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Sample records for 3d constrained triangulation

  1. Hex-dominant mesh generation using 3D constrained triangulation

    SciTech Connect

    OWEN,STEVEN J.

    2000-05-30

    A method for decomposing a volume with a prescribed quadrilateral surface mesh, into a hexahedral-dominated mesh is proposed. With this method, known as Hex-Morphing (H-Morph), an initial tetrahedral mesh is provided. Tetrahedral are transformed and combined starting from the boundary and working towards the interior of the volume. The quadrilateral faces of the hexahedra are treated as internal surfaces, which can be recovered using constrained triangulation techniques. Implementation details of the edge and face recovery process are included. Examples and performance of the H-Morph algorithm are also presented.

  2. 3D Laser Triangulation for Plant Phenotyping in Challenging Environments.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-06-09

    To increase the understanding of how the plant phenotype is formed by genotype and environmental interactions, simple and robust high-throughput plant phenotyping methods should be developed and considered. This would not only broaden the application range of phenotyping in the plant research community, but also increase the ability for researchers to study plants in their natural environments. By studying plants in their natural environment in high temporal resolution, more knowledge on how multiple stresses interact in defining the plant phenotype could lead to a better understanding of the interaction between plant responses and epigenetic regulation. In the present paper, we evaluate a commercial 3D NIR-laser scanner (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V., Herleen, The Netherlands) to track daily changes in plant growth with high precision in challenging environments. Firstly, we demonstrate that the NIR laser beam of the scanner does not affect plant photosynthetic performance. Secondly, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate phenotypic variation amongst the growth pattern of ten genotypes of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed), using a simple linear correlation between scanned parameters and destructive growth measurements. Our results demonstrate the high potential of 3D laser triangulation for simple measurements of phenotypic variation in challenging environments and in a high temporal resolution.

  3. 3D Laser Triangulation for Plant Phenotyping in Challenging Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To increase the understanding of how the plant phenotype is formed by genotype and environmental interactions, simple and robust high-throughput plant phenotyping methods should be developed and considered. This would not only broaden the application range of phenotyping in the plant research community, but also increase the ability for researchers to study plants in their natural environments. By studying plants in their natural environment in high temporal resolution, more knowledge on how multiple stresses interact in defining the plant phenotype could lead to a better understanding of the interaction between plant responses and epigenetic regulation. In the present paper, we evaluate a commercial 3D NIR-laser scanner (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V., Herleen, The Netherlands) to track daily changes in plant growth with high precision in challenging environments. Firstly, we demonstrate that the NIR laser beam of the scanner does not affect plant photosynthetic performance. Secondly, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate phenotypic variation amongst the growth pattern of ten genotypes of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed), using a simple linear correlation between scanned parameters and destructive growth measurements. Our results demonstrate the high potential of 3D laser triangulation for simple measurements of phenotypic variation in challenging environments and in a high temporal resolution. PMID:26066990

  4. Triangulation Based 3D Laser Imaging for Fracture Orientation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mah, J.; Claire, S.; Steve, M.

    2009-05-01

    Laser imaging has recently been identified as a potential tool for rock mass characterization. This contribution focuses on the application of triangulation based, short-range laser imaging to determine fracture orientation and surface texture. This technology measures the distance to the target by triangulating the projected and reflected laser beams, and also records the reflection intensity. In this study, we acquired 3D laser images of rock faces using the Laser Camera System (LCS), a portable instrument developed by Neptec Design Group (Ottawa, Canada). The LCS uses an infrared laser beam and is immune to the lighting conditions. The maximum image resolution is 1024 x 1024 volumetric image elements. Depth resolution is 0.5 mm at 5 m. An above ground field trial was conducted at a blocky road cut with well defined joint sets (Kingston, Ontario). An underground field trial was conducted at the Inco 175 Ore body (Sudbury, Ontario) where images were acquired in the dark and the joint set features were more subtle. At each site, from a distance of 3 m away from the rock face, a grid of six images (approximately 1.6 m by 1.6 m) was acquired at maximum resolution with 20% overlap between adjacent images. This corresponds to a density of 40 image elements per square centimeter. Polyworks, a high density 3D visualization software tool, was used to align and merge the images into a single digital triangular mesh. The conventional method of determining fracture orientations is by manual measurement using a compass. In order to be accepted as a substitute for this method, the LCS should be capable of performing at least to the capabilities of manual measurements. To compare fracture orientation estimates derived from the 3D laser images to manual measurements, 160 inclinometer readings were taken at the above ground site. Three prominent joint sets (strike/dip: 236/09, 321/89, 325/01) were identified by plotting the joint poles on a stereonet. Underground, two main joint

  5. Onomatopoeia characters extraction from comic images using constrained Delaunay triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangping; Shoji, Kenji; Mori, Hiroshi; Toyama, Fubito

    2014-02-01

    A method for extracting onomatopoeia characters from comic images was developed based on stroke width feature of characters, since they nearly have a constant stroke width in a number of cases. An image was segmented with a constrained Delaunay triangulation. Connected component grouping was performed based on the triangles generated by the constrained Delaunay triangulation. Stroke width calculation of the connected components was conducted based on the altitude of the triangles generated with the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. 3D vesicle dynamics simulations with a linearly triangulated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedec, G.; Leonetti, M.; Jaeger, M.

    2011-02-01

    Simulations of biomembranes have gained an increasing interest in the past years. Specificities of these membranes propose new challenges for the numerics. In particular, vesicle dynamics are governed by bending forces as well as a surface incompressibility constraint. A method to compute the bending force density resultant onto piecewise linearly triangulated surface meshes is described. This method is coupled with a boundary element method solver for inner and outer fluids, to compute vesicle dynamics under external flows. The surface incompressibility constraint is satisfied by the construction of a projection operator.

  7. Optimized data processing for an optical 3D sensor based on flying triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Häusler, Gerd; Gurov, Igor; Volkov, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    We present data processing methods for an optical 3D sensor based on the measurement principle "Flying Triangulation". The principle enables a motion-robust acquisition of the 3D shape of even complex objects: A hand-held sensor is freely guided around the object while real-time feedback of the measurement progress is delivered during the captioning. Although of high precision, the resulting 3D data usually may exhibit some weaknesses: e.g. outliers might be present and the data size might be too large. We describe the measurement principle and the data processing and conclude with measurement results.

  8. Computing 2D constrained delaunay triangulation using the GPU.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2013-05-01

    We propose the first graphics processing unit (GPU) solution to compute the 2D constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) of a planar straight line graph (PSLG) consisting of points and edges. There are many existing CPU algorithms to solve the CDT problem in computational geometry, yet there has been no prior approach to solve this problem efficiently using the parallel computing power of the GPU. For the special case of the CDT problem where the PSLG consists of just points, which is simply the normal Delaunay triangulation (DT) problem, a hybrid approach using the GPU together with the CPU to partially speed up the computation has already been presented in the literature. Our work, on the other hand, accelerates the entire computation on the GPU. Our implementation using the CUDA programming model on NVIDIA GPUs is numerically robust, and runs up to an order of magnitude faster than the best sequential implementations on the CPU. This result is reflected in our experiment with both randomly generated PSLGs and real-world GIS data having millions of points and edges.

  9. Solving the horizontal conflation problem with a constrained Delaunay triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, Hugo; Ohori, Ken Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    Datasets produced by different countries or organisations are seldom properly aligned and contain several discrepancies (e.g., gaps and overlaps). This problem has been so far almost exclusively tackled by snapping vertices based on a user-defined threshold. However, as we argue in this paper, this leads to invalid geometries, is error-prone, and leaves several discrepancies along the boundaries. We propose a novel algorithm to align the boundaries of adjacent datasets. It is based on a constrained Delaunay triangulation to identify and eliminate the discrepancies, and the alignment is performed without moving vertices with a snapping operator. This allows us to guarantee that the datasets have been properly conflated and that the polygons are geometrically valid. We present our algorithm, our implementation (based on the stable and fast triangulator in CGAL), and we show how it can be used it practice with different experiments with real-world datasets. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is highly efficient and that it yields better results than snapping-based methods.

  10. Introductory review on `Flying Triangulation': a motion-robust optical 3D measurement principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, Svenja

    2015-04-01

    'Flying Triangulation' (FlyTri) is a recently developed principle which allows for a motion-robust optical 3D measurement of rough surfaces. It combines a simple sensor with sophisticated algorithms: a single-shot sensor acquires 2D camera images. From each camera image, a 3D profile is generated. The series of 3D profiles generated are aligned to one another by algorithms, without relying on any external tracking device. It delivers real-time feedback of the measurement process which enables an all-around measurement of objects. The principle has great potential for small-space acquisition environments, such as the measurement of the interior of a car, and motion-sensitive measurement tasks, such as the intraoral measurement of teeth. This article gives an overview of the basic ideas and applications of FlyTri. The main challenges and their solutions are discussed. Measurement examples are also given to demonstrate the potential of the measurement principle.

  11. 3D digitization methods based on laser excitation and active triangulation: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubreton, Olivier; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Truchetet, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    3D reconstruction of surfaces is an important topic in computer vision and corresponds to a large field of applications: industrial inspection, reverse engineering, object recognition, biometry, archeology… Because of the large varieties of applications, one can find in the literature a lot of approaches which can be classified into two families: passive and active [1]. Certainly because of their reliability, active approaches, using imaging system with an additional controlled light source, seem to be the most commonly used in the industrial field. In this domain, the 3D digitization approach based on active 3D triangulation has had important developments during the last ten years [2] and seems to be mature today if considering the important number of systems proposed by manufacturers. Unfortunately, the performances of active 3D scanners depend on the optical properties of the surface to digitize. As an example, on Fig 1.a, a 3D shape with a diffuse surface has been digitized with Comet V scanner (Steinbichler). The 3D reconstruction is presented on Fig 1.b. The same experiment was carried out on a similar object (same shape) but presenting a specular surface (Fig 1.c and Fig 1.d) ; it can clearly be observed, that the specularity influences of the performance of the digitization.

  12. Performance Analysis of a Low-Cost Triangulation-Based 3d Camera: Microsoft Kinect System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    . K. Chow, J. C.; Ang, K. D.; Lichti, D. D.; Teskey, W. F.

    2012-07-01

    Recent technological advancements have made active imaging sensors popular for 3D modelling and motion tracking. The 3D coordinates of signalised targets are traditionally estimated by matching conjugate points in overlapping images. Current 3D cameras can acquire point clouds at video frame rates from a single exposure station. In the area of 3D cameras, Microsoft and PrimeSense have collaborated and developed an active 3D camera based on the triangulation principle, known as the Kinect system. This off-the-shelf system costs less than 150 USD and has drawn a lot of attention from the robotics, computer vision, and photogrammetry disciplines. In this paper, the prospect of using the Kinect system for precise engineering applications was evaluated. The geometric quality of the Kinect system as a function of the scene (i.e. variation of depth, ambient light conditions, incidence angle, and object reflectivity) and the sensor (i.e. warm-up time and distance averaging) were analysed quantitatively. This system's potential in human body measurements was tested against a laser scanner and 3D range camera. A new calibration model for simultaneously determining the exterior orientation parameters, interior orientation parameters, boresight angles, leverarm, and object space features parameters was developed and the effectiveness of this calibration approach was explored.

  13. Radio triangulation - mapping the 3D position of the solar radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdalenic, Jasmina

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the relative position of the sources of the radio emission and the associated solar eruptive phenomena (CME and the associated shock wave) has always been a challenge. While ground-based radio interferometer observations provide us with the 2D position information for the radio emission originating from the low corona (up to 2.5 Ro), this is not the case for the radio emission originating at larger heights. The radio triangulation measurements (also referred to as direction-finding or goniopolarimetric measurements) from two or more widely separated spacecraft can provide information on the 3D positions of the sources of the radio emission. This type of interplanetary radio observations are currently performed by STEREO WAVES and WIND WAVES instruments, providing a unique possibility for up to three simultaneous radio triangulations (using up to three different pairs of spacecraft). The recent results of the radio triangulation studies bring new insight into the causal relationship of the solar radio emission and CMEs. In this presentation I will discuss some of the most intriguing results on the source positions of: a) type III radio bursts indicating propagation of the fast electrons accelerated along the open field lines, b) type II radio bursts indicating interaction of the CME-driven shocks and other coronal structures e.g. streamers and c) type IV-like radio bursts possibly associated with CME-CME interaction.

  14. Bound constrained bundle adjustment for reliable 3D reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Meng, De; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Bundle adjustment (BA) is a common estimation algorithm that is widely used in machine vision as the last step in a feature-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction algorithm. BA is essentially a non-convex non-linear least-square problem that can simultaneously solve the 3D coordinates of all the feature points describing the scene geometry, as well as the parameters of the camera. The conventional BA takes a parameter either as a fixed value or as an unconstrained variable based on whether the parameter is known or not. In cases where the known parameters are inaccurate but constrained in a range, conventional BA results in an incorrect 3D reconstruction by using these parameters as fixed values. On the other hand, these inaccurate parameters can be treated as unknown variables, but this does not exploit the knowledge of the constraints, and the resulting reconstruction can be erroneous since the BA optimization halts at a dramatically incorrect local minimum due to its non-convexity. In many practical 3D reconstruction applications, unknown variables with range constraints are usually available, such as a measurement with a range of uncertainty or a bounded estimate. Thus to better utilize these pre-known, constrained, but inaccurate parameters, a bound constrained bundle adjustment (BCBA) algorithm is proposed, developed and tested in this study. A scanning fiber endoscope (the camera) is used to capture a sequence of images above a surgery phantom (the object) of known geometry. 3D virtual models are reconstructed based on these images and then compared with the ground truth. The experimental results demonstrate BCBA can achieve a more reliable, rapid, and accurate 3D reconstruction than conventional bundle adjustment. PMID:25969115

  15. Application of 3D triangulations of airborne laser scanning data to estimate boreal forest leaf area index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Korhonen, Lauri; Korpela, Ilkka; Vauhkonen, Jari

    2017-07-01

    We propose 3D triangulations of airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds as a new approach to derive 3D canopy structures and to estimate forest canopy effective LAI (LAIe). Computational geometry and topological connectivity were employed to filter the triangulations to yield a quasi-optimal relationship with the field measured LAIe. The optimal filtering parameters were predicted based on ALS height metrics, emulating the production of maps of LAIe and canopy volume for large areas. The LAIe from triangulations was validated with field measured LAIe and compared with a reference LAIe calculated from ALS data using logarithmic model based on Beer's law. Canopy transmittance was estimated using All Echo Cover Index (ACI), and the mean projection of unit foliage area (β) was obtained using no-intercept regression with field measured LAIe. We investigated the influence species and season on the triangulated LAIe and demonstrated the relationship between triangulated LAIe and canopy volume. Our data is from 115 forest plots located at the southern boreal forest area in Finland and for each plot three different ALS datasets were available to apply the triangulations. The triangulation approach was found applicable for both leaf-on and leaf-off datasets after initial calibration. Results showed the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs) between LAIe from triangulations and field measured values agreed the most using the highest pulse density data (RMSE = 0.63, the coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.53). Yet, the LAIe calculated using ACI-index agreed better with the field measured LAIe (RMSE = 0.53 and R2 = 0.70). The best models to predict the optimal alpha value contained the ACI-index, which indicates that within-crown transmittance is accounted by the triangulation approach. The cover indices may be recommended for retrieving LAIe only, but for applications which require more sophisticated information on canopy shape and volume, such as radiative transfer models, the

  16. 3D measurement with active triangulation for spectacle lens optimization and individualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrmann, Julia; Tiemann, Markus; Seitz, Peter C.

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time an active triangulation technique for video centration. This technique requires less manual selection than current methods and thus enables faster measurements while providing the same resolution. The suitability to measure physiological parameters is demonstrated in a measurement series. The active triangulation technique uses a laser line for illumination which is positioned such that it intersects with the pupils of the subject to be measured. For the illumination of human eyes, the wavelength and output power were carefully investigated to ensure photobiological safety at all times and reduce irritation of the subject being measured. A camera with a known orientation to the laser line images the subject. Physiological features on the subject and the frame are then selected in the acquired image yielding directly a 3D position if lying on the illuminated laser line. Distances to points off the laser line can be estimated from a scaling at the same depth. Focus is on two parameters: interpupillary distance (PD) and corneal face form angle (FFA). In our study we examined the repeatability of the measurements. We found an excellent repeatability with small deviations to the reference value. Furthermore a physiological study was carried out with the setup showing the applicability of this method for video centration measurements. A comparison to a reference measurement system shows only small differences.

  17. A portable instrument for 3-D dynamic robot measurements using triangulation and laser tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.R.R. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Parker, G.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The paper describes the development and validation of a 3-D measurement instrument capable of determining the static and dynamic performance of industrial robots to ISO standards. Using two laser beams to track an optical target attached to the robot end-effector, the target position coordinates may be estimated, relative to the instrument coordinate frame, to a high accuracy using triangulation principles. The effect of variations in the instrument geometry from the nominal model is evaluated through a kinematic model of the tracking head. Significant improvements of the measurement accuracy are then obtained by a simple adjustment of the main parameters. Extensive experimental test results are included to demonstrate the instrument performance. Finally typical static and dynamic measurement results for an industrial robot are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the instrument.

