stochastic cloud model of broken cloudiness is used to simulate the upward flux.

  14. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  15. Point Cloud Visualization in AN Open Source 3d Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Calle, M.; Gómez-Deck, D.; Koehler, O.; Pulido, F.

    2011-09-01

    During the last years the usage of 3D applications in GIS is becoming more popular. Since the appearance of Google Earth, users are familiarized with 3D environments. On the other hand, nowadays computers with 3D acceleration are common, broadband access is widespread and the public information that can be used in GIS clients that are able to use data from the Internet is constantly increasing. There are currently several libraries suitable for this kind of applications. Based on these facts, and using libraries that are already developed and connected to our own developments, we are working on the implementation of a real 3D GIS with analysis capabilities. Since a 3D GIS such as this can be very interesting for tasks like LiDAR or Laser Scanner point clouds rendering and analysis, special attention is given to get an optimal handling of very large data sets. Glob3 will be a multidimensional GIS in which 3D point clouds could be explored and analysed, even if they are consist of several million points.The latest addition to our visualization libraries is the development of a points cloud server that works regardless of the cloud's size. The server receives and processes petitions from a 3d client (for example glob3, but could be any other, such as one based on WebGL) and delivers the data in the form of pre-processed tiles, depending on the required level of detail.

  16. The Feasibility of 3d Point Cloud Generation from Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubaie, N.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a new technique for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referenced image-based 3D point cloud generated from low-cost sensors in smartphones. The smartphone's motion sensors are used to directly acquire the Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs) of the captured images. These EOPs, along with the Interior Orientation Parameters (IOPs) of the camera/ phone, are used to reconstruct the image-based 3D point cloud. However, because smartphone motion sensors suffer from poor GPS accuracy, accumulated drift and high signal noise, inaccurate 3D mapping solutions often result. Therefore, horizontal and vertical linear features, visible in each image, are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure. These constraints correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution. Once the enhanced EOPs are estimated, the semi-global matching algorithm (SGM) is used to generate the image-based dense 3D point cloud. Statistical analysis and assessment are implemented herein, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D point cloud generation from the consumer-grade sensors in smartphones.

  17. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  18. Extending 3D Near-Cloud Corrections from Shorter to Longer Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Varnai, Tamas; Guoyong, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths.

  19. Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Y. Harrington

    2012-09-21

    This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.

  20. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  1. Extension of RCC Topological Relations for 3d Complex Objects Components Extracted from 3d LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xu-Feng; Abolfazl Mostafavia, Mir; Wang, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Topological relations are fundamental for qualitative description, querying and analysis of a 3D scene. Although topological relations for 2D objects have been extensively studied and implemented in GIS applications, their direct extension to 3D is very challenging and they cannot be directly applied to represent relations between components of complex 3D objects represented by 3D B-Rep models in R3. Herein we present an extended Region Connection Calculus (RCC) model to express and formalize topological relations between planar regions for creating 3D model represented by Boundary Representation model in R3. We proposed a new dimension extended 9-Intersection model to represent the basic relations among components of a complex object, including disjoint, meet and intersect. The last element in 3*3 matrix records the details of connection through the common parts of two regions and the intersecting line of two planes. Additionally, this model can deal with the case of planar regions with holes. Finally, the geometric information is transformed into a list of strings consisting of topological relations between two planar regions and detailed connection information. The experiments show that the proposed approach helps to identify topological relations of planar segments of point cloud automatically.

  2. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  3. Automated Mosaicking of Multiple 3d Point Clouds Generated from a Depth Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Yoon, W.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for automated mosaicking of multiple 3D point clouds generated from a depth camera. A depth camera generates depth data by using ToF (Time of Flight) method and intensity data by using intensity of returned signal. The depth camera used in this paper was a SR4000 from MESA Imaging. This camera generates a depth map and intensity map of 176 x 44 pixels. Generated depth map saves physical depth data with mm of precision. Generated intensity map contains texture data with many noises. We used texture maps for extracting tiepoints and depth maps for assigning z coordinates to tiepoints and point cloud mosaicking. There are four steps in the proposed mosaicking method. In the first step, we acquired multiple 3D point clouds by rotating depth camera and capturing data per rotation. In the second step, we estimated 3D-3D transformation relationships between subsequent point clouds. For this, 2D tiepoints were extracted automatically from the corresponding two intensity maps. They were converted into 3D tiepoints using depth maps. We used a 3D similarity transformation model for estimating the 3D-3D transformation relationships. In the third step, we converted local 3D-3D transformations into a global transformation for all point clouds with respect to a reference one. In the last step, the extent of single depth map mosaic was calculated and depth values per mosaic pixel were determined by a ray tracing method. For experiments, 8 depth maps and intensity maps were used. After the four steps, an output mosaicked depth map of 454x144 was generated. It is expected that the proposed method would be useful for developing an effective 3D indoor mapping method in future.

  4. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  5. The effect of convective life cycle stage on microwave brightness temperature/rainrate relations as determined from 3-D cloud model results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Prasad, N.; Yeh, H.-Y. M.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rain rate and the brightness temperature (Tb) was investigated using a cloud model/microwave radiative transfer model combination to obtain the rain-rate/Tb relations for four different frequencies: 10, 19, 37, and 86 GHz. The results at 19, 37, and 86 GHz were found to be significantly affected by ice in the modeled convective system, while the results at 10 GHz showed very little effect. Nonprecipitating cloud water was found to affect Tb in two ways. First, at low rain rates, the presence of significant cloud water produced higher Tb values than in cases with little cloud water. The second effects occurs at 19, 37, and 86 GHz at higher rainrates associated with significant ice formation; the scattering by ice lowered the Tb.

  6. Unlocking the scientific potential of complex 3D point cloud dataset : new classification and 3D comparison methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.; Brodu, N.; Leroux, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based lidar and photogrammetric techniques are increasingly used to track the evolution of natural surfaces in 3D at an unprecedented resolution and precision. The range of applications encompass many type of natural surfaces with different geometries and roughness characteristics (landslides, cliff erosion, river beds, bank erosion,....). Unravelling surface change in these contexts requires to compare large point clouds in 2D or 3D. The most commonly used method in geomorphology is based on a 2D difference of the gridded point clouds. Yet this is hardly adapted to many 3D natural environments such as rivers (with horizontal beds and vertical banks), while gridding complex rough surfaces is a complex task. On the other hand, tools allowing to perform 3D comparison are scarce and may require to mesh the point clouds which is difficult on rough natural surfaces. Moreover, existing 3D comparison tools do not provide an explicit calculation of confidence intervals that would factor in registration errors, roughness effects and instrument related position uncertainties. To unlock this problem, we developed the first algorithm combining a 3D measurement of surface change directly on point clouds with an estimate of spatially variable confidence intervals (called M3C2). The method has two steps : (1) surface normal estimation and orientation in 3D at a scale consistent with the local roughness ; (2) measurement of mean surface change along the normal direction with explicit calculation of a local confidence interval. Comparison with existing 3D methods based on a closest-point calculation demonstrates the higher precision of the M3C2 method when mm changes needs to be detected. The M3C2 method is also simple to use as it does not require surface meshing or gridding, and is not sensitive to missing data or change in point density. We also present a 3D classification tool (CANUPO) for vegetation removal based on a new geometrical measure: the multi

  7. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  8. Parameterization and analysis of 3-D radiative transfer in clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Varnai, Tamas

    2012-03-16

    This report provides a summary of major accomplishments from the project. The project examines the impact of radiative interactions between neighboring atmospheric columns, for example clouds scattering extra sunlight toward nearby clear areas. While most current cloud models don't consider these interactions and instead treat sunlight in each atmospheric column separately, the resulting uncertainties have remained unknown. This project has provided the first estimates on the way average solar heating is affected by interactions between nearby columns. These estimates have been obtained by combining several years of cloud observations at three DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites (in Alaska, Oklahoma, and Papua New Guinea) with simulations of solar radiation around the observed clouds. The importance of radiative interactions between atmospheric columns was evaluated by contrasting simulations that included the interactions with those that did not. This study provides lower-bound estimates for radiative interactions: It cannot consider interactions in cross-wind direction, because it uses two-dimensional vertical cross-sections through clouds that were observed by instruments looking straight up as clouds drifted aloft. Data from new DOE scanning radars will allow future radiative studies to consider the full three-dimensional nature of radiative processes. The results reveal that two-dimensional radiative interactions increase overall day-and-night average solar heating by about 0.3, 1.2, and 4.1 Watts per meter square at the three sites, respectively. This increase grows further if one considers that most large-domain cloud simulations have resolutions that cannot specify small-scale cloud variability. For example, the increases in solar heating mentioned above roughly double for a fairly typical model resolution of 1 km. The study also examined the factors that shape radiative interactions between atmospheric columns and

  9. A 3D Cloud-Construction Algorithm for the EarthCARE Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, H. W.; Jerg, M. P.; Wehr, T.; Kato, S.; Donovan, D. P.; Hogan, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents and assesses an algorithm that constructs 3D distributions of cloud from passive satellite imagery and collocated 2D nadir profiles of cloud properties inferred synergistically from lidar, cloud radar and imager data.

  10. Influence of 3D Effects on 1D Aerosol Retrievals in Synthetic, Partially Clouded Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stap, F. A.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Emde, C.

    2014-12-01

    Most satellite measurements of the microphysical and radiative properties of aerosol near clouds are either strictly screened for, or hindered by sub-pixel cloud contamination. This may change with the advent of a new generation of aerosol retrieval algorithms,intended for multi-angle, multi-wavelength photo-polarimetric instruments such as POLDER3on board PARASOL, which show ability to separate between aerosol and cloud particles.In order to obtain the required computational efficiency these algorithms typically make use of 1D radiative transfer models and are thus unable to account for the 3D effects that occur in actual, partially clouded scenes.Here, we apply an aerosol retrieval algorithm, which employs a 1D radiative transfer code and the independent pixel approximation, on synthetic, 3D, partially cloudedscenes calculated with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MYSTIC.The influence of the 3D effects due to clouds on the retrieved microphysical and optical aerosol properties is presented and the ability of the algorithm to retrieve these properties in partially clouded scenes will be discussed.

  11. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  12. Towards 3D Matching of Point Clouds Derived from Oblique and Nadir Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming

    Because of the low-expense high-efficient image collection process and the rich 3D and texture information presented in the images, a combined use of 2D airborne nadir and oblique images to reconstruct 3D geometric scene has a promising market for future commercial usage like urban planning or first responders. The methodology introduced in this thesis provides a feasible way towards fully automated 3D city modeling from oblique and nadir airborne imagery. In this thesis, the difficulty of matching 2D images with large disparity is avoided by grouping the images first and applying the 3D registration afterward. The procedure starts with the extraction of point clouds using a modified version of the RIT 3D Extraction Workflow. Then the point clouds are refined by noise removal and surface smoothing processes. Since the point clouds extracted from different image groups use independent coordinate systems, there are translation, rotation and scale differences existing. To figure out these differences, 3D keypoints and their features are extracted. For each pair of point clouds, an initial alignment and a more accurate registration are applied in succession. The final transform matrix presents the parameters describing the translation, rotation and scale requirements. The methodology presented in the thesis has been shown to behave well for test data. The robustness of this method is discussed by adding artificial noise to the test data. For Pictometry oblique aerial imagery, the initial alignment provides a rough alignment result, which contains a larger offset compared to that of test data because of the low quality of the point clouds themselves, but it can be further refined through the final optimization. The accuracy of the final registration result is evaluated by comparing it to the result obtained from manual selection of matched points. Using the method introduced, point clouds extracted from different image groups could be combined with each other to build a

  13. Dense point-cloud creation using superresolution for a monocular 3D reconstruction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-05-01

    We present an enhanced 3D reconstruction algorithm designed to support an autonomously navigated unmanned aerial system (UAS). The algorithm presented focuses on the 3D reconstruction of a scene using only a single moving camera. In this way, the system can be used to construct a point cloud model of its unknown surroundings. The original reconstruction process, resulting with a point cloud was computed based on feature matching and depth triangulation analysis. Although dense, this original model was hindered due to its low disparity resolution. As feature points were matched from frame to frame, the resolution of the input images and the discrete nature of disparities limited the depth computations within a scene. With the recent addition of the preprocessing steps of nonlinear super resolution, the accuracy of the point cloud which relies on precise disparity measurement has significantly increased. Using a pixel by pixel approach, the super resolution technique computes the phase congruency of each pixel's neighborhood and produces nonlinearly interpolated high resolution input frames. Thus, a feature point travels a more precise discrete disparity. Also, the quantity of points within the 3D point cloud model is significantly increased since the number of features is directly proportional to the resolution and high frequencies of the input image. The contribution of the newly added preprocessing steps is measured by evaluating the density and accuracy of the reconstructed point cloud for autonomous navigation and mapping tasks within unknown environments.

  14. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required for the

  15. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  16. 3D Modeling By Consolidation Of Independent Geometries Extracted From Point Clouds - The Case Of The Modeling Of The Turckheim's Chapel (Alsace, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Fabre, Ph.; Schlussel, B.

    2014-06-01

    Turckheim is a small town located in Alsace, north-east of France. In the heart of the Alsatian vineyard, this city has many historical monuments including its old church. To understand the effectiveness of the project described in this paper, it is important to have a look at the history of this church. Indeed there are many historical events that explain its renovation and even its partial reconstruction. The first mention of a christian sanctuary in Turckheim dates back to 898. It will be replaced in the 12th century by a roman church (chapel), which subsists today as the bell tower. Touched by a lightning in 1661, the tower then was enhanced. In 1736, it was repaired following damage sustained in a tornado. In 1791, the town installs an organ to the church. Last milestone, the church is destroyed by fire in 1978. The organ, like the heart of the church will then have to be again restored (1983) with a simplified architecture. From this heavy and rich past, it unfortunately and as it is often the case, remains only very few documents and information available apart from facts stated in some sporadic writings. And with regard to the geometry, the positioning, the physical characteristics of the initial building, there are very little indication. Some assumptions of positions and right-of-way were well issued by different historians or archaeologists. The acquisition and 3D modeling project must therefore provide the current state of the edifice to serve as the basis of new investigations and for the generation of new hypotheses on the locations and historical shapes of this church and its original chapel (Fig. 1)

  17. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  18. 3D model reconstruction of underground goaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan

    2005-10-01

    Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.

  19. Retrieval of cloud microphysical parameters from INSAT-3D: a feasibility study using radiative transfer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinya, John; Bipasha, Paul S.

    2016-05-01

    Clouds strongly modulate the Earths energy balance and its atmosphere through their interaction with the solar and terrestrial radiation. They interact with radiation in various ways like scattering, emission and absorption. By observing these changes in radiation at different wavelength, cloud properties can be estimated. Cloud properties are of utmost importance in studying different weather and climate phenomena. At present, no satellite provides cloud microphysical parameters over the Indian region with high temporal resolution. INSAT-3D imager observations in 6 spectral channels from geostationary platform offer opportunity to study continuous cloud properties over Indian region. Visible (0.65 μm) and shortwave-infrared (1.67 μm) channel radiances can be used to retrieve cloud microphysical parameters such as cloud optical thickness (COT) and cloud effective radius (CER). In this paper, we have carried out a feasibility study with the objective of cloud microphysics retrieval. For this, an inter-comparison of 15 globally available radiative transfer models (RTM) were carried out with the aim of generating a Look-up- Table (LUT). SBDART model was chosen for the simulations. The sensitivity of each spectral channel to different cloud properties was investigated. The inputs to the RT model were configured over our study region (50°S - 50°N and 20°E - 130°E) and a large number of simulations were carried out using random input vectors to generate the LUT. The determination of cloud optical thickness and cloud effective radius from spectral reflectance measurements constitutes the inverse problem and is typically solved by comparing the measured reflectances with entries in LUT and searching for the combination of COT and CER that gives the best fit. The products are available on the website www.mosdac.gov.in

  20. The Effects of Lightning NO(x) Production during the July 21 EULINOX Storm studied with a 3-D Cloud-scale Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley E.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Huntrieser, Heidi; Schumann, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The July 21,1998 thunderstonn observed during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Project (EULINOX) project was simulated using the three-dimensional Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The simulation successfully reproduced a number of observed storm features including the splitting of the original cell into a southern cell which developed supercell characteristics, and a northern cell which became multicellular. Output from the GCE simulation was used to drive an offline cloud-scale chemical transport model which calculates tracer transport and includes a parameterization of lightning NO(x) production which uses observed flash rates as input. Estimates of lightning NO(x) production were deduced by assuming various values of production per intracloud and production per cloud-to-ground flash and comparing the results with in-cloud aircraft observations. The assumption that both types of flashes produce 360 moles of NO per flash on average compared most favorably with column mass and probability distribution functions calculated from observations. This assumed production per flash corresponds to a global annual lightning NOx source of 7 Tg N per yr. Chemical reactions were included in the model to evaluate the impact of lightning NO(x), on ozone. During the storm, the inclusion of lightning NOx in the model results in a small loss of ozone (on average less than 4 ppbv) at all model levels. Simulations of the chemical environment in the 24 hours following the storm show on average a small increase in the net production of ozone at most levels resulting from lightning NO(x), maximizing at approximately 5 ppbv per day at 5.5 km. Between 8 and 10.5 km, lightning NO(x) causes decreased net ozone production.

  1. Cloud4Psi: cloud computing for 3D protein structure similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Mrozek, Dariusz; Małysiak-Mrozek, Bożena; Kłapciński, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Popular methods for 3D protein structure similarity searching, especially those that generate high-quality alignments such as Combinatorial Extension (CE) and Flexible structure Alignment by Chaining Aligned fragment pairs allowing Twists (FATCAT) are still time consuming. As a consequence, performing similarity searching against large repositories of structural data requires increased computational resources that are not always available. Cloud computing provides huge amounts of computational power that can be provisioned on a pay-as-you-go basis. We have developed the cloud-based system that allows scaling of the similarity searching process vertically and horizontally. Cloud4Psi (Cloud for Protein Similarity) was tested in the Microsoft Azure cloud environment and provided good, almost linearly proportional acceleration when scaled out onto many computational units. Availability and implementation: Cloud4Psi is available as Software as a Service for testing purposes at: http://cloud4psi.cloudapp.net/. For source code and software availability, please visit the Cloud4Psi project home page at http://zti.polsl.pl/dmrozek/science/cloud4psi.htm. Contact: dariusz.mrozek@polsl.pl PMID:24930141

  2. Comparison Between Two Generic 3d Building Reconstruction Approaches - Point Cloud Based VS. Image Processing Based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, D.; Linkiewicz, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares two generic approaches for the reconstruction of buildings. Synthesized and real oblique and vertical aerial imagery is transformed on the one hand into a dense photogrammetric 3D point cloud and on the other hand into photogrammetric 2.5D surface models depicting a scene from different cardinal directions. One approach evaluates the 3D point cloud statistically in order to extract the hull of structures, while the other approach makes use of salient line segments in 2.5D surface models, so that the hull of 3D structures can be recovered. With orders of magnitudes more analyzed 3D points, the point cloud based approach is an order of magnitude more accurate for the synthetic dataset compared to the lower dimensioned, but therefor orders of magnitude faster, image processing based approach. For real world data the difference in accuracy between both approaches is not significant anymore. In both cases the reconstructed polyhedra supply information about their inherent semantic and can be used for subsequent and more differentiated semantic annotations through exploitation of texture information.

  3. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  4. Adaptive noise suppression technique for dense 3D point cloud reconstructions from monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    Mobile vision-based autonomous vehicles use video frames from multiple angles to construct a 3D model of their environment. In this paper, we present a post-processing adaptive noise suppression technique to enhance the quality of the computed 3D model. Our near real-time reconstruction algorithm uses each pair of frames to compute the disparities of tracked feature points to translate the distance a feature has traveled within the frame in pixels into real world depth values. As a result these tracked feature points are plotted to form a dense and colorful point cloud. Due to the inevitable small vibrations in the camera and the mismatches within the feature tracking algorithm, the point cloud model contains a significant amount of misplaced points appearing as noise. The proposed noise suppression technique utilizes the spatial information of each point to unify points of similar texture and color into objects while simultaneously removing noise dissociated with any nearby objects. The noise filter combines all the points of similar depth into 2D layers throughout the point cloud model. By applying erosion and dilation techniques we are able to eliminate the unwanted floating points while retaining points of larger objects. To reverse the compression process, we transform the 2D layer back into the 3D model allowing points to return to their original position without the attached noise components. We evaluate the resulting noiseless point cloud by utilizing an unmanned ground vehicle to perform obstacle avoidance tasks. The contribution of the noise suppression technique is measured by evaluating the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction.

  5. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  6. Incorporation of 3D Shortwave Radiative Effects within the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Gautier, C.

    2005-03-18

    A principal goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to understand the 3D cloud-radiation problem from scales ranging from the local to the size of global climate model (GCM) grid squares. For climate models using typical cloud overlap schemes, 3D radiative effects are minimal for all but the most complicated cloud fields. However, with the introduction of ''superparameterization'' methods, where sub-grid cloud processes are accounted for by embedding high resolution 2D cloud system resolving models within a GCM grid cell, the impact of 3D radiative effects on the local scale becomes increasingly relevant (Randall et al. 2003). In a recent study, we examined this issue by comparing the heating rates produced from a 3D and 1D shortwave radiative transfer model for a variety of radar derived cloud fields (O'Hirok and Gautier 2005). As demonstrated in Figure 1, the heating rate differences for a large convective field can be significant where 3D effects produce areas o f intense local heating. This finding, however, does not address the more important question of whether 3D radiative effects can alter the dynamics and structure of a cloud field. To investigate that issue we have incorporated a 3D radiative transfer algorithm into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Here, we present very preliminary findings of a comparison between cloud fields generated from a high resolution non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical weather model using 1D and 3D radiative transfer codes.

  7. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  8. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  9. 3D change detection at street level using mobile laser scanning point clouds and terrestrial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Gruen, Armin

    2014-04-01

    consistency between point clouds and stereo images. Finally, an over-segmentation based graph cut optimization is carried out, taking into account the color, depth and class information to compute the changed area in the image space. The proposed method is invariant to light changes, robust to small co-registration errors between images and point clouds, and can be applied straightforwardly to 3D polyhedral models. This method can be used for 3D street data updating, city infrastructure management and damage monitoring in complex urban scenes.

  10. Solar abundances and 3D model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger

    2010-03-01

    We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing 3D hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our 3D model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.

  11. Evaluation of Partially Overlapping 3D Point Cloud's Registration by using ICP variant and CloudCompare.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendra, Y. D.; Mehrotra, S. C.; Kale, K. V.; Manza, R. R.; Dhumal, R. K.; Nagne, A. D.; Vibhute, A. D.

    2014-11-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are used to get dense point samples of large object's surface. TLS is new and efficient method to digitize large object or scene. The collected point samples come into different formats and coordinates. Different scans are required to scan large object such as heritage site. Point cloud registration is considered as important task to bring different scans into whole 3D model in one coordinate system. Point clouds can be registered by using one of the three ways or combination of them, Target based, feature extraction, point cloud based. For the present study we have gone through Point Cloud Based registration approach. We have collected partially overlapped 3D Point Cloud data of Department of Computer Science & IT (DCSIT) building located in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad. To get the complete point cloud information of the building we have taken 12 scans, 4 scans for exterior and 8 scans for interior façade data collection. There are various algorithms available in literature, but Iterative Closest Point (ICP) is most dominant algorithms. The various researchers have developed variants of ICP for better registration process. The ICP point cloud registration algorithm is based on the search of pairs of nearest points in a two adjacent scans and calculates the transformation parameters between them, it provides advantage that no artificial target is required for registration process. We studied and implemented three variants Brute Force, KDTree, Partial Matching of ICP algorithm in MATLAB. The result shows that the implemented version of ICP algorithm with its variants gives better result with speed and accuracy of registration as compared with CloudCompare Open Source software.

  12. Filtering method for 3D laser scanning point cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da; Wang, Li; Hao, Yuncai; Zhang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the hardware and software of the three-dimensional model acquisition, three-dimensional laser scanning technology is utilized in various aspects, especially in space exploration. The point cloud filter is very important before using the data. In the paper, considering both the processing quality and computing speed, an improved mean-shift point cloud filter method is proposed. Firstly, by analyze the relevance of the normal vector between the upcoming processing point and the near points, the iterative neighborhood of the mean-shift is selected dynamically, then the high frequency noise is constrained. Secondly, considering the normal vector of the processing point, the normal vector is updated. Finally, updated position is calculated for each point, then each point is moved in the normal vector according to the updated position. The experimental results show that the large features are retained, at the same time, the small sharp features are also existed for different size and shape of objects, so the target feature information is protected precisely. The computational complexity of the proposed method is not high, it can bring high precision results with fast speed, so it is very suitable for space application. It can also be utilized in civil, such as large object measurement, industrial measurement, car navigation etc. In the future, filter with the help of point strength will be further exploited.

  13. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  14. Laser point cloud diluting and refined 3D reconstruction fusing with digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jianqing

    2007-06-01

    This paper shows a method to combine the imaged-based modeling technique and Laser scanning data to rebuild a realistic 3D model. Firstly use the image pair to build a relative 3D model of the object, and then register the relative model to the Laser coordinate system. Project the Laser points to one of the images and extract the feature lines from that image. After that fit the 2D projected Laser points to lines in the image and constrain their corresponding 3D points to lines in the 3D Laser space to keep the features of the model. Build TIN and cancel the redundant points, which don't impact the curvature of their neighborhood areas. Use the diluting Laser point cloud to reconstruct the geometry model of the object, and then project the texture of corresponding image onto it. The process is shown to be feasible and progressive proved by experimental results. The final model is quite similar with the real object. This method cuts down the quantity of data in the precondition of keeping the features of model. The effect of it is manifest.

  15. Octree-Based SIMD Strategy for Icp Registration and Alignment of 3d Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, D.; Dalyot, S.

    2012-07-01

    Matching and fusion of 3D point clouds, such as close range laser scans, is important for creating an integrated 3D model data infrastructure. The Iterative Closest Point algorithm for alignment of point clouds is one of the most commonly used algorithms for matching of rigid bodies. Evidently, scans are acquired from different positions and might present different data characterization and accuracies, forcing complex data-handling issues. The growing demand for near real-time applications also introduces new computational requirements and constraints into such processes. This research proposes a methodology to solving the computational and processing complexities in the ICP algorithm by introducing specific performance enhancements to enable more efficient analysis and processing. An Octree data structure together with the caching of localized Delaunay triangulation-based surface meshes is implemented to increase computation efficiency and handling of data. Parallelization of the ICP process is carried out by using the Single Instruction, Multiple Data processing scheme - based on the Divide and Conquer multi-branched paradigm - enabling multiple processing elements to be performed on the same operation on multiple data independently and simultaneously. When compared to the traditional non-parallel list processing the Octree-based SIMD strategy showed a sharp increase in computation performance and efficiency, together with a reliable and accurate alignment of large 3D point clouds, contributing to a qualitative and efficient application.

  16. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  17. Quasi-3D Multi-scale Modeling Framework Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, A.; Jung, J.

    2008-12-01

    When models are truncated in or near an energetically active range of the spectrum, model physics must be changed as the resolution changes. The model physics of GCMs and that of CRMs are, however, quite different from each other and at present there is no unified formulation of model physics that automatically provides transition between these model physics. The Quasi-3D (Q3D) Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is an attempt to bridge this gap. Like the recently proposed Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (HMM) (E and Engquist 2003), MMF combines a macroscopic model, GCM, and a microscopic model, CRM. Unlike the traditional multiscale methods such as the multi-grid and adapted mesh refinement techniques, HMM and MMF are for solving multi-physics problems. They share the common objective "to design combined macroscopic-microscopic computational methods that are much more efficient than solving the full microscopic model and at the same time give the information we need" (E et al. 2008). The question is then how to meet this objective in practice, which can be highly problem dependent. In HHM, the efficiency is gained typically by localization of the microscale problem. Following the pioneering work by Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1999) and Grabowski (2001), MMF takes advantage of the fact that 2D CRMs are reasonably successful in simulating deep clouds. In this approach, the efficiency is gained by sacrificing the three-dimensionality of cloud-scale motion. It also "localizes" the algorithm through embedding a CRM in each GCM grid box using cyclic boundary condition. The Q3D MMF is an attempt to reduce the expense due to these constraints by partially including the cloud-scale 3D effects and extending the CRM beyond individual GCM grid boxes. As currently formulated, the Q3D MMF is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a 3D anelastic cloud-resolving vector vorticity equation model (VVM) applied to a network of horizontal grids. The network

  18. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  19. Integrated Biogeomorphological Modeling Using Delft3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Q.; Jagers, B.

    2011-12-01

    The skill of numerical morphological models has improved significantly from the early 2D uniform, total load sediment models (with steady state or infrequent wave updates) to recent 3D hydrodynamic models with multiple suspended and bed load sediment fractions and bed stratigraphy (online coupled with waves). Although there remain many open questions within this combined field of hydro- and morphodynamics, we observe an increasing need to include biological processes in the overall dynamics. In riverine and inter-tidal environments, there is often an important influence by riparian vegetation and macrobenthos. Over the past decade more and more researchers have started to extend the simulation environment with wrapper scripts and other quick code hacks to estimate their influence on morphological development in coastal, estuarine and riverine environments. Although one can in this way quickly analyze different approaches, these research tools have generally not been designed with reuse, performance and portability in mind. We have now implemented a reusable, flexible, and efficient two-way link between the Delft3D open source framework for hydrodynamics, waves and morphology, and the water quality and ecology modules. The same link will be used for 1D, 2D and 3D modeling on networks and both structured and unstructured grids. We will describe the concepts of the overall system, and illustrate it with some first results.

  20. Sensing and compressing 3-D models

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, J.

    1998-02-01

    The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.