  18. Spectral Triangulation: a 3D Method for Locating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Weisman, R. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have the potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions. PMID:27140495

  19. Spectral triangulation: a 3D method for locating single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M; Bruce Weisman, R

    2016-05-21

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions.

  20. Spectral triangulation: a 3D method for locating single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Bruce Weisman, R.

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions.Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and

  1. 3-D Lung Segmentation by Incremental Constrained Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Asl, Ehsan; Zurada, Jacek M; Gimelfarb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2016-05-01

    Accurate lung segmentation from large-size 3-D chest-computed tomography images is crucial for computer-assisted cancer diagnostics. To efficiently segment a 3-D lung, we extract voxel-wise features of spatial image contexts by unsupervised learning with a proposed incremental constrained nonnegative matrix factorization (ICNMF). The method applies smoothness constraints to learn the features, which are more robust to lung tissue inhomogeneities, and thus, help to better segment internal lung pathologies than the known state-of-the-art techniques. Compared to the latter, the ICNMF depends less on the domain expert knowledge and is more easily tuned due to only a few control parameters. Also, the proposed slice-wise incremental learning with due regard for interslice signal dependencies decreases the computational complexity of the NMF-based segmentation and is scalable to very large 3-D lung images. The method is quantitatively validated on simulated realistic lung phantoms that mimic different lung pathologies (seven datasets), in vivo datasets for 17 subjects, and 55 datasets from the Lobe and Lung Analysis 2011 (LOLA11) study. For the in vivo data, the accuracy of our segmentation w.r.t. the ground truth is 0.96 by the Dice similarity coefficient, 9.0 mm by the modified Hausdorff distance, and 0.87% by the absolute lung volume difference, which is significantly better than for the NMF-based segmentation. In spite of not being designed for lungs with severe pathologies and of no agreement between radiologists on the ground truth in such cases, the ICNMF with its total accuracy of 0.965 was ranked fifth among all others in the LOLA11. After excluding the nine too pathological cases from the LOLA11 dataset, the ICNMF accuracy increased to 0.986.

  2. Improved EEG source localization employing 3D sensing by "Flying Triangulation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, Svenja; Rampp, Stefan; Fouladi-Movahed, Sarah; Dalal, Sarang S.; Willomitzer, Florian; Arold, Oliver; Stefan, Hermann; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    With electroencephalography (EEG), a person's brain activity can be monitored over time and sources of activity localized. With this information, brain regions showing pathological activity, such as epileptic spikes, can be delineated. In cases of severe drug-resistant epilepsy, surgical resection of these brain regions may be the only treatment option. This requires a precise localization of the responsible seizure generators. They can be reconstructed from EEG data when the electrode positions are known. The standard method employs a "digitization pen" and has severe drawbacks: It is time consuming, the result is user-dependent, and the patient has to hold still. We present a novel method which overcomes these drawbacks. It is based on the optical "Flying Triangulation" (FlyTri) sensor which allows a motion-robust acquisition of precise 3D data. To compare the two methods, the electrode positions were determined with each method for a real-sized head model with EEG electrodes and their deviation to the ground-truth data calculated. The standard deviation for the current method was 3.39 mm while it was 0.98 mm for the new method. The influence of these results on the final EEG source localization was investigated by simulating EEG data. The digitization pen result deviates substantially from the true source location and time series. In contrast, the FlyTri result agrees with the original information. Our findings suggest that FlyTri might become a valuable tool in the field of medical brain research, because of its improved precision and contactless handling. Future applications might include co-registration of multimodal information.

  3. Flying triangulation - A motion-robust optical 3D sensor for the real-time shape acquisition of complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willomitzer, Florian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Häusler, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    The three-dimensional shape acquisition of objects has become more and more important in the last years. Up to now, there are several well-established methods which already yield impressive results. However, even under quite common conditions like object movement or a complex shaping, most methods become unsatisfying. Thus, the 3D shape acquisition is still a difficult and non-trivial task. We present our measurement principle "Flying Triangulation" which enables a motion-robust 3D acquisition of complex-shaped object surfaces by a freely movable handheld sensor. Since "Flying Triangulation" is scalable, a whole sensor-zoo for different object sizes is presented. Concluding, an overview of current and future fields of investigation is given.

  4. Feature-constrained surface reconstruction approach for point cloud data acquired with 3D laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongbo; Sheng, Yehua; Lu, Guonian; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Kai

    2008-04-01

    Surface reconstruction is an important task in the field of 3d-GIS, computer aided design and computer graphics (CAD & CG), virtual simulation and so on. Based on available incremental surface reconstruction methods, a feature-constrained surface reconstruction approach for point cloud is presented. Firstly features are extracted from point cloud under the rules of curvature extremes and minimum spanning tree. By projecting local sample points to the fitted tangent planes and using extracted features to guide and constrain the process of local triangulation and surface propagation, topological relationship among sample points can be achieved. For the constructed models, a process named consistent normal adjustment and regularization is adopted to adjust normal of each face so that the correct surface model is achieved. Experiments show that the presented approach inherits the convenient implementation and high efficiency of traditional incremental surface reconstruction method, meanwhile, it avoids improper propagation of normal across sharp edges, which means the applicability of incremental surface reconstruction is greatly improved. Above all, appropriate k-neighborhood can help to recognize un-sufficient sampled areas and boundary parts, the presented approach can be used to reconstruct both open and close surfaces without additional interference.

  5. Flying triangulation--an optical 3D sensor for the motion-robust acquisition of complex objects.

    PubMed

    Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Yang, Zheng; Häusler, Gerd

    2012-01-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition is difficult if an all-around measurement of an object is desired or if a relative motion between object and sensor is unavoidable. An optical sensor principle is presented-we call it "flying triangulation"-that enables a motion-robust acquisition of 3D surface topography. It combines a simple handheld sensor with sophisticated registration algorithms. An easy acquisition of complex objects is possible-just by freely hand-guiding the sensor around the object. Real-time feedback of the sequential measurement results enables a comfortable handling for the user. No tracking is necessary. In contrast to most other eligible sensors, the presented sensor generates 3D data from each single camera image.

  6. Proposed NRC portable target case for short-range triangulation-based 3D imaging systems characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Benjamin; MacKinnon, David; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2011-03-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is currently evaluating and designing artifacts and methods to completely characterize 3-D imaging systems. We have gathered a set of artifacts to form a low-cost portable case and provide a clearly-defined set of procedures for generating characteristic values using these artifacts. In its current version, this case is specifically designed for the characterization of short-range (standoff distance of 1 centimeter to 3 meters) triangulation-based 3-D imaging systems. The case is known as the "NRC Portable Target Case for Short-Range Triangulation-based 3-D Imaging Systems" (NRC-PTC). The artifacts in the case have been carefully chosen for their geometric, thermal, and optical properties. A set of characterization procedures are provided with these artifacts based on procedures either already in use or are based on knowledge acquired from various tests carried out by the NRC. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), a well-known terminology in the industrial field, was used to define the set of tests. The following parameters of a system are characterized: dimensional properties, form properties, orientation properties, localization properties, profile properties, repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility. A number of tests were performed in a special dimensional metrology laboratory to validate the capability of the NRC-PTC. The NRC-PTC will soon be subjected to reproducibility testing using an intercomparison evaluation to validate its use in different laboratories.

  7. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy.

  8. Automated matching of corresponding seed images of three simulator radiographs to allow 3D triangulation of implanted seeds.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, M D; Kassaee, A

    1997-02-01

    To match corresponding seed images in different radiographs so that the 3D seed locations can be triangulated automatically and without ambiguity requires (at least) three radiographs taken from different perspectives, and an algorithm that finds the proper permutations of the seed-image indices. Matching corresponding images in only two radiographs introduces inherent ambiguities which can be resolved only with the use of non-positional information obtained with intensive human effort. Matching images in three or more radiographs is an 'NP (Non-determinant in Polynomial time)-complete' problem. Although the matching problem is fundamental, current methods for three-radiograph seed-image matching use 'local' (seed-by-seed) methods that may lead to incorrect matchings. We describe a permutation-sampling method which not only gives good 'global' (full permutation) matches for the NP-complete three-radiograph seed-matching problem, but also determines the reliability of the radiographic data themselves, namely, whether the patient moved in the interval between radiographic perspectives.

  9. Topological spatial relation calculation in constrained Delaunay triangulation: an algebraic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiatian; Wang, Chunxiao; Ma, Li; Chen, Hao; Yang, Dehong; Wu, Xuequn

    2009-10-01

    Topological spatial relation between spatial objects is a very important topic for spatial analysis, query and reasoning in Geographic Information Science (GIS). In this paper, an algebraic method using constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) for topological spatial relation is presented. In the part of foundational theory, (i) prove CDT is simplicial complex in R2. (ii) import chain structure in CDT and prove including & approximating theorem and reduced including & approximating theorem, and are used for estimating left, middle and right side properties of triangle. (iii) define the region in CDT and establish region algebra (RA), which use the set of region as computational space and use the intersection operator as a binary operation. (iv) describe basic forms of node and chain which are contained in a set of triangles. In the part of spatial relation calculation, (i) describe spatial object as three entries, i.e. exterior, boundary and interior, with left, middle and right of triangle and their combination. (ii) establish the topological spatial relation calculation model-region nine intersection model (R9IM), which is used the intersection operation and the form operation as basic operations. (iii) calculate thirty-three spatial relations of simple objects with R9IM in the practice application of topological examination.

  10. 3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-04-01

    observed data, and then adjust the model until a satisfactory accuracy of errors is achieved. It is hope that this work can provide reference for similar work in other areas. this study shows that the research of geologic constrained 3D gravity and magnetic modeling has potential value in the aspects of deep mineral exploration and mineral reserves estimation.

  11. Constraining 3D Process Sedimentological Models to Geophysical Data Using Image Quilting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, P.; Da Pra, A.; Pontiggia, M.; Caers, J.

    2014-12-01

    3D process geological models, whether for carbonate or sedimentological systems, have been proposed for modeling realistic subsurface heterogeneity. The problem with such forward process models is that they are not constrained to any subsurface data whether to wells or geophysical surveys. We propose a new method for realistic geological modeling of complex heterogeneity by hybridizing 3D process modeling of geological deposition with conditioning by means of a novel multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) technique termed image quilting (IQ). Image quilting is a pattern-based techniques that stiches together patterns extracted from training images to generate stochastic realizations that look like the training image. In this paper, we illustrate how 3D process model realizations can be used as training images in image quilting. To constrain the realization to seismic data we first interpret each facies in the geophysical data. These interpretation, while overly smooth and not reflecting finer scale variation are used as auxiliary variables in the generation of the image quilting realizations. To condition to well data, we first perform a kriging of the well data to generate a kriging map and kriging variance. The kriging map is used as additional auxiliary variable while the kriging variance is used as a weight given to the kriging derived auxiliary variable. We present an application to a giant offshore reservoir. Starting from seismic advanced attribute analysis and sedimentological interpretation, we build the 3D sedimentological process based model and use it as non-stationary training image for conditional image quilting.

  12. On Efficient Deployment of Wireless Sensors for Coverage and Connectivity in Constrained 3D Space.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chase Q; Wang, Li

    2017-10-10

    Sensor networks have been used in a rapidly increasing number of applications in many fields. This work generalizes a sensor deployment problem to place a minimum set of wireless sensors at candidate locations in constrained 3D space to k-cover a given set of target objects. By exhausting the combinations of discreteness/continuousness constraints on either sensor locations or target objects, we formulate four classes of sensor deployment problems in 3D space: deploy sensors at Discrete/Continuous Locations (D/CL) to cover Discrete/Continuous Targets (D/CT). We begin with the design of an approximate algorithm for DLDT and then reduce DLCT, CLDT, and CLCT to DLDT by discretizing continuous sensor locations or target objects into a set of divisions without sacrificing sensing precision. Furthermore, we consider a connected version of each problem where the deployed sensors must form a connected network, and design an approximation algorithm to minimize the number of deployed sensors with connectivity guarantee. For performance comparison, we design and implement an optimal solution and a genetic algorithm (GA)-based approach. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed deployment algorithms consistently outperform the GA-based heuristic and achieve a close-to-optimal performance in small-scale problem instances and a significantly superior overall performance than the theoretical upper bound.

  13. Multi-Constrained Optimal Control of 3D Robotic Arm Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, Pavel M.; Fujii, Hironori A.; Kojima, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Takeo

    This paper presents a generic method for optimal motion planning for three-dimensional 3-DOF multi-link robotic manipulators. We consider the operation of the manipulator systems, which involve constrained payload transportation/ capture/release, which is a subject to the minimization of the user-defined objective function, enabling for example minimization of the time of the transfer and/or actuation efforts. It should be stressed out that the task is solved in the presence of arbitrary multiple additional constraints. The solutions of the associated nonlinear differential equations of motion are obtained numerically using the direct transcription method. The direct method seeks to transform the continuous optimal control problem into a discrete mathematical programming problem, which in turn is solved using a non-linear programming algorithm. By discretizing the state and control variables at a series of nodes, the integration of the dynamical equations of motion is not required. The Chebyshev pseudospectral method, due to its high accuracy and fast computation times, was chosen as the direct optimization method to be employed to solve the problem. To illustrate the capabilities of the methodology, maneuvering of RRR 3D robot manipulators were considered in detail. Their optimal operations were simulated for the manipulators, binded to move their effectors along the specified 2D plane and 3D spherical and cylindrical surfaces (imitating for example, welding, tooling or scanning robots).

  14. 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI with radial ultra-short echo time and spatial-temporal constrained reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Grzegorz; Johnson, Kevin M.; Bell, Laura C.; Velikina, Julia V.; Samsonov, Alexey A.; Nagle, Scott K.; Fain, Sean B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the feasibility of spatial-temporal constrained reconstruction for accelerated regional lung perfusion using highly undersampled dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) 3D radial MRI with ultra-short echo time (UTE). Methods A combined strategy was used to accelerate DCE MRI for 3D pulmonary perfusion with whole lung coverage. A highly undersampled 3D radial UTE MRI acquisition was combined with an iterative constrained reconstruction exploiting principal component analysis and wavelet soft-thresholding for dimensionality reduction in space and time. The performance of the method was evaluated using a 3D fractal-based DCE digital lung phantom. Simulated perfusion maps and contrast enhancement curves were compared to ground truth using the structural similarity index (SSIM) to determine robust threshold and regularization levels. Feasibility studies were then performed in a canine and a human subject with 3D radial UTE (TE = 0.08 ms) acquisition to assess feasibility of mapping regional 3D perfusion. Results The method was able to accurately recover perfusion maps in the phantom with a nominal isotropic spatial resolution of 1.5 mm (SSIM of 0.949). The canine and human subject studies demonstrated feasibility for providing artifact-free perfusion maps in a simple 3D breath-held acquisition. Conclusion The proposed method is promising for fast and flexible 3D pulmonary perfusion imaging. PMID:24604452

  15. Statistical 3D prostate imaging atlas construction via anatomically constrained registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Jaffe, Carl C.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Feleppa, Ernest; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-03-01

    Statistical imaging atlases allow for integration of information from multiple patient studies collected across different image scales and modalities, such as multi-parametric (MP) MRI and histology, providing population statistics regarding a specific pathology within a single canonical representation. Such atlases are particularly valuable in the identification and validation of meaningful imaging signatures for disease characterization in vivo within a population. Despite the high incidence of prostate cancer, an imaging atlas focused on different anatomic structures of the prostate, i.e. an anatomic atlas, has yet to be constructed. In this work we introduce a novel framework for MRI atlas construction that uses an iterative, anatomically constrained registration (AnCoR) scheme to enable the proper alignment of the prostate (Pr) and central gland (CG) boundaries. Our current implementation uses endorectal, 1.5T or 3T, T2-weighted MRI from 51 patients with biopsy confirmed cancer; however, the prostate atlas is seamlessly extensible to include additional MRI parameters. In our cohort, radical prostatectomy is performed following MP-MR image acquisition; thus ground truth annotations for prostate cancer are available from the histological specimens. Once mapped onto MP-MRI through elastic registration of histological slices to corresponding T2-w MRI slices, the annotations are utilized by the AnCoR framework to characterize the 3D statistical distribution of cancer per anatomic structure. Such distributions are useful for guiding biopsies toward regions of higher cancer likelihood and understanding imaging profiles for disease extent in vivo. We evaluate our approach via the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for different anatomic structures (delineated by expert radiologists): Pr, CG and peripheral zone (PZ). The AnCoR-based atlas had a CG DSC of 90.36%, and Pr DSC of 89.37%. Moreover, we evaluated the deviation of anatomic landmarks, the urethra and

  16. The lithospheric-scale 3D structural configuration of the North Alpine Foreland Basin constrained by gravity modelling and the calculation of the 3D load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International

  17. Developing a 3D constrained variational analysis method to obtain accurate gridded atmospheric vertical velocity and horizontal advections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S.; Zhang, M.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the constrained variational analysis (CVA) algorithm developed by Zhang and Lin (1997), a 3-dimensional (3D) version of CVA is developed. The new algorithm used gridded surface and TOA observations as constraints to adjust atmospheric state variables in each grid point to satisfy column-integrated mass, moisture and static energy conservation. From the process of adjustment a set of high-quality 3D large-scale forcing data (vertical velocity and horizontal advections) can be derived to drive Single-Column models (SCM), Cloud-Resolving Models (CRM) and Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to evaluate and improve parameterizations. Since the 3D CVA can adjust gridded state variables from any data source with observed precipitation, radiation and surface fluxes, it also gives a potential possibility to use this algorithm in data assimilation system to assimilate precipitation and radiation data.