  1. Reconstruction of 3D Shapes of Opaque Cumulus Clouds from Airborne Multiangle Imaging: A Proof-of-Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; Bal, G.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Operational remote sensing of microphysical and optical cloud properties is invariably predicated on the assumption of plane-parallel slab geometry for the targeted cloud. The sole benefit of this often-questionable assumption about the cloud is that it leads to one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer (RT)---a textbook, computationally tractable model. We present new results as evidence that, thanks to converging advances in 3D RT, inverse problem theory, algorithm implementation, and computer hardware, we are at the dawn of a new era in cloud remote sensing where we can finally go beyond the plane-parallel paradigm. Granted, the plane-parallel/1D RT assumption is reasonable for spatially extended stratiform cloud layers, as well as the smoothly distributed background aerosol layers. However, these 1D RT-friendly scenarios exclude cases that are critically important for climate physics. 1D RT---whence operational cloud remote sensing---fails catastrophically for cumuliform clouds that have fully 3D outer shapes and internal structures driven by shallow or deep convection. For these situations, the first order of business in a robust characterization by remote sensing is to abandon the slab geometry framework and determine the 3D geometry of the cloud, as a first step toward bone fide 3D cloud tomography. With this specific goal in mind, we deliver a proof-of-concept for an entirely new kind of remote sensing applicable to 3D clouds. It is based on highly simplified 3D RT and exploits multi-angular suites of cloud images at high spatial resolution. Airborne sensors like AirMSPI readily acquire such data. The key element of the reconstruction algorithm is a sophisticated solution of the nonlinear inverse problem via linearization of the forward model and an iteration scheme supported, where necessary, by adaptive regularization. Currently, the demo uses a 2D setting to show how either vertical profiles or horizontal slices of the cloud can be accurately reconstructed

  2. Street curb recognition in 3d point cloud data using morphological operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, Borja; Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, María; García-Cortés, Silverio; Ordóñez, Celestino

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and automatic detection of cartographic-entities saves a great deal of time and money when creating and updating cartographic databases. The current trend in remote sensing feature extraction is to develop methods that are as automatic as possible. The aim is to develop algorithms that can obtain accurate results with the least possible human intervention in the process. Non-manual curb detection is an important issue in road maintenance, 3D urban modeling, and autonomous navigation fields. This paper is focused on the semi-automatic recognition of curbs and street boundaries using a 3D point cloud registered by a mobile laser scanner (MLS) system. This work is divided into four steps. First, a coordinate system transformation is carried out, moving from a global coordinate system to a local one. After that and in order to simplify the calculations involved in the procedure, a rasterization based on the projection of the measured point cloud on the XY plane was carried out, passing from the 3D original data to a 2D image. To determine the location of curbs in the image, different image processing techniques such as thresholding and morphological operations were applied. Finally, the upper and lower edges of curbs are detected by an unsupervised classification algorithm on the curvature and roughness of the points that represent curbs. The proposed method is valid in both straight and curved road sections and applicable both to laser scanner and stereo vision 3D data due to the independence of its scanning geometry. This method has been successfully tested with two datasets measured by different sensors. The first dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a TOPCON sensor in the Spanish town of Cudillero. That point cloud comprises more than 6,000,000 points and covers a 400-meter street. The second dataset corresponds to a point cloud measured by a RIEGL sensor in the Austrian town of Horn. That point cloud comprises 8,000,000 points and represents a

  3. 3D modeling of optically challenging objects.

    PubMed

    Park, Johnny; Kak, Avinash

    2008-01-01

    We present a system for constructing 3D models of real-world objects with optically challenging surfaces. The system utilizes a new range imaging concept called multi-peak range imaging, which stores multiple candidates of range measurements for each point on the object surface. The multiple measurements include the erroneous range data caused by various surface properties that are not ideal for structured-light range sensing. False measurements generated by spurious reflections are eliminated by applying a series of constraint tests. The constraint tests based on local surface and local sensor visibility are applied first to individual range images. The constraint tests based on global consistency of coordinates and visibility are then applied to all range images acquired from different viewpoints. We show the effectiveness of our method by constructing 3D models of five different optically challenging objects. To evaluate the performance of the constraint tests and to examine the effects of the parameters used in the constraint tests, we acquired the ground truth data by painting those objects to suppress the surface-related properties that cause difficulties in range sensing. Experimental results indicate that our method significantly improves upon the traditional methods for constructing reliable 3D models of optically challenging objects. PMID:18192707

  4. Robust hashing for 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.

  5. Grammar-Supported 3d Indoor Reconstruction from Point Clouds for As-Built Bim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a grammar-based approach for the robust automatic reconstruction of 3D interiors from raw point clouds. The core of the approach is a 3D indoor grammar which is an extension of our previously published grammar concept for the modeling of 2D floor plans. The grammar allows for the modeling of buildings whose horizontal, continuous floors are traversed by hallways providing access to the rooms as it is the case for most office buildings or public buildings like schools, hospitals or hotels. The grammar is designed in such way that it can be embedded in an iterative automatic learning process providing a seamless transition from LOD3 to LOD4 building models. Starting from an initial low-level grammar, automatically derived from the window representations of an available LOD3 building model, hypotheses about indoor geometries can be generated. The hypothesized indoor geometries are checked against observation data - here 3D point clouds - collected in the interior of the building. The verified and accepted geometries form the basis for an automatic update of the initial grammar. By this, the knowledge content of the initial grammar is enriched, leading to a grammar with increased quality. This higher-level grammar can then be applied to predict realistic geometries to building parts where only sparse observation data are available. Thus, our approach allows for the robust generation of complete 3D indoor models whose quality can be improved continuously as soon as new observation data are fed into the grammar-based reconstruction process. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated based on a real-world example.

  6. Fallon FORGE 3D Geologic Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    An x,y,z scattered data file for the 3D geologic model of the Fallon FORGE site. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  7. 3D Models of Symbiotic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.

    2015-12-01

    Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we model multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the models to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  8. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-01-01

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896

  9. Comparison of 3D point clouds produced by LIDAR and UAV photoscan in the Rochefort cave (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Kaufmann, Olivier; Le Mouelic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different kind of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g. Agisoft, PhotoModeler3D, VisualSFM). We present here a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The site is located in the Belgian Variscan fold-and-thrust belt, a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. A LIDAR scan has been acquired in the main chamber of the cave (~ 15000 m³) to spatialize 3D point cloud of its inner walls and infer geological beds and structures. Even if the use of LIDAR instrument was not really comfortable in such caving environment, the collected data showed a remarkable precision according to few control points geometry. We also decided to perform another challenging survey of the same cave chamber by modelling a 3D point cloud using photogrammetry of a set of DSLR camera pictures taken from the ground and UAV pictures. The aim was to compare both techniques in terms of (i) implementation of data acquisition and processing, (ii) quality of resulting 3D points clouds (points density, field vs cloud recovery and points precision), (iii) their application for geological purposes. Through Rochefort case study, main conclusions are that LIDAR technique provides higher density point clouds with slightly higher precision than photogrammetry method. However, 3D data modeled by photogrammetry provide visible light spectral information

  10. 3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.

  11. MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; Levatin, J L

    2006-08-14

    Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.

  12. Comparison of 3D interest point detectors and descriptors for point cloud fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, R.; Weber, T.; Hellwich, O.

    2014-08-01

    The extraction and description of keypoints as salient image parts has a long tradition within processing and analysis of 2D images. Nowadays, 3D data gains more and more importance. This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of keypoints for the task of fusing multiple 3D point clouds. For this goal, several combinations of 3D keypoint detectors and descriptors are tested. The experiments are based on 3D scenes with varying properties, including 3D scanner data as well as Kinect point clouds. The obtained results indicate that the specific method to extract and describe keypoints in 3D data has to be carefully chosen. In many cases the accuracy suffers from a too strong reduction of the available points to keypoints.

  13. Deriving 3d Point Clouds from Terrestrial Photographs - Comparison of Different Sensors and Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Mokroš, Martin; Lange, Julia; Petschko, Helene; Prasicek, Günther; Oude Elberink, Sander

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry nowadays offers a reasonably cheap, intuitive and effective approach to 3D-modelling. However, the important choice, which sensor and which software to use is not straight forward and needs consideration as the choice will have effects on the resulting 3D point cloud and its derivatives. We compare five different sensors as well as four different state-of-the-art software packages for a single application, the modelling of a vegetated rock face. The five sensors represent different resolutions, sensor sizes and price segments of the cameras. The software packages used are: (1) Agisoft PhotoScan Pro (1.16), (2) Pix4D (2.0.89), (3) a combination of Visual SFM (V0.5.22) and SURE (1.2.0.286), and (4) MicMac (1.0). We took photos of a vegetated rock face from identical positions with all sensors. Then we compared the results of the different software packages regarding the ease of the workflow, visual appeal, similarity and quality of the point cloud. While PhotoScan and Pix4D offer the user-friendliest workflows, they are also "black-box" programmes giving only little insight into their processing. Unsatisfying results may only be changed by modifying settings within a module. The combined workflow of Visual SFM, SURE and CloudCompare is just as simple but requires more user interaction. MicMac turned out to be the most challenging software as it is less user-friendly. However, MicMac offers the most possibilities to influence the processing workflow. The resulting point-clouds of PhotoScan and MicMac are the most appealing.

  14. Automated extraction and analysis of rock discontinuity characteristics from 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchetti, Matteo; Villa, Alberto; Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    A reliable characterization of fractured rock masses requires an exhaustive geometrical description of discontinuities, including orientation, spacing, and size. These are required to describe discontinuum rock mass structure, perform Discrete Fracture Network and DEM modelling, or provide input for rock mass classification or equivalent continuum estimate of rock mass properties. Although several advanced methodologies have been developed in the last decades, a complete characterization of discontinuity geometry in practice is still challenging, due to scale-dependent variability of fracture patterns and difficult accessibility to large outcrops. Recent advances in remote survey techniques, such as terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry, allow a fast and accurate acquisition of dense 3D point clouds, which promoted the development of several semi-automatic approaches to extract discontinuity features. Nevertheless, these often need user supervision on algorithm parameters which can be difficult to assess. To overcome this problem, we developed an original Matlab tool, allowing fast, fully automatic extraction and analysis of discontinuity features with no requirements on point cloud accuracy, density and homogeneity. The tool consists of a set of algorithms which: (i) process raw 3D point clouds, (ii) automatically characterize discontinuity sets, (iii) identify individual discontinuity surfaces, and (iv) analyse their spacing and persistence. The tool operates in either a supervised or unsupervised mode, starting from an automatic preliminary exploration data analysis. The identification and geometrical characterization of discontinuity features is divided in steps. First, coplanar surfaces are identified in the whole point cloud using K-Nearest Neighbor and Principal Component Analysis algorithms optimized on point cloud accuracy and specified typical facet size. Then, discontinuity set orientation is calculated using Kernel Density Estimation and

  15. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (3D) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional 3D geological models based on archival geological data. Such models have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based 3D stratigraphic model of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological modeling in this area. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x

  16. Parameter Estimation of Fossil Oysters from High Resolution 3D Point Cloud and Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, Ana; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Nothegger, Clemens; Mandic, Oleg; Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    is to investigate if the application of state-of-the-art 3D digitizing, data processing, and visualization technologies support the interpretation of this paleontological site. The obtained 3D data (approx. 1 billion points at the respective area) is analyzed with respect to their 3D structure in order to derive geometrical information. The aim of this contribution is to segment the 3D point cloud of laser scanning data into meaningful regions representing particular objects. Geometric parameters (curvature, tangent plane orientation, local minimum and maximum, etc.) are derived for every 3D point of the point cloud. A set of features is computed in each point using different kernel sizes to define neighborhoods of different size. This provides information on convexity (outer surface), concavity (inner surface) and locally flat areas, which shall be further utilized in fitting model of Crassostrea-shells. In addition, digitizing is performed manually in order to obtain a representative set of reference data for the evaluation of the obtained results. For evaluating these results the reference data (length and orientation of specimen) is then compared to the automatically derived segments of the point cloud. The study is supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF P 25883-N29).

  17. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  18. 3D Modeling of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huba, Joseph; Joyce, Glenn; Krall, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and modeling ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe 3D simulation results from the NRL ionosphere models SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and modeling ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe 3D simulation results from the NRL ionosphere models SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Research supported by ONR.

  19. Edge features extraction from 3D laser point cloud based on corresponding images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-feng; Zhao, Zi-ming; Xu, Guo-qing; Geng, Yan-long

    2013-09-01

    An extraction method of edge features from 3D laser point cloud based on corresponding images was proposed. After the registration of point cloud and corresponding image, the sub-pixel edge can be extracted from the image using gray moment algorithm. Then project the sub-pixel edge to the point cloud in fitting scan-lines. At last the edge features were achieved by linking the crossing points. The experimental results demonstrate that the method guarantees accurate fine extraction.

  20. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.

    1996-12-31

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  1. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  2. Thermal 3D Modeling of Geothermal Area Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Ozgun; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Erenoglu, Oya; Yılmazturk, Ferruh; Karaca, Zeki

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetry and computer vision, sciences producing high accuracy 3D models from digital images based on projective geometry. 3D models can also be produced using thermal camera images using photogrammetry and computer vision techniques. Thermal images are capable of displaying hotspots on geothermal areas as a heat source in details. In the research, Tuzla geothermal area in Çanakkale province of Turkey is inspected using imaging techniques of terrestrial photogrammetry. Both a digital camera Canon EOS 650D and an infrared camera Optris PI 450 are used to obtain images of the thermal site. Calibration parameters (focal length, principle point, distortion coefficients) of thermal and digital cameras are determined using the calibration test field at the laboratory before the field work. In order to provide the georeferencing and the robustness of the 3D model, aluminum discs having diameter of 30 centimeters as ground control points (GCPs) are set to the geothermal area appropriately before imaging. Aluminum targets are chosen as the GCP because they are determined on the image depending on the contrast reflectance rate of the aluminum. Using GNSS RTK receivers supplying ±1 cm accuracy positioning, GCPs are measured so as to implement photogrammetric process successfully with thermal images. Numerous corresponding points are detected on the overlapped images with image matching techniques. Later on, bundle block adjustment is applied to calculate the revised interior orientation parameters of camera and exterior orientation parameters of camera positions. The 3D model showing details of the surface temperatures of the geothermal area are produced with multi view stereo (MVS) technique. The technique is able to produce 3D representation (point cloud, mesh and textured surface) of the field from both the thermal and digital images. The research presents that photogrammetric evaluation of thermal images is a noteworthy method to obtain a quick- accurate 3D

  3. A method of 3D object recognition and localization in a cloud of points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, Jerzy; Sitnik, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The proposed method given in this article is prepared for analysis of data in the form of cloud of points directly from 3D measurements. It is designed for use in the end-user applications that can directly be integrated with 3D scanning software. The method utilizes locally calculated feature vectors (FVs) in point cloud data. Recognition is based on comparison of the analyzed scene with reference object library. A global descriptor in the form of a set of spatially distributed FVs is created for each reference model. During the detection process, correlation of subsets of reference FVs with FVs calculated in the scene is computed. Features utilized in the algorithm are based on parameters, which qualitatively estimate mean and Gaussian curvatures. Replacement of differentiation with averaging in the curvatures estimation makes the algorithm more resistant to discontinuities and poor quality of the input data. Utilization of the FV subsets allows to detect partially occluded and cluttered objects in the scene, while additional spatial information maintains false positive rate at a reasonably low level.

  4. 3D Aerosol-Cloud Radiative Interaction Observed in Collocated MODIS and ASTER Images of Cumulus Cloud Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kleidman, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    3D aerosol-cloud interaction is examined by analyzing two images containing cumulus clouds in biomass burning regions in Brazil. The research consists of two parts. The first part focuses on identifying 3D clo ud impacts on the reflectance of pixel selected for the MODIS aerosol retrieval based purely on observations. The second part of the resea rch combines the observations with radiative transfer computations to identify key parameters in 3D aerosol-cloud interaction. We found that 3D cloud-induced enhancement depends on optical properties of nearb y clouds as well as wavelength. The enhancement is too large to be ig nored. Associated biased error in 1D aerosol optical thickness retrie val ranges from 50% to 140% depending on wavelength and optical prope rties of nearby clouds as well as aerosol optical thickness. We caution the community to be prudent when applying 1D approximations in comp uting solar radiation in dear regions adjacent to clouds or when usin g traditional retrieved aerosol optical thickness in aerosol indirect effect research.

  5. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  6. 3-D physical models of amitosis (cytokinesis).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kang; Zou, Changhua

    2005-01-01

    Based on Newton's laws, extended Coulomb's law and published biological data, we develop our 3-D physical models of natural and normal amitosis (cytokinesis), for prokaryotes (bacterial cells) in M phase. We propose following hypotheses: Chromosome rings exclusion: No normally and naturally replicated chromosome rings (RCR) can occupy the same prokaryote, a bacterial cell. The RCR produce spontaneous and strong electromagnetic fields (EMF), that can be alternated environmentally, in protoplasm and cortex. The EMF is approximately a repulsive quasi-static electric (slowly variant and mostly electric) field (EF). The EF forces between the RCR are strong enough, and orderly accumulate contractile proteins that divide the procaryotes in the cell cortex of division plane or directly split the cell compartment envelope longitudinally. The radial component of the EF forces could also make furrows or cleavages of procaryotes. The EF distribution controls the protoplasm partition and completes the amitosis (cytokinesis). After the cytokinesis, the spontaneous and strong EF disappear because the net charge accumulation becomes weak, in the protoplasm. The exclusion is because the two sets of informative objects (RCR) have identical DNA codes information and they are electro magnetically identical, therefore they repulse from each other. We also compare divisions among eukaryotes, prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts and propose our hypothesis: The principles of our models are applied to divisions of mitochondria and chloroplasts of eucaryotes too because these division mechanisms are closer than others in a view of physics. Though we develop our model using 1 division plane (i.e., 1 cell is divided into 2 cells) as an example, the principle of our model is applied to the cases with multiple division planes (i.e., 1 cell is divided into multiple cells) too. PMID:15533619

  7. Semi-automated extraction and delineation of 3D roads of street scene from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bisheng; Fang, Lina; Li, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Accurate 3D road information is important for applications such as road maintenance and virtual 3D modeling. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is an efficient technique for capturing dense point clouds that can be used to construct detailed road models for large areas. This paper presents a method for extracting and delineating roads from large-scale MLS point clouds. The proposed method partitions MLS point clouds into a set of consecutive "scanning lines", which each consists of a road cross section. A moving window operator is used to filter out non-ground points line by line, and curb points are detected based on curb patterns. The detected curb points are tracked and refined so that they are both globally consistent and locally similar. To evaluate the validity of the proposed method, experiments were conducted using two types of street-scene point clouds captured by Optech's Lynx Mobile Mapper System. The completeness, correctness, and quality of the extracted roads are over 94.42%, 91.13%, and 91.3%, respectively, which proves the proposed method is a promising solution for extracting 3D roads from MLS point clouds.

  8. Surface-based matching of 3D point clouds with variable coordinates in source and target system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xuming; Wunderlich, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The automatic co-registration of point clouds, representing three-dimensional (3D) surfaces, is an important technique in 3D reconstruction and is widely applied in many different disciplines. An alternative approach is proposed here that estimates the transformation parameters of one or more 3D search surfaces with respect to a 3D template surface. The approach uses the nonlinear Gauss-Helmert model, minimizing the quadratically constrained least squares problem. This approach has the ability to match arbitrarily oriented 3D surfaces captured from a number of different sensors, on different time-scales and at different resolutions. In addition to the 3D surface-matching paths, the mathematical model allows the precision of the point clouds to be assessed after adjustment. The error behavior of surfaces can also be investigated based on the proposed approach. Some practical examples are presented and the results are compared with the iterative closest point and the linear least-squares approaches to demonstrate the performance and benefits of the proposed technique.

  9. 3D Models of Stellar Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.

  10. Multi-view and 3D deformable part models.

    PubMed

    Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-11-01

    As objects are inherently 3D, they have been modeled in 3D in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to 3D models, 3D object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based models are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such models have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about 3D shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of 3D and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of 3D object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part model [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level 3D geometry information, resulting in several different models with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a 3D object model, consisting of multiple object parts represented in 3D and a continuous appearance model. We experimentally verify that our models, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object models, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and 3D object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , 3D object classes [3] , Pascal3D+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264

  11. Overview of 3D-TRACE, a NASA Initiative in Three-Dimensional Tomography of the Aerosol-Cloud Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony; Diner, David; Yanovsky, Igor; Garay, Michael; Xu, Feng; Bal, Guillaume; Schechner, Yoav; Aides, Amit; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing is a key tool for sorting cloud ensembles by dynamical state, aerosol environments by source region, and establishing causal relationships between aerosol amounts, type, and cloud microphysics-the so-called indirect aerosol climate impacts, and one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate models. Current satellite imagers use data processing approaches that invariably start with cloud detection/masking to isolate aerosol air-masses from clouds, and then rely on one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer (RT) to interpret the aerosol and cloud measurements in isolation. Not only does this lead to well-documented biases for the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and cloud optical depths in current missions, but it is fundamentally inadequate for future missions such as EarthCARE where capturing the complex, three-dimensional (3D) interactions between clouds and aerosols is a primary objective. In order to advance the state of the art, the next generation of satellite information processing systems must incorporate technologies that will enable the treatment of the atmosphere as a fully 3D environment, represented more realistically as a continuum. At one end, there is an optically thin background dominated by aerosols and molecular scattering that is strongly stratified and relatively homogeneous in the horizontal. At the other end, there are optically thick embedded elements, clouds and aerosol plumes, which can be more or less uniform and quasi-planar or else highly 3D with boundaries in all directions; in both cases, strong internal variability may be present. To make this paradigm shift possible, we propose to combine the standard models for satellite signal prediction physically grounded in 1D and 3D RT, both scalar and vector, with technologies adapted from biomedical imaging, digital image processing, and computer vision. This will enable us to demonstrate how the 3D distribution of atmospheric constituents, and their associated

  12. Dense 3d Point Cloud Generation from Uav Images from Image Matching and Global Optimazation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, S.; Kim, T.

    2016-06-01

    3D spatial information from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) images is usually provided in the form of 3D point clouds. For various UAV applications, it is important to generate dense 3D point clouds automatically from over the entire extent of UAV images. In this paper, we aim to apply image matching for generation of local point clouds over a pair or group of images and global optimization to combine local point clouds over the whole region of interest. We tried to apply two types of image matching, an object space-based matching technique and an image space-based matching technique, and to compare the performance of the two techniques. The object space-based matching used here sets a list of candidate height values for a fixed horizontal position in the object space. For each height, its corresponding image point is calculated and similarity is measured by grey-level correlation. The image space-based matching used here is a modified relaxation matching. We devised a global optimization scheme for finding optimal pairs (or groups) to apply image matching, defining local match region in image- or object- space, and merging local point clouds into a global one. For optimal pair selection, tiepoints among images were extracted and stereo coverage network was defined by forming a maximum spanning tree using the tiepoints. From experiments, we confirmed that through image matching and global optimization, 3D point clouds were generated successfully. However, results also revealed some limitations. In case of image-based matching results, we observed some blanks in 3D point clouds. In case of object space-based matching results, we observed more blunders than image-based matching ones and noisy local height variations. We suspect these might be due to inaccurate orientation parameters. The work in this paper is still ongoing. We will further test our approach with more precise orientation parameters.

  13. Recognizing Objects in 3D Point Clouds with Multi-Scale Local Features

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min; Guo, Yulan; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Yanxin; Lei, Yinjie

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing 3D objects from point clouds in the presence of significant clutter and occlusion is a highly challenging task. In this paper, we present a coarse-to-fine 3D object recognition algorithm. During the phase of offline training, each model is represented with a set of multi-scale local surface features. During the phase of online recognition, a set of keypoints are first detected from each scene. The local surfaces around these keypoints are further encoded with multi-scale feature descriptors. These scene features are then matched against all model features to generate recognition hypotheses, which include model hypotheses and pose hypotheses. Finally, these hypotheses are verified to produce recognition results. The proposed algorithm was tested on two standard datasets, with rigorous comparisons to the state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results show that our algorithm was fully automatic and highly effective. It was also very robust to occlusion and clutter. It achieved the best recognition performance on all of these datasets, showing its superiority compared to existing algorithms. PMID:25517694

  14. Recognizing objects in 3D point clouds with multi-scale local features.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Guo, Yulan; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Yanxin; Lei, Yinjie

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing 3D objects from point clouds in the presence of significant clutter and occlusion is a highly challenging task. In this paper, we present a coarse-to-fine 3D object recognition algorithm. During the phase of offline training, each model is represented with a set of multi-scale local surface features. During the phase of online recognition, a set of keypoints are first detected from each scene. The local surfaces around these keypoints are further encoded with multi-scale feature descriptors. These scene features are then matched against all model features to generate recognition hypotheses, which include model hypotheses and pose hypotheses. Finally, these hypotheses are verified to produce recognition results. The proposed algorithm was tested on two standard datasets, with rigorous comparisons to the state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results show that our algorithm was fully automatic and highly effective. It was also very robust to occlusion and clutter. It achieved the best recognition performance on all of these datasets, showing its superiority compared to existing algorithms. PMID:25517694

  15. 3D Cloud Tomography, Followed by Mean Optical and Microphysical Properties, with Multi-Angle/Multi-Pixel Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. B.; von Allmen, P. A.; Marshak, A.; Bal, G.

    2010-12-01

    The geometrical assumption in all operational cloud remote sensing algorithms is that clouds are plane-parallel slabs, which applies relatively well to the most uniform stratus layers. Its benefit is to justify using classic 1D radiative transfer (RT) theory, where angular details (solar, viewing, azimuthal) are fully accounted for and precise phase functions can be used, to generate the look-up tables used in the retrievals. Unsurprisingly, these algorithms catastrophically fail when applied to cumulus-type clouds, which are highly 3D. This is unfortunate for the cloud-process modeling community that may thrive on in situ airborne data, but would very much like to use satellite data for more than illustrations in their presentations and publications. So, how can we obtain quantitative information from space-based observations of finite aspect ratio clouds? Cloud base/top heights, vertically projected area, mean liquid water content (LWC), and volume-averaged droplet size would be a good start. Motivated by this science need, we present a new approach suitable for sparse cumulus fields where we turn the tables on the standard procedure in cloud remote sensing. We make no a priori assumption about cloud shape, save an approximately flat base, but use brutal approximations about the RT that is necessarily 3D. Indeed, the first order of business is to roughly determine the cloud's outer shape in one of two ways, which we will frame as competing initial guesses for the next phase of shape refinement and volume-averaged microphysical parameter estimation. Both steps use multi-pixel/multi-angle techniques amenable to MISR data, the latter adding a bi-spectral dimension using collocated MODIS data. One approach to rough cloud shape determination is to fit the multi-pixel/multi-angle data with a geometric primitive such as a scalene hemi-ellipsoid with 7 parameters (translation in 3D space, 3 semi-axes, 1 azimuthal orientation); for the radiometry, a simple radiosity

  16. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome

    PubMed Central

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892

  17. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.

    PubMed

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892

  18. Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.

  19. Graph-Based Compression of Dynamic 3D Point Cloud Sequences.

    PubMed

    Thanou, Dorina; Chou, Philip A; Frossard, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of compression of 3D point cloud sequences that are characterized by moving 3D positions and color attributes. As temporally successive point cloud frames share some similarities, motion estimation is key to effective compression of these sequences. It, however, remains a challenging problem as the point cloud frames have varying numbers of points without explicit correspondence information. We represent the time-varying geometry of these sequences with a set of graphs, and consider 3D positions and color attributes of the point clouds as signals on the vertices of the graphs. We then cast motion estimation as a feature-matching problem between successive graphs. The motion is estimated on a sparse set of representative vertices using new spectral graph wavelet descriptors. A dense motion field is eventually interpolated by solving a graph-based regularization problem. The estimated motion is finally used for removing the temporal redundancy in the predictive coding of the 3D positions and the color characteristics of the point cloud sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to accurately estimate the motion between consecutive frames. Moreover, motion estimation is shown to bring a significant improvement in terms of the overall compression performance of the sequence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that exploits both the spatial correlation inside each frame (through the graph) and the temporal correlation between the frames (through the motion estimation) to compress the color and the geometry of 3D point cloud sequences in an efficient way. PMID:26891486

  20. 3D fast wavelet network model-assisted 3D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    In last years, the emergence of 3D shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our 3D face recognition approach using 3D wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on 3D fast wavelet transform. From 3D coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a 3D volume which will be decomposed by 3D fast wavelet transform and modeled after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.

  1. LIVAS: a 3-D multi-wavelength aerosol/cloud database based on CALIPSO and EARLINET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiridis, V.; Marinou, E.; Tsekeri, A.; Wandinger, U.; Schwarz, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Mamouri, R.; Kokkalis, P.; Binietoglou, I.; Solomos, S.; Herekakis, T.; Kazadzis, S.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Proestakis, E.; Kottas, M.; Balis, D.; Papayannis, A.; Kontoes, C.; Kourtidis, K.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.; Le Rille, O.; Ansmann, A.

    2015-07-01

    We present LIVAS (LIdar climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for space-based lidar simulation studies), a 3-D multi-wavelength global aerosol and cloud optical database, optimized to be used for future space-based lidar end-to-end simulations of realistic atmospheric scenarios as well as retrieval algorithm testing activities. The LIVAS database provides averaged profiles of aerosol optical properties for the potential spaceborne laser operating wavelengths of 355, 532, 1064, 1570 and 2050 nm and of cloud optical properties at the wavelength of 532 nm. The global database is based on CALIPSO observations at 532 and 1064 nm and on aerosol-type-dependent backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents, derived from EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) ground-based measurements for the UV and scattering calculations for the IR wavelengths, using a combination of input data from AERONET, suitable aerosol models and recent literature. The required spectral conversions are calculated for each of the CALIPSO aerosol types and are applied to CALIPSO backscatter and extinction data corresponding to the aerosol type retrieved by the CALIPSO aerosol classification scheme. A cloud optical database based on CALIPSO measurements at 532 nm is also provided, neglecting wavelength conversion due to approximately neutral scattering behavior of clouds along the spectral range of LIVAS. Averages of particle linear depolarization ratio profiles at 532 nm are provided as well. Finally, vertical distributions for a set of selected scenes of specific atmospheric phenomena (e.g., dust outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, wild fires, polar stratospheric clouds) are analyzed and spectrally converted so as to be used as case studies for spaceborne lidar performance assessments. The final global data set includes 4-year (1 January 2008-31 December 2011) time-averaged CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) data on a uniform grid of 1

  2. A 3-D shape model of Interamnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Isao

    2015-08-01

    A 3-D shape model of the sixth largest of the main belt asteroids, (704) Interamnia, is presented. The model is reproduced from its two stellar occultation observations and six lightcurves between 1969 and 2011. The first stellar occultation was the occultation of TYC 234500183 on 1996 December 17 observed from 13 sites in the USA. An elliptical cross section of (344.6±9.6km)×(306.2±9.1km), for position angle P=73.4±12.5 was fitted. The lightcurve around the occultation shows that the peak-to-peak amplitude was 0.04 mag. and the occultation phase was just before the minimum. The second stellar occultation was the occultation of HIP 036189 on 2003 March 23 observed from 39 sites in Japan and Hawaii. An elliptical cross section of (349.8±0.9km)×(303.7±1.7km), for position angle P=86.0±1.1 was fitted. A companion of 8.5 mag. of the occulted star was discovered whose separation is 12±2 mas (milli-arcseconds), P=148±11 . A combined analysis of rotational lightcurves and occultation chords can return more information than can be obtained with either technique alone. From follow-up photometric observations of the asteroid between 2003 and 2011, its rotation period is determined to be 8.728967167±0.00000007 hours, which is accurate enough to fix the rotation phases at other occultation events. The derived north pole is λ2000=259±8, β2000=-50±5 (retrograde rotation); the lengths of the three principal axes are 2a=361.8±2.8km, 2b=324.4±5.0km, 2c=297.3±3.5km, and the mean diameter is D=326.8±3.0km. Supposing the mass of Interamnia as (3.5±0.9)×10-11 solar masses, the density is then ρ=3.8±1.0 g cm-3.

  3. Fast Probabilistic Fusion of 3d Point Clouds via Occupancy Grids for Scene Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Andreas; Huang, Hai; Drauschke, Martin; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    High resolution consumer cameras on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) allow for cheap acquisition of highly detailed images, e.g., of urban regions. Via image registration by means of Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi View Stereo (MVS) the automatic generation of huge amounts of 3D points with a relative accuracy in the centimeter range is possible. Applications such as semantic classification have a need for accurate 3D point clouds, but do not benefit from an extremely high resolution/density. In this paper, we, therefore, propose a fast fusion of high resolution 3D point clouds based on occupancy grids. The result is used for semantic classification. In contrast to state-of-the-art classification methods, we accept a certain percentage of outliers, arguing that they can be considered in the classification process when a per point belief is determined in the fusion process. To this end, we employ an octree-based fusion which allows for the derivation of outlier probabilities. The probabilities give a belief for every 3D point, which is essential for the semantic classification to consider measurement noise. For an example point cloud with half a billion 3D points (cf. Figure 1), we show that our method can reduce runtime as well as improve classification accuracy and offers high scalability for large datasets.

  4. Contextual Classification of Point Cloud Data by Exploiting Individual 3d Neigbourhoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, M.; Schmidt, A.; Mallet, C.; Hinz, S.; Rottensteiner, F.; Jutzi, B.

    2015-03-01

    The fully automated analysis of 3D point clouds is of great importance in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. For reliably extracting objects such as buildings, road inventory or vegetation, many approaches rely on the results of a point cloud classification, where each 3D point is assigned a respective semantic class label. Such an assignment, in turn, typically involves statistical methods for feature extraction and machine learning. Whereas the different components in the processing workflow have extensively, but separately been investigated in recent years, the respective connection by sharing the results of crucial tasks across all components has not yet been addressed. This connection not only encapsulates the interrelated issues of neighborhood selection and feature extraction, but also the issue of how to involve spatial context in the classification step. In this paper, we present a novel and generic approach for 3D scene analysis which relies on (i) individually optimized 3D neighborhoods for (ii) the extraction of distinctive geometric features and (iii) the contextual classification of point cloud data. For a labeled benchmark dataset, we demonstrate the beneficial impact of involving contextual information in the classification process and that using individual 3D neighborhoods of optimal size significantly increases the quality of the results for both pointwise and contextual classification.

  5. 3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Megan Ashley

    In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.

  6. Facets : a Cloudcompare Plugin to Extract Geological Planes from Unstructured 3d Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T. J. B.; Girardeau-Montaut, D.; Allanic, C.; Rohmer, J.

    2016-06-01

    Geological planar facets (stratification, fault, joint…) are key features to unravel the tectonic history of rock outcrop or appreciate the stability of a hazardous rock cliff. Measuring their spatial attitude (dip and strike) is generally performed by hand with a compass/clinometer, which is time consuming, requires some degree of censoring (i.e. refusing to measure some features judged unimportant at the time), is not always possible for fractures higher up on the outcrop and is somewhat hazardous. 3D virtual geological outcrop hold the potential to alleviate these issues. Efficiently segmenting massive 3D point clouds into individual planar facets, inside a convenient software environment was lacking. FACETS is a dedicated plugin within CloudCompare v2.6.2 (http://cloudcompare.org/ ) implemented to perform planar facet extraction, calculate their dip and dip direction (i.e. azimuth of steepest decent) and report the extracted data in interactive stereograms. Two algorithms perform the segmentation: Kd-Tree and Fast Marching. Both divide the point cloud into sub-cells, then compute elementary planar objects and aggregate them progressively according to a planeity threshold into polygons. The boundaries of the polygons are adjusted around segmented points with a tension parameter, and the facet polygons can be exported as 3D polygon shapefiles towards third party GIS software or simply as ASCII comma separated files. One of the great features of FACETS is the capability to explore planar objects but also 3D points with normals with the stereogram tool. Poles can be readily displayed, queried and manually segmented interactively. The plugin blends seamlessly into CloudCompare to leverage all its other 3D point cloud manipulation features. A demonstration of the tool is presented to illustrate these different features. While designed for geological applications, FACETS could be more widely applied to any planar

  7. Applications of Panoramic Images: from 720° Panorama to Interior 3d Models of Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-C.; Tsai, F.

    2015-05-01

    A series of panoramic images are usually used to generate a 720° panorama image. Although panoramic images are typically used for establishing tour guiding systems, in this research, we demonstrate the potential of using panoramic images acquired from multiple sites to create not only 720° panorama, but also three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and 3D indoor models. Since 3D modeling is one of the goals of this research, the location of the panoramic sites needed to be carefully planned in order to maintain a robust result for close-range photogrammetry. After the images are acquired, panoramic images are processed into 720° panoramas, and these panoramas which can be used directly as panorama guiding systems or other applications. In addition to these straightforward applications, interior orientation parameters can also be estimated while generating 720° panorama. These parameters are focal length, principle point, and lens radial distortion. The panoramic images can then be processed with closerange photogrammetry procedures to extract the exterior orientation parameters and generate 3D point clouds. In this research, VisaulSFM, a structure from motion software is used to estimate the exterior orientation, and CMVS toolkit is used to generate 3D point clouds. Next, the 3D point clouds are used as references to create building interior models. In this research, Trimble Sketchup was used to build the model, and the 3D point cloud was added to the determining of locations of building objects using plane finding procedure. In the texturing process, the panorama images are used as the data source for creating model textures. This 3D indoor model was used as an Augmented Reality model replacing a guide map or a floor plan commonly used in an on-line touring guide system. The 3D indoor model generating procedure has been utilized in two research projects: a cultural heritage site at Kinmen, and Taipei Main Station pedestrian zone guidance and navigation system. The

  8. 3D modeling of metallic grain growth

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.

    1999-06-01

    This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.

  9. The 3D rocket combustor acoustics model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, Richard J.; Breisacher, Kevin J.

    1992-01-01

    The theory and procedures for determining the characteristics of pressure oscillations in rocket engines with prescribed burning rate oscillations are presented. Analyses including radial and hub baffles and absorbers can be performed in one, two, and three dimensions. Pressure and velocity oscillations calculated using this procedure are presented for the SSME to show the influence of baffles and absorbers on the burning rate oscillations required to achieve neutral stability. Comparisons are made between the results obtained utilizing 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D assumptions with regards to capturing the physical phenomena of interest and computational requirements.

  10. Feature relevance assessment for the semantic interpretation of 3D point cloud data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.; Mallet, C.

    2013-10-01

    The automatic analysis of large 3D point clouds represents a crucial task in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for the semantic interpretation of such point clouds which involves feature relevance assessment in order to reduce both processing time and memory consumption. Given a standard benchmark dataset with 1.3 million 3D points, we first extract a set of 21 geometric 3D and 2D features. Subsequently, we apply a classifier-independent ranking procedure which involves a general relevance metric in order to derive compact and robust subsets of versatile features which are generally applicable for a large variety of subsequent tasks. This metric is based on 7 different feature selection strategies and thus addresses different intrinsic properties of the given data. For the example of semantically interpreting 3D point cloud data, we demonstrate the great potential of smaller subsets consisting of only the most relevant features with 4 different state-of-the-art classifiers. The results reveal that, instead of including as many features as possible in order to compensate for lack of knowledge, a crucial task such as scene interpretation can be carried out with only few versatile features and even improved accuracy.

  11. Accuracy evaluation of segmentation for high resolution imagery and 3D laser point cloud data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Nina; Chen, Ninghua; Chen, Jianyu

    2014-09-01

    High resolution satellite imagery and 3D laser point cloud data provide precise geometry, rich spectral information and clear texture of feature. The segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images and 3D laser point cloud is the basis of object-oriented remote sensing image analysis, for the segmentation results will directly influence the accuracy of subsequent analysis and discrimination. Currently, there still lacks a common segmentation theory to support these algorithms. So when we face a specific problem, we should determine applicability of the segmentation method through segmentation accuracy assessment, and then determine an optimal segmentation. To today, the most common method for evaluating the effectiveness of a segmentation method is subjective evaluation and supervised evaluation. For providing a more objective evaluation result, we have carried out following work. Analysis and comparison previous proposed image segmentation accuracy evaluation methods, which are area-based metrics, location-based metrics and combinations metrics. 3D point cloud data, which was gathered by Reigl VZ1000, was used to make two-dimensional transformation of point cloud data. The object-oriented segmentation result of aquaculture farm, building and farmland polygons were used as test object and adopted to evaluate segmentation accuracy.

  12. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  13. 3D Cloud Effects in OCO-2 Observations - Evidence and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Massie, Steven; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Okamura, Rintaro; Crisp, David

    2016-04-01

    In July 2014, the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite was inserted into the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train). OCO-2 provides estimates of column-averaged CO2 dry air mixing ratios (XCO2), based on high spectral resolution radiance observations of reflected sunlight in the O2 A-band and in the weak and strong absorption CO2 bands at 1.6 and 2.1 μm. The accuracy requirement for OCO-2 XCO2 retrievals is 1 ppmv on regional scales (> 1000 km). At the single sounding level, inhomogeneous clouds, surface albedo, and aerosols introduce wavelength-dependent perturbations into the sensed radiance fields, affecting the retrieval products. Scattering and shadowing by clouds outside of the field of view (FOV) may be a leading source of error for clear-sky XCO2 retrievals in partially cloudy regions. To understand these effects, we developed a 3D OCO-2 simulator, which uses observations by MODIS (also in the A-Train) and other scene information as input to simulate OCO-2 radiance spectra at the full wavelength resolution of the three bands. It is based on MCARaTS (Monte Carlo Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator) as the 3D radiative transfer solver. The OCO-2 3D simulator was applied to an observed scene near a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) station. The 3D calculations reproduced the OCO-2 radiances, including the perturbations due to clouds, at the single sounding level. The analysis further suggests that clouds near an OCO-2 footprint leave systematic spectral imprints on the radiances, which could be parameterized to be included in the retrieval state vector. If successful, this new state vector element could account for 3D effects without the need for operational 3D radiative transfer calculations. This may be the starting point not only for the improved screening of low-level broken boundary layer clouds, but also for mitigating the effects of nearby clouds at the radiance level, thus improving the accuracy of retrievals in

  14. 3D Face Modeling Using the Multi-Deformable Method

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976

  15. Life in 3D is never flat: 3D models to optimise drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Curtin, Caroline M; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2015-10-10

    The development of safe, effective and patient-acceptable drug products is an expensive and lengthy process and the risk of failure at different stages of the development life-cycle is high. Improved biopharmaceutical tools which are robust, easy to use and accurately predict the in vivo response are urgently required to help address these issues. In this review the advantages and challenges of in vitro 3D versus 2D cell culture models will be discussed in terms of evaluating new drug products at the pre-clinical development stage. Examples of models with a 3D architecture including scaffolds, cell-derived matrices, multicellular spheroids and biochips will be described. The ability to simulate the microenvironment of tumours and vital organs including the liver, kidney, heart and intestine which have major impact on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity will be evaluated. Examples of the application of 3D models including a role in formulation development, pharmacokinetic profiling and toxicity testing will be critically assessed. Although utilisation of 3D cell culture models in the field of drug delivery is still in its infancy, the area is attracting high levels of interest and is likely to become a significant in vitro tool to assist in drug product development thus reducing the requirement for unnecessary animal studies. PMID:26220617

  16. Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Larry D.

    2008-09-30

    Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.

  17. 3D granulometry: grain-scale shape and size distribution from point cloud dataset of river environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Philippe; Lague, Dimitri; Gourdon, Aurélie; Croissant, Thomas; Crave, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The grain-scale morphology of river sediments and their size distribution are important factors controlling the efficiency of fluvial erosion and transport. In turn, constraining the spatial evolution of these two metrics offer deep insights on the dynamics of river erosion and sediment transport from hillslopes to the sea. However, the size distribution of river sediments is generally assessed using statistically-biased field measurements and determining the grain-scale shape of river sediments remains a real challenge in geomorphology. Here we determine, with new methodological approaches based on the segmentation and geomorphological fitting of 3D point cloud dataset, the size distribution and grain-scale shape of sediments located in river environments. Point cloud segmentation is performed using either machine-learning algorithms or geometrical criterion, such as local plan fitting or curvature analysis. Once the grains are individualized into several sub-clouds, each grain-scale morphology is determined using a 3D geometrical fitting algorithm applied on the sub-cloud. If different geometrical models can be conceived and tested, only ellipsoidal models were used in this study. A phase of results checking is then performed to remove grains showing a best-fitting model with a low level of confidence. The main benefits of this automatic method are that it provides 1) an un-biased estimate of grain-size distribution on a large range of scales, from centimeter to tens of meters; 2) access to a very large number of data, only limited by the number of grains in the point-cloud dataset; 3) access to the 3D morphology of grains, in turn allowing to develop new metrics characterizing the size and shape of grains. The main limit of this method is that it is only able to detect grains with a characteristic size greater than the resolution of the point cloud. This new 3D granulometric method is then applied to river terraces both in the Poerua catchment in New-Zealand and

  18. Flexible building primitives for 3D building modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, B.; Jancosek, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2015-03-01

    3D building models, being the main part of a digital city scene, are essential to all applications related to human activities in urban environments. The development of range sensors and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) technology facilitates our ability to automatically reconstruct level of details 2 (LoD2) models of buildings. However, because of the high complexity of building structures, no fully automatic system is currently available for producing building models. In order to simplify the problem, a lot of research focuses only on particular buildings shapes, and relatively simple ones. In this paper, we analyze the property of topology graphs of object surfaces, and find that roof topology graphs have three basic elements: loose nodes, loose edges, and minimum cycles. These elements have interesting physical meanings: a loose node is a building with one roof face; a loose edge is a ridge line between two roof faces whose end points are not defined by a third roof face; and a minimum cycle represents a roof corner of a building. Building primitives, which introduce building shape knowledge, are defined according to these three basic elements. Then all buildings can be represented by combining such building primitives. The building parts are searched according to the predefined building primitives, reconstructed independently, and grouped into a complete building model in a CSG-style. The shape knowledge is inferred via the building primitives and used as constraints to improve the building models, in which all roof parameters are simultaneously adjusted. Experiments show the flexibility of building primitives in both lidar point cloud and stereo point cloud.

  19. 3D scene modeling from multiple range views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.

  20. A continuous surface reconstruction method on point cloud captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sabouri, Pouya; Arai, Tatsuya J.; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2015-11-15

    achieved submillimeter reconstruction RMSE under different configurations, demonstrating quantitatively the faith of the proposed method in preserving local structural properties of the underlying surface in the presence of noise and missing measurements, and its robustness toward variations of such characteristics. On point clouds from the human subject, the proposed method successfully reconstructed all patient surfaces, filling regions where raw point coordinate readings were missing. Within two comparable regions of interest in the chest area, similar mean curvature distributions were acquired from both their reconstructed surface and CT surface, with mean and standard deviation of (μ{sub recon} = − 2.7 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup −1}, σ{sub recon} = 7.0 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup −1}) and (μ{sub CT} = − 2.5 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup −1}, σ{sub CT} = 5.3 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup −1}), respectively. The agreement of local geometry properties between the reconstructed surfaces and the CT surface demonstrated the ability of the proposed method in faithfully representing the underlying patient surface. Conclusions: The authors have integrated and developed an accurate level-set based continuous surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by a 3D surface photogrammetry system. The proposed method has generated a continuous representation of the underlying phantom and patient surfaces with good robustness against noise and missing measurements. It serves as an important first step for further development of motion tracking methods during radiotherapy.

  1. Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.

    2013-05-01

    Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth

  2. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Kevin A.; Warner, John C.

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.

  3. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  5. Knowledge guided object detection and identification in 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmacharya, A.; Boochs, F.; Tietz, B.

    2015-05-01

    Modern instruments like laser scanner and 3D cameras or image based techniques like structure from motion produce huge point clouds as base for further object analysis. This has considerably changed the way of data compilation away from selective manually guided processes towards automatic and computer supported strategies. However it's still a long way to achieve the quality and robustness of manual processes as data sets are mostly very complex. Looking at existing strategies 3D data processing for object detections and reconstruction rely heavily on either data driven or model driven approaches. These approaches come with their limitation on depending highly on the nature of data and inability to handle any deviation. Furthermore, the lack of capabilities to integrate other data or information in between the processing steps further exposes their limitations. This restricts the approaches to be executed with strict predefined strategy and does not allow deviations when and if new unexpected situations arise. We propose a solution that induces intelligence in the processing activities through the usage of semantics. The solution binds the objects along with other related knowledge domains to the numerical processing to facilitate the detection of geometries and then uses experts' inference rules to annotate them. The solution was tested within the prototypical application of the research project "Wissensbasierte Detektion von Objekten in Punktwolken für Anwendungen im Ingenieurbereich (WiDOP)". The flexibility of the solution is demonstrated through two entirely different USE Case scenarios: Deutsche Bahn (German Railway System) for the outdoor scenarios and Fraport (Frankfort Airport) for the indoor scenarios. Apart from the difference in their environments, they provide different conditions, which the solution needs to consider. While locations of the objects in Fraport were previously known, that of DB were not known at the beginning.

  6. Evaluation of 3D-Jury on CASP7 models

    PubMed Central

    Kaján, László; Rychlewski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Background 3D-Jury, the structure prediction consensus method publicly available in the Meta Server , was evaluated using models gathered in the 7th round of the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP7). 3D-Jury is an automated expert process that generates protein structure meta-predictions from sets of models obtained from partner servers. Results The performance of 3D-Jury was analysed for three aspects. First, we examined the correlation between the 3D-Jury score and a model quality measure: the number of correctly predicted residues. The 3D-Jury score was shown to correlate significantly with the number of correctly predicted residues, the correlation is good enough to be used for prediction. 3D-Jury was also found to improve upon the competing servers' choice of the best structure model in most cases. The value of the 3D-Jury score as a generic reliability measure was also examined. We found that the 3D-Jury score separates bad models from good models better than the reliability score of the original server in 27 cases and falls short of it in only 5 cases out of a total of 38. We report the release of a new Meta Server feature: instant 3D-Jury scoring of uploaded user models. Conclusion The 3D-Jury score continues to be a good indicator of structural model quality. It also provides a generic reliability score, especially important for models that were not assigned such by the original server. Individual structure modellers can also benefit from the 3D-Jury scoring system by testing their models in the new instant scoring feature available in the Meta Server. PMID:17711571

  7. Sloped terrain segmentation for autonomous drive using sparse 3D point cloud.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seoungjae; Kim, Jonghyun; Ikram, Warda; Cho, Kyungeun; Jeong, Young-Sik; Um, Kyhyun; Sim, Sungdae

    2014-01-01

    A ubiquitous environment for road travel that uses wireless networks requires the minimization of data exchange between vehicles. An algorithm that can segment the ground in real time is necessary to obtain location data between vehicles simultaneously executing autonomous drive. This paper proposes a framework for segmenting the ground in real time using a sparse three-dimensional (3D) point cloud acquired from undulating terrain. A sparse 3D point cloud can be acquired by scanning the geography using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. For efficient ground segmentation, 3D point clouds are quantized in units of volume pixels (voxels) and overlapping data is eliminated. We reduce nonoverlapping voxels to two dimensions by implementing a lowermost heightmap. The ground area is determined on the basis of the number of voxels in each voxel group. We execute ground segmentation in real time by proposing an approach to minimize the comparison between neighboring voxels. Furthermore, we experimentally verify that ground segmentation can be executed at about 19.31 ms per frame. PMID:25093204

  8. Sloped Terrain Segmentation for Autonomous Drive Using Sparse 3D Point Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seoungjae; Kim, Jonghyun; Ikram, Warda; Cho, Kyungeun; Sim, Sungdae

    2014-01-01

    A ubiquitous environment for road travel that uses wireless networks requires the minimization of data exchange between vehicles. An algorithm that can segment the ground in real time is necessary to obtain location data between vehicles simultaneously executing autonomous drive. This paper proposes a framework for segmenting the ground in real time using a sparse three-dimensional (3D) point cloud acquired from undulating terrain. A sparse 3D point cloud can be acquired by scanning the geography using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. For efficient ground segmentation, 3D point clouds are quantized in units of volume pixels (voxels) and overlapping data is eliminated. We reduce nonoverlapping voxels to two dimensions by implementing a lowermost heightmap. The ground area is determined on the basis of the number of voxels in each voxel group. We execute ground segmentation in real time by proposing an approach to minimize the comparison between neighboring voxels. Furthermore, we experimentally verify that ground segmentation can be executed at about 19.31 ms per frame. PMID:25093204

  9. Computational modeling of RNA 3D structures and interactions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-04-01

    RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in 3D structure modeling of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein 3D structure modeling. PMID:26689764

  10. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, H. D.; Cunningham, N. J.; Gustafsson, M.; Bally, J.; Lemaire, J.-L.; Favre, C.; Field, D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Stars whose mass is an order of magnitude greater than the Sun play a prominent role in the evolution of galaxies, exploding as supernovae, triggering bursts of star formation and spreading heavy elements about their host galaxies. A fundamental aspect of star formation is the creation of an outflow. The fast outflow emerging from a region associated with massive star formation in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), located behind the Orion Nebula, appears to have been set in motion by an explosive event. Aims: We study the structure and dynamics of outflows in OMC-1. We combine radial velocity and proper motion data for near-IR emission of molecular hydrogen to obtain the first 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the OMC-1 outflow. Our work illustrates a new diagnostic tool for studies of star formation that will be exploited in the near future with the advent of high spatial resolution spectro-imaging in particular with data from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Methods: We used published radial and proper motion velocities obtained from the shock-excited vibrational emission in the H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line at 2.122 μm obtained with the GriF instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the Apache Point Observatory, the Anglo-Australian Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. Results: These data give the 3D velocity of ejecta yielding a 3D reconstruction of the outflows. This allows one to view the material from different vantage points in space giving considerable insight into the geometry. Our analysis indicates that the ejection occurred ≲720 years ago from a distorted ring-like structure of ~15″ (6000 AU) in diameter centered on the proposed point of close encounter of the stars BN, source I and maybe also source n. We propose a simple model involving curvature of shock trajectories in magnetic fields through which the origin of the explosion and the center defined by extrapolated proper motions of BN, I and n may be brought into spatial

  11. Influence of 3D Radiative Effects on Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When cloud properties are retrieved from satellite observations, the calculations apply 1D theory to the 3D world: they only consider vertical structures and ignore horizontal cloud variability. This presentation discusses how big the resulting errors can be in the operational retrievals of cloud optical thickness. A new technique was developed to estimate the magnitude of potential errors by analyzing the spatial patterns of visible and infrared images. The proposed technique was used to set error bars for optical depths retrieved from new MODIS measurements. Initial results indicate that the 1 km resolution retrievals are subject to abundant uncertainties. Averaging over 50 by 50 km areas reduces the errors, but does not remove them completely; even in the relatively simple case of high sun (30 degree zenith angle), about a fifth of the examined areas had biases larger than ten percent. As expected, errors increase substantially for more oblique illumination.

  12. 3D Monte Carlo simulation of solar radiance in the clear-sky and low-cloud atmosphere for retrieval of aerosol and cloud characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana; Bedareva, Tatiana; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir

    As is well known, the spectral measurements of direct and diffuse solar radiation can be used to retrieve the optical and microphysical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol and clouds. Most methods of radiation calculations, which are used to solve the inverse problems, are implemented under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity of the atmosphere (clear-sky and overcast conditions). However, it is recognized that the 3D effects of clouds have a significant impact on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere which can be the cause of errors in retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties. In this work, we present the algorithms of the Monte Carlo method for calculating the angular structure of diffuse radiation in the molecular-aerosol atmosphere and the appearance of isolated cloud. The simulation of radiative characteristics with specified spectral resolution is performed in spherical model of the atmosphere for the conditions of observations at the Earth’s surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Cloud is approximated by inverted paraboloid. The molecular absorption is accounted for on the basis of approximation of transmission function by short exponential series (k-distribution method). The specific features of the radiative transfer, caused by the 3D effects of clouds, are considered depending on cloud location in space and its sizes, sensing scheme, and illumination conditions. The simulation results of the brightness fields in the clear sky and in the appearance of isolated cloud are compared. This work was supported in part by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (through the grant no. 12-05-00169).

  13. An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.

  14. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  15. Simulation of 3D infrared scenes using random fields model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jianqi

    2001-09-01

    Analysis and simulation of smart munitions requires imagery for the munition's sensor to view. The traditional infrared background simulations are always limited in the plane scene studies. A new method is described to synthesize the images in 3D view and with various terrains texture. We develop the random fields model and temperature fields to simulate 3D infrared scenes. Generalized long-correlation (GLC) model, one of random field models, will generate both the 3D terrains skeleton data and the terrains texture in this work. To build the terrain mesh with the random fields, digital elevation models (DEM) are introduced in the paper. And texture mapping technology will perform the task of pasting the texture in the concavo-convex surfaces of the 3D scene. The simulation using random fields model is a very available method to produce 3D infrared scene with great randomicity and reality.

  16. An Automatic Registration Algorithm for 3D Maxillofacial Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng

    2016-09-01

    3D image registration aims at aligning two 3D data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in 3D registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for 3D maxillofacial models registration including facial surface model and skull model. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial model in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) 3D-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull models demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.

  17. Extending 3D city models with legal information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.

    2012-10-01

    3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.

  18. Towards 3D lidar point cloud registration improvement using optimal neighborhood knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressin, Adrien; Mallet, Clément; Demantké, Jérôme; David, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Automatic 3D point cloud registration is a main issue in computer vision and remote sensing. One of the most commonly adopted solution is the well-known Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. This standard approach performs a fine registration of two overlapping point clouds by iteratively estimating the transformation parameters, assuming good a priori alignment is provided. A large body of literature has proposed many variations in order to improve each step of the process (namely selecting, matching, rejecting, weighting and minimizing). The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the knowledge of the shape that best fits the local geometry of each 3D point neighborhood can improve the speed and the accuracy of each of these steps. First we present the geometrical features that form the basis of this work. These low-level attributes indeed describe the neighborhood shape around each 3D point. They allow to retrieve the optimal size to analyze the neighborhoods at various scales as well as the privileged local dimension (linear, planar, or volumetric). Several variations of each step of the ICP process are then proposed and analyzed by introducing these features. Such variants are compared on real datasets with the original algorithm in order to retrieve the most efficient algorithm for the whole process. Therefore, the method is successfully applied to various 3D lidar point clouds from airborne, terrestrial, and mobile mapping systems. Improvement for two ICP steps has been noted, and we conclude that our features may not be relevant for very dissimilar object samplings.

  19. 3D scanning modeling method application in ancient city reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo

    2015-07-01

    With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of 3D scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in 3D modeling is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a 3D scanning modeling method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid modeling was proposed. Based on the 3D scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for 3D modeling and virtual display of ancient city.

  20. 3-D model-based Bayesian classification

    SciTech Connect

    Soenneland, L.; Tenneboe, P.; Gehrmann, T.; Yrke, O.

    1994-12-31

    The challenging task of the interpreter is to integrate different pieces of information and combine them into an earth model. The sophistication level of this earth model might vary from the simplest geometrical description to the most complex set of reservoir parameters related to the geometrical description. Obviously the sophistication level also depend on the completeness of the available information. The authors describe the interpreter`s task as a mapping between the observation space and the model space. The information available to the interpreter exists in observation space and the task is to infer a model in model-space. It is well-known that this inversion problem is non-unique. Therefore any attempt to find a solution depend son constraints being added in some manner. The solution will obviously depend on which constraints are introduced and it would be desirable to allow the interpreter to modify the constraints in a problem-dependent manner. They will present a probabilistic framework that gives the interpreter the tools to integrate the different types of information and produce constrained solutions. The constraints can be adapted to the problem at hand.

  1. Accelerating 3D radiative transfer for realistic OCO-2 cloud-aerosol scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Massie, S. T.; Platnick, S. E.; Song, S.

    2014-12-01

    The recently launched NASA OCO-2 satellite is expected to provide important information about the carbon dioxide distribution in the troposphere down to Earth's surface. Among the challenges in accurately retrieving CO2 concentration from the hyperspectral observations in each of the three OCO-2 bands are cloud and aerosol impacts on the observed radiances. Preliminary studies based on idealized cloud fields have shown that they can lead to spectrally dependent radiance perturbations which differ from band to band and may lead to biases in the derived products. Since OCO-2 was inserted into the A-Train, it is only natural to capitalize on sensor synergies with other instruments, in this case on the cloud and aerosol scene context that is provided by MODIS and CALIOP. Our approach is to use cloud imagery (especially for inhomogeneous scenes) for predicting the hyperspectral observations within a collocated OCO-2 footprint and comparing with the observations, which allows a systematic assessment of the causes for biases in the retrievals themselves, and their manifestation in spectral residuals for various different cloud types and distributions. Simulating a large number of cases with line-by-line calculations using a 3D code is computationally prohibitive even on large parallel computers. Therefore, we developed a number of acceleration approaches. In this contribution, we will analyze them in terms of their speed and accuracy, using cloud fields from airborne imagery collected during a recent NASA field experiment (SEAC4RS) as proxy for different types of inhomogeneous cloud fields. The broader goal of this effort is to improve OCO-2 retrievals in the vicinity of cloud fields, and to extend the range of conditions under which the instrument will provide useful results.