  18. Fabrication of 3-D curved microstructures by constrained gas expansion and photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Chan-Park, Mary B; Yang, Chun; Guo, Xun; Chen, Lq; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Chun, Jung-Hoon

    2008-05-20

    This paper describes a novel method of fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) curved microstructures with continuous relief through controlled argon gas expansion into a photocurable resin. A microstructured stamp is placed on top of a nonwetting photopolymerizable liquid resin. The setup is heated, and the argon gas in the blind holes of the stamp expands. The expanded gas displaces the resin at the mouth of the microcavities to form 3-D curved indentations in the liquid resin which is subsequently rapidly solidified by photopolymerization. By changing the duration of the preheating, different curvatures can be produced. Arrays of homogeneous 3-D curved microstructures having different cross-sectional geometries and heights were fabricated using various shapes of the blind holes and preheating times, respectively. As a demonstration of applications, high-quality and uniform polydimethylsiloxane microlens arrays were produced. In addition, thorough investigation was carried out to study the factors influencing the fabricated 3-D curved microstructures. Curved microstructures with diameters as small as 2 microm were demonstrated. A simple model was developed, and such a model allows for predicting the curvatures of indentations with different preheating times. It has been found that the predicted curvatures are in good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation of 3D volumetric MRI images.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Aleš; Salvado, Olivier; Acosta, Oscar; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen

    2012-03-01

    Due to physical limitations inherent in magnetic resonance imaging scanners, three dimensional volumetric scans are often acquired with anisotropic voxel resolution. We investigate several interpolation approaches to reduce the anisotropy and present a novel approach - constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation. This technique was compared to common methods: linear and cubic B-Spline interpolation and a technique based on non-rigid registration of neighboring slices. The methods were evaluated on artificial MR phantoms and real MR scans of human brain. The constrained reverse diffusion approach delivered promising results and provides an alternative for thick slice interpolation, especially for higher anisotropy factors.

  20. Automatic 3D kidney segmentation based on shape constrained GC-OAAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjian; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2011-03-01

    The kidney can be classified into three main tissue types: renal cortex, renal medulla and renal pelvis (or collecting system). Dysfunction of different renal tissue types may cause different kidney diseases. Therefore, accurate and efficient segmentation of kidney into different tissue types plays a very important role in clinical research. In this paper, we propose an automatic 3D kidney segmentation method which segments the kidney into the three different tissue types: renal cortex, medulla and pelvis. The proposed method synergistically combines active appearance model (AAM), live wire (LW) and graph cut (GC) methods, GC-OAAM for short. Our method consists of two main steps. First, a pseudo 3D segmentation method is employed for kidney initialization in which the segmentation is performed slice-by-slice via a multi-object oriented active appearance model (OAAM) method. An improved iterative model refinement algorithm is proposed for the AAM optimization, which synergistically combines the AAM and LW method. Multi-object strategy is applied to help the object initialization. The 3D model constraints are applied to the initialization result. Second, the object shape information generated from the initialization step is integrated into the GC cost computation. A multi-label GC method is used to segment the kidney into cortex, medulla and pelvis. The proposed method was tested on 19 clinical arterial phase CT data sets. The preliminary results showed the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Reconstruction for 3D PET Based on Total Variation Constrained Direct Fourier Method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiqing; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Heye; Loong Wong, Kelvin Kian; Chen, Yunmei; Liu, Huafeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a total variation (TV) regularized reconstruction algorithm for 3D positron emission tomography (PET). The proposed method first employs the Fourier rebinning algorithm (FORE), rebinning the 3D data into a stack of ordinary 2D data sets as sinogram data. Then, the resulted 2D sinogram are ready to be reconstructed by conventional 2D reconstruction algorithms. Given the locally piece-wise constant nature of PET images, we introduce the total variation (TV) based reconstruction schemes. More specifically, we formulate the 2D PET reconstruction problem as an optimization problem, whose objective function consists of TV norm of the reconstructed image and the data fidelity term measuring the consistency between the reconstructed image and sinogram. To solve the resulting minimization problem, we apply an efficient methods called the Bregman operator splitting algorithm with variable step size (BOSVS). Experiments based on Monte Carlo simulated data and real data are conducted as validations. The experiment results show that the proposed method produces higher accuracy than conventional direct Fourier (DF) (bias in BOSVS is 70% of ones in DF, variance of BOSVS is 80% of ones in DF). PMID:26398232

  2. PDE constrained optimization of electrical defibrillation in a 3D ventricular slice geometry.

    PubMed

    Chamakuri, Nagaiah; Kunisch, Karl; Plank, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    A computational study of an optimal control approach for cardiac defibrillation in a 3D geometry is presented. The cardiac bioelectric activity at the tissue and bath volumes is modeled by the bidomain model equations. The model includes intramural fiber rotation, axially symmetric around the fiber direction, and anisotropic conductivity coefficients, which are extracted from a histological image. The dynamics of the ionic currents are based on the regularized Mitchell-Schaeffer model. The controls enter in the form of electrodes, which are placed at the boundary of the bath volume with the goal of dampening undesired arrhythmias. The numerical optimization is based on Newton techniques. We demonstrated the parallel architecture environment for the computation of potentials on multidomains and for the higher order optimization techniques.

  3. Initialising reservoir models for history matching using pre-production 3D seismic data: constraining methods and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niri, Mohammad Emami; Lumley, David E.

    2017-10-01

    Integration of 3D and time-lapse 4D seismic data into reservoir modelling and history matching processes poses a significant challenge due to the frequent mismatch between the initial reservoir model, the true reservoir geology, and the pre-production (baseline) seismic data. A fundamental step of a reservoir characterisation and performance study is the preconditioning of the initial reservoir model to equally honour both the geological knowledge and seismic data. In this paper we analyse the issues that have a significant impact on the (mis)match of the initial reservoir model with well logs and inverted 3D seismic data. These issues include the constraining methods for reservoir lithofacies modelling, the sensitivity of the results to the presence of realistic resolution and noise in the seismic data, the geostatistical modelling parameters, and the uncertainties associated with quantitative incorporation of inverted seismic data in reservoir lithofacies modelling. We demonstrate that in a geostatistical lithofacies simulation process, seismic constraining methods based on seismic litho-probability curves and seismic litho-probability cubes yield the best match to the reference model, even when realistic resolution and noise is included in the dataset. In addition, our analyses show that quantitative incorporation of inverted 3D seismic data in static reservoir modelling carries a range of uncertainties and should be cautiously applied in order to minimise the risk of misinterpretation. These uncertainties are due to the limited vertical resolution of the seismic data compared to the scale of the geological heterogeneities, the fundamental instability of the inverse problem, and the non-unique elastic properties of different lithofacies types.

  4. MDL constrained 3-D grayscale skeletonization algorithm for automated extraction of dendrites and spines from fluorescence confocal images.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaosong; Trachtenberg, Joshua T; Potter, Steve M; Roysam, Badrinath

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a method for improved automatic delineation of dendrites and spines from three-dimensional (3-D) images of neurons acquired by confocal or multi-photon fluorescence microscopy. The core advance presented here is a direct grayscale skeletonization algorithm that is constrained by a structural complexity penalty using the minimum description length (MDL) principle, and additional neuroanatomy-specific constraints. The 3-D skeleton is extracted directly from the grayscale image data, avoiding errors introduced by image binarization. The MDL method achieves a practical tradeoff between the complexity of the skeleton and its coverage of the fluorescence signal. Additional advances include the use of 3-D spline smoothing of dendrites to improve spine detection, and graph-theoretic algorithms to explore and extract the dendritic structure from the grayscale skeleton using an intensity-weighted minimum spanning tree (IW-MST) algorithm. This algorithm was evaluated on 30 datasets organized in 8 groups from multiple laboratories. Spines were detected with false negative rates less than 10% on most datasets (the average is 7.1%), and the average false positive rate was 11.8%. The software is available in open source form.

  5. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-10-16

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  6. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  7. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  8. Thermochemical and phase structure of the D"-Region constrained by 3-D spherical mantle convection and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Olson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Results of time-dependent 3-D spherical mantle convection simulations with Newtonian rheology, solid-state phase transitions, and multiple composition as well as imposed plate motion back to 120 Ma are compared with observed lower mantle seismic heterogeneity to interpret structure in the D"-region. Synthetic seismic tomography images are created from the simulated temperature, composition, and phase change heterogeneity, which are then compared to the global seismic tomography models in terms of pattern and statistical properties. Several models are found that match the seismic tomography in terms of their RMS variation, Gaussian-like frequency distribution, and spherical harmonic degree-2 pattern for global-scale low velocity and high velocity regions. For these best-fitting models the heat flow at the CMB and the mantle heat flow at the surface are about 13.1 ~ 14.7 TW and 31 TW, respectively, and the Urey ratio is in range of 0.36 ~ 0.58. 3-D mantle convection constrained by plate motion history explains the statistics and the global pattern of lower mantle seismic heterogeneity provided that thermal, chemical and phase change heterogeneity is included in the mantle D"-region, and predicts large temporal and spatial variations in heat transport across the CMB.