  2. Opportunity Landing Spot Panorama (3-D Model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this zoomed-in portion of a three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  3. Venusian Applications of 3D Convection Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonaccorso, Timary Annie

    2011-01-01

    This study models mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which models one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic model that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to model coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.

  4. RELAP5-3D Compressor Model

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver

    2005-06-01

    A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D© code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.

  5. A Comprehensive Automated 3D Approach for Building Extraction, Reconstruction, and Regularization from Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    PubMed Central

    Dorninger, Peter; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Three dimensional city models are necessary for supporting numerous management applications. For the determination of city models for visualization purposes, several standardized workflows do exist. They are either based on photogrammetry or on LiDAR or on a combination of both data acquisition techniques. However, the automated determination of reliable and highly accurate city models is still a challenging task, requiring a workflow comprising several processing steps. The most relevant are building detection, building outline generation, building modeling, and finally, building quality analysis. Commercial software tools for building modeling require, generally, a high degree of human interaction and most automated approaches described in literature stress the steps of such a workflow individually. In this article, we propose a comprehensive approach for automated determination of 3D city models from airborne acquired point cloud data. It is based on the assumption that individual buildings can be modeled properly by a composition of a set of planar faces. Hence, it is based on a reliable 3D segmentation algorithm, detecting planar faces in a point cloud. This segmentation is of crucial importance for the outline detection and for the modeling approach. We describe the theoretical background, the segmentation algorithm, the outline detection, and the modeling approach, and we present and discuss several actual projects.

  6. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  7. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  8. 3D Laser Scanning Modeling and Application on Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, M.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is located at Baoding Mountain in Chongqing. It has the reputation as "the Gem of World's Rock Carving Art". At present,the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is basically well conserved, while the local damage is already very serious. However, the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is a three-dimensional caved statue, the present plane surveying and mapping device cannot reflect the preservation situation completely. Therefore, the documentation of the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue using terrestrial laser scanning is of great significance. This paper will introduce a new method for superfine 3D modeling of Thousand-hand Bodhisattva based on the high-resolution 3D cloud points. By analyzing these 3D cloud points and 3D models, some useful information, such as several 3D statistics, 3D thematic map and 3D shape restoration suggestion of Thousand-hand Bodhisattva will be revealed, which are beneficial to restoration work and some other application.

  9. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  10. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  11. Extraction and refinement of building faces in 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Melanie; Meidow, Jochen; Bulatov, Dimitri

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to generate a 3D model of an urban scene out of sensor data. The first milestone on that way is to classify the sensor data into the main parts of a scene, such as ground, vegetation, buildings and their outlines. This has already been accomplished within our previous work. Now, we propose a four-step algorithm to model the building structure, which is assumed to consist of several dominant planes. First, we extract small elevated objects, like chimneys, using a hot-spot detector and handle the detected regions separately. In order to model the variety of roof structures precisely, we split up complex building blocks into parts. Two different approaches are used: To act on the assumption of underlying 2D ground polygons, we use geometric methods to divide them into sub-polygons. Without polygons, we use morphological operations and segmentation methods. In the third step, extraction of dominant planes takes place, by using either RANSAC or J-linkage algorithm. They operate on point clouds of sufficient confidence within the previously separated building parts and give robust results even with noisy, outlier-rich data. Last, we refine the previously determined plane parameters using geometric relations of the building faces. Due to noise, these expected properties of roofs and walls are not fulfilled. Hence, we enforce them as hard constraints and use the previously extracted plane parameters as initial values for an optimization method. To test the proposed workflow, we use both several data sets, including noisy data from depth maps and data computed by laser scanning.

  12. Kongsfjorden-MIKE 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przyborska, Anna; Kosecki, Szymon; Jakacki, Jaromir

    2014-05-01

    Kongsfjorden is a West Svalbard fjord with a surface area of about 210 km2. It is obvious that the depths of the outer and central basins are influenced by the open sea, under influence of West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which curry out warm Atlantic water and cold East Spitsbergen Current, while the shallower, inner basin has a large glacial outflow and its maximum depths do not exceed 100 m. Freshwater stored in Spitsbergen glaciers have strong influence on local hydrology and physical fjord conditions. Both, local and shelf conditions have impact on state of the fjord. External forces like tides, velocities at the boundary and atmospheric forces together with sources of cold and dens fresh water in the fjords will give reliable representation of physical conditions in Kongsfjorden. Modeling could help to solve this problem and we have hope that we find answer which one is the most important for local conditions in fjord. Calculations of balances between cold fresh water and warm and salt will provide additional information that could help to answer the main question of the GAME (Growing of the Arctic Marine Ecosystem) project - what is the reaction of physically controlled Arctic marine ecosystem to temperature rise.

  13. 3D PIC Modeling of Microcavity Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald; Moore, Christopher; Yee, Benjamin; Moorman, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We present a number of techniques and challenges in simulating the transient behavior of a microcavity discharge. Our microcavities are typically cylindrical with diameters approximately 50 - 100 μm, heights of 50 - 200 μm, pressure near atmospheric, and operate at a few hundred volts. We employ a fully kinetic simulation methodology, the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method, with interparticle collisions handled via methods based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). In particular, we explicitly include kinetic electrons. Some of the challenges we encounter include variations in number densities, external circuit coupling, and time step resolution constraints. By employing dynamic particle weighting (particle weights vary over time by species and location) we can mitigate some of the challenges modeling systems with 107 variations in number densities. Smoothing mechanisms have been used to attempt to mitigate external circuit response. We perform our simulations on hundreds or thousands of processing cores to accommodate the computational work inherent in using relatively small time step sizes (e.g., 50 fs for a 100 ns calculation). In addition, particle weighting issues inherent to three-dimensional low temperature plasma systems will be mentioned. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.

    PubMed

    Picker, Katharina M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using 3D parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the 3D model in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of 3D modeling. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different 3D parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are

  15. Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas. The most severe form is the gully erosion. They often cut into agricultural farmland and can make a certain area completely unproductive. To understand the development and processes inside and around gullies, we calculated detailed 3D-models of gullies in the Souss Valley in South Morocco. Near Taroudant, we had four study areas with five gullies different in size, volume and activity. By using a Canon HF G30 Camcorder, we made varying series of Full HD videos with 25fps. Afterwards, we used the method Structure from Motion (SfM) to create the models. To generate accurate models maintaining feasible runtimes, it is necessary to select around 1500-1700 images from the video, while the overlap of neighboring images should be at least 80%. In addition, it is very important to avoid selecting photos that are blurry or out of focus. Nearby pixels of a blurry image tend to have similar color values. That is why we used a MATLAB script to compare the derivatives of the images. The higher the sum of the derivative, the sharper an image of similar objects. MATLAB subdivides the video into image intervals. From each interval, the image with the highest sum is selected. E.g.: 20min. video at 25fps equals 30.000 single images. The program now inspects the first 20 images, saves the sharpest and moves on to the next 20 images etc. Using this algorithm, we selected 1500 images for our modeling. With VisualSFM, we calculated features and the matches between all images and produced a point cloud. Then, MeshLab has been used to build a surface out of it using the Poisson surface reconstruction approach. Afterwards we are able to calculate the size and the volume of the gullies. It is also possible to determine soil erosion rates, if we compare the data with old recordings. The final step would be the combination of the terrestrial data with the data from our aerial photography. So far, the method works well and we

  16. Distributed Network, Wireless and Cloud Computing Enabled 3-D Ultrasound; a New Medical Technology Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Medical technologies are indispensable to modern medicine. However, they have become exceedingly expensive and complex and are not available to the economically disadvantaged majority of the world population in underdeveloped as well as developed parts of the world. For example, according to the World Health Organization about two thirds of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In this paper we introduce a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing that was designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs. We demonstrate the value of the concept with an example; the design of a wireless, distributed network and central (cloud) computing enabled three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of producing a 3-D high end ultrasound scan at a central computing facility using the raw data acquired at the remote patient site with an inexpensive low end ultrasound transducer designed for 2-D, through a mobile device and wireless connection link between them. Producing high-end 3D ultrasound images with simple low-end transducers reduces the cost of imaging by orders of magnitude. It also removes the requirement of having a highly trained imaging expert at the patient site, since the need for hand-eye coordination and the ability to reconstruct a 3-D mental image from 2-D scans, which is a necessity for high quality ultrasound imaging, is eliminated. This could enable relatively untrained medical workers in developing nations to administer imaging and a more accurate diagnosis, effectively saving the lives of people. PMID:19936236

  17. Distributed network, wireless and cloud computing enabled 3-D ultrasound; a new medical technology paradigm.

    PubMed

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Medical technologies are indispensable to modern medicine. However, they have become exceedingly expensive and complex and are not available to the economically disadvantaged majority of the world population in underdeveloped as well as developed parts of the world. For example, according to the World Health Organization about two thirds of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In this paper we introduce a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing that was designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs. We demonstrate the value of the concept with an example; the design of a wireless, distributed network and central (cloud) computing enabled three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of producing a 3-D high end ultrasound scan at a central computing facility using the raw data acquired at the remote patient site with an inexpensive low end ultrasound transducer designed for 2-D, through a mobile device and wireless connection link between them. Producing high-end 3D ultrasound images with simple low-end transducers reduces the cost of imaging by orders of magnitude. It also removes the requirement of having a highly trained imaging expert at the patient site, since the need for hand-eye coordination and the ability to reconstruct a 3-D mental image from 2-D scans, which is a necessity for high quality ultrasound imaging, is eliminated. This could enable relatively untrained medical workers in developing nations to administer imaging and a more accurate diagnosis, effectively saving the lives of people. PMID:19936236

  18. On Fundamental Evaluation Using Uav Imagery and 3d Modeling Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, K.; Suzuki, H.; Tamino, T.; Chikatsu, H.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which have been widely used in recent years, can acquire high-resolution images with resolutions in millimeters; such images cannot be acquired with manned aircrafts. Moreover, it has become possible to obtain a surface reconstruction of a realistic 3D model using high-overlap images and 3D modeling software such as Context capture, Pix4Dmapper, Photoscan based on computer vision technology such as structure from motion and multi-view stereo. 3D modeling software has many applications. However, most of them seem to not have obtained appropriate accuracy control in accordance with the knowledge of photogrammetry and/or computer vision. Therefore, we performed flight tests in a test field using an UAV equipped with a gimbal stabilizer and consumer grade digital camera. Our UAV is a hexacopter and can fly according to the waypoints for autonomous flight and can record flight logs. We acquired images from different altitudes such as 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m. We obtained 3D reconstruction results of orthoimages, point clouds, and textured TIN models for accuracy evaluation in some cases with different image scale conditions using 3D modeling software. Moreover, the accuracy aspect was evaluated for different units of input image—course unit and flight unit. This paper describes the fundamental accuracy evaluation for 3D modeling using UAV imagery and 3D modeling software from the viewpoint of close-range photogrammetry.

  19. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  20. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  1. 3D-model building of the jaw impression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Moumen T.; Yamany, Sameh M.; Hemayed, Elsayed E.; Farag, Aly A.

    1997-03-01

    A novel approach is proposed to obtain a record of the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data acquisition is obtained using intra-oral video cameras. The technique utilizes shape from shading to extract 3D information from 2D views of the jaw, and a novel technique for 3D data registration using genetic algorithms. The resulting 3D model can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and implant purposes. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a model-based vision system for orthodontics to replace traditional approaches. This system will be flexible, accurate, and will reduce the cost of orthodontic treatments.

  2. 3D model-based still image object categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Raluca-Diana; Zaharia, Titus

    2011-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel recognition scheme algorithm for semantic labeling of 2D object present in still images. The principle consists of matching unknown 2D objects with categorized 3D models in order to infer the semantics of the 3D object to the image. We tested our new recognition framework by using the MPEG-7 and Princeton 3D model databases in order to label unknown images randomly selected from the web. Results obtained show promising performances, with recognition rate up to 84%, which opens interesting perspectives in terms of semantic metadata extraction from still images/videos.

  3. Geometric and topological feature extraction of linear segments from 2D cross-section data of 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Rajesh; Harding, Kevin; Du, Xiaoming; Lucas, Vincent; Liao, Yi; Paul, Ratnadeep; Jia, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Optical measurement techniques are often employed to digitally capture three dimensional shapes of components. The digital data density output from these probes range from a few discrete points to exceeding millions of points in the point cloud. The point cloud taken as a whole represents a discretized measurement of the actual 3D shape of the surface of the component inspected to the measurement resolution of the sensor. Embedded within the measurement are the various features of the part that make up its overall shape. Part designers are often interested in the feature information since those relate directly to part function and to the analytical models used to develop the part design. Furthermore, tolerances are added to these dimensional features, making their extraction a requirement for the manufacturing quality plan of the product. The task of "extracting" these design features from the point cloud is a post processing task. Due to measurement repeatability and cycle time requirements often automated feature extraction from measurement data is required. The presence of non-ideal features such as high frequency optical noise and surface roughness can significantly complicate this feature extraction process. This research describes a robust process for extracting linear and arc segments from general 2D point clouds, to a prescribed tolerance. The feature extraction process generates the topology, specifically the number of linear and arc segments, and the geometry equations of the linear and arc segments automatically from the input 2D point clouds. This general feature extraction methodology has been employed as an integral part of the automated post processing algorithms of 3D data of fine features.

  4. Summary on Several Key Techniques in 3D Geological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized. PMID:24772029

  5. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  6. Metrological validation for 3D modeling of dental plaster casts.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Nicola; Andreetto, Marco; Lucchese, Luca; Carmignato, Simone; Cortelazzo, Guido M

    2007-11-01

    The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents an automatic 3D modeling technique and (2) it advances a procedure for its metrological evaluation in the context of a medical application, the 3D modeling of dental plaster casts. The motivation for this work is the creation of a "virtual gypsotheque" where cumbersome dental plaster casts can be replaced by numerical 3D models, thereby alleviating storage and access problems and allowing dentists and orthodontists the use of novel and unprecedented software tools for their medical evaluations. Modeling free-form surfaces of anatomical interest is an intriguing mixture of open issues concerning 3D modeling, geometrical metrology, and medicine. Of general interest is both the fact that a widespread use of 3D modeling in non-engineering applications requires automatic procedures of the kind presented in this work and the adopted validation paradigm for free-form surfaces, rather useful for practical purposes. In this latter respect, the metrological analysis we advance is the first seminal attempt in the field of 3D modeling and can be readily extended to contexts other than the medical one discussed in this paper. PMID:17126062

  7. Satellite and Surface Data Synergy for Developing a 3D Cloud Structure and Properties Characterization Over the ARM SGP. Stage 1: Cloud Amounts, Optical Depths, and Cloud Heights Reconciliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkova, I.; Long, C. N.; Heck, P. W.; Minnis, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program objectives is to obtain measurements applicable to the development of models for better understanding of radiative processes in the atmosphere. We address this goal by building a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the cloud structure and properties over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP). We take the approach of juxtaposing the cloud properties as retrieved from independent satellite and ground-based retrievals, and looking at the statistics of the cloud field properties. Once these retrievals are well understood, they will be used to populate the 3D characterization database. As a first step we determine the relationship between surface fractional sky cover and satellite viewing angle dependent cloud fraction (CF). We elaborate on the agreement intercomparing optical depth (OD) datasets from satellite and ground using available retrieval algorithms with relation to the CF, cloud height, multi-layer cloud presence, and solar zenith angle (SZA). For the SGP Central Facility, where output from the active remote sensing cloud layer (ARSCL) valueadded product (VAP) is available, we study the uncertainty of satellite estimated cloud heights and evaluate the impact of this uncertainty for radiative studies.

  8. 3D Modeling from Photos Given Topological Information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Min; Cho, Junghyun; Ahn, Sang Chul

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing 3D models given a single-view 2D information is inherently an ill-posed problem and requires additional information such as shape prior or user input.We introduce a method to generate multiple 3D models of a particular category given corresponding photographs when the topological information is known. While there is a wide range of shapes for an object of a particular category, the basic topology usually remains constant.In consequence, the topological prior needs to be provided only once for each category and can be easily acquired by consulting an existing database of 3D models or by user input. The input of topological description is only connectivity information between parts; this is in contrast to previous approaches that have required users to interactively mark individual parts. Given the silhouette of an object and the topology, our system automatically finds a skeleton and generates a textured 3D model by jointly fitting multiple parts. The proposed method, therefore, opens the possibility of generating a large number of 3D models by consulting a massive number of photographs. We demonstrate examples of the topological prior and reconstructed 3D models using photos. PMID:26661474

  9. Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2016-06-01

    UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.

  10. CC-Modeler: a topology generator for 3-D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Armin; Wang, Xinhua

    In this paper, we introduce a semi-automated topology generator for 3-D objects, CC-Modeler (CyberCity Modeler). Given the data as point clouds measured on Analytical Plotters or Digital Stations, we present a new method for fitting planar structures to the measured sets of point clouds. While this topology generator has been originally designed to model buildings, it can also be used for other objects, which may be approximated by polyhedron surfaces. We have used it so far for roads, rivers, parking lots, ships, etc. The CC-Modeler is a generic topology generator. The problem of fitting planar faces to point clouds is treated as a Consistent Labelling problem, which is solved by probabilistic relaxation. Once the faces are defined and the related points are determined, we apply a simultaneous least-squares adjustment in order to fit the faces jointly to the given measurements in an optimal way. We first present the processing flow of the CC-Modeler. Then, the algorithm of structuring the 3-D point data is outlined. Finally, we show the results of several data sets that have been produced with the CC-Modeler.

  11. PointCloudExplore 2: Visual exploration of 3D gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    International Research Training Group Visualization of Large and Unstructured Data Sets, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany; Institute for Data Analysis and Visualization, University of California, Davis, CA; Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , Berkeley, CA; Genomics Division, LBNL; Computer Science Department, University of California, Irvine, CA; Computer Science Division,University of California, Berkeley, CA; Life Sciences Division, LBNL; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and the Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA; Ruebel, Oliver; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Huang, Min-Yu; Bethel, E. Wes; Keranen, Soile V.E.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; DePace, Angela H.; Simirenko, L.; Eisen, Michael B.; Biggin, Mark D.; Hagen, Hand; Malik, Jitendra; Knowles, David W.; Hamann, Bernd

    2008-03-31

    To better understand how developmental regulatory networks are defined inthe genome sequence, the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project (BDNTP)has developed a suite of methods to describe 3D gene expression data, i.e.,the output of the network at cellular resolution for multiple time points. To allow researchersto explore these novel data sets we have developed PointCloudXplore (PCX).In PCX we have linked physical and information visualization views via the concept ofbrushing (cell selection). For each view dedicated operations for performing selectionof cells are available. In PCX, all cell selections are stored in a central managementsystem. Cells selected in one view can in this way be highlighted in any view allowingfurther cell subset properties to be determined. Complex cell queries can be definedby combining different cell selections using logical operations such as AND, OR, andNOT. Here we are going to provide an overview of PointCloudXplore 2 (PCX2), thelatest publicly available version of PCX. PCX2 has shown to be an effective tool forvisual exploration of 3D gene expression data. We discuss (i) all views available inPCX2, (ii) different strategies to perform cell selection, (iii) the basic architecture ofPCX2., and (iv) illustrate the usefulness of PCX2 using selected examples.

  12. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  13. Identification of damage in buildings based on gaps in 3D point clouds from very high resolution oblique airborne images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrivel, Anand; Gerke, Markus; Kerle, Norman; Vosselman, George

    2015-07-01

    Point clouds generated from airborne oblique images have become a suitable source for detailed building damage assessment after a disaster event, since they provide the essential geometric and radiometric features of both roof and façades of the building. However, they often contain gaps that result either from physical damage or from a range of image artefacts or data acquisition conditions. A clear understanding of those reasons, and accurate classification of gap-type, are critical for 3D geometry-based damage assessment. In this study, a methodology was developed to delineate buildings from a point cloud and classify the present gaps. The building delineation process was carried out by identifying and merging the roof segments of single buildings from the pre-segmented 3D point cloud. This approach detected 96% of the buildings from a point cloud generated using airborne oblique images. The gap detection and classification methods were tested using two other data sets obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images with a ground resolution of around 1-2 cm. The methods detected all significant gaps and correctly identified the gaps due to damage. The gaps due to damage were identified based on the surrounding damage pattern, applying Gabor wavelets and a histogram of gradient orientation features. Two learning algorithms - SVM and Random Forests were tested for mapping the damaged regions based on radiometric descriptors. The learning model based on Gabor features with Random Forests performed best, identifying 95% of the damaged regions. The generalization performance of the supervised model, however, was less successful: quality measures decreased by around 15-30%.

  14. Biview learning for human posture segmentation from 3D points cloud.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Maoying; Cheng, Jun; Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-01-01

    Posture segmentation plays an essential role in human motion analysis. The state-of-the-art method extracts sufficiently high-dimensional features from 3D depth images for each 3D point and learns an efficient body part classifier. However, high-dimensional features are memory-consuming and difficult to handle on large-scale training dataset. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-stage dimension reduction scheme, termed biview learning, to encode two independent views which are depth-difference features (DDF) and relative position features (RPF). Biview learning explores the complementary property of DDF and RPF, and uses two stages to learn a compact yet comprehensive low-dimensional feature space for posture segmentation. In the first stage, discriminative locality alignment (DLA) is applied to the high-dimensional DDF to learn a discriminative low-dimensional representation. In the second stage, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used to explore the complementary property of RPF and the dimensionality reduced DDF. Finally, we train a support vector machine (SVM) over the output of CCA. We carefully validate the effectiveness of DLA and CCA utilized in the two-stage scheme on our 3D human points cloud dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed biview learning scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art method for human posture segmentation. PMID:24465721

  15. PointCloudXplore: a visualization tool for 3D gene expressiondata

    SciTech Connect

    Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther H.; Keranen, Soile V.E.; Fowlkes,Charles C.; Luengo Hendriks, Cristian L.; Simirenko, Lisa; Shah, NameetaY.; Eisen, Michael B.; Biggn, Mark D.; Hagen, Hans; Sudar, Damir J.; Malik, Jitendra; Knowles, David W.; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-10-01

    The Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project (BDTNP) has developed a suite of methods that support quantitative, computational analysis of three-dimensional (3D) gene expression patterns with cellular resolution in early Drosophila embryos, aiming at a more in-depth understanding of gene regulatory networks. We describe a new tool, called PointCloudXplore (PCX), that supports effective 3D gene expression data exploration. PCX is a visualization tool that uses the established visualization techniques of multiple views, brushing, and linking to support the analysis of high-dimensional datasets that describe many genes' expression. Each of the views in PointCloudXplore shows a different gene expression data property. Brushing is used to select and emphasize data associated with defined subsets of embryo cells within a view. Linking is used to show in additional views the expression data for a group of cells that have first been highlighted as a brush in a single view, allowing further data subset properties to be determined. In PCX, physical views of the data are linked to abstract data displays such as parallel coordinates. Physical views show the spatial relationships between different genes' expression patterns within an embryo. Abstract gene expression data displays on the other hand allow for an analysis of relationships between different genes directly in the gene expression space. We discuss on parallel coordinates as one example abstract data view currently available in PCX. We have developed several extensions to standard parallel coordinates to facilitate brushing and the visualization of 3D gene expression data.

  16. Combined registration of 3D tibia and femur implant models in 3D magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko

    2008-03-01

    The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting 3D CAD-models of knee joint prostheses into an 3D MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses models are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses models, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a model by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).

  17. Automatic reconstruction of 3D urban landscape by computing connected regions and assigning them an average altitude from LiDAR point cloud image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2014-10-01

    The demand of 3D city modeling has been increasing in many applications such as urban planing, computer gaming with realistic city environment, car navigation system with showing 3D city map, virtual city tourism inviting future visitors to a virtual city walkthrough and others. We proposed a simple method for reconstructing a 3D urban landscape from airborne LiDAR point cloud data. The automatic reconstruction method of a 3D urban landscape was implemented by the integration of all connected regions, which were extracted and extruded from the altitude mask images. These mask images were generated from the gray scale LiDAR image by the altitude threshold ranges. In this study we demonstrated successfully in the case of Kanazawa city center scene by applying the proposed method to the airborne LiDAR point cloud data.

  18. 3D Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ Models.

    PubMed

    Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2016-04-01

    In vitro tissue/organ models are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ models is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing 3D tissue/organ models, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing 3D in vitro tissue/organ models by 3D bioprinting techniques, characterization of these models for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor models. PMID:26895542

  19. 3D web visualization of huge CityGML models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed 3D textured city models that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city models. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a 3D web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the 3D city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the 3D Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 3D standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the 3D city models.

  20. 3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.

    1996-09-18

    We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.

  1. 3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David

    1997-02-01

    We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the modeling of accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic models for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the models are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.

  2. Project Photofly: New 3d Modeling Online Web Service (case Studies and Assessments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Furini, G.; Migliori, S.; Pierattini, S.

    2011-09-01

    During summer 2010, Autodesk has released a still ongoing project called Project Photofly, freely downloadable from AutodeskLab web site until August 1 2011. Project Photofly based on computer-vision and photogrammetric principles, exploiting the power of cloud computing, is a web service able to convert collections of photographs into 3D models. Aim of our research was to evaluate the Project Photofly, through different case studies, for 3D modeling of cultural heritage monuments and objects, mostly to identify for which goals and objects it is suitable. The automatic approach will be mainly analyzed.

  3. Fast Semantic Segmentation of 3d Point Clouds with Strongly Varying Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Timo; Wegner, Jan D.; Schindler, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    We describe an effective and efficient method for point-wise semantic classification of 3D point clouds. The method can handle unstructured and inhomogeneous point clouds such as those derived from static terrestrial LiDAR or photogammetric reconstruction; and it is computationally efficient, making it possible to process point clouds with many millions of points in a matter of minutes. The key issue, both to cope with strong variations in point density and to bring down computation time, turns out to be careful handling of neighborhood relations. By choosing appropriate definitions of a point's (multi-scale) neighborhood, we obtain a feature set that is both expressive and fast to compute. We evaluate our classification method both on benchmark data from a mobile mapping platform and on a variety of large, terrestrial laser scans with greatly varying point density. The proposed feature set outperforms the state of the art with respect to per-point classification accuracy, while at the same time being much faster to compute.

  4. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  5. Impact of Level of Details in the 3d Reconstruction of Trees for Microclimate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournez, E.; Landes, T.; Saudreau, M.; Kastendeuch, P.; Najjar, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the 21st century, urban areas undergo specific climatic conditions like urban heat islands which frequency and intensity increase over the years. Towards the understanding and the monitoring of these conditions, vegetation effects on urban climate are studied. It appears that a natural phenomenon, the evapotranspiration of trees, generates a cooling effect in urban environment. In this work, a 3D microclimate model is used to quantify the evapotranspiration of trees in relation with their architecture, their physiology and the climate. These three characteristics are determined with field measurements and data processing. Based on point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), the 3D reconstruction of the tree wood architecture is performed. Then the 3D reconstruction of leaves is carried out from the 3D skeleton of vegetative shoots and allometric statistics. With the aim of extending the simulation on several trees simultaneously, it is necessary to apply the 3D reconstruction process on each tree individually. However, as well for the acquisition as for the processing, the 3D reconstruction approach is time consuming. Mobile laser scanners could provide point clouds in a faster way than static TLS, but this implies a lower point density. Also the processing time could be shortened, but under the assumption that a coarser 3D model is sufficient for the simulation. In this context, the criterion of level of details and accuracy of the tree 3D reconstructed model must be studied. In this paper first tests to assess their impact on the determination of the evapotranspiration are presented.

  6. Multivariate 3D modelling of Scottish soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Information regarding soil properties across landscapes at national or continental scales is critical for better soil and environmental management and for climate regulation and adaptation policy. The prediction of soil properties variation in space and time and their uncertainty is an important part of environmental modelling. Soil properties, and in particular the 3 fractions of soil texture, exhibit strong co-variation among themselves and therefore taking into account this correlation leads to spatially more accurate results. In this study the continuous vertical and lateral distributions of relevant soil properties in Scottish soils were modelled with a multivariate 3D-GAM+GS approach. The approach used involves 1) modelling the multivariate trend with full 3D spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in 3D-space, and 2) 3D kriging to interpolate the residuals. The values at each cell for each of the considered depth layers were defined using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical 3D model, combining the fitting of a GAM (generalised Additive Models) to estimate multivariate trend of the variables, using a 3D smoother with related covariates. Gaussian simulations of the model residuals were used as spatial component to account for local details. A dataset of about 26,000 horizons (7,800 profiles) was used for this study. A validation set was randomly selected as 25% of the full dataset. Numerous covariates derived from globally available data, such as MODIS and SRTM, are considered. The results of the 3D-GAM+kriging showed low RMSE values, good R squared and an accurate reproduction of the spatial structure of the data for a range of soil properties. The results have an out-of-sample RMSE between 10 to 15% of the observed range when taking into account the whole profile. The approach followed allows the assessment of the uncertainty of both the trend and the residuals.

  7. Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance

  8. Microfluidic 3D cell culture: from tools to tissue models.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, Vincent; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Joore, Jos; Vulto, Paul; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The transition from 2D to 3D cell culture techniques is an important step in a trend towards better biomimetic tissue models. Microfluidics allows spatial control over fluids in micrometer-sized channels has become a valuable tool to further increase the physiological relevance of 3D cell culture by enabling spatially controlled co-cultures, perfusion flow and spatial control over of signaling gradients. This paper reviews most important developments in microfluidic 3D culture since 2012. Most efforts were exerted in the field of vasculature, both as a tissue on its own and as part of cancer models. We observe that the focus is shifting from tool building to implementation of specific tissue models. The next big challenge for the field is the full validation of these models and subsequently the implementation of these models in drug development pipelines of the pharmaceutical industry and ultimately in personalized medicine applications. PMID:26094109

  9. Evaluating Biomaterial- and Microfluidic-Based 3D Tumor Models.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Mariana R; Lima, Daniela; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vitor M; Oliveira, Joaquim M

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a disease burden estimated to increase over the coming decades. Disease heterogeneity and limited information on cancer biology and disease mechanisms are aspects that 2D cell cultures fail to address. Here, we review the current ‘state-of-the-art’ in 3D tissue-engineering (TE) models developed for, and used in, cancer research. We assess the potential for scaffold-based TE models and microfluidics to fill the gap between 2D models and clinical application. We also discuss recent advances in combining the principles of 3D TE models and microfluidics, with a special focus on biomaterials and the most promising chip-based 3D models. PMID:26603572

  10. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    PubMed

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463

  11. Synthesis of 3D Model of a Magnetic Field-Influenced Body from a Single Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Cuilan; Newman, Timothy; Gallagher, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A method for recovery of a 3D model of a cloud-like structure that is in motion and deforming but approximately governed by magnetic field properties is described. The method allows recovery of the model from a single intensity image in which the structure's silhouette can be observed. The method exploits envelope theory and a magnetic field model. Given one intensity image and the segmented silhouette in the image, the method proceeds without human intervention to produce the 3D model. In addition to allowing 3D model synthesis, the method's capability to yield a very compact description offers further utility. Application of the method to several real-world images is demonstrated.

  12. Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.

    2013-09-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its

  13. STELLOPT Modeling of the 3D Diagnostic Response in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel A

    2013-05-07

    The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria.

  14. MR image denoising method for brain surface 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, De-xin; Liu, Peng-jie; Zhang, De-gan

    2014-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of medical images is a critical part of surgical simulation. In this paper, we focus on the magnetic resonance (MR) images denoising for brain modeling reconstruction, and exploit a practical solution. We attempt to remove the noise existing in the MR imaging signal and preserve the image characteristics. A wavelet-based adaptive curve shrinkage function is presented in spherical coordinates system. The comparative experiments show that the denoising method can preserve better image details and enhance the coefficients of contours. Using these denoised images, the brain 3D visualization is given through surface triangle mesh model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Potential of 3D City Models to assess flood vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability model. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of 3D City Models and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. 3D City Models are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the 3D geometry, 3D topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, 3D City Models offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability model is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility models for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability modeling based on 3D City Models and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of

  16. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  17. 3D head model classification using optimized EGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xin; Wong, Hau-san; Ma, Bo

    2006-02-01

    With the general availability of 3D digitizers and scanners, 3D graphical models have been used widely in a variety of applications. This has led to the development of search engines for 3D models. Especially, 3D head model classification and retrieval have received more and more attention in view of their many potential applications in criminal identifications, computer animation, movie industry and medical industry. This paper addresses the 3D head model classification problem using 2D subspace analysis methods such as 2D principal component analysis (2D PCA[3]) and 2D fisher discriminant analysis (2DLDA[5]). It takes advantage of the fact that the histogram is a 2D image, and we can extract the most useful information from these 2D images to get a good result accordingingly. As a result, there are two main advantages: First, we can perform less calculation to obtain the same rate of classification; second, we can reduce the dimensionality more than PCA to obtain a higher efficiency.

  18. Vhrs Stereo Images for 3d Modelling of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujakiewicz, A.; Holc, M.

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of 3D vector data for buildings creation from 3D photogrammetric model based on the Ikonos stereo images. The model was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation - Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS 3D platform. Accuracy of 3D model was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the model area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for model reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control points)and amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted 3D vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for 3D modelling of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details) had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these models corresponded to the level of LoD2.

  19. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  20. Quality of 3D Models Generated by SFM Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčiš, Marián

    2013-12-01

    Using various types of automation in digital photogrammetry is associated with questions such as the accuracy of a 3D model generated on various types of surfaces and textures, the financial costs of the equipment needed, and also the time costs of the processing. This topic deals with the actual technology of computer vision, which allows the automated exterior orientation of images, camera calibration, and the generation of 3D models directly from images of the object itself, based on the automatic detection of significant points. Detailed testing is done using the Agisoft PhotoScan system, and the camera configuration is solved with respect to the accuracy of the 3D model generated and the time consumption of the calculations for the different types of textures and the different settings for the processing.

  1. 3D Cloud Radiative Effects on Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrievals in Cumulus Cloud Fields in the Biomass Burning Region in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guo-Yong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol amount in clear regions of a cloudy atmosphere is a critical parameter in studying the interaction between aerosols and clouds. Since the global cloud cover is about 50%, cloudy scenes are often encountered in any satellite images. Aerosols are more or less transparent, while clouds are extremely reflective in the visible spectrum of solar radiation. The radiative transfer in clear-cloudy condition is highly three- dimensional (3D). This paper focuses on estimating the 3D effects on aerosol optical thickness retrievals using Monte Carlo simulations. An ASTER image of cumulus cloud fields in the biomass burning region in Brazil is simulated in this study. The MODIS products (i-e., cloud optical thickness, particle effective radius, cloud top pressure, surface reflectance, etc.) are used to construct the cloud property and surface reflectance fields. To estimate the cloud 3-D effects, we assume a plane-parallel stratification of aerosol properties in the 60 km x 60 km ASTER image. The simulated solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is compared with plane-parallel calculations. Furthermore, the 3D cloud radiative effects on aerosol optical thickness retrieval are estimated.

  2. 3D surface digitizing and modeling development at ITRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Wen-Jean

    2000-06-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research and development activities in 3D surface digitizing and modeling conducted at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of Taiwan in the past decade. As a major technology and consulting service provider of the area, ITRI has developed 3D laser scanning digitizers ranging from low-cost compacts, industrial CAD/CAM digitizing, to large human body scanner, with in-house 3D surface modeling software to provide total solution in reverse engineering that requires processing capabilities of large number of 3D data. Based on both hardware and software technologies in scanning, merging, registration, surface fitting, reconstruction, and compression, ITRI is now exploring innovative methodologies that provide higher performances, including hardware-based correlation algorithms with advanced camera designs, animation surface model reconstruction, and optical tracking for motion capture. It is expected that the need for easy and fast high-quality 3D information in the near future will grow exponentially, at the same amazing rate as the internet and the human desire for realistic and natural images.

  3. Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Using DOE-ARM and Space-Based Assets to Assess the Quality of Air Force Weather 3D Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for global cloud analysis and forecasting to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes a number of cloud products. Cloud analyses are constructed using 17 different near real time satellite sources. Products include analysis of the individual satellite transmissions at native satellite resolution and an hourly global merge of all 17 sources on a 24km grid. AFW has also recently started creation of a time delayed global cloud reanalysis to produce a 'best possible' analysis for climatology and verification purposes. Forecasted cloud products include global short-range cloud forecasts created using advection techniques as well as statistically post processed cloud forecast products derived from various global and regional numerical weather forecast models. All of these cloud products cover different spatial and temporal resolutions and are produced on a number of different grid projections. The longer term vision of AFW is to consolidate these various approaches into uniform global numerical weather modeling (NWM) system using advanced cloudy-data assimilation processes to construct the analysis and a licensed version of UKMO's Unified Model to produce the various cloud forecast products. In preparation for this evolution in cloud modeling support, AFW has started to aggressively benchmark the performance of their current capabilities. Cloud information collected from so called 'active' sensors on the ground at the DOE-ARM sites and from space by such instruments as CloudSat, CALIPSO and CATS are being utilized to characterize the performance of AFW products derived largely by passive means. The goal is to understand the performance of the 3D cloud analysis and forecast products of today to help shape the requirements and standards for the future NWM driven system.This presentation will present selected results from these benchmarking efforts and highlight insights and observations

  5. Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.

    2011-02-01

    Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.

  6. Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations. PMID:26581957

  7. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  8. Robust model-based 3d/3D fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663

  9. 3D Model Generation From the Engineering Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaský, Jozef; Eliáš, Michal; Bezák, Pavol; Červeňanská, Zuzana; Izakovič, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    The contribution deals with the transformation of engineering drawings in a paper form into a 3D computer representation. A 3D computer model can be further processed in CAD/CAM system, it can be modified, archived, and a technical drawing can be then generated from it as well. The transformation process from paper form to the data one is a complex and difficult one, particularly owing to the different types of drawings, forms of displayed objects and encountered errors and deviations from technical standards. The algorithm for 3D model generating from an orthogonal vector input representing a simplified technical drawing of the rotational part is described in this contribution. The algorithm was experimentally implemented as ObjectARX application in the AutoCAD system and the test sample as the representation of the rotational part was used for verificaton.

  10. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  11. Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine

  12. Evaluation of Methods for Coregistration and Fusion of Rpas-Based 3d Point Clouds and Thermal Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegner, L.; Tuttas, S.; Xu, Y.; Eder, K.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the automatic coregistration and fusion of 3d point clouds generated from aerial image sequences and corresponding thermal infrared (TIR) images. Both RGB and TIR images have been taken from a RPAS platform with a predefined flight path where every RGB image has a corresponding TIR image taken from the same position and with the same orientation with respect to the accuracy of the RPAS system and the inertial measurement unit. To remove remaining differences in the exterior orientation, different strategies for coregistering RGB and TIR images are discussed: (i) coregistration based on 2D line segments for every single TIR image and the corresponding RGB image. This method implies a mainly planar scene to avoid mismatches; (ii) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images by coregistering 2D image projections of both point clouds; (iii) coregistration based on 2D line segments in every single TIR image and 3D line segments extracted from intersections of planes fitted in the segmented dense 3D point cloud; (iv) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images using both ICP and an adapted version based on corresponding segmented planes; (v) coregistration of both image sets based on point features. The quality is measured by comparing the differences of the back projection of homologous points in both corrected RGB and TIR images.

  13. 3D Modelling of the impact of outflow channel events on Late Hesperian Mars climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbet, M.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.; Head, J. W.

    2015-10-01

    During late Hesperian, large outflow channels observed in the Chryse Planitia area [1] are thought to have been carved by catastrophic and sudden water floods [2,3]. It has been speculated that such events may have modified the climate, at least locally and episodically, and could have induced precipitations and even rain [4] that could explain the formation of Late Hesperian valley networks under a cold contemporaneous climate. We present below 3D modeling of a sudden and extreme release of warm liquid water in the Chryse Planitia area on ancient Mars, assuming a faint young Sun and CO2 -dominated atmospheres thicker than today. 3D climate modeling under these conditions [5,6], and performed with a water cycle taking into account water vapor and clouds, have not been able yet to produce liquid water or at least significant precipitations by climatic processes anywhere on the planet, even when maximizing the greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds.

  14. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0

  15. Creating Physical 3D Stereolithograph Models of Brain and Skull

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Daniel J.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Meyerand, M. Elizabeth; Nelson, David L.; Ramirez, Lincoln F.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Wolf, Alan J.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The human brain and skull are three dimensional (3D) anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D) and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build 3D virtual reality (VR) and hand-held, stereolithograph models. To evaluate whether surface visualization in 3D was more informative than in 2D, undergraduate students (n = 50) used the Gillespie scale to rate 3D VR and physical models of both a living patient-volunteer's brain and the skull of Phineas Gage, a historically famous railroad worker whose misfortune with a projectile tamping iron provided the first evidence of a structure-function relationship in brain. Using our processing pathway, we successfully fabricated human brain and skull replicas and validated that the stereolithograph model preserved the scale of the VR model. Based on the Gillespie ratings, students indicated that the biological utility and quality of visual information at the surface of VR and stereolithograph models were greater than the 2D images from which they were derived. The method we developed is useful to create VR and stereolithograph 3D models from medical images and can be used to model hard or soft tissue in living or preserved specimens. Compared to 2D images, VR and stereolithograph models provide an extra dimension that enhances both the quality of visual information and utility of surface visualization in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:17971879

  16. Teaching the geological subsurface with 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma

    2014-05-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital 3D geological models for over 10 years. The models produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as model building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the models as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the models help students to learn, how models have been used historically, and how other forms of modelling are being used today. BGS now produce 3D geological models for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. 3D geological models of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough

  17. Comparative analysis of video processing and 3D rendering for cloud video games using different virtualization technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive empirical performance evaluation of 3D video processing employing the physical/virtual architecture implemented in a cloud environment. Different virtualization technologies, virtual video cards and various 3D benchmarks tools have been utilized in order to analyse the optimal performance in the context of 3D online gaming applications. This study highlights 3D video rendering performance under each type of hypervisors, and other factors including network I/O, disk I/O and memory usage. Comparisons of these factors under well-known virtual display technologies such as VNC, Spice and Virtual 3D adaptors reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the various hypervisors with respect to 3D video rendering and streaming.

  18. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  19. Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…

  20. Tracking people and cars using 3D modeling and CCTV.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda; Bijhold, Jurrien

    2010-10-10

    The aim of this study was to find a method for the reconstruction of movements of people and cars using CCTV footage and a 3D model of the environment. A procedure is proposed, in which video streams are synchronized and displayed in a 3D model, by using virtual cameras. People and cars are represented by cylinders and boxes, which are moved in the 3D model, according to their movements as shown in the video streams. The procedure was developed and tested in an experimental setup with test persons who logged their GPS coordinates as a recording of the ground truth. Results showed that it is possible to implement this procedure and to reconstruct movements of people and cars from video recordings. The procedure was also applied to a forensic case. In this work we experienced that more situational awareness was created by the 3D model, which made it easier to track people on multiple video streams. Based on all experiences from the experimental set up and the case, recommendations are formulated for use in practice. PMID:20439141

  1. A Sketching Interface for Freeform 3D Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Takeo

    This chapter introduces Teddy, a sketch-based modeling system to quickly and easily design freeform models such as stuffed animals and other rotund objects. The user draws several 2D freeform strokes interactively on the screen and the system automatically constructs plausible 3D polygonal surfaces. Our system supports several modeling operations, including the operation to construct a 3D polygonal surface from a 2D silhouette drawn by the user: it inflates the region surrounded by the silhouette making a wide area fat, and a narrow area thin. Teddy, our prototype system, is implemented as a Java program, and the mesh construction is done in real-time on a standard PC. Our informal user study showed that a first-time user masters the operations within 10 minutes, and can construct interesting 3D models within minutes. We also report the result of a case study where a high school teacher taught various 3D concepts in geography using the system.

  2. Assessment of 3D Models Used in Contours Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, F. J. Ayala; Parra, E. B. Blazquez; Tubio, F. Montes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research focusing on the view of first year students. The aim is to check the quality of implementing 3D models integrated in the curriculum. We search to determine students' preference between the various means facilitated in order to understand the given subject. Students have been respondents to prove the…

  3. 3d model for site effect assessment at Nice (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E.; Courrioux, G.; Bourgine, B.; Bour, M.; Guillen, A.; Mouroux, P.; Devaux, E.; Duval, A. M.

    2003-04-01

    Assessment of lithologic site effects is based on an accurate knowledge of properties and geometry of superficial geological formations, i.e. ideally a 3D-4G subsurface model (Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics, Geotechnics). Such a model has been achieved using a 3D geomodeler ("Geological Editor" developed at BRGM) that allows building 3D volumes of geological formations starting from drill-holes data, sections, and geological maps. This software uses a pseudo-stratigraphic pile in order to reproduce geological history and structural relationships (erosion, deposit). The interpolation is achieved through a 3D potential field. A geostatistical formulation allows to consider data points of a geological limit as equipotential, and sructural dips as gradient inputs for the 3D field interpolation. Then isosurfaces corresponding to each limit are combined using formation relationships to provide volumic models of geological formations. The first task was to identify the relevant geological formations underlying in Nice area. In a first approach Mesozoic bedrock, Pliocene bedrock, and Quaternary alluvial deposits have been distinguished considering their seismic properties. Then alluvions have been subdivided into 9 groups according to their lithology and granulometry. Modelling has been performed considering 2 major erosion surfaces, post-Mesozoic and post-Pliocene. The succession of Quaternary alluviums have been considered as "onlap deposits". Given adjacent lithologies contained in maps and drill holes, these relations lead to logical identification of the roof of formations to be interpolated. The distribution of modeled geological formations can be visualised in 3 dimensions or in 2D sections. Besides the visual interest of 3D representations, the model is first used to build a series of earth columns over a 50m/50m 2D grid. A statistical analysis allowed to identify 73 existing configurations in the Nice district area. Among these, only 15 configurations

  4. What's the Point of a Raster ? Advantages of 3D Point Cloud Processing over Raster Based Methods for Accurate Geomorphic Analysis of High Resolution Topography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Topographic (HRT) datasets are predominantly stored and analyzed as 2D raster grids of elevations (i.e., Digital Elevation Models). Raster grid processing is common in GIS software and benefits from a large library of fast algorithms dedicated to geometrical analysis, drainage network computation and topographic change measurement. Yet, all instruments or methods currently generating HRT datasets (e.g., ALS, TLS, SFM, stereo satellite imagery) output natively 3D unstructured point clouds that are (i) non-regularly sampled, (ii) incomplete (e.g., submerged parts of river channels are rarely measured), and (iii) include 3D elements (e.g., vegetation, vertical features such as river banks or cliffs) that cannot be accurately described in a DEM. Interpolating the raw point cloud onto a 2D grid generally results in a loss of position accuracy, spatial resolution and in more or less controlled interpolation. Here I demonstrate how studying earth surface topography and processes directly on native 3D point cloud datasets offers several advantages over raster based methods: point cloud methods preserve the accuracy of the original data, can better handle the evaluation of uncertainty associated to topographic change measurements and are more suitable to study vegetation characteristics and steep features of the landscape. In this presentation, I will illustrate and compare Point Cloud based and Raster based workflows with various examples involving ALS, TLS and SFM for the analysis of bank erosion processes in bedrock and alluvial rivers, rockfall statistics (including rockfall volume estimate directly from point clouds) and the interaction of vegetation/hydraulics and sedimentation in salt marshes. These workflows use 2 recently published algorithms for point cloud classification (CANUPO) and point cloud comparison (M3C2) now implemented in the open source software CloudCompare.

  5. 3D geometric modelling of hand-woven textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood

    2008-02-01

    Geometric modeling and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric modeling of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the 3D geometric model of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric model would be superimposed by a haptic model in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the 3D model. The derived model is exported as a 3D VRML model of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced models with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.

  6. A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2010-10-01

    Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal

  7. Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha

    2013-04-01

    Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.

  8. Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.

  9. Architecture of web services in the enhancement of real-time 3D video virtualization in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to improving the application of 3D video rendering and streaming by jointly exploring and optimizing both cloud-based virtualization and web-based delivery. The proposed web service architecture firstly establishes a software virtualization layer based on QEMU (Quick Emulator), an open-source virtualization software that has been able to virtualize system components except for 3D rendering, which is still in its infancy. The architecture then explores the cloud environment to boost the speed of the rendering at the QEMU software virtualization layer. The capabilities and inherent limitations of Virgil 3D, which is one of the most advanced 3D virtual Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) available, are analyzed through benchmarking experiments and integrated into the architecture to further speed up the rendering. Experimental results are reported and analyzed to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach.

  10. 3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.

    2013-04-01

    The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large

  11. MODIS volcanic ash retrievals vs FALL3D transport model: a quantitative comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Folch, A.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite retrievals and transport models represents the key tools to monitor the volcanic clouds evolution. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, the real-time tracking and forecasting of volcanic clouds is key for aviation safety. Together with the security reasons also the economical consequences of a disruption of airports must be taken into account. The airport closures due to the recent Icelandic Eyjafjöll eruption caused millions of passengers to be stranded not only in Europe, but across the world. IATA (the International Air Transport Association) estimates that the worldwide airline industry has lost a total of about 2.5 billion of Euro during the disruption. Both security and economical issues require reliable and robust ash cloud retrievals and trajectory forecasting. The intercomparison between remote sensing and modeling is required to assure precise and reliable volcanic ash products. In this work we perform a quantitative comparison between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of volcanic ash cloud mass and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with the FALL3D ash dispersal model. MODIS, aboard the NASA-Terra and NASA-Aqua polar satellites, is a multispectral instrument with 36 spectral bands operating in the VIS-TIR spectral range and spatial resolution varying between 250 and 1000 m at nadir. The MODIS channels centered around 11 and 12 micron have been used for the ash retrievals through the Brightness Temperature Difference algorithm and MODTRAN simulations. FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic particles that outputs, among other variables, cloud column mass and AOD. Three MODIS images collected the October 28, 29 and 30 on Mt. Etna volcano during the 2002 eruption have been considered as test cases. The results show a general good agreement between the retrieved and the modeled volcanic clouds in the first 300 km from the vents. Even if the

  12. Meshless deformable models for 3D cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of 3D trajectories of the material points and the computation of 3D strain field call for the necessity of building 3D cardiac deformable models. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, 3D motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable model (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A 3D MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the dynamics function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The 3D strain field is computed from the 3D displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable models can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the 3D strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446

  13. Meshless deformable models for 3D cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Schaerer, Joël; Qian, Zhen; Huh, Suejung; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of 3D trajectories of the material points and the computation of 3D strain field call for the necessity of building 3D cardiac deformable models. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, 3D motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable model (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A 3D MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the dynamics function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The 3D strain field is computed from the 3D displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable models can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the 3D strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions. PMID:25157446

  14. 3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D

    2006-08-24

    3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.

  15. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  16. Assessment of the accuracy of 3D models obtained with DSLR camera and Kinect v2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachat, E.; Macher, H.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2015-05-01

    3D modeling of objects such as statues, moldings or ornaments, answers to a need of documentation and analysis in the field of cultural heritage. Several sensors based on different technologies are used to obtain information on the geometry of an object in form of point clouds: laser scanners, digital cameras or more recently RGB-D cameras. Among them, the recent Kinect v2 sensor looks promising and therefore its use has been studied in this paper. The aim of this paper is to compare two methodologies for 3D models acquisition: photogrammetry-based models and models obtained using a RGB-D camera. Since the quality of the meshed models is obviously correlated to the quality of the point cloud, the result will be more or less faithful to reality. To quantify this reliability, several comparisons to a reference model have been carried out. Regarding the results of the comparisons, we will be able to conclude about the strengths and weaknesses of photogrammetry and RGB-D cameras for 3D modeling of complex objects.

  17. A method for building 3D models of barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nai, Yang; Li-lan, Su; Lin, Wan; Jie, Yang; Shi-yi, Chen; Wei-lu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of barchan dunes are usually represented by digital terrain models (DTMs) overlaid with digital orthophoto maps. Given that most regions with barchan dues have low relief, a 3D map obtained from a DTM may ineffectively show the stereoscopic shape of each dune. The method of building 3D models of barchan dunes using existing modeling software seldom considers the geographical environment. As a result, barchan dune models are often inconsistent with actual DTMs and incompletely express the morphological characteristics of dunes. Manual construction of barchan dune models is also costly and time consuming. Considering these problems, the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and the mathematical relationships between the morphological parameters of the dunes, such as length, height, and width, are analyzed in this study. The methods of extracting the morphological feature points of barchan dunes, calculating their morphological parameters and building dune outlines and skeleton lines based on the medial axes, are also presented. The dune outlines, skeleton lines, and part of the medial axes of dunes are used to construct a constrained triangulated irregular network. C# and ArcEngine are employed to build 3D models of barchan dunes automatically. Experimental results of a study conducted in Tengger Desert show that the method can be used to approximate the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and is less time consuming than manual methods.

  18. Geometric and colour data fusion for outdoor 3D models.

    PubMed

    Merchán, Pilar; Adán, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Domínguez, Vicente; Chacón, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields. PMID:22969327

  19. Processing 3D flash LADAR point-clouds in real-time for flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, R.; Gravseth, I.; Earhart, R. P.; Bladt, J.; Barnhill, S.; Ruppert, L.; Centamore, C.

    2007-04-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. has demonstrated real-time processing of 3D imaging LADAR point-cloud data to produce the industry's first time-of-flight (TOF) 3D video capability. This capability is uniquely suited to the rigorous demands of space and airborne flight applications and holds great promise in the area of autonomous navigation. It will provide long-range, three dimensional video information to autonomous flight software or pilots for immediate use in rendezvous and docking, proximity operations, landing, surface vision systems, and automatic target recognition and tracking. This is enabled by our new generation of FPGA based "pixel-tube" processors, coprocessors and their associated algorithms which have led to a number of advancements in high-speed wavefront processing along with additional advances in dynamic camera control, and space laser designs based on Ball's CALIPSO LIDAR. This evolution in LADAR is made possible by moving the mechanical complexity required for a scanning system into the electronics, where production, integration, testing and life-cycle costs can be significantly reduced. This technique requires a state of the art TOF read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) attached to a sensor array to collect high resolution temporal data, which is then processed through FPGAs. The number of calculations required to process the data is greatly reduced thanks to the fact that all points are captured at the same time and thus correlated. This correlation allows extremely efficient FPGA processing. This capability has been demonstrated in prototype form at both Marshal Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center on targets that represent docking and landing scenarios. This report outlines many aspects of this work as well as aspects of our recent testing at Marshall's Flight Robotics Laboratory.

  20. Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system models capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on 3D morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based Models (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. 3D city models were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative modelling techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous models are spatially represented. Coupling 3D geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system models can be enhanced with high resolution data from 3D city models and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, 3D models can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution models for energy use at component level. The proposed modelling strategies

  1. 3-D model-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.

    PubMed

    Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-based tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard model-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights. PMID:25099967

  2. 3D Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesch, Mark S.; Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Teweldebirhan, Kinfe; Upton, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    We present results from the new STABLE (Surface flux Transport and Babcock Leighton) Dynamo Model. STABLE is a 3D Babcock-Leighton/Flux Transport dynamo model in which the source of poloidal field is the explicit emergence, distortion, and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). In this talk I will discuss initial results with axisymmetric flow fields, focusing on the operation of the model, the general features of the cyclic solutions, and the challenge of achieving supercritical dynamo solutions using only the Babcock-Leighton source term. Then I will present dynamo simulations that include 3D convective flow fields based on the observed velocity power spectrum inferred from photospheric Dopplergrams. I'll use these simulations to assess how the explicit transport and amplification of fields by surface convection influences the operation of the dynamo. I will also discuss the role of surface magnetic fields in regulating the subsurface toroidal flux budget.

  3. 3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.

  4. Texture blending on 3D models using casual images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingming; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Ameng; Liu, Junyao; Wang, Huijing

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a method for constructing photorealistic textured model using 3D structured light digitizer is presented. Our method acquisition of range images and texture images around object, and range images are registered and integrated to construct geometric model of object. System is calibrated and poses of texture-camera are determined so that the relationship between texture and geometric model is established. After that, a global optimization is applied to assign compatible texture to adjacent surface and followed with a level procedure to remove artifacts due to vary lighting, approximate geometric model and so on. Lastly, we demonstrate the effect of our method on constructing a real model of world.

  5. A 3D alcoholic liver disease model on a chip.

    PubMed

    Lee, JaeSeo; Choi, BongHwan; No, Da Yoon; Lee, GeonHui; Lee, Seung-Ri; Oh, HyunJik; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-03-14

    Alcohol is one of the main causes of liver diseases, and the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) treatment methods has been one of the hottest issues. For this purpose, development of in vitro models mimicking the in vivo physiology is one of the critical requirements, and they help to determine the disease mechanisms and to discover the treatment method. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) ALD model was developed and its superior features in mimicking the in vivo condition were demonstrated. A spheroid-based microfluidic chip was employed for the development of the 3D in vitro model of ALD progression. We co-cultured rat primary hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a fluidic chip to investigate the role of HSCs in the recovery of liver with ALD. An interstitial level of flow derived by an osmotic pump was applied to the chip to provide in vivo mimicking of fluid activity. Using this in vitro tool, we were able to observe structural changes and decreased hepatic functions with the increase in ethanol concentration. The recovery process of liver injured by alcohol was observed by providing fresh culture medium to the damaged 3D liver tissue for few days. A reversibly- and irreversibly-injured ALD model was established. The proposed model can not only be used for the research of alcoholic disease mechanism, but also has the potential for use in studies of hepatotoxicity and drug screening applications. PMID:26857817

  6. Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.

  7. Generation and use of human 3D-CAD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf

    2002-05-01

    Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human modeling as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human modeling software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized models generated and analyzed in 3D computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.

  8. 3D cartographic modeling of the Alpine arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Naomi; Sue, Christian; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Calcagno, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    We built a 3D cartography of the Alpine arc, a highly non-cylindrical mountain belt, using the 3D GeoModeller of the BRGM (French geological survey). The model allows to handle the large-scale 3D structure of seventeen major crustal units of the belt (from the lower crust to the sedimentary cover nappes), and two main discontinuities (the Insubric Line and the Crustal Penninic Front). It provides a unique document to better understand their structural relationships and to produce new sections. The study area comprises the western Alpine arc, from the Jura to the Northwest, up to the Bergell granite intrusion and the Lepontine Dome to the East, and is limited to the South by the Ligurian basin. The model is limited vertically 10 km above sea level at the top, and the moho interface at the bottom. We discarded the structural relationships between the Alps sensus stricto and the surrounding geodynamic systems such as the Rhine graben or the connection with the Apennines. The 3D-model is based on the global integration of various data such as the DEM of the Alps, the moho isobaths, the simplified geological and tectonic maps of the belt, the crustal cross-sections ECORS-CROP and NFP-20, and complementary cross-sections specifically built to precise local complexities. The database has first been integrated in a GIS-project to prepare their implementation in the GeoModeller, by homogenizing the different spatial referencing systems. The global model is finally interpolated from all these data, using the potential field method. The final document is a new tri-dimensional cartography that would be used as input for further alpine studies.

  9. 3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.