  9. Constraining the absolute orientation of η Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in η Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA θ that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i≈ 130° to 145°, θ≈-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ≈ 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ηB, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>θ is the same as the angle φ defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711838H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711838H"><span>The Derivation of Fault Volumetric Properties from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Trace Maps Using Outcrop <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> Discrete Fracture Network Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hodgetts, David; Seers, Thomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>-deterministic, outcrop <span class="hlt">constrained</span> discrete fracture network modeling code to derive volumetric fault intensity measures (fault area per unit volume / fault volume per unit volume). Producing per-vertex measures of volumetric intensity; our method captures the spatial variability in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fault density across a surveyed outcrop, enabling first order controls to be probed. We demonstrate our approach on pervasively faulted exposures of a Permian aged reservoir analogue from the Vale of Eden Basin, UK.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2913J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2913J"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging of soil apparent electrical conductivity from VERIS data using a 1D spatially <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jesús Moral García, Francisco; Rebollo Castillo, Francisco Javier; Monteiro Santos, Fernando</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Maps of apparent electrical conductivity of the soil are commonly used in precision agriculture to indirectly characterize some important properties like salinity, water, and clay content. Traditionally, these studies are made through an empirical relationship between apparent electrical conductivity and properties measured in soil samples collected at a few locations in the experimental area and at a few selected depths. Recently, some authors have used not the apparent conductivity values but the soil bulk conductivity (in 2D or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) calculated from measured apparent electrical conductivity through the application of an inversion method. All the published works used data collected with electromagnetic (EM) instruments. We present a new software to invert the apparent electrical conductivity data collected with VERIS 3100 and 3150 (or the more recent version with three pairs of electrodes) using the 1D spatially <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion method (1D SCI). The software allows the calculation of the distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity in the survey area till a depth of 1 m. The algorithm is applied to experimental data and correlations with clay and water content have been established using soil samples collected at some boreholes. Keywords: Digital soil mapping; inversion modelling; VERIS; soil apparent electrical conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT..........2X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT..........2X"><span>Reservoir estimation in the Penobscot <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic volume using <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> Sparse Spike Inversion, offshore Nova Scotia, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Mengchu</p> <p></p> <p>The Penobscot study area is located offshore Nova Scotia, Canada. There are two wells, which penetrate the highest potentially commercial bodies in the Abenaki Formation. In order to investigate the potential for locating additional hydrocarbon reservoirs, well log data was used and the Penobscot <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic dataset was analyzed using <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> Sparse Spike Inversion. From the well log data, low GR and SP values are an indication of a permeable sand layer, which provides the target zone in this study. Impedance - porosity crossplots gave the relationship between impedance and porosity, where a low impedance sand layer is correlated with high porosity. It was found that the target sand layer has low impedance, a feature recognizable from the inversion results. The porosity of the whole sand layer calculated by the linear function from the relationship between impedance and porosity. The calculation of thickness of this sand layer from maps representing different impedance intervals provided numeric evidence to show there is a low impedance sand layer in the well L-30. The pore thickness map results indicate there is greater pore thickness in well L-30 than B-41. It appears that the company drilled at the optimal location for the initial (L-30) well, and tested the extent of potential reservoir rock with the second (B-41) well. The potential reservoir is apparently fairly small, and restricted to the area around L-30. There may or may not be value in testing another location across a fault, but the rock behind the fault is likely not as high quality as at L-30 and the high-quality regions are small in size and not connected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213013P"><span>Using 1-to-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling approach to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> thermomechanical evolution of the Dead Sea Transform region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrunin, Alexey G.; Meneses Rioseco, Ernesto; Sobolev, Stephan V.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p> (BBS) approach (Petrunin and Sobolev, Geology 2006, PEPI 2008) and estimate the present-day thickness of the brittle layer near the DST as 20-22 km. As a result of the 2.5 D modeling, we significantly narrow down the ranges of model parameters. At the final stage we check the obtained parameters using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the Dead Sea basin similar to (Petrunin and Sobolev, Geology 2006) that gives good correlation with the sedimentary subsidence rate and present-day geometry of the basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219612"><span>Preconditioning techniques for <span class="hlt">constrained</span> vector potential integral equations, with application to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing <span class="hlt">constrained</span> vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T11F..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T11F..07S"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermo-mechanical model of the orogeny in Pamir <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by geological and geophysical observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sobolev, S. V.; Tympel, J.; Ratschbacher, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Pamir-Hindu Kush orogenic belt is the result of the indentation of the western corner of the India plate into Eurasia. It has accommodated the highest strain over the shortest meridional distance of the India-Eurasia collision zone. Recent high-resolution seismic tomographic and receiver function studies confirm the presence of a south-dipping continental lithosphere, which has been traced to the depth of more than 200-300 km beneath the northern Pamir (Pamir slab). Balanced cross-section document crustal shortening associated with the corresponding frontal thrust system of a few tens of km, which is much less than the expected (>200-300 km) for intra-continental subduction zone, based on the seismically imaged length of the Pamir slab. Another unique feature of Pamir is the presence of large gneiss domes with the exhumation reaching a depth of 30-40 km.We employ the finite-element thermomechanical modelling technique SLIM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to simulate the evolution of the Pamir orogeny during the last 25 Myr. The technique is using advanced non-linear elasto-visco-plastic rheology with parameters based on laboratory experiments. Our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model extends 1100 km N-S, 800 km E-W, and 300 km deep, and replicates indentation of the western half of India promontory into Eurasia. The moving modelling-window technique allows focusing at the most extensively deforming domains, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model setup and boundary conditions allow lateral material flow to the west, i.e. perpendicular to the direction of tectonic shortening.The model replicates major features of the lithospheric structure and geological history. For instance, we demonstrate that large part of the roll back of the Pamir slab may be caused by the delamination of the mantle lithosphere together with the lower crust, rather than classical intra-continental subduction involving thrust-imbrication of the uppermost crust. The resulting shortening at the Pamir frontal thrust system appears to be lower than 50 km in accord with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S11B..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S11B..06S"><span>Crust Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath Eastern Asia: Progress towards a Uniform, Tightly <span class="hlt">Constrained</span>, High Resolution <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, W.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Zheng, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Kim, Y.; Ning, J.; Kang, D.; Feng, L.; Wiens, D. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the past decade, large and dense seismic arrays have been deployed across much of eastern Asia (e.g., the "CEArray" and the "China Array" deployed by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA), the NECESS Array deployed collaboratively by China, Japan and the US, Korean Seismic Network, KNET and other networks in Japan, and historical PASSCAL installations), which have been used to produce increasingly well resolved models of the crust and uppermost mantle at different length scales. These models, however, do not cover eastern Asia uniformly. In this presentation, we report on an effort to generate a uniform high resolution <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath eastern Asia using state-of-art surface wave and body wave inversion techniques. Highlights of this effort include: 1) We collect ambient noise cross-correlations using more than 1,800 seismic stations from multiple seismic arrays in this area and perform uniform surface wave tomography for the study area. 2) We collect P-wave receiver functions for over 1,000 stations and Rayleigh wave H/V ratio measurements for over 200 stations in this area. 3) We adopt a Bayesian Monte Carlo inversion to the Rayleigh wave dispersion maps and produce a uniform <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model with uncertainties of the crust and uppermost mantle. 4) In the areas where receiver functions and/or Rayleigh wave H/V ratios are collected, we replace the surface wave inversion by a joint inversion of surface waves and these seismic observables. The resulting model displays a great variety and considerable richness of geological and tectonic features in the crust and in the uppermost mantle which we summarize and discuss with focus on the relationship between the observed crustal variations and tectonic/geological boundaries and lithospheric modifications associated with volcanism in Northeast China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43G3369T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43G3369T"><span>Developing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> Variational Analysis Method to Calculate Large Scale Forcing Data and the Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, S.; Zhang, M. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Large-scale forcing data (vertical velocities and advective tendencies) are important atmospheric fields to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES), but they are difficult to calculate accurately. The current 1-dimensional <span class="hlt">constrained</span> variational analysis (1D CVA) method (Zhang and Lin, 1997) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is limited to represent the average of a sounding network domain. We extended the original 1D CVA algorithm into 3-dimensional along with other improvements, calculated gridded large-scale forcing data, apparent heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and compared with 5 reanalyses: ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, MERRA, JRA55 and NARR for a mid-latitude spring cyclone case. The results from a case study for in March 3rd 2000 at the Southern Great Plain (SGP) show that reanalyses generally captured the structure of the mid-latitude cyclone, but they have serious biases in the 2nd order derivative terms (divergences and horizontal derivations) at regional scales of less than a few hundred kilometers. Our algorithm provides a set of atmospheric fields consistent with the observed constraint variables at the surface and top of the atmosphere better than reanalyses. The analyzed atmospheric fields can be used in SCM, CRM and LES to provide 3-dimensional dynamical forcing, or be used to evaluate reanalyses or model simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22102176','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22102176"><span>Object-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> meshless deformable algorithm for high speed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nonrigid registration between CT and CBCT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen Ting; Kim, Sung; Goyal, Sharad; Jabbour, Salma; Zhou Jinghao; Rajagopal, Gunaretnum; Haffty, Bruce; Yue Ning</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>Purpose: High-speed nonrigid registration between the planning CT and the treatment CBCT data is critical for real time image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) to improve the dose distribution and to reduce the toxicity to adjacent organs. The authors propose a new fully automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> registration framework that integrates object-based global and seed constraints with the grayscale-based ''demons'' algorithm. Methods: Clinical objects were segmented on the planning CT images and were utilized as meshless deformable models during the nonrigid registration process. The meshless models reinforced a global constraint in addition to the grayscale difference between CT and CBCT in order to maintain the shape and the volume of geometrically complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects during the registration. To expedite the registration process, the framework was stratified into hierarchies, and the authors used a frequency domain formulation to diffuse the displacement between the reference and the target in each hierarchy. Also during the registration of pelvis images, they replaced the air region inside the rectum with estimated pixel values from the surrounding rectal wall and introduced an additional seed constraint to robustly track and match the seeds implanted into the prostate. The proposed registration framework and algorithm were evaluated on 15 real prostate cancer patients. For each patient, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, bladder, and rectum were first segmented by a radiation oncologist on planning CT images for radiotherapy planning purpose. The same radiation oncologist also manually delineated the tumor volumes and critical anatomical structures in the corresponding CBCT images acquired at treatment. These delineated structures on the CBCT were only used as the ground truth for the quantitative validation, while structures on the planning CT were used both as the input to the registration method and the ground truth in validation. By registering the planning CT to the CBCT, a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.3269W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.3269W"><span>A discriminative model-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> EM approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MRI brain tissue classification and intensity non-uniformity correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wels, Michael; Zheng, Yefeng; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852162','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4852162"><span>Prior Image <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> Compressed Sensing Metal Artifact Reduction (PICCS-MAR): 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Image Quality Improvement with Hip Prostheses at CT Colonography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bannas, Peter; Li, Yinsheng; Motosugi, Utaroh; Li, Ke; Lubner, Meghan; Chen, Guang-Hong; Pickhardt, Perry J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To assess the effect of the prior-image-<span class="hlt">constrained</span>-compressed-sensing based metal-artefactreduction (PICCS-MAR) algorithm on streak artefact reduction and 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-image quality improvement in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) undergoing CT colonography (CTC). Material and Methods PICCS-MAR was applied to filtered-back-projection (FBP)-reconstructed DICOM CTC-images in 52 patients with THA (unilateral, n=30; bilateral, n=22). For FBP and PICCS-MAR series, ROI-measurements of CT-numbers were obtained at predefined levels for fat, muscle, air, and the most severe artefact. Two radiologists independently reviewed 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CTC-images and graded artefacts and image quality using a five-point-scale (1=severe streak/no-diagnostic confidence, 5=no streak/excellent image-quality, high-confidence). Results were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests, Wilcoxon signed-ranks and Mann-Whitney-tests. Results Streak artefacts and image quality scores for FBP versus PICCS-MAR 2D-images (median: 1 vs. 3 and 2 vs. 3, respectively) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images (median: 2 vs. 4 and 3 vs. 4, respectively) showed significant improvement after PICCS-MAR (all P<.001). PICCS-MAR significantly improved the accuracy of mean CT numbers for fat, muscle and the area with the most severe artefact (all P<.001). Conclusion PICCS-MAR substantially reduces streak artefacts related to THA on DICOM images, thereby enhancing visualization of anatomy on 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CTC images and increasing diagnostic confidence. PMID:26521266</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26521266"><span>Prior Image <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> Compressed Sensing Metal Artifact Reduction (PICCS-MAR): 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Image Quality Improvement with Hip Prostheses at CT Colonography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bannas, Peter; Li, Yinsheng; Motosugi, Utaroh; Li, Ke; Lubner, Meghan; Chen, Guang-Hong; Pickhardt, Perry J</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>To assess the effect of the prior-image-<span class="hlt">constrained</span>-compressed-sensing-based metal-artefact-reduction (PICCS-MAR) algorithm on streak artefact reduction and 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-image quality improvement in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) undergoing CT colonography (CTC). PICCS-MAR was applied to filtered-back-projection (FBP)-reconstructed DICOM CTC-images in 52 patients with THA (unilateral, n = 30; bilateral, n = 22). For FBP and PICCS-MAR series, ROI-measurements of CT-numbers were obtained at predefined levels for fat, muscle, air, and the most severe artefact. Two radiologists independently reviewed 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CTC-images and graded artefacts and image quality using a five-point-scale (1 = severe streak/no-diagnostic confidence, 5 = no streak/excellent image-quality, high-confidence). Results were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney-tests. Streak artefacts and image quality scores for FBP versus PICCS-MAR 2D-images (median: 1 vs. 3 and 2 vs. 3, respectively) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images (median: 2 vs. 4 and 3 vs. 4, respectively) showed significant improvement after PICCS-MAR (all P < 0.001). PICCS-MAR significantly improved the accuracy of mean CT numbers for fat, muscle and the area with the most severe artefact (all P < 0.001). PICCS-MAR substantially reduces streak artefacts related to THA on DICOM images, thereby enhancing visualization of anatomy on 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CTC images and increasing diagnostic confidence. • PICCS-MAR significantly reduces streak artefacts associated with total hip arthroplasty on 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CTC. • PICCS-MAR significantly improves 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CTC image quality and diagnostic confidence. • PICCS-MAR can be applied retrospectively to DICOM images from single-kVp CT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5533G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5533G"><span>An improved <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">constrained</span> stochastic gravity inversion method, adapted to the crustal-scale study of offshore rifted continental margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geng, Meixia; Welford, J. Kim; Farquharson, Colin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>While seismic methods provide the best geophysical methods for characterizing crustal structure, regional potential field studies and, specifically, <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> potential field inversion studies, provide an efficient means of bridging between seismic lines and obtaining regional views of deep structure. Most existing potential field inversion codes have been developed for the mining industry with the goal of delineating dense bodies within less dense half-spaces. While these codes can be successfully applied to crustal-scale targets, they are not designed to generate models with the kind of depth-dependent layering expected within the crust and upper mantle and consequently, the results must be interpreted with such limitations in mind. The development of improved inversion codes that will produce results that better conform to known density distributions within the crust and uppermost mantle will revolutionize the application of potential field methods for the study of rifted continental margins where only limited seismic constraints are available. Through insights gained from using existing inversion codes, we have developed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> inversion algorithm based on the <span class="hlt">constrained</span> stochastic method and adapted it for use in regional crustal-scale studies. The new method honours existing sparse seismic constraints and generates models that can reproduce sharp boundaries at the base of the crust as well as more gradational density variations with depth for the crust to upper mantle transition. The improved regional crustal models provide crustal thickness estimates and crustal stretching factors that agree with the sparsely available seismic constraints, while also generating more realistic Earth models. Both synthetic and real examples from offshore eastern Canada, will be used to demonstrate the power of the new method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023552','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023552"><span><span class="hlt">Constraining</span> the Properties of the Eta Carinae System via <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SPH Models of Space-Based Observations: The Absolute Orientation of the Binary Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Russell, Christopher M. P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The extremely massive (> 90 Stellar Mass) and luminous (= 5 x 10(exp 6) Stellar Luminosity) star Eta Carinae, with its spectacular bipolar "Homunculus" nebula, comprises one of the most remarkable and intensely observed stellar systems in the Galaxy. However, many of its underlying physical parameters remain unknown. Multiwavelength variations observed to occur every 5.54 years are interpreted as being due to the collision of a massive wind from the primary star with the fast, less dense wind of a hot companion star in a highly elliptical (e approx. 0.9) orbit. Using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary wind-wind collision, together with radiative transfer codes, we compute synthetic spectral images of [Fe III] emission line structures and compare them to existing Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) observations. We are thus able, for the first time, to tightly <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the absolute orientation of the binary orbit on the sky. An orbit with an inclination of approx. 40deg, an argument of periapsis omega approx. 255deg, and a projected orbital axis with a position angle of approx. 312deg east of north provides the best fit to the observations, implying that the orbital axis is closely aligned in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space with the Homunculus symmetry axis, and that the companion star orbits clockwise on the sky relative to the primary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007197','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007197"><span><span class="hlt">Constraining</span> the Properties of the Eta Carinae System via <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> SPH Models of Space-Based Observations: The Absolute Orientation of the Binary Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madura, Thomas I.; Gull, Theodore R.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Russell, Christopher M. P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The extremely massive (> 90 Solar Mass) and luminous (= 5 x 10(exp 6) Solar Luminosity) star Eta Carinae, with its spectacular bipolar "Homunculus" nebula, comprises one of the most remarkable and intensely observed stellar systems in the galaxy. However, many of its underlying physical parameters remain a mystery. Multiwavelength variations observed to occur every 5.54 years are interpreted as being due to the collision of a massive wind from the primary star with the fast, less dense wind of a hot companion star in a highly elliptical (e approx. 0.9) orbit. Using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the binary wind-wind collision in Eta Car, together with radiative transfer codes, we compute synthetic spectral images of [Fe III] emission line structures and compare them to existing Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) observations. We are thus able, for the first time, to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the absolute orientation of the binary orbit on the sky. An orbit with an inclination of i approx. 40deg, an argument of periapsis omega approx. 255deg, and a projected orbital axis with a position angle of approx. 312deg east of north provides the best fit to the observations, implying that the orbital axis is closely aligned in 3-1) space with the Homunculus symmetry axis, and that the companion star orbits clockwise on the sky relative to the primary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T41D..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T41D..06L"><span>Compositional Density Structure of the Upper Mantle from <span class="hlt">Constrained</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Inversion of Gravity Anomaly: A Case Study of Southeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Chen, C.; Kaban, M. K.; Thomas, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mantle density structure is a key for tectonics. The density variations in the upper mantle are affected by temperature and composition. Seismic tomography method has been widely applied to obtain the P- and S-wave velocity structure in the mantle, which is then used to calculate the density perturbation. However, the velocity model is mainly due to the thermal effects but not the compositional effects. A method of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> inversion of gravity anomaly developed in spherical coordinates is used to image the large-scale density structure of upper mantle in Southeast Asia. The mantle gravity anomalies used in inversion are calculated by removing the crustal effects from the observed gravity. With constraints of thermal density model from seismic tomography, the integrative density structure is estimated from gravity inversion. Consequently, we obtain the compositional density by subtracting the thermal density from the integrative structure. The result of inversion shows the anisotropic composition of subduction zones, Cratons and plates boundary in Southeast Asia. In the shallow depth, the compositional density anomalies of large scales present uniform features in oceanic and continental mantle. In depth of 75-175 km, there are differences between the thermal and the compositional variations. The density anomalies at these depths are both affected by temperature and composition of the upper mantle. Below 175-km depth, the density anomalies are dominated by the compositional variations. Furthermore, comparing with high seismicity occurred at moderate-depth (50-300 km), we found that the compositional density variations is one of the factor that inducing earthquakes. The <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion of mantle gravity anomaly has possibility to reveal the subduction which is not clearly seen from low-resolution tomography data, and may reveal the relation of seismicity and composition in the upper mantle. This study is supported by the Program of International Science and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G33D..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G33D..08D"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface flow kinematics derived from airborne UAVSAR interferometric synthetic aperture radar to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the physical mechanisms controlling landslide motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delbridge, B. G.; Burgmann, R.; Fielding, E. J.; Hensley, S.; Schulz, W. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This project focuses on improving our understanding of the physical mechanisms controlling landslide motion by studying the landslide-wide kinematics of the Slumgullion landslide in southwestern Colorado using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS. The NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne repeat-pass SAR interferometry system imaged the Slumgullion landslide from 4 look directions on eight flights in 2011 and 2012. Combining the four look directions allows us to extract the full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> velocity field of the surface. Observing the full 3-dimensional flow field allows us to extract the full strain tensor (assuming free surface boundary conditions and incompressible flow) since we have both the spatial resolution to take spatial derivates and full deformation information. COSMO-SkyMed(CSK) high-resolution Spotlight data was also acquired during time intervals overlapping with the UAVSAR one-week pairs, with intervals as short as one day. These observations allow for the quantitative testing of the deformation magnitude and estimated formal errors in the UAVSAR derived deformation field. We also test the agreement of the deformation at 20 GPS monitoring sites concurrently acquired by the USGS. We also utilize the temporal resolution of real-time GPS acquired by the UC Berkeley Active Tectonics Group during a temporary deployment from July 22nd - August 2nd. By combining this data with the kinematic data we hope to elucidate the response of the landslide to environmental changes such as rainfall, snowmelt, and atmospheric pressure, and consequently the mechanisms controlling the dynamics of the landslide system. To <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the longer temporal dynamics, interferograms made from pairs of CSK images acquired in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 reveal the slide deformation on a longer timescale by allowing us to measure meters of motion and see the average rates over year long intervals using pixel offset tracking of the high-resolution SAR amplitude images. The results of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972714','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972714"><span>CAD Tools for Creating Space-filing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Escher Tiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Howison, Mark; Sequin, Carlo H.</p> <p>2009-04-10</p> <p>We discuss the design and implementation of CAD tools for creating decorative solids that tile 3-space in a regular, isohedral manner. Starting with the simplest case of extruded 2D tilings, we describe geometric algorithms used for maintaining boundary representations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tiles, including a Java implementation of an interactive <span class="hlt">constrained</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> library and a mesh-cutting algorithm used in layering extruded tiles to create more intricate designs. Finally, we demonstrate a CAD tool for creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tilings that are derived from cubic lattices. The design process for these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tiles is more <span class="hlt">constrained</span>, and hence more difficult, than in the 2D case, and it raises additional user interface issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770053578&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770053578&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Planimetric Martian <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arthur, D. W. G.; Mcmacken, D. K.