    PubMed

    Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device. PMID:23148493

  10. LIVAS: a 3-D multi-wavelength aerosol/cloud climatology based on CALIPSO and EARLINET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiridis, V.; Marinou, E.; Tsekeri, A.; Wandinger, U.; Schwarz, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Mamouri, R.; Kokkalis, P.; Binietoglou, I.; Solomos, S.; Herekakis, T.; Kazadzis, S.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Balis, D.; Papayannis, A.; Kontoes, C.; Kourtidis, K.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Mona, L.; Pappalardo, G.; Le Rille, O.; Ansmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present LIVAS, a 3-dimentional multi-wavelength global aerosol and cloud optical climatology, optimized to be used for future space-based lidar end-to-end simulations of realistic atmospheric scenarios as well as retrieval algorithm testing activities. LIVAS database provides averaged profiles of aerosol optical properties for the potential space-borne laser operating wavelengths of 355, 532, 1064, 1570 and 2050 nm and of cloud optical properties at the wavelength of 532 nm. The global climatology is based on CALIPSO observations at 532 and 1064 nm and on aerosol-type-dependent spectral conversion factors for backscatter and extinction, derived from EARLINET ground-based measurements for the UV and scattering calculations for the IR wavelengths, using a combination of input data from AERONET, suitable aerosol models and recent literature. The required spectral conversion factors are calculated for each of the CALIPSO aerosol types and are applied to CALIPSO extinction and backscatter data correspondingly to the aerosol type retrieved by the CALIPSO aerosol classification scheme. A cloud climatology based on CALIPSO measurements at 532 nm is also provided, neglecting wavelength conversion due to approximately neutral scattering behavior of clouds along the spectral range of LIVAS. Averages of particle linear depolarization ratio profiles at 532 nm are provided as well. Finally, vertical distributions for a set of selected scenes of specific atmospheric phenomena (e.g., dust outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, wild fires, polar stratospheric clouds) are analyzed and spectrally converted so as to be used as case studies for space-borne lidar performance assessments. The final global climatology includes 4-year (1 January 2008-31 December 2011) time-averaged CALIPSO data on a uniform grid of 1×1 degree with the original high vertical resolution of CALIPSO in order to ensure realistic simulations of the atmospheric variability in lidar end-to-end simulations.

  11. Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan

    2010-10-19

    Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the "solar-background" mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM's zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS's 1 Hz sampling to study the "twilight zone" around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM's 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM's operational data processing.

  12. Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.

  13. Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-09-01

    In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.

  14. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  15. The 3D model control of image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The 3-D model control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The 3-D model control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.

  16. 3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet

    2002-06-01

    More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.

  17. Cloud 3D Effects Evidenced in Landsat Power Spectra and Autocorrelation Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.; Wen, Guoyong

    1999-01-01

    the spectral signatures of decorrelation between reflectance and optical depth at large scales becoming stronger as the magnitude of cloud top variations increase. Finally, the usefulness of power spectral analysis in evaluating the skill of novel optical depth retrieval techniques in removing 3D radiative effects is demonstrated. New techniques using inverse Non-local Independent Pixel Approximation (NIPA) and Normalized Difference of Nadir Reflectivity (NDNR) yield optical depth fields which better match the scale-by-scale variability of the true optical depth field.

  18. CAST: Effective and Efficient User Interaction for Context-Aware Selection in 3D Particle Clouds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingyun; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We present a family of three interactive Context-Aware Selection Techniques (CAST) for the analysis of large 3D particle datasets. For these datasets, spatial selection is an essential prerequisite to many other analysis tasks. Traditionally, such interactive target selection has been particularly challenging when the data subsets of interest were implicitly defined in the form of complicated structures of thousands of particles. Our new techniques SpaceCast, TraceCast, and PointCast improve usability and speed of spatial selection in point clouds through novel context-aware algorithms. They are able to infer a user's subtle selection intention from gestural input, can deal with complex situations such as partially occluded point clusters or multiple cluster layers, and can all be fine-tuned after the selection interaction has been completed. Together, they provide an effective and efficient tool set for the fast exploratory analysis of large datasets. In addition to presenting Cast, we report on a formal user study that compares our new techniques not only to each other but also to existing state-of-the-art selection methods. Our results show that Cast family members are virtually always faster than existing methods without tradeoffs in accuracy. In addition, qualitative feedback shows that PointCast and TraceCast were strongly favored by our participants for intuitiveness and efficiency. PMID:26390474

  19. Modeling 3D faces from samplings via compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping

    2013-07-01

    3D data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial modeling is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel 3D super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial models from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover 3D facial model of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.

  20. a Semi-Automated Point Cloud Processing Methodology for 3d Cultural Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıvılcım, C. Ö.; Duran, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect's Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  1. Modelling galaxies with a 3d multi-phase ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfst, S.; Theis, Ch.; Hensler, G.

    2006-04-01

    We present a new particle code for modelling the evolution of galaxies. The code is based on a multi-phase description for the interstellar medium (ISM). We include star formation (SF), stellar feedback by massive stars and planetary nebulae, phase transitions, and interactions between gas clouds and ambient diffuse gas, namely condensation, evaporation, drag, and energy dissipation. The last is realised by radiative cooling and inelastic cloud-cloud collisions. We present new schemes for SF and stellar feedback that include a consistent calculation of the star-formation efficiency (SFE) based on ISM properties, as well as a detailed redistribution of the feedback energy into the different ISM phases. As a first test we show a model of the evolution of a present day Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the model exhibits a quasi-stationary behaviour in global properties like mass fractions or surface densities, the evolution of the ISM is strongly variable locally depending on the local SF and stellar feedback. We start only with two distinct phases, but a three-phase ISM is formed soon and consists of cold molecular clouds, a warm gas disk, and a hot gaseous halo. Hot gas is also found in bubbles in the disk accompanied by type II supernovae explosions. The volume-filling factor of the hot gas in the disk is 35%. The mass spectrum of the clouds follows a power-law with an index of α ≈ -2. The star-formation rate (SFR) is 1.6 M⊙ yr-1 on average, decreasing slowly with time due to gas consumption. In order to maintain a constant SFR, gas replenishment, e.g. by infall, of the order 1 M⊙ yr-1 is required. Our model is in fair agreement with Kennicutt's (1998, ApJ, 498, 541) SF law including the cut-off at 10 M⊙ pc-2. Models with a constant SFE, i.e. no feedback on the SF, fail to reproduce Kennicutt's law. We performed a parameter study varying the particle resolution, feedback energy, cloud radius, SF time scale, and metallicity. In most these cases the evolution

  2. Shadow Effect on Photovoltaic Potentiality Analysis Using 3d City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Due to global warming, green-house effect and various other drawbacks of existing energy sources, renewable energy like Photovoltaic system is being popular for energy production. The result of photovoltaic potentiality analysis depends on data quality and parameters. Shadow rapidly decreases performance of the Photovoltaic system and it always changes due to the movement of the sun. Solar radiation incident on earth's atmosphere is relatively constant but the radiation at earth's surface varies due to absorption, scattering, reflection, change in spectral content, diffuse component, water vapor, clouds and pollution etc. In this research, it is being investigated that how efficiently real-time shadow can be detected for both direct and diffuse radiation considering reflection and other factors in contrast with the existing shadow detection methods using latest technologies and what is the minimum quality of data required for this purpose. Of course, geometric details of the building geometry and surroundings directly affect the calculation of shadows. In principle, 3D city models or point clouds, which contain roof structure, vegetation, thematically differentiated surface and texture, are suitable to simulate exact real-time shadow. This research would develop an automated procedure to measure exact shadow effect from the 3D city models and a long-term simulation model to determine the produced energy from the photovoltaic system. In this paper, a developed method for detecting shadow for direct radiation has been discussed with its result using a 3D city model to perform a solar energy potentiality analysis.

  3. 3D modelling of the Black Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, A.; Gregoire, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Joassin, P.; Naithani, J.; Soetart, K.

    2009-04-01

    A coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the Black Sea at the end of the 80's when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The biogeochemical model describes the cycle of carbon, nitrogen, silicate, oxygen and phosphorus through the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores and explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer down to the bottom. For calibration and analyses purposes, the coupled model has first been run in 1D at several places in the Black Sea. The biogeochemical model involves some hundred parameters which have been first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of 15 identifiable parameters. An automatic calibration subroutine has been used to fine tune these parameters. In 1D, the model solution exhibits a complex dynamics with several years of transient adjustment. This complexity is imparted by the explicit modelling of top predators. The model has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The calibrated biogeochemical model is implemented in a 3D hydrodynamical model of the Black Sea. Results of these 3D simulations will be presented and compared with maps of in-situ data reconstructed from available data base using the software DIVA (Data Interpolation and Variational analysis).

  4. 2D quantum double models from a 3D perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we look at three dimensional (3D) lattice models that are generalizations of the state sum model used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These models are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar models, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra {C}(G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the model and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A={C}({{{Z}}_{2}}). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double models where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of \\Sigma \\times {{S}^{1}}. It is also possible to obtain extra models by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the model. While some of these extra models have appeared before in the literature, our 3D perspective allows for an uniform description of them.

  5. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D geologic model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    This is an x,y,z file of the West Flank FORGE 3D geologic model. Model created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The model was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.

  6. Impacts of 3-D radiative effects on satellite cloud detection and their consequences on cloud fraction and aerosol optical depth retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuekui; di Girolamo, Larry

    2008-02-01

    We present the first examination on how 3-D radiative transfer impacts satellite cloud detection that uses a single visible channel threshold. The 3-D radiative transfer through predefined heterogeneous cloud fields embedded in a range of horizontally homogeneous aerosol fields have been carried out to generate synthetic nadir-viewing satellite images at a wavelength of 0.67 μm. The finest spatial resolution of the cloud field is 30 m. We show that 3-D radiative effects cause significant histogram overlap between the radiance distribution of clear and cloudy pixels, the degree to which depends on many factors (resolution, solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud top variability, etc.). This overlap precludes the existence of a threshold that can correctly separate all clear pixels from cloudy pixels. The region of clear/cloud radiance overlap includes moderately large (up to 5 in our simulations) cloud optical depths. Purpose-driven cloud masks, defined by different thresholds, are applied to the simulated images to examine their impact on retrieving cloud fraction and AOD. Large (up to 100s of %) systematic errors were observed that depended on the type of cloud mask and the factors that influence the clear/cloud radiance overlap, with a strong dependence on solar zenith angle. Different strategies in computing domain-averaged AOD were performed showing that the domain-averaged BRF from all clear pixels produced the smallest AOD biases with the weakest (but still large) dependence on solar zenith angle. The large dependence of the bias on solar zenith angle has serious implications for climate research that uses satellite cloud and aerosol products.

  7. Ozone formation during an episode over Europe: A 3-D chemical/transport model simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    1994-01-01

    A 3-D regional photochemical tracer/transport model for Europe and the Eastern Atlantic has been developed based on the NASA/GISS CTM. The model resolution is 4x5 degrees latitude and longitude with 9 layers in the vertical (7 in the troposphere). Advective winds, convection statistics and other meteorological data from the NASA/GISS GCM are used. An extensive gas-phase chemical scheme based on the scheme used in our global 2D model has been incorporated in the 3D model. In this work ozone formation in the troposphere is studied with the 3D model during a 5 day period starting June 30. Extensive local ozone production is found and the relationship between the source regions and the downwind areas are discussed. Variations in local ozone formation as a function of total emission rate, as well as the composition of the emissions (HC/NO(x)) ratio and isoprene emissions) are elucidated. An important vertical transport process in the troposphere is by convective clouds. The 3D model includes an explicit parameterization of this process. It is shown that this process has significant influence on the calculated surface ozone concentrations.

  8. Right approach to 3D modeling using CAD tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddam, Mounica Reddy

    The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable 3D modeling approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in 3D domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different 3D modeling approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).

  9. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP) with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface Modeling (DSM) and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g. X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  10. Northern California Seismic Attenuation: 3-D Qp and Qs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, 3-D Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and 3-D velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the 3-D volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.

  11. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  12. A 3D clustering approach for point clouds to detect and quantify changes at a rock glacier front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Natan; Tonini, Marj; Lane, Stuart N.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are extensively used in geomorphology to remotely-sense landforms and surfaces of any type and to derive digital elevation models (DEMs). Modern devices are able to collect many millions of points, so that working on the resulting dataset is often troublesome in terms of computational efforts. Indeed, it is not unusual that raw point clouds are filtered prior to DEM creation, so that only a subset of points is retained and the interpolation process becomes less of a burden. Whilst this procedure is in many cases necessary, it implicates a considerable loss of valuable information. First, and even without eliminating points, the common interpolation of points to a regular grid causes a loss of potentially useful detail. Second, it inevitably causes the transition from 3D information to only 2.5D data where each (x,y) pair must have a unique z-value. Vector-based DEMs (e.g. triangulated irregular networks) partially mitigate these issues, but still require a set of parameters to be set and a considerable burden in terms of calculation and storage. Because of the reasons above, being able to perform geomorphological research directly on point clouds would be profitable. Here, we propose an approach to identify erosion and deposition patterns on a very active rock glacier front in the Swiss Alps to monitor sediment dynamics. The general aim is to set up a semiautomatic method to isolate mass movements using 3D-feature identification directly from LiDAR data. An ultra-long range LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner was employed to acquire point clouds during three consecutive summers. In order to isolate single clusters of erosion and deposition we applied the Density-Based Scan Algorithm with Noise (DBSCAN), previously successfully employed by Tonini and Abellan (2014) in a similar case for rockfall detection. DBSCAN requires two input parameters, strongly influencing the number, shape and size of the detected clusters: the minimum number of

  13. 3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.

  14. Modeling and Processing of Continuous 3D Elastic Wavefield Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.; Bohlen, T.

    2001-12-01

    Continuous seismic wavefields are excited by earthquake clustering, induced seismicity in reservoirs, and mining. In hydrocarbon reservoirs, for example, pore pressure changes and fluid flow (mass transfer) will cause incremental deviatoric stresses sufficient to trigger and sustain seismic activity. Here we address three aspects of seismic wavefields in three-dimensional heterogeneous media triggered by distributed sources in space and time: forward modeling, multichannel data processing, and source location imaging. A power law distribution of seismic sources (such as the Gutenberg-Richter law) is used for the modeling of viscoelastic/elastic wave propagation through a realistic earth model. 3D modeling provides new insight in the interaction of multi-source wavefields and the role of scale-dependend elastic model parameters on transmitted and reflected/back-scattered wavefields. There exists a strong correlation between the spatial properties of the compressional, shear wave and density perturbations and the lateral correlation length of the resulting reflected or transmitted seismic wavefields. Modeling is based on the implementation of 3D elastic/viscoelastic FD codes on massive parallel and/or distributed computing resources using MPI (message passing interface). For parallelization, large grid 3D earth models are decomposed into subvolume processing elements whereby each processing element is updating the wavefield within its portion of the grid. Processing of continuous seismic wavefields excited by multiple distributed sources is based on a combination of crosscorrelated or slowness-transformed array data and Kirchhoff or reverse time migration for source location or source volume imaging. The appearance of slowness in both migration and array data processing suggests the possibility of combining them into a single process. In order to place further constraints on the migration, the directivity properties of 3-component receiver arrays can be included in

  15. Subduction zone guided waves: 3D modelling and attenuation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Waveform modelling is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for modelling purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D models have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D modelling limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full 3D waveform modelling. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately modelled to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be modelled as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large model area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of modelling for such a large area, the width of the model area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the 3D model domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a model ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor model allows waveguide affects to be modelled up to at least 2

  16. 3D flare particle model for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2016-05-01

    A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new 3D flare particle model in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The 3D particles of each flare sub-munition are modelled stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a model from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new model also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous model which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare model during a missile engagement.

  17. 3D finite element model for treatment of cleft lip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong

    2009-02-01

    Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic 3D finite element model (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a 3D geometrical model of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric model, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the model step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the model, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the model. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient model.

  18. 3D statistical shape models incorporating 3D random forest regression voting for robust CT liver segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.

    2015-03-01

    During image segmentation, 3D Statistical Shape Models (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the model surface. In addition, landmark appearance is modeled only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for 3D SSM segmentation based on 3D Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a 3D spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized 3D Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within 3D search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.

  19. Experiments with Uas Imagery for Automatic Modeling of Power Line 3d Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźków, G.; Vander Jagt, B.; Toth, C.

    2015-08-01

    The ideal mapping technology for transmission line inspection is the airborne LiDAR executed from helicopter platforms. It allows for full 3D geometry extraction in highly automated manner. Large scale aerial images can be also used for this purpose, however, automation is possible only for finding transmission line positions (2D geometry), and the sag needs to be estimated manually. For longer lines, these techniques are less expensive than ground surveys, yet they are still expensive. UAS technology has the potential to reduce these costs, especially if using inexpensive platforms with consumer grade cameras. This study investigates the potential of using high resolution UAS imagery for automatic modeling of transmission line 3D geometry. The key point of this experiment was to employ dense matching algorithms to appropriately acquired UAS images to have points created also on wires. This allowed to model the 3D geometry of transmission lines similarly to LiDAR acquired point clouds. Results showed that the transmission line modeling is possible with a high internal accuracy for both, horizontal and vertical directions, even when wires were represented by a partial (sparse) point cloud.

  20. Bazhenov fm unconventional reservoir 3D geological modeling methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnova, A.; Baranov, V.; Bukhanov, N.

    2016-03-01

    The Bazhenov Formation has been studied for more than 50 years, but its petroleum potential, optimal STOIIP or resource estimation approaches, the methodology used to select a reservoir, determine its properties are still unclear. The distinctive features of bituminous shale are specific geochemical properties chosen as basic parameters to perform the geological modeling of the Bazhenov deposits and determine the key areas. The main objective of this paper is to choose an optimal 3D geological modeling algorithm and test conventional (petrophysical) and specific (geochemical) properties.

  1. Towards Forward Modeling of 3D Heterogeneity in D" region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.

    2002-12-01

    The presence of strong lateral heterogeneity in D" is now well documented. While tomographic modeling provides constraints on the large scale patterns, strong variations on shorter scales are best addressed by forward modeling. Appropriate tools are needed for forward modeling that will handle strong 3D heterogeneity, at relatively short periods and including diffracted waves. We use a coupled mode/SEM (Spectral Element Method) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3D models of the D" layer down to 1/12s. This coupled method (Capdeville, 2001) affords faster computations than SEM in cases where heterogeneity can be restricted to a specific layer. We compare them with observed waveforms for several events in the Western Pacific. Observed and synthetic travel time trends are very consistent, although in most cases the observed residuals are significantly larger. Waveform amplitudes are less consistent. In order to understand the origin of the amplitude difference, we test the effect of 3D heterogeneity on Sdiff phase. In particular, the results show opposite trends in the amplitude of Sdiff due to heterogeneity located near the CMB or well above it. This provides constraints on the location of the causative velocity heterogeneity. Because the forward modeling approach requires many iterations, the coupled mode/SEM approach is still computationally intensive. It is more efficient to use a less accurate traditional approach to first get closer to a final model, and only then use coupled mode/SEM to refine the model. Ray theory is the most expedient way to calculate travel times. However, it is an infinite frequency approximation and not appropriate to handle diffracting waves. We show that ray theory predicts larger travel time anomaly for Sdiff phase than the one obtained by coupled mode/SEM. Although it is based on a weak heterogeneity assumption, Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory(NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) helps to overcome this difficulty. It can handle

  2. Cloud model bat algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: "bats approach their prey." Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

  3. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  4. Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.

  5. 3D Building Evacuation Route Modelling and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the modelling of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a 3D visual representation of the model output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to model the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The 3D visual representation of the model displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed models, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in 3D.

  6. Modeling the GFR with RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff B. Davis; Theron D. Marshall; K. D. Weaver

    2005-09-01

    Significant improvements have been made to the RELAP5-3D computer code for analysis of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR). These improvements consisted of adding carbon dioxide as a working fluid, improving the turbine component, developing a compressor model, and adding the Gnielinski heat transfer correlation. The code improvements were validated, generally through comparisons with independent design calculations. A model of the power conversion unit of the GFR was developed. The model of the power conversion unit was coupled to a reactor model to develop a complete model of the GFR system. The RELAP5 model of the GFR was used to simulate two transients, one initiated by a reactor trip and the other initiated by a loss of load.

  7. RGB-D Indoor Plane-based 3D-Modeling using Autonomous Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofi, N.; Moussa, A.; Elhabiby, M.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-11-01

    3D model of indoor environments provide rich information that can facilitate the disambiguation of different places and increases the familiarization process to any indoor environment for the remote users. In this research work, we describe a system for visual odometry and 3D modeling using information from RGB-D sensor (Camera). The visual odometry method estimates the relative pose of the consecutive RGB-D frames through feature extraction and matching techniques. The pose estimated by visual odometry algorithm is then refined with iterative closest point (ICP) method. The switching technique between ICP and visual odometry in case of no visible features suppresses inconsistency in the final developed map. Finally, we add the loop closure to remove the deviation between first and last frames. In order to have a semantic meaning out of 3D models, the planar patches are segmented from RGB-D point clouds data using region growing technique followed by convex hull method to assign boundaries to the extracted patches. In order to build a final semantic 3D model, the segmented patches are merged using relative pose information obtained from the first step.

  8. Testing Mercury Porosimetry with 3D Printed Porosity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical model underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. 3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate models, exactly what is required to build models of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity models (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on 3D printed versions of the same digital porosity models.

  9. 3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.

  10. Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-08-01

    Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.

  11. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu

    2011-05-24

    We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: • Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. • Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. • Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.

  12. Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of

  13. 3-D Modeling of a Nearshore Dye Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, A. R.; Hibler, L. F.; Miller, L. M.

    2006-12-01

    The usage of computer modeling software in predicting the behavior of a plume discharged into deep water is well established. Nearfield plume spreading in coastal areas with complex bathymetry is less commonly studied; in addition to geometry, some of the difficulties of this environment include: tidal exchange, temperature, and salinity gradients. Although some researchers have applied complex hydrodynamic models to this problem, nearfield regions are typically modeled by calibration of an empirical or expert system model. In the present study, the 3D hydrodynamic model Delft3D-FLOW was used to predict the advective transport from a point release in Sequim Bay, Washington. A nested model approach was used, wherein a coarse model using a mesh extending to nearby tide gages (cell sizes up to 1 km) was run over several tidal cycles in order to provide boundary conditions to a smaller area. The nested mesh (cell sizes up to 30 m) was forced on two open boundaries using the water surface elevation derived from the coarse model. Initial experiments with the uncalibrated model were conducted in order to predict plume propagation based on the best available field data. Field experiments were subsequently carried out by releasing rhodamine dye into the bay at near-peak flood tidal current and near high slack tidal conditions. Surface and submerged releases were carried out from an anchored vessel. Concurrently collected data from the experiment include temperature, salinity, dye concentration, and hyperspectral imagery, collected from boats and aircraft. A REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle was used to measure current velocity and dye concentration at varying depths, as well as to acquire additional bathymetric information. Preliminary results indicate that the 3D hydrodynamic model offers a reasonable prediction of plume propagation speed and shape. A sensitivity analysis is underway to determine the significant factors in effectively using the model as a predictive tool

  14. Discussion of Source Reconstruction Models Using 3D MCG Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment model of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different models of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general model of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source model has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that 3D MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source models.

  15. Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.

    2015-12-04

    RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the acceleratingmore » frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.« less

  16. Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.

    2015-12-04

    RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the accelerating frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.

  17. Reassessing Geophysical Models of the Bushveld Complex in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J.; Webb, S. J.; Finn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Conceptual geophysical models of the Bushveld Igneous Complex show three possible geometries for its mafic component: 1) Separate intrusions with vertical feeders for the eastern and western lobes (Cousins, 1959) 2) Separate dipping sheets for the two lobes (Du Plessis and Kleywegt, 1987) 3) A single saucer-shaped unit connected at depth in the central part between the two lobes (Cawthorn et al, 1998) Model three incorporates isostatic adjustment of the crust in response to the weight of the dense mafic material. The model was corroborated by results of a broadband seismic array over southern Africa, known as the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE) (Nguuri, et al, 2001; Webb et al, 2004). This new information about the crustal thickness only became available in the last decade and could not be considered in the earlier models. Nevertheless, there is still on-going debate as to which model is correct. All of the models published up to now have been done in 2 or 2.5 dimensions. This is not well suited to modelling the complex geometry of the Bushveld intrusion. 3D modelling takes into account effects of variations in geometry and geophysical properties of lithologies in a full three dimensional sense and therefore affects the shape and amplitude of calculated fields. The main question is how the new knowledge of the increased crustal thickness, as well as the complexity of the Bushveld Complex, will impact on the gravity fields calculated for the existing conceptual models, when modelling in 3D. The three published geophysical models were remodelled using full 3Dl potential field modelling software, and including crustal thickness obtained from the SASE. The aim was not to construct very detailed models, but to test the existing conceptual models in an equally conceptual way. Firstly a specific 2D model was recreated in 3D, without crustal thickening, to establish the difference between 2D and 3D results. Then the thicker crust was added. Including the less

  18. 3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing

    2014-12-01

    We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.

  19. A generic 3D kinetic model of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2012-04-01

    Recent experiments show that mRNAs and proteins can be localized both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To describe such situations, I present a 3D mean-field kinetic model aimed primarily at gene expression in prokaryotic cells, including the formation of mRNA, its translation into protein, and slow diffusion of these species. Under steady-state conditions, the mRNA and protein spatial distribution is described by simple exponential functions. The protein concentration near the gene transcribed into mRNA is shown to depend on the protein and mRNA diffusion coefficients and degradation rate constants.

  20. Unstructured 3D grid toolbox for modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.

    1997-11-01

    Computable 3D grids that accurately represent complex multimaterial geometries are essential for both static and time-dependent modeling and simulation. LaGriT, the grid toolbox developed at Los Alamos provides a sophisticated set of initial grid generation, grid maintenance and grid optimization tools. We present example grids that demonstrate the flexibility of the grid generator. Additionally, we present the results of an electrostatic calculation and a grain growth problem that illustrate the grid optimization features and the utility of the grid server architecture.

  1. Simulation of 3D Global Wave Propagation Through Geodynamic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuberth, B.; Piazzoni, A.; Bunge, H.; Igel, H.; Steinle-Neumann, G.

    2005-12-01

    This project aims at a better understanding of the forward problem of global 3D wave propagation. We use the spectral element program "SPECFEM3D" (Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002a,b) with varying input models of seismic velocities derived from mantle convection simulations (Bunge et al., 2002). The purpose of this approach is to obtain seismic velocity models independently from seismological studies. In this way one can test the effects of varying parameters of the mantle convection models on the seismic wave field. In order to obtain the seismic velocities from the temperature field of the geodynamical simulations we follow a mineral physics approach. Assuming a certain mantle composition (e.g. pyrolite with CMASF composition) we compute the stable phases for each depth (i.e. pressure) and temperature by system Gibbs free energy minimization. Elastic moduli and density are calculated from the equations of state of the stable mineral phases. For this we use a mineral physics database derived from calorimetric experiments (enthalphy and entropy of formation, heat capacity) and EOS parameters.

  2. 3D Model of Melt Distribution in Partially Molten Dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapic, G.; Faul, U.; Brisson, E.

    2010-12-01

    The currently existing model of grain-scale melt geometry in the Earth’s upper mantle is derived from theoretical considerations that stem from material science research, combined with relatively low-resolution observations of polished two-dimensional surfaces. This model predicts a simple, interconnected network of melt along three-grain edges in static surface energy equilibrium. However, due to a continuous rearrangements of neighboring grains caused by grain growth, melt forms complex shapes among the grains. As a result, it is impossible to construct a 3D image of the pore space from 2D surfaces, which makes it particularly challenging to resolve the current controversy on whether all two-grain boundaries are wetted or melt-free. We present a new method for reconstruction of the 3D pore space in partially molten rocks. The method consists of serial sectioning and high resolution imaging (Field Emission SEM) of polished surfaces, followed by image alignment and rendering. The ablation rate during serial sectioning is determined by measuring the depth of a laser hole by interferometry. We removed a total of 25 layers with a spacing of of 1.3.microns between layers. Each layer consists of a mosaic of images approximately 300 x 320 microns in size. Melt regions are identified within each layer by hand-digitizing SEM images. We obtain a 3D model by stacking the slices, registering each slice, and using alpha shapes as a surface reconstruction technique. The sample we investigated is a partially molten dunite consisting of Fo90 olivine with a mean grain size of 33 microns and 4% melt. It was run in a piston cylinder at 1350°C and 1 GPa for 432 hours to achieve steady state grain growth. Rendering of the 3D pore space shows that the larger melt pockets at multi-grain junctions change within only a few microns in depth, whereas thin inclusions along two-grain boundaries persist over the entire depth of the imaged volume, which is similar to the mean grain size

  3. A Prototype Digital Library for 3D Collections: Tools To Capture, Model, Analyze, and Query Complex 3D Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jeremy; Razdan, Anshuman

    The Partnership for Research in Spatial Modeling (PRISM) project at Arizona State University (ASU) developed modeling and analytic tools to respond to the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) data representations perceived by affiliated discipline scientists, and to take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) data that…

  4. Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.

  5. Comparative 3-D Modeling of tmRNA

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Jody; Zwieb, Christian; Müller, Florian; Wower, Iwona; Wower, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Background Trans-translation releases stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tags defective proteins for proteolytic degradation using transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). This small stable RNA represents a hybrid of tRNA- and mRNA-like domains connected by a variable number of pseudoknots. Comparative sequence analysis of tmRNAs found in bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria provides considerable insights into their secondary structures. Progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of template switching, which constitutes an essential step in trans-translation, is hampered by our limited knowledge about the three-dimensional folding of tmRNA. Results To facilitate experimental testing of the molecular intricacies of trans-translation, which often require appropriately modified tmRNA derivatives, we developed a procedure for building three-dimensional models of tmRNA. Using comparative sequence analysis, phylogenetically-supported 2-D structures were obtained to serve as input for the program ERNA-3D. Motifs containing loops and turns were extracted from the known structures of other RNAs and used to improve the tmRNA models. Biologically feasible 3-D models for the entire tmRNA molecule could be obtained. The models were characterized by a functionally significant close proximity between the tRNA-like domain and the resume codon. Potential conformational changes which might lead to a more open structure of tmRNA upon binding to the ribosome are discussed. The method, described in detail for the tmRNAs of Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Caulobacter crescentus, is applicable to every tmRNA. Conclusion Improved molecular models of biological significance were obtained. These models will guide in the design of experiments and provide a better understanding of trans-translation. The comparative procedure described here for tmRNA is easily adopted for the modeling the members of other RNA families. PMID:15958166

  6. SEARCHBreast Workshop Proceedings: 3D Modelling of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Bethny; Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Chelala, Claude; Holen, Ingunn; Jones, Louise; Speirs, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    SEARCHBreast, a UK initiative supported by the NC3Rs, organised a workshop entitled 3D Modelling of Breast Cancer. The workshop focused on providing researchers with solutions to overcome some of the perceived barriers to working with human-derived tumour cells, cell lines and tissues, namely: a) the limited access to human-derived material; and b) the difficulty in working with these samples. The workshop presentations provided constructive advice and information on how to best prepare human cells or tissues for further downstream applications. Techniques in developing primary cultures from patient samples, and considerations when preserving tissue slices, were discussed. A common theme throughout the workshop was the importance of ensuring that the cells are grown in conditions as similar to the in vivo microenvironment as possible. Comparisons of the advantages of several in vitro options, such as primary cell cultures, cell line cultures, explants or tissue slices, suggest that all offer great potential applications for breast cancer research, and highlight that it need not be a case of choosing one over the other. The workshop also offered cutting-edge examples of on-chip technologies and 3-D tumour modelling by using virtual pathology, which can contribute to clinically relevant studies and provide insights into breast cancer metastatic mechanisms. PMID:26753939

  7. Dynamic deformable models for 3D MRI heart segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.

    2002-05-01

    Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable modeling approach to 3D segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial model and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the model must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.