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Narrow-angle photographs, which have severe drawbacks for stereophotogrammetry, have advantages for simple plane <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Rectified narrow-angle pictures corrected for map projection effects can be combined in the map plane in relatively accurate planimetric <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Provided the strict precepts of least squares are not followed, these <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> can incorporate considerable overdetermination without increase in the labor of solving the equations. These plane <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> have been used successfully in the cartography of Mars and are illustrated here by a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of the environs of the prime Martian landing site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983384"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Made Easy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lindstrom, P</p> <p>2009-12-23</p> <p>We describe a simple and efficient algorithm for two-view <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> points from approximate 2D matches based on minimizing the L2 reprojection error. Our iterative algorithm improves on the one by Kanatani et al. by ensuring that in each iteration the epipolar constraint is satisfied. In the case where the two cameras are pointed in the same direction, the method provably converges to an optimal solution in exactly two iterations. For more general camera poses, two iterations are sufficient to achieve convergence to machine precision, which we exploit to devise a fast, non-iterative method. The resulting algorithm amounts to little more than solving a quadratic equation, and involves a fixed, small number of simple matrixvector operations and no conditional branches. We demonstrate that the method computes solutions that agree to very high precision with those of Hartley and Sturm's original polynomial method, though achieves higher numerical stability and 1-4 orders of magnitude greater speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI11A4244M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI11A4244M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical modelling of the steady-state thermal regime <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by surface heat flow data: a Monte Carlo approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mather, B.; Moresi, L. N.; Cruden, A. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Uncertainty of the lithospheric thermal regime greatly increases with depth. Measurements of temperature gradient and crustal rheology are concentrated in the upper crust, whereas the majority of the lithospheric measurements are approximated using empirical depth-dependent functions. We have applied a Monte Carlo approach to test the variation of crustal heat flow with temperature-dependent conductivity and the redistribution of heat-producing elements. The dense population of precision heat flow data in Victoria, Southeast Australia offers the ideal environment to test the variation of heat flow. A stochastically consistent anomalous zone of impossibly high Moho temperatures in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model (> 900°C) correlates well with a zone of low teleseismic velocity and high electrical conductivity. This indicates that transient heat transfer has perturbed the thermal gradient and therefore a steady-state approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling is inappropriate in this zone. A spatial correlation between recent intraplate volcanic eruption points (< 5 Ma) and elevated Moho temperatures is a potential origin for additional latent heat in the crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=2&pg=6&id=EJ968447','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=2&pg=6&id=EJ968447"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> 2.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Denzin, Norman K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The author's thesis is simple and direct. Those in the mixed methods qualitative inquiry community need a new story line, one that does not confuse pragmatism for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, and <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> for mixed methods research (MMR). A different third way is required, one that inspires generative politics and dialogic democracy and helps shape…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=2-&pg=3&id=EJ968447','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=2-&pg=3&id=EJ968447"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> 2.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Denzin, Norman K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The author's thesis is simple and direct. Those in the mixed methods qualitative inquiry community need a new story line, one that does not confuse pragmatism for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, and <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> for mixed methods research (MMR). A different third way is required, one that inspires generative politics and dialogic democracy and helps shape…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10849W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10849W"><span>Lithospheric structure and geodynamic evolution of the northern Molucca Sea area <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> gravity field inversion of a combined sea-surface and satellite gravity dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Widiwijayanti, C.; Tiberi, C.; Diament, M.; Deplus, C.; Mikhailov, V.; Louat, R.; Tikhotsky, S.; Gvishiani, A.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The Molucca Sea extending from northeastern Indonesia to southern Philippines islands, is a zone of oceanic basin closure between two opposite-facing subduction zones. This convergence results in the collision of two subduction zones, which style evolves from the southern to the northern parts of the Molucca Sea. In order to provide new insights into the present-day lithospheric structures in the Molucca Sea area, we inverted satellite and sea-surface gravity data into an iterative scheme including a priori seismological data. The seismological data were collected from two networks of Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS). These data allowed us to locate local seismic events and to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tomographic images. We relate these results to the different stages of collision. The gravity data consists of combined sea-surface and satellite derived gravity. We used Kolmogorov-Wiener optimal (mean-square) filter to extract the gravity signal associated with lithospheric structures, then analyzed it to determine main regional features of lithospheric structure. For this purpose we employed a selection of Euler solutions based on a new clustering technique. To identify the geometry and nature of lithospheric structures, we also performed a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> gravity inversion for the northern Molucca Sea data, introducing our tomographic model as an independent constraint. The combination of both methods permits us to obtain a coherent image of the lithospheric structure. The results of this study illustrate the heterogeneity of lithospheric units in the northern Molucca Sea, which results from the collision between the Sangihe margin and lithospheric fragments from the Phillipine plate such as the Snellius plateau or the Halmahera volcanic arc. Three phenomena can explain the observed lithospheric structure: 1) the rupture of the Molucca Sea plate, accompanied by the appearance at the surface of slices of oceanic crust, favoring the development of suture zones as the collision evolves, 2) the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51A2648G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51A2648G"><span><span class="hlt">Constraining</span> Source Locations of Shallow Subduction Megathrust Earthquakes in 1-D and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Velocity Models - A Case Study of the 2002 Mw=6.4 Osa Earthquake, Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grevemeyer, I.; Arroyo, I. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Earthquake source locations are generally routinely <span class="hlt">constrained</span> using a global 1-D Earth model. However, the source location might be associated with large uncertainties. This is definitively the case for earthquakes occurring at active continental margins were thin oceanic crust subducts below thick continental crust and hence large lateral changes in crustal thickness occur as a function of distance to the deep-sea trench. Here, we conducted a case study of the 2002 Mw 6.4 Osa thrust earthquake in Costa Rica that was followed by an aftershock sequence. Initial relocations indicated that the main shock occurred fairly trenchward of most large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench off central Costa Rica. The earthquake sequence occurred while a temporary network of ocean-bottom-hydrophones and land stations 80 km to the northwest were deployed. By adding readings from permanent Costa Rican stations, we obtain uncommon P wave coverage of a large subduction zone earthquake. We relocated this catalog using a nonlinear probabilistic approach using a 1-D and two <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> P-wave velocity models. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model was either derived from <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> tomography based on onshore stations and a priori model based on seismic refraction data. All epicentres occurred close to the trench axis, but depth estimates vary by several tens of kilometres. Based on the epicentres and constraints from seismic reflection data the main shock occurred 25 km from the trench and probably along the plate interface at 5-10 km depth. The source location that agreed best with the geology was based on the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> velocity model derived from a priori data. Aftershocks propagated downdip to the area of a 1999 Mw 6.9 sequence and partially overlapped it. The results indicate that underthrusting of the young and buoyant Cocos Ridge has created conditions for interpolate seismogenesis shallower and closer to the trench axis than elsewhere along the central Costa Rica margin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040111965&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040111965&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of NURBS Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A technique is presented for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of NURBS surfaces. This technique is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid point projection. This combined approach has been successfully implemented for structured and unstructured grids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6762E..0EK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6762E..0EK"><span>Intraoral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Here a new set-up of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N"><span>A method for building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of barchan dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nai, Yang; Li-lan, Su; Lin, Wan; Jie, Yang; Shi-yi, Chen; Wei-lu, Hu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The distributions of barchan dunes are usually represented by digital terrain models (DTMs) overlaid with digital orthophoto maps. Given that most regions with barchan dues have low relief, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map obtained from a DTM may ineffectively show the stereoscopic shape of each dune. The method of building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of barchan dunes using existing modeling software seldom considers the geographical environment. As a result, barchan dune models are often inconsistent with actual DTMs and incompletely express the morphological characteristics of dunes. Manual construction of barchan dune models is also costly and time consuming. Considering these problems, the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and the mathematical relationships between the morphological parameters of the dunes, such as length, height, and width, are analyzed in this study. The methods of extracting the morphological feature points of barchan dunes, calculating their morphological parameters and building dune outlines and skeleton lines based on the medial axes, are also presented. The dune outlines, skeleton lines, and part of the medial axes of dunes are used to construct a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> irregular network. C# and ArcEngine are employed to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of barchan dunes automatically. Experimental results of a study conducted in Tengger Desert show that the method can be used to approximate the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and is less time consuming than manual methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JCAMD...4..255H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JCAMD...4..255H"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> algorithms for the representation of molecular surface properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heiden, Wolfgang; Schlenkrich, Michael; Brickmann, Jürgen</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm for a dotted surface (i.e. a surface defined by point coordinates in three dimensions) is given. The individual triangles are generated on the basis of a hierarchy of strategies according to increasing surface complexity. While for small molecules an elementary algorithm is sufficient to <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the surface, large molecules-like proteins-generally need all steps of the hierarchy. Although this program has been developed with the aim of <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> molecular surfaces, it can in principle be applied to any surface defined by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point coordinates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H13C0979L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H13C0979L"><span>Mesh Generation and Microstructure Extraction based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Porous Medium Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Xing, H.; Guan, Z.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>With the development of SEM and/or MRI based techniques, it is increasingly easy to get the high quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images of porous medium with the microscopic structure information. Once the pixel information for a block of porous medium is obtained, a point array description for this porous medium is defined, and both coordination and material property information are included. To analyze such related data and apply them into the further numerical modeling, a mesh generator is developed. It has following steps: (1) Reading data from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image with material property/microstructure information and extracting points with the specified material property; (2) Performing a well-known Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> on the related points and <span class="hlt">constraining</span> the boundary of different materials; (3) Extracting boundary which describes the microscopic structure of porous medium; (4) Smoothing boundary based on Curvature and shape of the porous medium including mesh coarsening/refining. (5) Using the smoothed boundary as an input closed triangular surface and taking a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> based on this surface; (6) Adaptively refining the generated tetrahedron and transporting the property of porous medium to the related tetrahedrons; (7) Output the mesh for the further numerical (e.g. FEM, FDM, FVM) analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26218615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26218615"><span>Algebraic Error Based <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> and Metric of Lines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Fuchao; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Guanghui; Hu, Zhanyi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, a classical geometric problem in computer vision, is to determine the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of a line based on its 2D image projections from more than two views of cameras with known projection matrices. Compared to point features, line segments are more robust to matching errors, occlusions, and image uncertainties. In addition to line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, a better metric is needed to evaluate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> errors of line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. In this paper, the line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> problem is investigated by using the Lagrange multipliers theory. The main contributions include: (i) Based on the Lagrange multipliers theory, a formula to compute the Plücker correction is provided, and from the formula, a new linear algorithm, LINa, is proposed for line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>; (ii) two optimal algorithms, OPTa-I and OPTa-II, are proposed by minimizing the algebraic error; and (iii) two metrics on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> line space, the orthogonal metric and the quasi-Riemannian metric, are introduced for the evaluation of line <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Extensive experiments on synthetic data and real images are carried out to validate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517892','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4517892"><span>Algebraic Error Based <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> and Metric of Lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Fuchao; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Guanghui; Hu, Zhanyi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, a classical geometric problem in computer vision, is to determine the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of a line based on its 2D image projections from more than two views of cameras with known projection matrices. Compared to point features, line segments are more robust to matching errors, occlusions, and image uncertainties. In addition to line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, a better metric is needed to evaluate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> errors of line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. In this paper, the line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> problem is investigated by using the Lagrange multipliers theory. The main contributions include: (i) Based on the Lagrange multipliers theory, a formula to compute the Plücker correction is provided, and from the formula, a new linear algorithm, LINa, is proposed for line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>; (ii) two optimal algorithms, OPTa-I and OPTa-II, are proposed by minimizing the algebraic error; and (iii) two metrics on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> line space, the orthogonal metric and the quasi-Riemannian metric, are introduced for the evaluation of line <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Extensive experiments on synthetic data and real images are carried out to validate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:26218615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26890888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26890888"><span>Flip to Regular <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> and Convex Hull.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and convex hull in 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28910756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28910756"><span>Coresets for <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qianggong; Chin, Tat-Jun</p> <p>2017-09-11</p> <p>Multiple-view <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> by l∞ minimisation has become established in computer vision. State-of-the-art l∞ <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithms exploit the quasiconvexity of the cost function to derive iterative update rules that deliver the global minimum. Such algorithms, however, can be computationally costly for large problem instances that contain many image measurements, e.g., from web-based photo sharing sites or long-term video recordings. In this paper, we prove that l∞ <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> admits a coreset approximation scheme, which seeks small representative subsets of the input data called coresets. A coreset possesses the special property that the error of the l∞ solution on the coreset is within known bounds from the global minimum. We establish the necessary mathematical underpinnings of the coreset algorithm, specifically, by enacting the stopping criterion of the algorithm and proving that the resulting coreset gives the desired approximation accuracy. On large-scale <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> problems, our method provides theoretically sound approximate solutions. Iterated until convergence, our coreset algorithm is also guaranteed to reach the true optimum. On practical datasets, we show that our technique can in fact attain the global minimiser much faster than current methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28108528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28108528"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> in aetiological epidemiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is the practice of obtaining more reliable answers to research questions through integrating results from several different approaches, where each approach has different key sources of potential bias that are unrelated to each other. With respect to causal questions in aetiological epidemiology, if the results of different approaches all point to the same conclusion, this strengthens confidence in the finding. This is particularly the case when the key sources of bias of some of the approaches would predict that findings would point in opposite directions if they were due to such biases. Where there are inconsistencies, understanding the key sources of bias of each approach can help to identify what further research is required to address the causal question. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> might be used to improve causal inference in aetiological epidemiology. We propose a minimum set of criteria for use in <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in aetiological epidemiology, summarize the key sources of bias of several approaches and describe how these might be integrated within a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> framework. We emphasize the importance of being explicit about the expected direction of bias within each approach, whenever this is possible, and seeking to identify approaches that would be expected to bias the true causal effect in different directions. We also note the importance, when comparing results, of taking account of differences in the duration and timing of exposures. We provide three examples to illustrate these points. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165881','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165881"><span>Refining a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of a planar straight-line graph to eliminate large angles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitchell, S.A.</p> <p>1993-05-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> without large angles have a number of applications in numerical analysis and computer graphics. In particular, the convergence of a finite element calculation depends on the largest angle of the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Also, the running time of a finite element calculation is dependent on the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> size, so having a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with few Steiner points is also important. Bern, Dobkin and Eppstein pose as an open problem the existence of an algorithm to <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> a planar straight-line graph (PSLG) without large angles using a polynomial number of Steiner points. We solve this problem by showing that any PSLG with {upsilon} vertices can be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> with no angle larger than 7{pi}/8 by adding O({upsilon}{sup 2}log {upsilon}) Steiner points in O({upsilon}{sup 2} log{sup 2} {upsilon}) time. We first <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the PSLG with an arbitrary <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and then refine that <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> by adding additional vertices and edges. Some PSLGs require {Omega}({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points in any <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> achieving any largest angle bound less than {pi}. Hence the number of Steiner points added by our algorithm is within a log {upsilon} factor of worst case optimal. We note that our refinement algorithm works on arbitrary <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>: Given any <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, we show how to refine it so that no angle is larger than 7{pi}/8. Our construction adds O(nm+nplog m) vertices and runs in time O(nm+nplog m) log(m+ p)), where n is the number of edges, m is one plus the number of obtuse angles, and p is one plus the number of holes and interior vertices in the original <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. A previously considered problem is refining a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of a simple polygon, where p = 1. For this problem we add O({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points, which is within a constant factor of worst case optimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP012049','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP012049"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulating</span> Trimmed NURBS Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Curve and Surface Design: Saint-Malo 1999 381 Pierre-Jean Laurent, Paul Sablonnibre, and Larry L. Schumaker ( eds .), pp. 381-388. Copyright 0 2000 by...the boundary of its neighboring surface. References 1. Baehmann, P. L., S. L. Wittchen , M. S. Shephard, K. R. Grice and M. A. Yerry, Robust...and D. Eppstein, Mesh generation and optimal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, in Computing in Euclidean Geometry, 2nd ed ., D.-Z. Du and F. K. Hwang, ( eds .), World</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960014882&hterms=Laser+triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DLaser%2Btriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960014882&hterms=Laser+triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DLaser%2Btriangulation"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Displacement Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Advanced optoelectronic <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960014882&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960014882&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Displacement Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Advanced optoelectronic <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038219','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070038219"><span>Multi-Sensor <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of Multi-Source Spatial Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Habib, Ayman; Kim, Chang-Jae; Bang, Ki-In</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The introduced methodologies are successful in: a) Ising LIDAR features for photogrammetric geo-refererncing; b) Delivering a geo-referenced imagery of the same quality as point-based geo-referencing procedures; c) Taking advantage of the synergistic characteristics of spatial data acquisition systems. The <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> output can be used for the generation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> perspective views.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25158659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25158659"><span>The use of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in qualitative research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>: (a) method <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, (b) investigator <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, (c) theory <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, and (d) data source <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The current article will present the four types of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in qualitative inquiry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7690E..0JH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7690E..0JH"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging system for biometric applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>There is a growing interest in the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028440','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028440"><span>Incremental <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> by way of edge swapping and local optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiltberger, N. Lyn</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This document is intended to serve as an installation, usage, and basic theory guide for the two dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> software 'HARLEY' written for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation. This code consists of an incremental <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm based on point insertion and local edge swapping. Using this basic strategy, several types of <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> can be produced depending on user selected options. For example, local edge swapping criteria can be chosen which minimizes the maximum interior angle (a MinMax <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>) or which maximizes the minimum interior angle (a MaxMin or Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>). It should be noted that the MinMax <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is generally only locally optical (not globally optimal) in this measure. The MaxMin <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, however, is both locally and globally optical. In addition, Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> can be constructed by inserting new sites at triangle circumcenters followed by edge swapping based on the MaxMin criteria. Incremental insertion of sites also provides flexibility in choosing cell refinement criteria. A dynamic heap structure has been implemented in the code so that once a refinement measure is specified (i.e., maximum aspect ratio or some measure of a solution gradient for the solution adaptive grid generation) the cell with the largest value of this measure is continually removed from the top of the heap and refined. The heap refinement strategy allows the user to specify either the number of cells desired or refine the mesh until all cell refinement measures satisfy a user specified tolerance level. Since the dynamic heap structure is constantly updated, the algorithm always refines the particular cell in the mesh with the largest refinement criteria value. The code allows the user to: <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> a cloud of prespecified points (sites), <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> a set of prespecified interior points <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by prespecified boundary curve(s), Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the interior/exterior of prespecified boundary curve</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3816W.483P"><span>Europeana and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pletinckx, D.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hype creates a lot of interest in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. People go to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies, but are we ready to use <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a general public and use interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> learning objects, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tourist information or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...11..008P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...11..008P"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> appetizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pei, Du; Ye, Ke</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We test the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N=2 "Lens space theory" T [ L( p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L( p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S 3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[ L( p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[ L( p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere S b 3 . This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G ℂ complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326969-correspondence-revisited','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326969-correspondence-revisited"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...