  8. Stochastic Modeling of Calcium in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Tomáš; Raymond, Rebecca; Raymond-Stintz, Mary; Jett, Stephen; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2009-01-01

    Release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells in type 1 immediate-hypersensitivity allergic reactions relies on antigen-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium. Here, we used a series of electron microscopy images to build a 3D reconstruction representing a slice through a rat tumor mast cell, which then served as a basis for stochastic modeling of inositol-trisphosphate-mediated calcium responses. The stochastic approach was verified by reaction-diffusion modeling within the same geometry. Local proximity of the endoplasmic reticulum to either the plasma membrane or mitochondria is predicted to differentially impact local inositol trisphosphate receptor transport. The explicit consideration of organelle spatial relationships represents an important step toward building a comprehensive, realistic model of cellular calcium dynamics. PMID:19254531

  9. Cloud Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

  10. Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a 3D face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the model exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on {Omega}(R{sup 2}) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.

  11. Development of an aquifer management model AQMAN3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puig, Juan Carlos; Rolon-Collazo, L. I.; Pagan-Trinidad, Ishmael

    1990-01-01

    A computer code that enables the use of the USGS Modular groundwater flow model for aquifermanagement modeling has been developed. Aquifermanagement techniques integrate groundwater flow modeling with linear quadratic optimization methods for the solution of various aquifer management problems. The model AQMAN3D, is a modified version of a previously developed two-dimensional AQMAN model. The idea of coupling the AQMAN model with the MODULAR model arose because actual groundwater flow systems behave in a three dimensional manner, therefore requiring treatment as such, and due to the widespread use of MODULAR. The use of the AQMAN3D model permits the implementation of the technique known as aquifer managementmodeling. A generalized approach to obtain an optimal solution to an aquifer management problem is proposed, and a sample test problem is presented to illustrate the use of the model. Even though the model provides the hydrologist with a new and powerful investigative tool, its applicability is limited to confined or quasiconfined systems.

  12. Analysis of the Possibilities of Using Low-Cost Scanning System in 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierski, M.; Wierzbickia, D.; Fryskowska, A.; Chlebowska, B.

    2016-06-01

    The laser scanning technique is still a very popular and fast growing method of obtaining information on modeling 3D objects. The use of low-cost miniature scanners creates new opportunities for small objects of 3D modeling based on point clouds acquired from the scan. The same, the development of accuracy and methods of automatic processing of this data type is noticeable. The article presents methods of collecting raw datasets in the form of a point-cloud using a low-cost ground-based laser scanner FabScan. As part of the research work 3D scanner from an open source FabLab project was constructed. In addition, the results for the analysis of the geometry of the point clouds obtained by using a low-cost laser scanner were presented. Also, some analysis of collecting data of different structures (made of various materials such as: glass, wood, paper, gum, plastic, plaster, ceramics, stoneware clay etc. and of different shapes: oval and similar to oval and prism shaped) have been done. The article presents two methods used for analysis: the first one - visual (general comparison between the 3D model and the real object) and the second one - comparative method (comparison between measurements on models and scanned objects using the mean error of a single sample of observations). The analysis showed, that the low-budget ground-based laser scanner FabScan has difficulties with collecting data of non-oval objects. Items built of glass painted black also caused problems for the scanner. In addition, the more details scanned object contains, the lower the accuracy of the collected point-cloud is. Nevertheless, the accuracy of collected data (using oval-straight shaped objects) is satisfactory. The accuracy, in this case, fluctuates between ± 0,4 mm and ± 1,0 mm whereas when using more detailed objects or a rectangular shaped prism the accuracy is much more lower, between 2,9 mm and ± 9,0 mm. Finally, the publication presents the possibility (for the future expansion of

  13. An efficient solid modeling system based on a hand-held 3D laser scan device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The hand-held 3D laser scanner sold in the market is appealing for its port and convenient to use, but price is expensive. To develop such a system based cheap devices using the same principles as the commercial systems is impossible. In this paper, a simple hand-held 3D laser scanner is developed based on a volume reconstruction method using cheap devices. Unlike convenient laser scanner to collect point cloud of an object surface, the proposed method only scan few key profile curves on the surface. Planar section curve network can be generated from these profile curves to construct a volume model of the object. The details of design are presented, and illustrated by the example of a complex shaped object.

  14. Extracting Semantically Annotated 3d Building Models with Textures from Oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Meissner, H.; Dahlke, D.; Poznanska, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for the reconstruction of city buildings with automatically derived textures that can be directly used for façade element classification. Oblique and nadir aerial imagery recorded by a multi-head camera system is transformed into dense 3D point clouds and evaluated statistically in order to extract the hull of the structures. For the resulting wall, roof and ground surfaces high-resolution polygonal texture patches are calculated and compactly arranged in a texture atlas without resampling. The façade textures subsequently get analyzed by a commercial software package to detect possible windows whose contours are projected into the original oriented source images and sparsely ray-casted to obtain their 3D world coordinates. With the windows being reintegrated into the previously extracted hull the final building models are stored as semantically annotated CityGML "LOD-2.5" objects.

  15. Active Exploration of Large 3D Model Repositories.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min

    2015-12-01

    With broader availability of large-scale 3D model repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing model retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire models or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended models. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate models are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database models but also the similarities among the database models themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each model and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K models. PMID:26529460

  16. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095

  17. 3D Tissue-Engineered Model of Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Santoro, Marco; Ramammoorthy, Vandhana; Menegaz, Brian A.; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Iles, Lakesla R.; Amin, Hesham M.; Livingston, Andrew J.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Ludwig, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite longstanding reliance upon monolayer culture for studying cancer cells, and numerous advantages from both a practical and experimental standpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests more complex three-dimensional (3D) models are necessary to properly mimic many of the critical hallmarks associated with the oncogenesis, maintenance and spread of Ewing sarcoma (ES), the second most common pediatric bone tumor. And as clinicians increasingly turn to biologically-targeted therapies that exert their effects not only on the tumor cells themselves, but also on the surrounding extracellular matrix, it is especially important that preclinical models evolve in parallel to reliably measure antineoplastic effects and possible mechanisms of de novo and acquired drug resistance. Herein, we highlight a number of innovative methods used to fabricate biomimetic ES tumors, encompassing both the surrounding cellular milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM), and suggest potential applications to advance our understanding of ES biology, preclinical drug testing, and personalized medicine. PMID:25109853

  18. 3D Model of the Eta Carinae Little Homunculus Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Wolfgang; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas; Groh, Jose H.; Gull, Theodore R.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Damineli, Augusto; Hamaguchi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We extend our morpho-kinematic 3D modeling of the Homunculus nebula (Steffen et al., 2014) to the interior nested Little Homunculus. The model is based on spectroscopic observations from HST/STIS. We find that the structure of the interior Little Homunculus is rather flat in the polar regions and interacts with the main Homunculus nebula only on one side, towards the periastron direction of the binary orbit. Furthermore, the two lobes of the LH are misaligned, also towards the periastron direction. As an explanation for the misalignment we propose that, in both cases, shortly after the eruptions that created the bipolar nebulae from the primary star, the off-center wind of the secondary has pushed the ejecta towards the periastron directions, since the secondary is most of the time near the apastron. Future hydrodynamic simulations are warranted to confirm this scenario.

  19. 3D in vitro modeling of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Amy M.; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo models were improved. 3D, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of 3D in vitro neural systems are reviewed here. PMID:25461688

  20. 3D polygonal representation of dense point clouds by triangulation, segmentation, and texture projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajbakhsh, Touraj

    2010-02-01

    A basic concern of computer graphic is the modeling and realistic representation of three-dimensional objects. In this paper we present our reconstruction framework which determines a polygonal surface from a set of dense points such those typically obtained from laser scanners. We deploy the concept of adaptive blobs to achieve a first volumetric representation of the object. In the next step we estimate a coarse surface using the marching cubes method. We propose to deploy a depth-first search segmentation algorithm traversing a graph representation of the obtained polygonal mesh in order to identify all connected components. A so called supervised triangulation maps the coarse surfaces onto the dense point cloud. We optimize the mesh topology using edge exchange operations. For photo-realistic visualization of objects we finally synthesize optimal low-loss textures from available scene captures of different projections. We evaluate our framework on artificial data as well as real sensed data.

  1. Polygonal Shapes Detection in 3d Models of Complex Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benciolini, G. B.; Vitti, A.

    2015-02-01

    A sequential application of two global models defined on a variational framework is proposed for the detection of polygonal shapes in 3D models of complex architectures. As a first step, the procedure involves the use of the Mumford and Shah (1989) 1st-order variational model in dimension two (gridded height data are processed). In the Mumford-Shah model an auxiliary function detects the sharp changes, i.e., the discontinuities, of a piecewise smooth approximation of the data. The Mumford-Shah model requires the global minimization of a specific functional to simultaneously produce both the smooth approximation and its discontinuities. In the proposed procedure, the edges of the smooth approximation derived by a specific processing of the auxiliary function are then processed using the Blake and Zisserman (1987) 2nd-order variational model in dimension one (edges are processed in the plane). This second step permits to describe the edges of an object by means of piecewise almost-linear approximation of the input edges themselves and to detects sharp changes of the first-derivative of the edges so to detect corners. The Mumford-Shah variational model is used in two dimensions accepting the original data as primary input. The Blake-Zisserman variational model is used in one dimension for the refinement of the description of the edges. The selection among all the boundaries detected by the Mumford-Shah model of those that present a shape close to a polygon is performed by considering only those boundaries for which the Blake-Zisserman model identified discontinuities in their first derivative. The output of the procedure are hence shapes, coming from 3D geometric data, that can be considered as polygons. The application of the procedure is suitable for, but not limited to, the detection of objects such as foot-print of polygonal buildings, building facade boundaries or windows contours. v The procedure is applied to a height model of the building of the Engineering

  2. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  3. Collaboration of 3D context and extracellular matrix in the development of glioma stemness in a 3D model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A

    2016-02-01

    A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a 3D model for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between 3D context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (3D) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of 3D (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how 3D versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. PMID:26684838

  4. 3D density model of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine

    2009-12-01

    We developed a 3D density model of the continental crust, the subducted plate and the upper mantle of the Central Andes between 20-29°S and 74-61°W through the forward modelling of Bouguer anomaly. The goal of this contribution is to gain insight on the lithospheric structure integrating the available information (geophysical, geologic, petrologic, and geochemical) in a single model. The geometry of our model is defined and constrained by hypocentre location, reflection and refraction on and offshore seismic lines, travel time and attenuation tomography, receiver function analysis, magnetotelluric studies, thermal models and balanced structural cross-sections. The densities allocated to the different bodies are calculated considering petrologic and geochemical data and pressure and temperature conditions. The model consists of 31 parallel E-W vertical planes, where the continental crust comprises distinct bodies, which represent the different morphotectonic units of the Central Andes. We include a partial melting zone at midcrustal depths under the Altiplano-Puna (low-velocity zone) and consider the presence of a rheologically strong block beneath the Salar de Atacama basin, according to recent seismic studies. Contour maps of the depth of the continental Moho, the thickness of the lower crust and the depth to the bottom of the lithosphere below South America are produced. The possible percentage of partial melt in the Central Andes low-velocity zone is estimated. The residual anomaly is calculated by subtracting from the Bouguer anomaly the gravimetric effect of the modelled subducted slab and of the modelled Moho. Isostatic anomalies are calculated from regional and local isostatic Mohos calculated with and without internal loads, derived from our gravity model, which are then compared to the modelled continental Moho. This study contributes to a more detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure of this region of the Andes and provides an integrated 3D

  5. Faceless identification: a model for person identification using the 3D shape and 3D motion as cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Li, Haibo

    1999-02-01

    Person identification by using biometric methods based on image sequences, or still images, often requires a controllable and cooperative environment during the image capturing stage. In the forensic case the situation is more likely to be the opposite. In this work we propose a method that makes use of the anthropometry of the human body and human actions as cues for identification. Image sequences from surveillance systems are used, which can be seen as monocular image sequences. A 3D deformable wireframe body model is used as a platform to handle the non-rigid information of the 3D shape and 3D motion of the human body from the image sequence. A recursive method for estimating global motion and local shape variations is presented, using two recursive feedback systems.

  6. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  7. The USGS 3D Seismic Velocity Model for Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new regional 3D seismic velocity model for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The model includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a 3D geologic model derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the model, USGS Bay Area Velocity Model 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography models. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The model is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the model using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic model was discretized at

  8. GEOS-5 Modeled Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows clouds from a simulation using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Verison 5 (GEOS-5). The global atmospheric simulation covers a period from Feb 3, 2010 through Feb ...

  9. A 3D Bubble Merger Model for RTI Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present a model for the merger processes of bubbles at the edge of an unstable acceleration driven mixing layer. Steady acceleration defines a self-similar mixing process, with a time-dependent inverse cascade of structures of increasing size. The time evolution is itself a renormalization group evolution. The model predicts the growth rate of a Rayleigh-Taylor chaotic fluid-mixing layer. The 3-D model differs from the 2-D merger model in several important ways. Beyond the extension of the model to three dimensions, the model contains one phenomenological parameter, the variance of the bubble radii at fixed time. The model also predicts several experimental numbers: the bubble mixing rate, the mean bubble radius, and the bubble height separation at the time of merger. From these we also obtain the bubble height to the radius aspect ratio, which is in good agreement with experiments. Applications to recent NIF and Omega experiments will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  10. 3-D numerical modeling of plume-induced subduction initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D models, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using 3D numerical models, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of 3-D thermo-mechanical models to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.

  11. 3D model generation using an airborne swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Macdonald, M.; Bolton, G.

    2015-03-01

    Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm's computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.

  12. 3D model generation using an airborne swarm

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Bolton, G.

    2015-03-31

    Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.

  13. Road Signs Detection and Recognition Utilizing Images and 3d Point Cloud Acquired by Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  14. Semi-automatic characterization of fractured rock masses using 3D point clouds: discontinuity orientation, spacing and SMR geomechanical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, Adrian; Tomas, Roberto; Abellan, Antonio; Cano, Miguel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    factors introducing the slope and the analysed discontinuity set dip directions and dips. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, we present a slope placed in the National route N-332 in El Campello (Alicante, SE Spain), in the named Flysch sequence of Alicante, which corresponds to sediments of pelagic domain that constitute rythmite predominated by marls, In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, we present a slope placed in the National route N-332 in El Campello (Alicante, SE Spain), in the named Flysch sequence of Alicante, which corresponds to sediments of pelagic domain that constitute rythmite predominated by marls, on which frequently overlaps calcareous deposits [1]. The studied rock mass is composed of thick bedded blocky calcarenites with an extremely high competence, well interlocked and undisturbed, consisting of parallelepipedic blocks formed by three intersecting discontinuity sets (decimetric thickness with the other two dimensions from decimetric to metric). The studied rock slope was modelled by two 3D point clouds. The first one was acquired by means of a Leica C10 Laser Scanner and the second one was generated using the photogrammetry technique Structure from Motion (SfM) using Agisoft PhotoScan.

  15. From Tls to Hbim. High Quality Semantically-Aware 3d Modeling of Complex Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrini, R.; Malinverni, E. S.; Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Orlietti, E.

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve the framework for 3D modeling, a great challenge is to obtain the suitability of Building Information Model (BIM) platform for historical architecture. A specific challenge in HBIM is to guarantee appropriateness of geometrical accuracy. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a whole HBIM approach for complex architectural shapes, starting from TLS point clouds. A novelty of our method is to work in a 3D environment throughout the process and to develop semantics during the construction phase. This last feature of HBIM was analyzed in the present work verifying the studied ontologies, enabling the data enrichment of the model with non-geometrical information, such as historical notes, decay or deformation evidence, decorative elements etc. The case study is the Church of Santa Maria at Portonovo, an abbey from the Romanesque period. Irregular or complex historical architecture, such as Romanesque, needs the construction of shared libraries starting from the survey of its already existing elements. This is another key aspect in delivering Building Information Modeling standards. In particular, we focus on the quality assessment of the obtained model, using an open-source sw and the point cloud as reference. The proposed work shows how it is possible to develop a high quality 3D model semantic-aware, capable of connecting geometrical-historical survey with descriptive thematic databases. In this way, a centralized HBIM will serve as comprehensive dataset of information about all disciplines, particularly for restoration and conservation. Moreover, the geometric accuracy will ensure also reliable visualization outputs.

  16. Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.

    1993-10-22

    As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.

  17. 3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…

  18. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  19. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  20. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Faulds

    2013-12-31

    The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.

  1. 3D lithography modeling for ground rule development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Chandra; Bailey, Todd; Lyons, Adam; Shao, Dongbing

    2011-04-01

    The ability to incorporate the effect of patterned underlayers in a 3-dimensional physical resist model that truly mimics the process on real wafers could be used to formulate robust ground rules for design. We have shown as an example block level simulations, where the resist critical dimension is determined by the presence of STI (shallow trench isolation) and/or patterned gate level underneath & their relative spacing, as confirmed on wafer. We will demonstrate how the results of such study could be used for creating ground rules which are truly dependent on the interaction between the current layer resist & the patterned layers underneath. We have also developed a new way to visualize lithographic process variations in 3-D space that is useful for simulation analysis that can prove very helpful in ground rule development and process optimization. Such visualization capability in the dataprep flow to flag issues or dispose critical structures increases speed and efficiency in the mask tapeout process.

  2. Massive fermion model in 3d and higher spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Prester, P. Dominis; de Souza, B. Lima; Smolić, I.

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the 3d free massive fermion theory coupled to external sources. The presence of a mass explicitly breaks parity invariance. We calculate two- and three-point functions of a gauge current and the energy momentum tensor and, for instance, obtain the well-known result that in the IR limit (but also in the UV one) we reconstruct the relevant CS action. We then couple the model to higher spin currents and explicitly work out the spin 3 case. In the UV limit we obtain an effective action which was proposed many years ago as a possible generalization of spin 3 CS action. In the IR limit we derive a different higher spin action. This analysis can evidently be generalized to higher spins. We also discuss the conservation and properties of the correlators we obtain in the intermediate steps of our derivation.

  3. 3D Model of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs 3D geologic model consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.

  4. 3D Model of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred between these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The 3D model of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora 3D geologic model consists of 10 stratigraphic units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and stratigraphically highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and modeled with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are modeled as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the model. Fault blocks in the eastern

  5. A 3D parallel model of Ganymede's exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Ludivine; Turc, Lucile; François, Leblanc; Ronan, Modolo

    2013-04-01

    Ganymede is a unique object : it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field. Its surface is covered by water ice and by regolith. Some previous observations suggest that below its surface may exist an ocean of liquid water. The atmosphere of the planet is poorly known but should be composed essentially of water, hydrogen and oxygen (Marconi et al., Icarus, 2007). These atmospheric particles mainly originate from the surface thanks to sublimation of water-ice and sputtering, a process driven by the magnetospheric Jovian particles impacting Ganymede surface and leading to ejection of atoms and molecules into Ganymede atmosphere. We developed a model of Ganymede's atmosphere based on a 3D Monte Carlo description of the fate of the ejected particles from the surface. This model has been parallelized allowing a much better statistical, spatial and temporal description of Ganymede's environment. This model includes the main sources of the neutral atmosphere and is able to calculate all its characteristics. It was successfully compared to the few known observations as well as to previous modeling. In this presentation, we will present the main characteristics of this model and what it tells us on Ganymede's atmosphere, in terms of spatial structure, composition, temporal variability and relations with both magnetosphere and surface.

  6. Modeling Electric Current Flow in 3D Fractured Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, S.; Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a variety of research fields and applications such as hydrogeology, hydrocarbon extraction and long-term storage of toxic waste. As fractures are highly conductive structures in comparison to the surrounding rock, their presence can be either an advantage or a drawback. For hydrocarbon extraction, fractures allow for quick and easy access to the resource whereas for toxic waste storage their presence increases the risk of leakage and migration of pollutants. In both cases, the identification of fracture network characteristics is an essential step. Recently, we have developed an approach for modeling electric current flow in 2D fractured media. This approach is based on a discrete-dual-porosity model where fractures are represented explicitly, the matrix is coarsely discretized into blocks, and current flow exchange between the fractures and matrix is analytically evaluated at the fracture-scale and integrated at the block-scale [1]. Although this approach has shown much promise and has proven its efficiency for 2D simulations, its extension to 3D remains to be addressed. To this end, we assume that fractures can be represented as two-dimensional finite planes embedded in the surrounding matrix, and we express analytically the distribution of electric potential at the fracture scale. This fracture-scale expression takes into account the electric-current-flow exchange with the surrounding matrix and flow conservation is enforced at the fracture intersections. The fracture-matrix exchange is then integrated at the matrix-block scale where the electric current flow conservation at the block boundaries is formulated with a modified finite volume method. With the objective of providing a low-computational-cost modeling approach adapted to 3D simulations in fractured media, our model is (i) validated and compared to existing modeling approaches and, (ii) used to evaluate the impact of the presence of fractures on

  7. A hybrid-3D hillslope hydrological model for use in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Fang, Y.; Broxton, P.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G.-Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A.; Zeng, X.

    2015-10-01

    Hillslope-scale rainfall-runoff processes leading to a fast catchment response are not explicitly included in land surface models (LSMs) for use in earth system models (ESMs) due to computational constraints. This study presents a hybrid-3D hillslope hydrological model (h3D) that couples a 1-D vertical soil column model with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow model for use in ESMs. By representing vertical and lateral responses separately at different spatial resolutions, h3D is computationally efficient. The h3D model was first tested for three different hillslope planforms (uniform, convergent and divergent). We then compared h3D (with single and multiple soil columns) with a complex physically based 3-D model and a simple 1-D soil moisture model coupled with an unconfined aquifer (as typically used in LSMs). It is found that simulations obtained by the simple 1-D model vary considerably from the complex 3-D model and are not able to represent hillslope-scale variations in the lateral flow response. In contrast, the single soil column h3D model shows a much better performance and saves computational time by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared with the complex 3-D model. When multiple vertical soil columns are implemented, the resulting hydrological responses (soil moisture, water table depth, and base flow along the hillslope) from h3D are nearly identical to those predicted by the complex 3-D model, but still saves computational time. As such, the computational efficiency of the h3D model provides a valuable and promising approach to incorporating hillslope-scale hydrological processes into continental and global-scale ESMs.

  8. Comparison of 3D point clouds obtained by photogrammetric UAVs and TLS to determine the attitude of dolerite outcrops discontinuities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Gonçalves, Gil; Duarte, Diogo; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are two emerging technologies that allows the production of dense 3D point clouds of the sensed topographic surfaces. Although image-based stereo-photogrammetric point clouds could not, in general, compete on geometric quality over TLS point clouds, fully automated mapping solutions based on ultra-light UAVs (or drones) have recently become commercially available at very reasonable accuracy and cost for engineering and geological applications. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two point clouds generated by these two technologies, in order to automatize the manual process tasks commonly used to detect and represent the attitude of discontinuities (Stereographic projection: Schmidt net - Equal area). To avoid the difficulties of access and guarantee the data survey security conditions, this fundamental step in all geological/geotechnical studies, applied to the extractive industry and engineering works, has to be replaced by a more expeditious and reliable methodology. This methodology will allow, in a more actuated clear way, give answers to the needs of evaluation of rock masses, by mapping the structures present, which will reduce considerably the associated risks (investment, structures dimensioning, security, etc.). A case study of a dolerite outcrop locate in the center of Portugal (the dolerite outcrop is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones) will be used to assess this methodology. The results obtained show that the 3D point cloud produced by the Photogrammetric UAV platform has the appropriate geometric quality for extracting the parameters that define the discontinuities of the dolerite outcrops. Although, they are comparable to the manual extracted parameters, their quality is inferior to parameters extracted from the TLS point cloud.

  9. Efficient sensitivity computations in 3D air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioutsioukis, Ioannis; Melas, Dimitrios; Zerefos, Christos; Ziomas, Ioannis

    2005-04-01

    The prediction of ground level ozone for air quality monitoring and assessment is simulated through an integrated system of gridded models (meteorological, photochemical), where the atmosphere is represented with a three-dimensional grid that may include thousands of grid cells. The continuity equation solved by the Photochemical Air Quality Model (PAQM) reproduces the atmospheric processes (dynamical, physical, chemical and radiative), such as moving and mixing air parcels from one grid cell to another, calculating chemical reactions, injecting new emissions. The whole modeling procedure includes several sources of uncertainty, especially in the large data sets that describe the status of the domain (boundary conditions, emissions, chemical reaction rates and several others). The robustness of the photochemical simulation is addressed in this work through the deterministic approach of sensitivity analysis. The automatic differentiation tool ADIFOR is applied on the 3D PAQM CAMx and augments its Fortran 77 code by introducing new lines of code that additionally calculate, in only one run, the gradient of the solution vector with respect to its input parameters. The applicability of the approach is evaluated through a sensitivity study of the modeled concentrations to perturbations at the boundary conditions and the emissions, for three essentially dissimilar European Metropolises of the Auto-Oil II programme (Athens, Milan, and London).

  10. Indoor Modelling Benchmark for 3D Geometry Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.

    2014-06-01

    A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate 3D parametric models of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and modelling of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created model. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference model. The datasets can be found at: http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench.

  11. 3-D Eutrophication Modeling for Lake Simcoe, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a 3-D hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality model of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 model. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The model has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The model is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.

  12. Planetary subsurface investigation by 3D visualization model .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seu, R.; Catallo, C.; Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Cinquepalmi, L.

    Subsurface data analysis and visualization represents one of the main aspect in Planetary Observation (i.e. search for water or geological characterization). The data are collected by subsurface sounding radars as instruments on-board of deep space missions. These data are generally represented as 2D radargrams in the perspective of space track and z axes (perpendicular to the subsurface) but without direct correlation to other data acquisition or knowledge on the planet . In many case there are plenty of data from other sensors of the same mission, or other ones, with high continuity in time and in space and specially around the scientific sites of interest (i.e. candidate landing areas or particular scientific interesting sites). The 2D perspective is good to analyse single acquisitions and to perform detailed analysis on the returned echo but are quite useless to compare very large dataset as now are available on many planets and moons of solar system. The best way is to approach the analysis on 3D visualization model generated from the entire stack of data. First of all this approach allows to navigate the subsurface in all directions and analyses different sections and slices or moreover navigate the iso-surfaces respect to a value (or interval). The last one allows to isolate one or more iso-surfaces and remove, in the visualization mode, other data not interesting for the analysis; finally it helps to individuate the underground 3D bodies. Other aspect is the needs to link the on-ground data, as imaging, to the underground one by geographical and context field of view.

  13. 3D numerical modeling of India-Asia-like collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton

    2013-04-01

    above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich model (Burov and Watts, 2006). 3D models are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully 3D models of the dynamics of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)1016<1134:TLTSOC>1132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet models with 3D multilayer models for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B

  14. Quality Analysis on 3d Buidling Models Reconstructed from Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzabek-Rychard, M.; Karpina, M.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in UAV technology and structure from motion techniques have effected that UAVs are becoming standard platforms for 3D data collection. Because of their flexibility and ability to reach inaccessible urban parts, drones appear as optimal solution for urban applications. Building reconstruction from the data collected with UAV has the important potential to reduce labour cost for fast update of already reconstructed 3D cities. However, especially for updating of existing scenes derived from different sensors (e.g. airborne laser scanning), a proper quality assessment is necessary. The objective of this paper is thus to evaluate the potential of UAV imagery as an information source for automatic 3D building modeling at LOD2. The investigation process is conducted threefold: (1) comparing generated SfM point cloud to ALS data; (2) computing internal consistency measures of the reconstruction process; (3) analysing the deviation of Check Points identified on building roofs and measured with a tacheometer. In order to gain deep insight in the modeling performance, various quality indicators are computed and analysed. The assessment performed according to the ground truth shows that the building models acquired with UAV-photogrammetry have the accuracy of less than 18 cm for the plannimetric position and about 15 cm for the height component.

  15. 3D Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, 3D printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…

  16. 3D point cloud classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: applications in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodu, N.; Lague, D.