</p> <p>2016-04-21</p> <p>In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326969"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr</p> <p>2016-04-21</p> <p>In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139324"><span>TAURUS. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Code Postprocessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whirley, R.G.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along <span class="hlt">constrained</span> boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139323','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139323"><span>TAURUS. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Code Postprocessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kennedy, T.</p> <p>1992-03-03</p> <p>TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along <span class="hlt">constrained</span> boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/145250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/145250"><span>TAURUS. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Code Postprocessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whirley, R.G.</p> <p>1993-11-30</p> <p>TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along <span class="hlt">constrained</span> boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/60823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/60823"><span>TAURUS. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> Finite Element Code Postprocessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whirley, R.G.</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 139), DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 138), TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along <span class="hlt">constrained</span> boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139107','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139107"><span>TAURUS. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> Finite Element Code Postprocessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whirley, R.G.</p> <p>1992-03-03</p> <p>TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 139), DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 138), TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along <span class="hlt">constrained</span> boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139322','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139322"><span>TAURUS. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Code Postprocessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whirley, R.G.</p> <p>1992-03-03</p> <p>TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, TOPAZ<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along <span class="hlt">constrained</span> boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2892..120Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2892..120Y"><span>Focus-distance-controlled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>There is a phenomenon that a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV. We can watch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV without eyeglasses. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV at any distance. Distance data are <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3012..256Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3012..256Y"><span>Focus-distance-controlled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>There is a phenomenon that a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV. We can watch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV without eyeglasses. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TV at any distance. Distance data are <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10338E..06G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10338E..06G"><span>Towards next generation <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, Mohit</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We are in the midst of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> revolution. Robots enabled by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cameras based on time-of-flight and active <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (<100 microns resolution) scans in extremely demanding scenarios with low-cost components. Several of these cameras are making a practical impact in industrial automation, being adopted in robotic inspection and assembly systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464888','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464888"><span>An Effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ear Acquisition System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ear acquisition system by using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061553"><span>An Effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ear Acquisition System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ear acquisition system by using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2066M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2066M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meulien Ohlmann, Odile</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Today the industry offers a chain of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> products. Learning to "read" and to "create in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization, to learn <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grammar, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...04..170A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...04..170A"><span>Refined <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1360110-appetizer','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1360110-appetizer"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> appetizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Pei, Du; Ye, Ke</p> <p>2016-11-02</p> <p>Here, we test the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S3 partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere Sb3. This enables us tomore » see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent GC complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1360110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1360110"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> appetizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pei, Du; Ye, Ke</p> <p>2016-11-02</p> <p>Here, we test the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N=2 “Lens space theory” T [L(p, 1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p, 1). In particular, for p = 1, we show how the familiar S<sup>3</sup> partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p, 1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p, 1)] on the squashed three-sphere S<sub>b</sub><sup>3</sup>. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G<sub>C</sub> complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19653545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19653545"><span>Issues in using methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casey, Dympna; Murphy, Kathy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes how methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> was used in two nursing research studies. The literature identified a number of principles in reporting studies that used <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, including giving the rationale for using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, detailing the process used to assist with <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and explaining how rigour was maintained. A brief review of <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> studies revealed that few adhered fully to these principles. A 'within method' and an 'across method' study are used to illustrate how methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> was used, and the ways in which rigour was addressed are also described. In addition, the different contributions of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to nursing research are highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TDR.....4...81T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TDR.....4...81T"><span>Pattern based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image Steganography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thiyagarajan, P.; Natarajan, V.; Aghila, G.; Prasanna Venkatesan, V.; Anitha, R.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a new high capacity Steganographic scheme using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric models. The novel algorithm re-<span class="hlt">triangulates</span> a part of a triangle mesh and embeds the secret information into newly added position of triangle meshes. Up to nine bits of secret data can be embedded into vertices of a triangle without causing any changes in the visual quality and the geometric properties of the cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is secure, with high capacity and low distortion rate. Our algorithm also resists against uniform affine transformations such as cropping, rotation and scaling. Also, the performance of the method is compared with other existing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Steganography algorithms. [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=X+AND+rays&pg=6&id=EJ663163','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=X+AND+rays&pg=6&id=EJ663163"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hastings, S. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=x+AND+ray&pg=7&id=EJ663163','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=x+AND+ray&pg=7&id=EJ663163"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hastings, S. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">D</span> imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA06786.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA06786.html"><span>Diamond in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-08-20</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called Diamond Jenness was taken after NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008500','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008500"><span>Parallel implementation of an algorithm for Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Merriam, Marshal L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The theory and practice of implementing Tanemura's algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> on Intel's Gamma prototype, a 128 processor MIMD computer, is described. Efficient implementation of Tanemura's algorithm on a conventional, vector processing supercomputer is problematic. It does not vectorize to any significant degree and requires indirect addressing. Efficient implementation on a parallel architecture is possible, however. Speeds in excess of 20 times a single processor Cray Y-MP are realized on 128 processors of the Intel Gamma prototype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950063875&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950063875&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Parallel implementation of an algorithm for Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Merriam, Marshall L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This work concerns the theory and practice of implementing Tanemura's algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> on Intel's Gamma prototype, a 128 processor MIMD computer. Tanemura's algorithm does not vectorize to any significant degree and requires indirect addressing. Efficient implementation on a conventional, vector processing, supercomputer is problematic. Efficient implementation on a parallel architecture is possible, however. In this work, speeds in excess of 8 times a single processor Cray Y-mp are realized on 128 processors of the Intel Gamma prototype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..115M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..115M"><span>High Resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Modeling of the Behaim Globe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menna, F.; Rizzi, A.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Gruen, A.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The article describes the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1046775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1046775"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Plasmon Ruler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this animation of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plasmon ruler, the plasmonic assembly acts as a transducer to deliver optical information about the structural dynamics of an attached protein. (courtesy of Paul Alivisatos group)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00680.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00680.html"><span>Prominent Rocks - <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-07-13</p> <p>Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GRC-2015-CM-0161.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GRC-2015-CM-0161.html"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Laser System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-16</p> <p>NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Laser System used for digitizing ice shapes created in the wind tunnel. The ice shapes are later utilized for characterization, analysis, and software development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1325198','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1325198"><span>AE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Spong, Donald A</p> <p>2016-06-20</p> <p>AE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833101"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of cubic panorama for view synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Falin</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>An unstructured <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> approach, new to our knowledge, is proposed to apply triangular meshes for representing and rendering a scene on a cubic panorama (CP). It sophisticatedly converts a complicated three-dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> into a simple three-step <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. First, a two-dimensional Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is individually carried out on each face. Second, an improved polygonal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is implemented in the intermediate regions of each of two faces. Third, a cobweblike <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is designed for the remaining intermediate regions after unfolding four faces to the top/bottom face. Since the last two steps well solve the boundary problem arising from cube edges, the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with irregular-distribution feature points is implemented in a CP as a whole. The triangular meshes can be warped from multiple reference CPs onto an arbitrary viewpoint by face-to-face homography transformations. The experiments indicate that the proposed <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> approach provides a good modeling for the scene with photorealistic rendered CPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2006O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.573a2006O"><span>Radiochromic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oldham, Mark</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dose measurement in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..161M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..161M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Seismic Interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Gregory F.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790063202&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790063202&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Sequential <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of orbital photography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rajan, M.; Junkins, J. L.; Turner, J. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of structuring the satellite photogrammetric <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> as an iterative Extended Kalman estimation algorithm is demonstrated. Comparative numerical results of the sequential against batch estimation algorithm are presented. Difficulty of accurately modeling of the attitude motion is overcome by utilizing the on-board angular rate measurements. Solutions of the differential equations and the evaluation of state transition matrix are carried out numerically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008413','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940008413"><span>Approaches to high aspect ratio <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Posenau, M.-A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In aerospace computational fluid dynamics calculations, high aspect ratio, or stretched, <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> are necessary to adequately resolve the features of a viscous flow around bodies. In this paper, we explore alternatives to the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> which can be used to generate high aspect ratio <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of point sets. The method is based on a variation of the lifting map concept which derives Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> from convex hull calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920021663','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920021663"><span>Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and computational fluid dynamics meshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Posenau, Mary-Anne K.; Mount, David M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of suitable quadrilateral meshes can lead to unsuitable <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> meshes. Here, we present case studies which illustrate the limitations of using structured grid generation methods which produce points in a curvilinear coordinate system for subsequent <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> for CFD applications. We discuss conditions under which meshes of quadrilateral elements may not produce a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> suitable for CFD calculations, particularly with regard to high aspect ratio, skewed quadrilateral elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236744"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> for CSG in Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Engel, Daniel; O'Brien, Matthew J.</p> <p>2015-08-26</p> <p>Visualization routines for rendering complicated geometries are very useful for engineers and scientists who are trying to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prototypes of their designs. A common way to rapidly add interesting features to a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model is through the use of a concept called Constructive Solid Geometry. CSG uses compositions of the boolean set operations to manipulate basic geometric primitives to form more complicated objects. The most common boolean operations employed are union, intersection, and subtraction. Most computer-aided design software packages contain some sort of ability visualize CSG. The typical workflow for the user is as follows: The user specifies the individual primitive components, the user arbitrarily combines each of these primitives with boolean operations, the software generates a CSG tree structure which normally stores these solids implicitly with their defining equation, the tree is traversed and a general algorithm is applied to render the appropriate geometry onto the screen. Algorithms for visualizing CSG have been extensively developed for over a decade. Points sampled from the implicit solids are typically used as input by variations of algorithms like marching cubes and point-cloud surface reconstruction. Here, we explain a surface <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> method from the graphics community that is being used for surface visualization in the framework of a Monte-Carlo neutron transport code called Mercury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326984-bootstrapping-fermions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326984-bootstrapping-fermions"><span>Bootstrapping <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fermions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...</p> <p>2016-03-17</p> <p>We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We first introduce an embedding formalism for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326984','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326984"><span>Bootstrapping <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fermions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran</p> <p>2016-03-17</p> <p>We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We first introduce an embedding formalism for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C<sub>T</sub>. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28500106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28500106"><span>Medical <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Printing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Furlow, Bryant</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional printing is used in the manufacturing industry, medical and pharmaceutical research, drug production, clinical medicine, and dentistry, with implications for precision and personalized medicine. This technology is advancing the development of patient-specific prosthetics, stents, splints, and fixation devices and is changing medical education, treatment decision making, and surgical planning. Diagnostic imaging modalities play a fundamental role in the creation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> printed models. Although most <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> printed objects are rigid, flexible soft-tissue-like prosthetics also can be produced. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1306G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1306G"><span>IGMAS+ a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Fichler, Christine; Planka, Christian</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> polyhedra and/or <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of <span class="hlt">constraining</span> data into interactive modeling processes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN22A..01G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN22A..01G"><span>IGMAS+ A New <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goetze, H.; Schmidt, S.; Fichler, C.; Alvers, M. R.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> polyhedra and/or <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of <span class="hlt">constraining</span> data into interactive modeling processes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA467639','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA467639"><span>Different Approaches for the Creation and Exploitation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Urban Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>Digital terrain models (or DTM ) are the foundation of any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban models. Created from various data sources (such as DEM or DTED data form mapping...agencies, contour lines, elevation points), it is important to use the proper datasets to construct the DTM . DTM are generally created by using...<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithms that generate an irregular surface of the terrain. Two data structures are usually used with DTM : regular grid and <span class="hlt">triangulated</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062024&hterms=86-2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D86-2','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062024&hterms=86-2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D86-2"><span>Venus in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Plaut, Jeffrey J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7750E..09C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7750E..09C"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Our group has concentrated on development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860009539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860009539"><span>Some properties of n-dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, C. L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A number of mathematical results relevant to the problem of constructing a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, i.e., a simplicial tessellation, of the convex hull of an arbitrary finite set of points in n-space are described. The principal results achieved are: (1) a set of n+2 points in n-space may be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> in at most 2 different ways; (2) the sphere test defined in this report selects a preferred one of these two <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>; (3) a set of parameters is defined that permits the characterization and enumeration of all sets of n+2 points in n-space that are significantly different from the point of view of their possible <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>; (4) the local sphere test induces a global sphere test property for a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>; and (5) a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> satisfying the global sphere property is dual to the n-dimensional Dirichlet tesselation, i.e., it is a Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED21A0704C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED21A0704C"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Grab!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Connors, M. G.; Schofield, I. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Modern technologies in imaging greatly extend the potential to present visual information. With recently developed software tools, the perception of the third dimension can not only dramatically enhance presentation, but also allow spatial data to be better encoded. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> images can be taken for many subjects with only one camera, carefully moved to generate a stereo pair. Color anaglyph viewing now can be very effective using computer screens, and active filter technologies can enhance visual effects with ever-decreasing cost. We will present various novel results of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging, including those from the auroral observations of the new twinned Athabasca University Geophysical Observatories.; Single camera stereo image for viewing with red/cyan glasses.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptLE..86...11G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptLE..86...11G"><span>Calibration procedure for a laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> scanner with uncertainty evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genta, Gianfranco; Minetola, Paolo; Barbato, Giulio</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Most of low cost <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning devices that are nowadays available on the market are sold without a user calibration procedure to correct measurement errors related to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, there is no specific international standard defining a procedure to check the performance of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner along time. This paper aims at detailing a thorough methodology to calibrate a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner and assess its measurement uncertainty. The proposed procedure is based on the use of a reference ball plate and applied to a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> laser scanner. Experimental results show that the metrological performance of the instrument can be greatly improved by the application of the calibration procedure that corrects systematic errors and reduces the device's measurement uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...05..048B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...05..048B"><span>Unoriented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> TFTs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhardwaj, Lakshya</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>This paper generalizes two facts about oriented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+-TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous ℤ 2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+-TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+-TFT admits a topological boundary condition, one can combine the above two statements to obtain a Turaev-Viro-like construction of Pin+-TFTs. As an application of these ideas, we construct a large class of Pin+-SPT phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6392E..0IO','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6392E..0IO"><span>Development of 128-directional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ouchi, Junichi; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Kikuta, Kengo; Takaki, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>We developed a new virtual reality (VR) system that enables direct interaction between a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image and a finger without wearing special <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses and without attaching any marker or detector to the finger. Moreover, it frees the user from visual fatigue. The system consists of a 128-directional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display, a PC cluster, and a fingertip detection system. The 128-directional display provides a natural <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image which does not have the accommodation-vergence conflict and has very smooth motion parallax. It differs from conventional multi-view displays in that it precisely reconstructs rays from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object. It contains 128 LCD panels, and the 128 images displayed on them are projected in different horizontal directions with a horizontal angle pitch of 0.23°. The PC cluster consists of 16 PCs. Each PC generates eight video signals. The fingertip detection system employs a stereo infrared (IR) camera. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the fingertip is estimated by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. We also made three application programs. The first one enables the fingertip manipulation of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image in VRML format. The second one is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> drawing program that allows users to draw lines in the air. The last one enables the rotation of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image of a 360° directional image by the finger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020083312"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Audio System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00683&hterms=ski&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dski','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00683&hterms=ski&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dski"><span>Twin Peaks - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.<p/>The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2433..290F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2433..290F"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and beyond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fung, Y. C.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..992.1073B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..992.1073B"><span>Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Optical System Using Shadows <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barba, J. Leiner; Vargas, Q. Lorena; Torres, M. Cesar; Mattos, V. Lorenzo</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>In this work is developed a three-dimensional reconstruction system using the Shades<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tool of the Matlab® Programming Language and materials of low cost, such as webcam camera, a stick, a weak structured lighting system composed by a desk lamp, and observation plane in which the object is located. The reconstruction is obtained through a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> process that is executed after acquiring a sequence of images of the scene with a shadow projected on the object; additionally an image filtering process is done for obtaining only the part of the scene that will be reconstructed. Previously, it is necessary to develop a calibration process for determining the internal camera geometric and optical characteristics (intrinsic parameters), and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position and orientation of the camera frame relative to a certain world coordinate system (extrinsic parameters). The lamp and the stick are used to produce a shadow which scans the object; in this technique, it is not necessary to know the position of the light source, instead the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is obtained using shadow plane produced by intersection between the stick and the illumination pattern. The webcam camera captures all images with the shadow scanning the object, and Shades<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tool processes all information taking into account captured images and calibration parameters. Likewise, this technique is evaluated in the reconstruction of parts of the human body and its application in the detection of external abnormalities and elaboration of prosthesis or implant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2994415"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Surgical Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00690&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00690&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters"><span>Martian terrain - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00692&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00692&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Martian terrain - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4985141','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4985141"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves <span class="hlt">constrain</span> fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5232433"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.</p> <p>1991-03-30</p> <p>We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059464','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059464"><span>Reproducibility of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> chromatin configuration reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a <span class="hlt">constrained</span> optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of <span class="hlt">constrained</span> optimization approaches to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00680&hterms=Pumpkin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPumpkin"><span>Prominent rocks - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20032.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20032.html"><span>Pluto in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-23</p> <p>Global stereo mapping of Pluto surface is now possible, as images taken from multiple directions are downlinked from NASA New Horizons spacecraft. Stereo images will eventually provide an accurate topographic map of most of the hemisphere of Pluto seen by New Horizons during the July 14 flyby, which will be key to understanding Pluto's geological history. This example, which requires red/blue stereo glasses for viewing, shows a region 180 miles (300 kilometers) across, centered near longitude 130 E, latitude 20 N (the red square in the global context image). North is to the upper left. The image shows an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto, dotted with low hills and cut by deep fractures, which indicate extension of Pluto's crust. Analysis of these stereo images shows that the steep fracture in the upper left of the image is about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) deep, and the craters in the lower right part of the image are up to 1.3 miles (2.1 km) deep. Smallest visible details are about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) across. You will need <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses to view this image showing an ancient, heavily cratered region of Pluto. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=Diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=Diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDiamond"><span>'Diamond' in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. <p/> Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. <p/> On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed. <p/> The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddiamond','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06786&hterms=diamond&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddiamond"><span>'Diamond' in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time. <p/> Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. <p/> On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed. <p/> The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5615309','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5615309"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Bioprinting in Pediatrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics. PMID:28952542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28952542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28952542"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Bioprinting in Pediatrics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng</p> <p>2017-07-13</p> <p>Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CoPhC.184..777M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CoPhC.184..777M"><span>An improved Marching Cube algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data segmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masala, G. L.; Golosio, B.; Oliva, P.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The marching cube algorithm is one of the most popular algorithms for isosurface <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. It is based on a division of the data volume into elementary cubes, followed by a standard <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> inside each cube. In the original formulation, the marching cube algorithm is based on 15 basic <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> and a total of 256 elementary <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> are obtained from the basic ones by rotation, reflection, conjugation, and combinations of these operations. The original formulation of the algorithm suffers from well-known problems of connectivity among triangles of adjacent cubes, which has been solved in various ways. We developed a variant of the marching cube algorithm that makes use of 21 basic <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>. Triangles of adjacent cubes are always well connected in this approach. The output of the code is a <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> model of the isosurface in raw format or in VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) format. Catalogue identifier: AENS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147558 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26084066 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C. Computer: Pentium 4, CPU 3.2 GHz and 3.24 GB of RAM (2.77 GHz). Operating system: Tested on several Linux distribution, but generally works in all Linux-like platforms. RAM: Approximately 2 MB Classification: 6.5. Nature of problem: Given a scalar field μ(x,y,z) sampled on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> regular grid, build a discrete model of the isosurface associated to the isovalue μIso, which is defined as the set of points that satisfy the equation μ(x,y,z)=μIso. Solution method: The proposed solution is an improvement of the Marching Cube algorithm, which approximates the isosurface using a set of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bears&pg=3&id=EJ968446','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bears&pg=3&id=EJ968446"><span>Mixed Methods, <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>, and Causal Explanation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howe, Kenneth R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/<span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> that accommodates…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Triangulation&pg=2&id=EJ968446','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Triangulation&pg=2&id=EJ968446"><span>Mixed Methods, <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>, and Causal Explanation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howe, Kenneth R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/<span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> that accommodates…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070003485&hterms=tetrahedron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtetrahedron','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070003485&hterms=tetrahedron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtetrahedron"><span>Numerical Schemes for the Hamilton-Jacobi and Level Set Equations on <span class="hlt">Triangulated</span> Domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barth, Timothy J.; Sethian, James A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Borrowing from techniques developed for conservation law equations, we have developed both monotone and higher order accurate numerical schemes which discretize the Hamilton-Jacobi and level set equations on <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> domains. The use of unstructured meshes containing triangles (2D) and tetrahedra (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) easily accommodates mesh adaptation to resolve disparate level set feature scales with a minimal number of solution unknowns. The minisymposium talk will discuss these algorithmic developments and present sample calculations using our adaptive <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm applied to various moving interface problems such as etching, deposition, and curvature flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193202"><span>Alpha shape and Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in studies of protein-related interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Weiqiang; Yan, Hong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, more <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> protein structures have become available, which has made the analysis of large molecular structures much easier. There is a strong demand for geometric models for the study of protein-related interactions. Alpha shape and Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> are powerful tools to represent protein structures and have advantages in characterizing the surface curvature and atom contacts. This review presents state-of-the-art applications of alpha shape and Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in the studies on protein-DNA, protein-protein, protein-ligand interactions and protein structure analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880036961&hterms=convex+hull&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconvex%2Bhull','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880036961&hterms=convex+hull&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconvex%2Bhull"><span>Properties of n-dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, Charles L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This paper establishes a number of mathematical results relevant to the problem of constructing a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, i.e., a simplical tessellation of the convex hull of an arbitrary finite set of points in n-space. The principal results of the present paper are: (1) a set of n + 2 points in n-space may be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> in at most 2 different ways; (2) the 'sphere test' defined in this paper selects a preferred one of these two <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>; (3) a set of parameters is defined that permits the characterization and enumeration of all sets on n + 2 points in n-space that are significantly different from the point of view of their possible <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>; and (4) the local sphere test induces a global sphere test property for a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880036961&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880036961&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Properties of n-dimensional <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lawson, Charles L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This paper establishes a number of mathematical results relevant to the problem of constructing a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, i.e., a simplical tessellation of the convex hull of an arbitrary finite set of points in n-space. The principal results of the present paper are: (1) a set of n + 2 points in n-space may be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> in at most 2 different ways; (2) the 'sphere test' defined in this paper selects a preferred one of these two <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>; (3) a set of parameters is defined that permits the characterization and enumeration of all sets on n + 2 points in n-space that are significantly different from the point of view of their possible <span class="hlt">triangulations</span>; and (4) the local sphere test induces a global sphere test property for a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1826..182M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1826..182M"><span>Vision models for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitra, Sunanda</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>Different approaches to computational stereo to represent human stereo vision have been developed over the past two decades. The Marr-Poggio theory of human stereo vision is probably the most widely accepted model of the human stereo vision. However, recently developed motion stereo models which use a sequence of images taken by either a moving camera or a moving object provide an alternative method of achieving multi-resolution matching without the use of Laplacian of Gaussian operators. While using image sequences, the baseline between two camera positions for a image pair is changed for the subsequent image pair so as to achieve different resolution for each image pair. Having different baselines also avoids the inherent occlusion problem in stereo vision models. The advantage of using multi-resolution images acquired by camera positioned at different baselines over those acquired by LOG operators is that one does not have to encounter spurious edges often created by zero-crossings in the LOG operated images. Therefore in designing a computer vision system, a motion stereo model is more appropriate than a stereo vision model. However, in some applications where only a stereo pair of images are available, recovery of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces of natural scenes are possible in a computationally efficient manner by using cepstrum matching and regularization techniques. Section 2 of this paper describes a motion stereo model using multi-scale cepstrum matching for the detection of disparity between image pairs in a sequence of images and subsequent recovery of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces from depth-map obtained by a non convergent <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique. Section 3 presents a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface recovery technique from a stereo pair using cepstrum matching for disparity detection and cubic B-splines for surface smoothing. Section 4 contains the results of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface recovery using both of the techniques mentioned above. Section 5 discusses the merit of 2D cepstrum matching and cubic B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10025E..0QB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10025E..0QB"><span>Person identification by using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> palmprint data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bai, Xuefei; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Person identification based on biometrics is drawing more and more attentions in identity and information safety. This paper presents a biometric system to identify person using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> palmprint data, including a non-contact system capturing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> palmprint quickly and a method identifying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> palmprint fast. In order to reduce the effect of slight shaking of palm on the data accuracy, a DLP (Digital Light Processing) projector is utilized to trigger a CCD camera based on structured-light and <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> measurement and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> palmprint data could be gathered within 1 second. Using the obtained database and the PolyU <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> palmprint database, feature extraction and matching method is presented based on MCI (Mean Curvature Image), Gabor filter and binary code list. Experimental results show that the proposed method can identify a person within 240 ms in the case of 4000 samples. Compared with the traditional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> palmprint recognition methods, the proposed method has high accuracy, low EER (Equal Error Rate), small storage space, and fast identification speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54..175R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptLE..54..175R"><span>Optical monitoring of scoliosis by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical laser scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071162"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> in Random Refractive Distortions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alterman, Marina; Schechner, Yoav Y; Swirski, Yohay</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Random refraction occurs in turbulence and through a wavy water-air interface. It creates distortion that changes in space, time and with viewpoint. Localizing objects in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) despite this random distortion is important to some predators and also to submariners avoiding the salient use of periscopes. We take a multiview approach to this task. Refracted distortion statistics induce a probabilistic relation between any pixel location and a line of sight in space. Measurements of an object's random projection from multiple views and times lead to a likelihood function of the object's <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> location. The likelihood leads to estimates of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> location and its uncertainty. Furthermore, multiview images acquired simultaneously in a wide stereo baseline have uncorrelated distortions. This helps reduce the acquisition time needed for localization. The method is demonstrated in stereoscopic video sequences, both in a lab and a swimming pool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23316537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23316537"><span>Methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>: an approach to understanding data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To describe the use of methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in a study of how people who had moved to retirement communities were adjusting. Methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> involves using more than one kind of method to study a phenomenon. It has been found to be beneficial in providing confirmation of findings, more comprehensive data, increased validity and enhanced understanding of studied phenomena. While many researchers have used this well-established technique, there are few published examples of its use. The authors used methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in their study of people who had moved to retirement communities in Ohio, US. A blended qualitative and quantitative approach was used. The collected qualitative data complemented and clarified the quantitative findings by helping to identify common themes. Qualitative data also helped in understanding interventions for promoting 'pulling' factors and for overcoming 'pushing' factors of participants. The authors used focused research questions to reflect the research's purpose and four evaluative criteria--'truth value', 'applicability', 'consistency' and 'neutrality'--to ensure rigour. This paper provides an example of how methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> can be used in nursing research. It identifies challenges associated with methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, recommends strategies for overcoming them, provides a rationale for using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and explains how to maintain rigour. Methodological <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> can be used to enhance the analysis and the interpretation of findings. As data are drawn from multiple sources, it broadens the researcher's insight into the different issues underlying the phenomena being studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8082E..16S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8082E..16S"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measuring in the field of endoscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schick, Anton; Forster, Frank; Stockmann, Michael</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Industrial optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-measurement techniques are well established to achieve quality targets in production and manufacturing. However measurements inside of objects, especially small ones, are still a challenge since there is no easy access for measurement tools. Inspection tools like endoscopes, which provide a 2D-view or a stereoscopic view of inner surfaces, are commercially available and widely used. Nevertheless, there is no technique for precisely measuring the inner surface geometry of a small hollow object. Especially medical applications would greatly benefit from "dimensional" measuring. Thus a novel approach and a corresponding prototype of a miniaturized endoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-scanner are presented. To be suited even for very narrow objects, the prototype has a maximum diameter of 3.6 mm, its flexible design allows for access to bent tubes or canals. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning approach is based on the principle of active <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, which means that a coded light pattern is projected and then viewed under a different angle. It is usually difficult to realize <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> setups in a small embodiment. Therefore an optical tandem of a miniaturized pattern projector and a small camera with a resolution of 400 x 400 pixel is presented as a practical solution. The projector projects a pattern of 15 rings of distinct colors into a cylindrical measurement space where the color sequence constitutes a code. The camera uses a catadioptric setup with a spherical mirror to enhance its field of view. It detects the projected rings and is then able to unambiguously reconstruct the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-shape of a surface using ray-cone intersection. This so called color coding approach provides several advantages. For example, only a static projection pattern is needed, which greatly reduces complexity and size of the projector compared to phase shifting technologies. Experimental <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-scans of arbitrarily shaped tubes demonstrate good performance and an accuracy of about 0.1mm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10146198','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10146198"><span>Linear-size nonobtuse <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of polygons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bern, M.; Mitchell, S.; Ruppert, J.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>We give an algorithm for <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> n-vertex polygonal regions (with holes) so that no angle in the final <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> measures more than {pi}/2. The number of triangles in the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is only 0(n), improving a previous bound of 0(n{sup 2}), and the worst-case running time is 0(n log{sup 2} n). The basic technique used in the algorithm, recursive subdivision by disks, is new and may have wider application in mesh generation. We also report on an implementation of our algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...04..115C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...04..115C"><span>Factorising the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topologically twisted index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on {S}_2 times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on {S}_2 times halves of {S}_1 , second as TTCSM on {S}_2 times {S}_1 — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on {S}_2× {S}_1 . In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is <span class="hlt">constrained</span> to be anti-hermitian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011tdsa.book.....M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy in Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...540A..92L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...540A..92L"><span>Spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>.html</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2016/3022/fs20163022.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program—Virtual USA in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.</p> <p>2016-04-14</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2569..381H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2569..381H"><span>Image encoding with <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> wavelets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hebert, D. J.; Kim, HyungJun</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>We demonstrate some wavelet-based image processing applications of a class of simplicial grids arising in finite element computations and computer graphics. The cells of a triangular grid form the set of leaves of a binary tree and the nodes of a directed graph consisting of a single cycle. The leaf cycle of a uniform grid forms a pattern for pixel image scanning and for coherent computation of coefficients of splines and wavelets. A simple form of image encoding is accomplished with a 1D quadrature mirror filter whose coefficients represent an expansion of the image in terms of 2D Haar wavelets with triangular support. A combination the leaf cycle and an inherent quadtree structure allow efficient neighbor finding, grid refinement, tree pruning and storage. Pruning of the simplex tree yields a partially compressed image which requires no decoding, but rather may be rendered as a shaded <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. This structure and its generalization to n-dimensions form a convenient setting for wavelet analysis and computations based on simplicial grids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED306664.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED306664.pdf"><span>A <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Methodology in Research on Social Cultures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Owens, Robert G.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this research was to develop, test, and demonstrate a systematic methodology of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is a technique used to establish credibility of data gathered in qualitative ways. <span class="hlt">Triangulated</span> conclusions are more stable than any of the individual vantage points from which they were <span class="hlt">triangulated</span>. Using a previous study…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17523286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17523286"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulating</span> stapling technique for reconstruction after colectomy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fukunaga, Y; Higashino, M; Tanimura, S; Osugi, Harushi</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>To retrospectively compare the <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> stapling technique for colocolonic anastomosis with hand-sewn anastomosis and functional end-to-end anastomosis. Data from 646 patients who underwent colectomy for cancer from 1993 to 2004 were extracted by chart review. Patients were divided into three groups based on the type of anastomosis: handsewn (n=233), functional end-to-end (n=71), and the <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> stapling method (n=346). Demographic data and clinical characteristics of the three groups were similar. Anastomotic leakage was significantly more common in the hand-sewn group than the triangular stapling group (hand-sewn; 3.0%, functional end-to-end; 2.8%, <span class="hlt">triangulating</span>, 0.6%) (P < 0.05). No patient developed bleeding or stenosis at the anastomosis, and the incidence of wound infection was equivalent among the three groups. One death due to anastomotic failure occurred in each of the functional end-to-end and <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> stapling groups. The cost of <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> stapling was approximately Yen 36,000 lower than the cost of the functional end-to-end anastomosis. The <span class="hlt">triangulating</span> stapling technique is an attractive alternative to other methods for creating a colocolonic anastomosis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5291....9R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5291....9R"><span>Perception of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial relations for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosen, Paul; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Hoffmann, Christoph; Popescu, Voicu S.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>We test perception of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial relations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images rendered by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display (Perspecta from Actuality Systems) and compare it to that of a high-resolution flat panel display. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images provide the observer with such depth cues as motion parallax and binocular disparity. Our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display is a device that renders a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image by displaying, in rapid succession, radial slices through the scene on a rotating screen. The image is contained in a glass globe and can be viewed from virtually any direction. In the psychophysical experiment several families of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects are used as stimuli: primitive shapes (cylinders and cuboids), and complex objects (multi-story buildings, cars, and pieces of furniture). Each object has at least one plane of symmetry. On each trial an object or its "distorted" version is shown at an arbitrary orientation. The distortion is produced by stretching an object in a random direction by 40%. This distortion must eliminate the symmetry of an object. The subject's task is to decide whether or not the presented object is distorted under several viewing conditions (monocular/binocular, with/without motion parallax, and near/far). The subject's performance is measured by the discriminability d', which is a conventional dependent variable in signal detection experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231744"><span>LLNL-Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Earth<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1121334"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>None</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018839"><span>Market study: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A market study of a proposed version of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARL16003V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARL16003V"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Buckligami: Digital Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and create these by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1121334"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> World Building System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-30</p> <p>This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AN....325...83W"><span>Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Science Conference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, J. R.</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy in Europe. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657435"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in dentistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7237E..05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7237E..05P"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report on the development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013774"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user's manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and sample command files.