    2012-04-01

    3D point clouds derived from Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and photogrammetry are now frequently used in geomorphology to achieve greater precision and completeness in surveying natural environments than what was feasible a few years ago. Yet, scientific exploitation of these large and complex 3D data sets remains difficult and would benefit from automated classification procedures that could pre-process the raw point cloud data. Typical examples of applications are the separation of vegetation from ground or cliff outcrops, the distinction between fresh rock surfaces and rockfall, the classification of flat or rippled bed, and more generally the classification of 3D surfaces according to their morphology directly in the native point cloud data organization rather than after a sometime cumbersome meshing or gridding phase. Yet developing such classification procedures remains difficult because of the 3D nature of the data generated from ground based systems (as opposed to the 2.5D nature of aerial lidar data) and the heterogeneity and complexity of natural surfaces. We present a new software suite (CANUPO) that can classify raw point clouds in 3D based on a new geometrical measure: the multi-scale dimensionality. This method exploits the multi-resolution characteristics high-resolution datasets covering scales ranging from a few centimeters to hundred of meters. The dimensionality characterizes the local 3D organization of the point cloud within spheres centered on the measured points and varies from being 1D (points set along a line), 2D (points forming a plane) to the full 3D volume. By varying the diameter of the sphere, we track how the local cloud geometry behaves across scales (typically ranging from 5 cm to 1 m). We present the technique and illustrate its efficiency on two examples : separating riparian vegetation from ground, and classifying a steep mountain stream as vegetation, rock, gravel or water surface. In these two cases, separating the

  17. Attribute-based point cloud visualization in support of 3-D classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, András; Otepka, Johannes; Kania, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Despite the rich information available in LIDAR point attributes through full waveform recording, radiometric calibration and advanced texture metrics, LIDAR-based classification is mostly done in the raster domain. Point-based analyses such as noise removal or terrain filtering are often carried out without visual investigation of the point cloud attributes used. This is because point cloud visualization software usually handle only a limited number of pre-defined point attributes and only allow colorizing the point cloud with one of these at a time. Meanwhile, point cloud classification is rapidly evolving, and uses not only the individual attributes but combinations of these. In order to understand input data and output results better, more advanced methods for visualization are needed. Here we propose an algorithm of the OPALS software package that handles visualization of the point cloud together with its attributes. The algorithm is based on the .odm (OPALS data manager) file format that efficiently handles a large number of pre-defined point attributes and also allows the user to generate new ones. Attributes of interest can be visualized individually, by applying predefined or user-generated palettes in a simple .xml format. The colours of the palette are assigned to the points by setting the respective Red, Green and Blue attributes of the point to result in the colour pre-defined by the palette for the corresponding attribute value. The algorithm handles scaling and histogram equalization based on the distribution of the point attribute to be considered. Additionally, combinations of attributes can be visualized based on RBG colour mixing. The output dataset can be in any standard format where RGB attributes are supported and visualized with conventional point cloud viewing software. Viewing the point cloud together with its attributes allows efficient selection of filter settings and classification parameters. For already classified point clouds, a large

  18. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  19. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  20. 3D Finite Difference Modelling of Basaltic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell-Sørensen, L.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of the work was to generate realistic data to be applied for testing of processing and migration tools for basaltic regions. The project is based on the three - dimensional finite difference code (FD), TIGER, made by Sintef. The FD code was optimized (parallelized) by the author, to run on parallel computers. The parallel code enables us to model large-scale realistic geological models and to apply traditional seismic and micro seismic sources. The parallel code uses multiple processors in order to manipulate subsets of large amounts of data simultaneously. The general anisotropic code uses 21 elastic coefficients. Eight independent coefficients are needed as input parameters for the general TI medium. In the FD code, the elastic wave field computation is implemented by a higher order FD solution to the elastic wave equation and the wave fields are computed on a staggered grid, shifted half a node in one or two directions. The geological model is a gridded basalt model, which covers from 24 km to 37 km of a real shot line in horizontal direction and from the water surface to the depth of 3.5 km. The 2frac {1}{2}D model has been constructed using the compound modeling software from Norsk Hydro. The vertical parameter distribution is obtained from observations in two wells. At The depth of between 1100 m to 1500 m, a basalt horizon covers the whole sub surface layers. We have shown that it is possible to simulate a line survey in realistic (3D) geological models in reasonable time by using high performance computers. The author would like to thank Norsk Hydro, Statoil, GEUS, and SINTEF for very helpful discussions and Parallab for being helpful with the new IBM, p690 Regatta system.

  1. Predicted 3D Model of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Bastida-González; Yersin, Celaya-Trejo; José, Correa-Basurto; Paola, Zárate-Segura

    2016-01-01

    The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular model of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its 3D conformation. The molecular modeling of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary model of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular dynamics was obtained. PMID:27294109

  2. Predicted 3D Model of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Bastida-González; Yersin, Celaya-Trejo; José, Correa-Basurto; Paola, Zárate-Segura

    2016-01-01

    The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular model of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its 3D conformation. The molecular modeling of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary model of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular dynamics was obtained. PMID:27294109

  3. Collision of continental corner from 3-D numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Hai; Xu, Zhiqin; Gerya, Taras; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Continental collision has been extensively investigated with 2-D numerical models assuming infinitely wide plates or insignificant along-strike deformation in the third dimension. However, the corners of natural collision zones normally have structural characteristics that differ from linear parts of mountain belt. We conducted 3-D high-resolution numerical simulations to study the dynamics of a continental corner (lateral continental/oceanic transition zone) during subduction/collision. The results demonstrate different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction and retreating trench) and the continental collision side (slab break-off and topography uplift). Slab break-off occurs at a depth (⩽100 km to ˜300 km) that depends on the convergence velocity. The numerical models produce lateral extrusion of the overriding crust from the collisional side to the subduction side, which is also a phenomenon recognized around natural collision of continental corners, for instance around the western corner of the Arabia-Asia collision zone and around the eastern corner of the India-Asia collision zone. Modeling results also indicate that extrusion tectonics may be driven both from above by the topography and gravitational potentials and from below by the trench retreat and asthenospheric mantle return flow, which supports the link between deep mantle dynamics and shallower crustal deformation.

  4. 3D-GEM: Geo-technical extension towards an integrated 3D information model for infrastructural development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegtmeier, W.; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Hack, H. R. G. K.

    2014-03-01

    In infrastructural projects, communication as well as information exchange and (re-)use in and between involved parties is difficult. Mainly this is caused by a lack of information harmonisation. Various specialists are working together on the development of an infrastructural project and all use their own specific software and definitions for various information types. In addition, the lack of and/or differences in the use and definition of thematic semantic information regarding the various information types adds to the problem. Realistic 3D models describing and integrating parts of the earth already exist, but are generally neglecting the subsurface, and especially the aspects of geology and geo-technology. This paper summarises the research towards the extension of an existing integrated semantic information model to include surface as well as subsurface objects and in particular, subsurface geological and geotechnical objects. The major contributions of this research are the definition of geotechnical objects and the mechanism to link them with CityGML, GeoSciML and O&M standard models. The model is called 3D-GEM, short for 3D Geotechnical Extension Model.

  5. Structural analysis of San Leo (RN, Italy) east and north cliffs using 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spreafico, Margherita Cecilia; Bacenetti, Marco; Borgatti, Lisa; Cignetti, Martina; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The town of San Leo, like many others in the historical region of Montefeltro (Northern Apennines, Italy), was built in medieval period on a calcarenite and sandstone slab, bordered by subvertical and overhanging cliffs up to 100 m high, for defense purposes. The slab and the underlying clayey substratum show widespread landslide phenomena: the first is tectonized and crossed by joints and faults, and it is affected by lateral spreading with associated rock falls, topples and tilting. Moreover, the underlying clayey substratum is involved in plastic movements, like earth flows and slides. The main cause of instability in the area, which brings about these movements, is the high deformability contrast between the plate and the underlying clays. The aim of our research is to set up a numerical model that can well describe the processes and take into account the different factors that influence the evolution of the movements. One of these factors is certainly the structural setting of the slab, characterized by several joints and faults; in order to better identify and detect the main joint sets affecting the study area a structural analysis was performed. Up to date, a series of scans of San Leo cliff taken in 2008 and 2011, with a Riegl Z420i were analyzed. Initially, we chose a test area, located in the east side of the cliff, in which analyses were performed using two different softwares: COLTOP 3D and Polyworks. We repeated the analysis using COLTOP for all the east wall and for a part of the north wall, including an area affected by a rock fall in 2006. In the test area we identified five sets with different dips and dip directions. The analysis of the east and north walls permitted to identify eight sets (seven plus the bedding) of discontinuities. We compared these results with previous ones from surveys taken by others authors in some areas and with some preliminary data from a traditional geological survey of the whole area. With traditional methods only a

  6. 3D Model Segmentation and Representation with Implicit Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo; Takamatsu, Jun; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    When large-scale and complex 3D objects are obtained by range finders, it is often necessary to represent them by algebraic surfaces for such purposes as data compression, multi-resolution, noise elimination, and 3D recognition. Representing the 3D data with algebraic surfaces of an implicit polynomial (IP) has proved to offer the advantages that IP representation is capable of encoding geometric properties easily with desired smoothness, few parameters, algebraic/geometric invariants, and robustness to noise and missing data. Unfortunately, generating a high-degree IP surface for a whole complex 3D shape is impossible because of high computational cost and numerical instability. In this paper we propose a 3D segmentation method based on a cut-and-merge approach. Two cutting procedures adopt low-degree IPs to divide and fit the surface segments simultaneously, while avoiding generating high-curved segments. A merging procedure merges the similar adjacent segments to avoid over-segmentation. To prove the effectiveness of this segmentation method, we open up some new vistas for 3D applications such as 3D matching, recognition, and registration.

  7. 3D models automatic reconstruction of selected close range objects. (Polish Title: Automatyczna rekonstrukcja modeli 3D małych obiektów bliskiego zasiegu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaweiska, D.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of three-dimensional, realistic models of objects from digital images has been the topic of research in many areas of science for many years. This development is stimulated by new technologies and tools, which appeared recently, such as digital photography, laser scanners, increase in the equipment efficiency and Internet. The objective of this paper is to present results of automatic modeling of selected close range objects, with the use of digital photographs acquired by the Hasselblad H4D50 camera. The author's software tool was utilized for calculations; it performs successive stages of the 3D model creation. The modeling process was presented as the complete process which starts from acquisition of images and which is completed by creation of a photorealistic 3D model in the same software environment. Experiments were performed for selected close range objects, with appropriately arranged image geometry, creating a ring around the measured object. The Area Base Matching (CC/LSM) method, the RANSAC algorithm, with the use of tensor calculus, were utilized form automatic matching of points detected with the SUSAN algorithm. Reconstruction of the surface of model generation is one of the important stages of 3D modeling. Reconstruction of precise surfaces, performed on the basis of a non-organized cloud of points, acquired from automatic processing of digital images, is a difficult task, which has not been finally solved. Creation of poly-angular models, which may meet high requirements concerning modeling and visualization is required in many applications. The polynomial method is usually the best way to precise representation of measurement results, and, at the same time, to achieving the optimum description of the surface. Three algorithm were tested: the volumetric method (VCG), the Poisson method and the Ball pivoting method. Those methods are mostly applied to modeling of uniform grids of points. Results of experiments proved that incorrect

  8. Voxel-Based 3-D Tree Modeling from Lidar Images for Extracting Tree Structual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, F.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, lidar (light detection and ranging) has been used to extracting tree structural information. Portable scanning lidar systems can capture the complex shape of individual trees as a 3-D point-cloud image. 3-D tree models reproduced from the lidar-derived 3-D image can be used to estimate tree structural parameters. We have proposed the voxel-based 3-D modeling for extracting tree structural parameters. One of the tree parameters derived from the voxel modeling is leaf area density (LAD). We refer to the method as the voxel-based canopy profiling (VCP) method. In this method, several measurement points surrounding the canopy and optimally inclined laser beams are adopted for full laser beam illumination of whole canopy up to the internal. From obtained lidar image, the 3-D information is reproduced as the voxel attributes in the 3-D voxel array. Based on the voxel attributes, contact frequency of laser beams on leaves is computed and LAD in each horizontal layer is obtained. This method offered accurate LAD estimation for individual trees and woody canopy trees. For more accurate LAD estimation, the voxel model was constructed by combining airborne and portable ground-based lidar data. The profiles obtained by the two types of lidar complemented each other, thus eliminating blind regions and yielding more accurate LAD profiles than could be obtained by using each type of lidar alone. Based on the estimation results, we proposed an index named laser beam coverage index, Ω, which relates to the lidar's laser beam settings and a laser beam attenuation factor. It was shown that this index can be used for adjusting measurement set-up of lidar systems and also used for explaining the LAD estimation error using different types of lidar systems. Moreover, we proposed a method to estimate woody material volume as another application of the voxel tree modeling. In this method, voxel solid model of a target tree was produced from the lidar image, which is composed of

  9. Object-oriented urban 3D spatial data model organization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-wen; Li, Wen-qing; Lv, Nan; Su, Tao

    2015-12-01

    This paper combined the 3d data model with object-oriented organization method, put forward the model of 3d data based on object-oriented method, implemented the city 3d model to quickly build logical semantic expression and model, solved the city 3d spatial information representation problem of the same location with multiple property and the same property with multiple locations, designed the space object structure of point, line, polygon, body for city of 3d spatial database, and provided a new thought and method for the city 3d GIS model and organization management.

  10. A 3D world model builder with a mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Faugeras, O. )

    1992-08-01

    This article describes a system to incrementally build a world model with a mobile robot in an unknown environment. The model is, for the moment, segment based. A trinocular stereo system is used to build a local map about the environment. A global map is obtained by integrating a sequence of stereo frames taken when the robot navigates in the environment. The emphasis of this article is on the representation of the uncertainty of 3D segments from stereo and on the integration of segments from multiple views. The proposed representation is simple and very convenient to characterize the uncertainty of segment. A Kalman filter is used to merge matched line segments. An important characteristic of this integration strategy is that a segment observed by the stereo system corresponds only to one part of the segment in space, so the union of the different observations gives a better estimate on the segment in space. The authors have succeeded in integrating 35 stereo frames taken in their robot room.

  11. Pros and Cons of ID vs. 3D Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in 3D modeling. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic models capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.

  12. Automatic Model Selection for 3d Reconstruction of Buildings from Satellite Imagary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partovi, T.; Arefi, H.; Krauß, T.; Reinartz, P.

    2013-09-01

    Through the improvements of satellite sensor and matching technology, the derivation of 3D models from space borne stereo data obtained a lot of interest for various applications such as mobile navigation, urban planning, telecommunication, and tourism. The automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from space borne point cloud data is still an active research topic. The challenging problem in this field is the relatively low quality of the Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by stereo matching of satellite data comparing to airborne LiDAR data. In order to establish an efficient method to achieve high quality models and complete automation from the mentioned DSM, in this paper a new method based on a model-driven strategy is proposed. For improving the results, refined orthorectified panchromatic images are introduced into the process as additional data. The idea of this method is based on ridge line extraction and analysing height values in direction of and perpendicular to the ridgeline direction. After applying pre-processing to the orthorectified data, some feature descriptors are extracted from the DSM, to improve the automatic ridge line detection. Applying RANSAC a line is fitted to each group of ridge points. Finally these ridge lines are refined by matching them or closing gaps. In order to select the type of roof model the heights of point in extension of the ridge line and height differences perpendicular to the ridge line are analysed. After roof model selection, building edge information is extracted from canny edge detection and parameters derived from the roof parts. Then the best model is fitted to extracted façade roofs based on detected type of model. Each roof is modelled independently and final 3D buildings are reconstructed by merging the roof models with the corresponding walls.

  13. TOBAGO — a semi-automated approach for the generation of 3-D building models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Armin

    3-D city models are in increasing demand for a great number of applications. Photogrammetry is a relevant technology that can provide an abundance of geometric, topologic and semantic information concerning these models. The pressure to generate a large amount of data with high degree of accuracy and completeness poses a great challenge to phtogrammetry. The development of automated and semi-automated methods for the generation of those data sets is therefore a key issue in photogrammetric research. We present in this article a strategy and methodology for an efficient generation of even fairly complex building models. Within this concept we request the operator to measure the house roofs from a stereomodel in form of an unstructured point cloud. According to our experience this can be done very quickly. Even a non-experienced operator can measure several hundred roofs or roof units per day. In a second step we fit generic building models fully automatically to these point clouds. The structure information is inherently included in these building models. In such a way geometric, topologic and even semantic data can be handed over to a CAD-system, in our case AutoCad, for further visualization and manipulation. The structuring is achieved in three steps. In a first step a classifier is initiated which recognizes the class of houses a particular roof point cloud belongs to. This recognition step is primarily based on the analysis of the number of ridge points. In the second and third steps the concrete topological relations between roof points are investigated and generic building models are fitted to the point clouds. Based on the technique of constraint-based reasoning two geometrical parsers are solving this problem. We have tested the methodology under a variety of different conditions in several pilot projects. The results will indicate the good performance of our approach. In addition we will demonstrate how the results can be used for visualization (texture

  14. Numerical model of sonic boom in 3D kinematic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis

    2015-10-01

    stratified wind superimposed to a 3D random turbulent realization. Propagation is performed either in the case of a shadow zone or of an atmospheric waveguide. To model the turbulent ABL, the mean flow and the fluctuations are handled separately. The wind fluctuations are generated using the Random Fluctuations Generation method assuming a von Kármán spectrum and a homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The mean stratified wind is modeled based on the Monin-Obhukov Similarity Theory (MOST). To illustrate the method, the typical case of a sunny day with a strong wind has been chosen. Statistics are obtained on several parameters. It shows the importance of turbulence, which leads to an increase of the mean maximum peak pressure in the shadow zone and to its decrease in the waveguide. Moreover, the formation of random caustics that can lead to an increase of the noise perceived locally is outlined.

  15. Methods for Geometric Data Validation of 3d City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.

    2015-12-01

    Geometric quality of 3D city models is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. 3D data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges

  16. The Martian Water Cycle Based on 3-D Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, H.; Haberle, R. M.; Joshi, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of Martian water is a major goal of the Mars Surveyor program. However, until the bulk of the data from the nominal missions of TES, PMIRR, GRS, MVACS, and the DS2 probes are available, we are bound to be in a state where much of our knowledge of the seasonal behavior of water is based on theoretical modeling. We therefore summarize the results of this modeling at the present time. The most complete calculations come from a somewhat simplified treatment of the Martian climate system which is capable of simulating many decades of weather. More elaborate meteorological models are now being applied to study of the problem. The results show a high degree of consistency with observations of aspects of the Martian water cycle made by Viking MAWD, a large number of ground-based measurements of atmospheric column water vapor, studies of Martian frosts, and the widespread occurrence of water ice clouds. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Development of topography in 3-D continental-collision models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of high mountain belts, such as the Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau, has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. Here we employ 3-D numerical simulations to investigate the role that subduction, collision, and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and to analyze the conditions under which large topographic plateaus can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper mantle-scale model. Distinct dynamics are obtained for the oceanic subduction side (trench retreat, slab rollback) and the continental-collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift, lateral extrusion). We show that slab pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate, and that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus. Moreover, scaling is used to predict four different modes of surface expression in continental-collision models: (I) low-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (II) high-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (III) Alpine-type topography with topographic front and low plateau, and (IV) Tibet-Himalaya-type topography with topographic front and high plateau. Results of semianalytical models suggest that the Argand number governs the formation of high topographic fronts, while the amplitude of plateaus is controlled by the initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Applying these results to natural examples, we show that the Alps belong to regime (III), the Himalaya-Tibet to regime (IV), whereas the Andes-Altiplano fall at the boundary between regimes (III) and (IV).

  18. 3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2010-11-01

    A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

  19. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  20. D Geological Outcrop Characterization: Automatic Detection of 3d Planes (azimuth and Dip) Using LiDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, K.; Hämmerle, M.; Miernik, G.; Drews, T.; Escalona, A.; Townsend, C.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning constitutes a powerful method in spatial information data acquisition and allows for geological outcrops to be captured with high resolution and accuracy. A crucial aspect for numerous geologic applications is the extraction of rock surface orientations from the data. This paper focuses on the detection of planes in rock surface data by applying a segmentation algorithm directly to a 3D point cloud. Its performance is assessed considering (1) reduced spatial resolution of data and (2) smoothing in the course of data pre-processing. The methodology is tested on simulations of progressively reduced spatial resolution defined by varying point cloud density. Smoothing of the point cloud data is implemented by modifying the neighborhood criteria during normals estima-tion. The considerable alteration of resulting planes emphasizes the influence of smoothing on the plane detection prior to the actual segmentation. Therefore, the parameter needs to be set in accordance with individual purposes and respective scales of studies. Fur-thermore, it is concluded that the quality of segmentation results does not decline even when the data volume is significantly reduced down to 10%. The azimuth and dip values of individual segments are determined for planes fit to the points belonging to one segment. Based on these results, azimuth and dip as well as strike character of the surface planes in the outcrop are assessed. Thereby, this paper contributes to a fully automatic and straightforward workflow for a comprehensive geometric description of outcrops in 3D.

  1. West Flank Coso, CA FORGE 3D temperature model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2016-03-01

    x,y,z data of the 3D temperature model for the West Flank Coso FORGE site. Model grid spacing is 250m. The temperature model for the Coso geothermal field used over 100 geothermal production sized wells and intermediate-depth temperature holes. At the near surface of this model, two boundary temperatures were assumed: (1) areas with surface manifestations, including fumaroles along the northeast striking normal faults and northwest striking dextral faults with the hydrothermal field, a temperature of ~104˚C was applied to datum at +1066 meters above sea level elevation, and (2) a near-surface temperature at about 10 meters depth, of 20˚C was applied below the diurnal and annual conductive temperature perturbations. These assumptions were based on heat flow studies conducted at the CVF and for the Mojave Desert. On the edges of the hydrothermal system, a 73˚C/km (4˚F/100’) temperature gradient contour was established using conductive gradient data from shallow and intermediate-depth temperature holes. This contour was continued to all elevation datums between the 20˚C surface and -1520 meters below mean sea level. Because the West Flank is outside of the geothermal field footprint, during Phase 1, the three wells inside the FORGE site were incorporated into the preexisting temperature model. To ensure a complete model was built based on all the available data sets, measured bottom-hole temperature gradients in certain wells were downward extrapolated to the next deepest elevation datum (or a maximum of about 25% of the well depth where conductive gradients are evident in the lower portions of the wells). After assuring that the margins of the geothermal field were going to be adequately modelled, the data was contoured using the Kriging method algorithm. Although the extrapolated temperatures and boundary conditions are not rigorous, the calculated temperatures are anticipated to be within ~6˚C (20˚F), or one contour interval, of the

  2. Joint Alignment of Underwater and Above-The Photogrammetric 3d Models by Independent Models Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Troisi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2015-04-01

    The surveying and 3D modelling of objects that extend both below and above the water level, such as ships, harbour structures, offshore platforms, are still an open issue. Commonly, a combined and simultaneous survey is the adopted solution, with acoustic/optical sensors respectively in underwater and in air (most common) or optical/optical sensors both below and above the water level. In both cases, the system must be calibrated and a ship is to be used and properly equipped with also a navigation system for the alignment of sequential 3D point clouds. Such a system is usually highly expensive and has been proved to work with still structures. On the other hand for free floating objects it does not provide a very practical solution. In this contribution, a flexible, low-cost alternative for surveying floating objects is presented. The method is essentially based on photogrammetry, employed for surveying and modelling both the emerged and submerged parts of the object. Special targets, named Orientation Devices, are specifically designed and adopted for the successive alignment of the two photogrammetric models (underwater and in air). A typical scenario where the proposed procedure can be particularly suitable and effective is the case of a ship after an accident whose damaged part is underwater and necessitate to be measured (Figure 1). The details of the mathematical procedure are provided in the paper, together with a critical explanation of the results obtained from the adoption of the method for the survey of a small pleasure boat in floating condition.

  3. 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Models of Betelgeuse's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse, the bright red supergiant (RSG) in Orion, is a runaway star. Its supersonic motion through the interstellar medium has resulted in the formation of a bow shock, a cometary structure pointing in the direction of motion. We present the first 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of Betelgeuse's bow shock. We show that the bow shock morphology depends substantially on the growth timescale for Rayleigh-Taylor versus Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We discuss our models in light of the recent Herschel, GALEX and VLA observations. If the mass in the bow shock shell is low (~few × 10-3 M⊙), as seems to be implied by the AKARI and Herschel observations, then Betelgeuse's bow shock is very young and is unlikely to have reached a steady state. The circular, smooth bow shock shell is consistent with this conclusion. We further discuss the implications of our results, in particular, the possibility that Betelgeuse may have only recently entered the RSG phase.

  4. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ning; Hu, Jian; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function) implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation. PMID:26241942

  5. 3-D model of beam kicker in DARHT-2 accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Carsten; Genoni, Thomas; Hughes, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    The DARHT-2 beamline uses a fast stripline kicker developed at LLNL [1] to create a series of short pulses out of a 2 microsecond pulse for use in high resolution x-ray radiography. Normally, a static bias dipole bends the 2 kA, 18 MeV electron beam off axis into a dump. When the fast stripline kicker is activated, the static dipole kick is cancelled by the dynamic dipole field of the kicker, and the beam travels to the x-ray converter. 3-D PIC simulations are performed to compute the effect of the kicker on the beam. The calculations incorporate the kicker biplate conductor geometry, allowing for accurate modeling of the effects of higher multipole fields as well as beam wakefield effects. Beam emittance growth through the kicker is investigated for various beam loads. [1] B.R. Poole and Y.-J. Chen, "Particle Simulations of DARHT-2 Transport System", Proc. PAC 2001 Conference (http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/p01/PAPERS/RPPH034.PDF).

  6. A 3D numerical model for Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Esquivel, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Reynoso, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    We present new 3D numerical simulations for Kepler's supernova remnant. In this work we revisit the possibility that the asymmetric shape of the remnant in X-rays is the product of a Type Ia supernova explosion which occurs inside the wind bubble previously created by an AGB companion star. Due to the large peculiar velocity of the system, the interaction of the strong AGB wind with the interstellar medium results in a bow shock structure. In this new model we propose that the AGB wind is anisotropic, with properties such as mass-loss rate and density having a latitude dependence, and that the orientation of the polar axis of the AGB star is not aligned with the direction of motion. The ejecta from the Type Ia supernova explosion is modelled using a power-law density profile, and we let the remnant evolve for 400 yr. We computed synthetic X-ray maps from the numerical results. We find that the estimated size and peculiar X-ray morphology of Kepler's supernova remnant are well reproduced by considering an AGB mass-loss rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1, a wind terminal velocity of 10 km s-1, an ambient medium density of 10-3 cm-3 and an explosion energy of 7 × 1050 erg. The obtained total X-ray luminosity of the remnant in this model reaches 6 × 1050 erg, which is within a factor of 2 of the observed value, and the time evolution of the luminosity shows a rate of decrease in recent decades of ˜2.4 per cent yr-1 that is consistent with the observations.

  7. 3D modeling of carbonates petro-acoustic heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baden, Dawin; Guglielmi, Yves; Saracco, Ginette; Marié, Lionel; Viseur, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing carbonate reservoirs heterogeneity is a challenging issue for Oil & Gas Industry, CO2 sequestration and all kinds of fluid manipulations in natural reservoirs, due to the significant impact of heterogeneities on fluid flow and storage within the reservoir. Although large scale (> meter) heterogeneities such as layers petrophysical contrasts are well addressed by computing facies-based models, low scale (< meter) heterogeneities are often poorly constrained because of the complexity in predicting their spatial arrangement. In this study, we conducted petro-acoustic measurements on cores of different size and diameter (Ø = 1", 1.5" and 5") in order to evaluate anisotropy or heterogeneity in carbonates at different laboratory scales. Different types of heterogeneities which generally occur in carbonate reservoir units (e.g. petrographic, diagenetic, and tectonic related) were sampled. Dry / wet samples were investigated with different ultrasonic apparatus and using different sensors allowing acoustic characterization through a bandwidth varying from 50 to 500 kHz. Comprehensive measurements realized on each samples allowed statistical analyses of petro-acoustic properties such as attenuation, shear and longitudinal wave velocity. The cores properties (geological and acoustic facies) were modeled in 3D using photogrammetry and GOCAD geo-modeler. This method successfully allowed detecting and imaging in three dimensions differential diagenesis effects characterized by the occurrence of decimeter-scale diagenetic horizons in samples assumed to be homogeneous and/or different diagenetic sequences between shells filling and the packing matrix. We then discuss how small interfaces such as cracks, stylolithes and laminations which are also imaged may have guided these differential effects, considering that understanding the processes may be taken as an analogue to actual fluid drainage complexity in deep carbonate reservoir.

  8. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  9. The 3D Hough Transform for plane detection in point clouds: A review and a new accumulator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrmann, Dorit; Elseberg, Jan; Lingemann, Kai; Nüchter, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    The Hough Transform is a well-known method for detecting parameterized objects. It is the de facto standard for detecting lines and circles in 2-dimensional data sets. For 3D it has attained little attention so far. Even for the 2D case high computational costs have lead to the development of numerous variations for the Hough Transform. In this article we evaluate different variants of the Hough Transform with respect to their applicability to detect planes in 3D point clouds reliably. Apart from computational costs, the main problem is the representation of the accumulator. Usual implementations favor geometrical objects with certain parameters due to uneven sampling of the parameter space. We present a novel approach to design the accumulator focusing on achieving the same size for each cell and compare it to existing designs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Modeling 3-D Slope Stability of Coastal Bluffs Using 3-D Ground-Water Flow, Southwestern Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (3-D) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess 3-D slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation model (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, 3-D strength variations, and 3-D pore pressures. Initially, we use our 3-D analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the

  11. Multiscale Cloud System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

    2009-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

  12. Accuracy Assessment of a Canal-Tunnel 3d Model by Comparing Photogrammetry and Laserscanning Recording Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, P.; Chavant, P.; Foucher, P.; Muzet, V.; Prybyla, D.; Perrin, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Guillemin, S.

    2013-07-01

    With recent developments in the field of technology and computer science, conventional methods are being supplanted by laser scanning and digital photogrammetry. These two different surveying techniques generate 3-D models of real world objects or structures. In this paper, we consider the application of terrestrial Laser scanning (TLS) and photogrammetry to the surveying of canal tunnels. The inspection of such structures requires time, safe access, specific processing and professional operators. Therefore, a French partnership proposes to develop a dedicated equipment based on image processing for visual inspection of canal tunnels. A 3D model of the vault and side walls of the tunnel is constructed from images recorded onboard a boat moving inside the tunnel. To assess the accuracy of this photogrammetric model (PM), a reference model is build using static TLS. We here address the problem comparing the resulting point clouds. Difficulties arise because of the highly differentiated acquisition processes, which result in very different point densities. We propose a new tool, designed to compare differences between pairs of point cloud or surfaces (triangulated meshes). Moreover, dealing with huge datasets requires the implementation of appropriate structures and algorithms. Several techniques are presented : point-to-point, cloud-to-cloud and cloud-to-mesh. In addition farthest point resampling, octree structure and Hausdorff distance are adopted and described. Experimental results are shown for a 475 m long canal tunnel located in France.

  13. Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence Model in FUN3D and CFL3D Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the k-kL turbulence model using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL model is a two-equation turbulence model based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation models. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the model as implemented in the CFD codes Fun3D and CFL3D. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than result