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1770c0025S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1770c0025S"><span>An industrial light-field camera applied for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity measurements in a slot jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seredkin, A. V.; Shestakov, M. V.; Tokarev, M. P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Modern light-field cameras have found their application in different areas like photography, surveillance and quality control in industry. A number of studies have been reported relatively low spatial resolution of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> profiles of registered objects along the optical axis of the camera. This article describes a method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity measurements in fluid flows using an industrial light-field camera and an alternative reconstruction algorithm based on a statistical approach. This method is more accurate than <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> when applied for tracking small registered objects like tracer particles in images. The technique was used to measure <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> velocity fields in a turbulent slot jet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712313C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712313C"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling in salt tectonic context: the Crocodile minibasin in Sivas (Turkey)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collon, Pauline; Pichat, Alexandre; Kergaravat, Charlie; Botella, Arnaud; Caumon, Guillaume; Favreau, Océane; Fuss, Gaétan; Godefroy, Gabriel; Lerat, Marine; Mazuyer, Antoine; Parquer, Marion; Charreau, Julien; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Impermeable, with a low density and acting as a viscous fluid at the geological time scale, salt plays a unique tectonic role favouring hydrocarbon trap formations. Halokinetic structures are various and difficult to image with classic seismic techniques. Thus, outcrop analogues are precious and sought after. Since the re-interpretation in September 2011 of its evaporite deposits, the Oligo-Miocene basin of Sivas (Turkey) is a new choice analogue for the study of salt tectonic with outstanding outcrops reflecting the variety of salt related structures: minibasins, diapirs, welds... While studying these structures requires an important field work, building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models becomes an interesting way to better help understanding the three-dimensional organisation and to further perform numerical simulations (e.g., restoration, potential field measurement campaign simulation). The complex geometries observed in salt tectonic context make these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological models particularly challenging to build, especially when only outcrops data are available. We focus on the Crocodile minibasin (Sivas) and present a modelling strategy using a subtle combination of recently developed techniques. Available data are: a Digital Elevation Model, satellite images and associated interpreted bedding traces on topography, orientation measurements of the strata and a conceptual interpretation. Located on an ancient salt extrusion, this minibasin is filled with lacustrine and sabkha sediments. It is interpreted with a closed synclinal structure on North. On its southern part, a central diapir has risen up, separating two tightened synclinals. The salt surface is modelled first as a <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> surface using a classical explicit surface patch construction method and a manual post-process mesh improvement. Then, the minibasin sediments are modelled with an implicit approach that considers interfaces as equipotentials of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scalar field. This requires to build a volumetric mesh conformable to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpurchasing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpurchasing"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpurchasing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpurchasing"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002508&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITHOUT TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940002506&hterms=Customer+Purchasing&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCustomer%2BPurchasing"><span>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (WITH TURB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buning, P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>'s 74 functions are organized into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..453A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..453A"><span>a Modified Method for Image <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Using Inclined Angles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alsadik, Bashar</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The ongoing technical improvements in photogrammetry, Geomatics, computer vision (CV), and robotics offer new possibilities for many applications requiring efficient acquisition of three-dimensional data. Image orientation is one of these important techniques in many applications like mapping, precise measurements, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and navigation. Image orientation comprises three main techniques of resection, intersection (<span class="hlt">triangulation</span>) and relative orientation, which are conventionally solved by collinearity equations or by using projection and fundamental matrices. However, different problems still exist in the state - of -the -art of image orientation because of the nonlinearity and the sensitivity to proper initialization and spatial distribution of the points. In this research, a modified method is presented to solve the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> problem using inclined angles derived from the measured image coordinates and based on spherical trigonometry rules and vector geometry. The developed procedure shows promising results compared to collinearity approach and to converge to the global minimum even when starting from far approximations. This is based on the strong geometric constraint offered by the inclined angles that are enclosed between the object points and the camera stations. Numerical evaluations with perspective and panoramic images are presented and compared with the conventional solution of collinearity equations. The results show the efficiency of the developed model and the convergence of the solution to global minimum even with improper starting values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL1b.157G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL1b.157G"><span>Uav Photogrammetry: Block <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> Comparisons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gini, R.; Pagliari, D.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.; Dosso, P.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord"), useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey), allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes) were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma), Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..08A"><span>Unassisted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> camera calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>With the rapid growth of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture has become a critical part of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> feature set on mobile phones. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066320"><span>Bioprinting of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S</p> <p>2015-08-07</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/456334','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/456334"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> modular gripper design tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely <span class="hlt">constrained</span>. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> grasp quality metric based on force information, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA347286','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA347286"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scan Systems Integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scan Systems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26330889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26330889"><span>Laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> measurements of scoliotic spine curvatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Čelan, Dušan; Jesenšek Papež, Breda; Poredoš, Primož; Možina, Janez</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of this research was to develop a new method for differentiating between scoliotic and healthy subjects by analysing the curvatures of their spines in the cranio-caudal view. The study included 247 subjects with physiological curvatures of the spine and 28 subjects with clinically confirmed scoliosis. The curvature of the spine was determined by a computer analysis of the surface of the back, measured with a non-invasive, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, laser-<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system. The determined spinal curve was represented in the transversal plane, which is perpendicular to the line segment that was defined by the initial point and the end point of the spinal curve. This was achieved using a rotation matrix. The distances between the extreme points in the antero-posterior (AP) and left-right (LR) views were calculated in relation to the length of the spine as well as the quotient of these two values LR/AP. All the measured parameters were compared between the scoliotic and control groups using the Student's t-Test in case of normal data and Kruskal-Wallis test in case of non-normal data. Besides, a comprehensive diagram representing the distances between the extreme points in the AP and LR views was introduced, which clearly demonstrated the direction and the size of the thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures for each individual subject. While the distances between the extreme points of the spine in the AP view were found to differ only slightly between the groups (p = 0.1), the distances between the LR extreme points were found to be significantly greater in the scoliosis group, compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The quotient LR/AP was statistically significantly different in both groups (p < 0.001). The main innovation of the presented method is the ability to differentiate a scoliotic subject from a healthy subject by assessing the curvature of the spine in the cranio-caudal view. Therefore, the proposed method could be useful for human posture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL55..195R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL55..195R"><span>Filming Underwater in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Respecting Stereographic Rules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rinaldi, R.; Hordosch, H.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>After an experimental phase of many years, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie's box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity") and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, without any <span class="hlt">constrains</span>. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00695.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00695.html"><span>ASI/MET - <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-07-13</p> <p>The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package ASI/MET is the mast and windsocks at the center of this stereo image from NASA Mars Pathfinder. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/dcb/research-programs/tec/3d-immunotherapy-models','NCI'); return false;" href="https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/dcb/research-programs/tec/3d-immunotherapy-models"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Models of Immunotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This collaborative grant is developing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967629"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polymer scaffold arrays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment and cells cultured in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> format.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187194','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10187194"><span>Accepting the T<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>In April, a 128 PE Cray T<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system evolves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17295597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17295597"><span>[Tridimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) endoscopic ultrasonography].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A review and update on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.368....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.368....1Y"><span>Heterodyne <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Conventional three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging, a heterodyne <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARL36014C"><span>Combinatorial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mechanical Metamaterials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr62W5..287G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr62W5..287G"><span>Epic Dimensions: a Comparative Analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Acquisition Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graham, C. A.; Akoglu, K. G.; Lassen, A. W.; Simon, S.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>When it comes to capturing the geometry of a cultural heritage artifact, there is certainly no dearth of possible acquisition techniques. As technology has rapidly developed, the availability of intuitive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> generating tools has increased exponentially and made it possible even for non-specialists to create many models quickly. Though the by-products of these different acquisition methods may be incongruent in terms of quality, these discrepancies are not problematic, as there are many applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models, each with their own set of requirements. Comparisons of high-resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of an iconic Babylonian tablet, captured via four different closerange technologies discussed in this paper assess which methods of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digitization best suit specific intended purposes related to research, conservation and education. Taking into consideration repeatability, time and resource implications, qualitative and quantitative potential and ease of use, this paper presents a study of the strengths and weakness of structured light scanning, <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> laser scanning, photometric stereo and close-range photogrammetry, in the context of interactive investigation, conditions monitoring, engagement, and dissemination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TDR.....7...91S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TDR.....7...91S"><span>Novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Compression Methods for Geometry, Connectivity and Texture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A large number of applications in medical visualization, games, engineering design, entertainment, heritage, e-commerce and so on require the transmission of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models over the Internet or over local networks. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data compression is an important requirement for fast data storage, access and transmission within bandwidth limitations. The Wavefront OBJ (object) file format is commonly used to share models due to its clear simple design. Normally each OBJ file contains a large amount of data (e.g. vertices and <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> faces, normals, texture coordinates and other parameters) describing the mesh surface. In this paper we introduce a new method to compress geometry, connectivity and texture coordinates by a novel Geometry Minimization Algorithm (GM-Algorithm) in connection with arithmetic coding. First, each vertex ( x, y, z) coordinates are encoded to a single value by the GM-Algorithm. Second, triangle faces are encoded by computing the differences between two adjacent vertex locations, which are compressed by arithmetic coding together with texture coordinates. We demonstrate the method on large data sets achieving compression ratios between 87 and 99 % without reduction in the number of reconstructed vertices and triangle faces. The decompression step is based on a Parallel Fast Matching Search Algorithm (Parallel-FMS) to recover the structure of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh. A comparative analysis of compression ratios is provided with a number of commonly used <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> file formats such as VRML, OpenCTM and STL highlighting the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdOT....5..405B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdOT....5..405B"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement with thermal pattern projection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brahm, Anika; Reetz, Edgar; Schindwolf, Simon; Correns, Martin; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Structured light projection techniques are well-established optical methods for contactless and nondestructive three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) measurements. Most systems operate in the visible wavelength range (VIS) due to commercially available projection and detection technology. For example, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction can be done with a stereo-vision setup by finding corresponding pixels in both cameras followed by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. Problems occur, if the properties of object materials disturb the measurements, which are based on the measurement of diffuse light reflections. For example, there are existing materials in the VIS range that are too transparent, translucent, high absorbent, or reflective and cannot be recorded properly. To overcome these challenges, we present an alternative thermal approach that operates in the infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. For this purpose, we used two cooled mid-wave (MWIR) cameras (3-5 μm) to detect emitted heat patterns, which were introduced by a CO2 laser. We present a thermal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system based on a GOBO (GOes Before Optics) wheel projection unit and first <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analyses for different system parameters and samples. We also show a second alternative approach based on an incoherent (heat) source, to overcome typical disadvantages of high-power laser-based systems, such as industrial health and safety considerations, as well as high investment costs. Thus, materials like glass or fiber-reinforced composites can be measured contactless and without the need of additional paintings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y"><span>Robust <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction system for human jaw modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. <span class="hlt">Triangulization</span> is then performed, and a solid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910984F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910984F"><span>G.O.THERM.<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - Providing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Atlas of Temperature in Ireland's Subsurface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farrell, Thomas; Fullea, Javier</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> Ireland, LitMod<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models the crust as two fixed homogenous layers with laterally constant physical properties (upper-middle crust and lower crust). G.O.THERM.<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> proposes to adapt the LitMod<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tool to model the heterogeneous nature of the crust, e.g. the variable distribution of heat production and the variation of thermal conductivity with lithology and temperature, with an appropriate lateral and vertical resolution. The thermal modelling process will also employ palaeoclimate-corrected heat-flow and other available complementary data sets (e.g. seismic, magnetic, radiometric and electromagnetic). Existing and emerging lithospheric-regional temperature models will be used to apply thermal boundary conditions to the crustal model of G.O.THERM.<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The resulting crustal temperature model of G.O.THERM.<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> may in turn be used to provide boundary conditions on more focussed modelling on a shallower scale (e.g. within a sedimentary basin to depths of 5 km). In this way, a nested approach can be adopted to model compositional and thermal structures on various scales and resolutions within the crust (subject to the availability of appropriate data), while maintaining consistency with the wider setting. G.O.THERM.<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will also make additional thermal conductivity measurements, the primary motivation for which being the critical importance of thermal conductivity data in <span class="hlt">constraining</span> temperature modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082218','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082218"><span>LASTRAC.<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>: Transition Prediction in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Boundary Layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chau-Lyan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary layer equations may be used to solve the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6805E..08Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6805E..08Y"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> threat image projection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Automated Explosive Detection Systems utilizing Computed Tomography perform a series X-ray scans of passenger bags being checked in at the airport, and produce various 2-D projection images and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volumetric images of the bag. The determination as to whether the passenger bag contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed through trained Transportation Security Administration screeners following an approved protocol. In order to keep the screeners vigilant with regards to screening quality, the Transportation Security Administration has mandated the use of Threat Image Projection on 2-D projection X-ray screening equipment used at all US airports. These algorithms insert visual artificial threats into images of the normal passenger bags in order to test the screeners with regards to their screening efficiency and their screening quality at determining threats. This technology for 2-D X-ray system is proven and is widespread amongst multiple manufacturers of X-ray projection systems. Until now, Threat Image Projection has been unsuccessful at being introduced into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Automated Explosive Detection Systems for numerous reasons. The failure of these prior attempts are mainly due to imaging queues that the screeners pickup on, and therefore make it easy for the screeners to discern the presence of the threat image and thus defeating the intended purpose. This paper presents a novel approach for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Threat Image Projection for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Automated Explosive Detection Systems. The method presented here is a projection based approach where both the threat object and the bag remain in projection sinogram space. Novel approaches have been developed for projection based object segmentation, projection based streak reduction used for threat object isolation along with scan orientation independence and projection based streak generation for an overall realistic <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image. The algorithms are prototyped in MatLab and C++ and demonstrate non discernible <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> threat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..5ED','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9143E..5ED"><span>From <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> view to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In the last few years <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model, realized with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8288E..19S"><span>YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: exploring stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gaming for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theaters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movie theater gaming.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080311"><span>Speaking Volumes About <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJWC..7601003D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJWC..7601003D"><span>Development methods of steam turbines <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry optical control for effective heat power equipment quality improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dvoynishnikov, Sergey</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A method for steam turbines <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry optical control for effective heat power equipment quality improvement is proposed. It is shown that technical characteristics of the developed optical phase <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> method for precision contactless geometry diagnostics of steam turbines meet modern requirements to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry measuring instruments and are perspective for further development. It is shown that used phase step method provides measurement error less than 0.024% of measurement range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617026"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Bionic Nanodevices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016035','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016035"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Bionic Nanodevices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801545"><span>Macrophage podosomes go <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215652"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Packaging: A Technology Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strickland, Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Gerke, David</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Traditional electronics are assembled as a planar arrangement of components on a printed circuit board (PCB) or other type of substrate. These planar assemblies may then be plugged into a motherboard or card cage creating a volume of electronics. This architecture is common in many military and space electronic systems as well as large computer and telecommunications systems and industrial electronics. The individual PCB assemblies can be replaced if defective or for system upgrade. Some applications are <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by the volume or the shape of the system and are not compatible with the motherboard or card cage architecture. Examples include missiles, camcorders, and digital cameras. In these systems, planar rigid-flex substrates are folded to create complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shapes. The flex circuit serves the role of motherboard, providing interconnection between the rigid boards. An example of a planar rigid - flex assembly prior to folding is shown. In both architectures, the interconnection is effectively 2-D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014084"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Computations and Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D</p> <p>2004-04-05</p> <p>This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Development, involves general development activities in the ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00694&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00694&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters"><span>Petal, terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00694&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00694&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Petal, terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040784&hterms=automobile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dautomobile','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040784&hterms=automobile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dautomobile"><span>Unstructured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay mesh generation applied to planes, trains and automobiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, Kenneth R.; Spragle, Gregory S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Technical issues associated with domain-tessellation production, including initial boundary node <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and volume mesh refinement, are presented for the 'TGrid' <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay unstructured grid generation program. The approach employed is noted to be capable of preserving predefined triangular surface facets in the final tessellation. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated by generating grids about an entire fighter aircraft configuration, a train, and a wind tunnel model of an automobile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=2&id=EJ1096219','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=2&id=EJ1096219"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing: Exploring Capabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA11687.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA11687.html"><span>Baghdad Sulcus in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-23</p> <p>This anaglyph from images captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows a dramatic, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> view of one of the deep fractures nicknamed tiger stripes on Saturn moon Enceladus which are located near the moon south pole, spray jets of water ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3-d+AND+printing&pg=3&id=EJ1096219','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3-d+AND+printing&pg=3&id=EJ1096219"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing: Exploring Capabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gravity&pg=2&id=EJ1091305','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gravity&pg=2&id=EJ1091305"><span>Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model reference frame and a model gravity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02065.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02065.html"><span>Ganges Chasma in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-06-25</p> <p>Ganges Chasma is part of the Valles Marineris trough system that stretches nearly 5,000 kilometers 3,000 miles across the western equatorial region of Mars. This stereo anaglyph is from NASA Mars Global Surveyor. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA05198.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA05198.html"><span>Opportunity Stretches Out <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-02-02</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional stereo anaglyph of an image taken by the front hazard-identification camera onboard NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, showing the rover arm in its extended position. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to view this image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Paint&id=EJ1091305','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Paint&id=EJ1091305"><span>Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model reference frame and a model gravity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=green+AND+wall&id=EJ467779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=green+AND+wall&id=EJ467779"><span>The World of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mayshark, Robin K.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are given. (MDH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA18898.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA18898.html"><span>Rosetta Comet in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-11-21</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image shows what it would look like to fly over the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The image was generated by data collected by ESA Philae spacecraft during the decent to the spacecraft initial touchdown on the comet Nov. 12, 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231087"><span>SNL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>Face</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya</p> <p>2007-07-20</p> <p>This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163..514K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSP...163..514K"><span>Spectral Properties of Unimodular Lattice <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krüger, Benedikt; Schmidt, Ella M.; Mecke, Klaus</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Random unimodular lattice <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> have been recently used as an embedded random graph model, which exhibit a crossover behavior between an ordered, large-world and a disordered, small-world behavior. Using the ergodic Pachner flips that transform such <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> into another and an energy functional that corresponds to the degree distribution variance, Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations can be applied to study these graphs. Here, we consider the spectra of the adjacency and the Laplacian matrix as well as the algebraic connectivity and the spectral radius. Power law dependencies on the system size can clearly be identified and compared to analytical solutions for periodic ground states. For random <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> we find a qualitative agreement of the spectral properties with well-known random graph models. In the microcanonical ensemble analytical approximations agree with numerical simulations. In the canonical ensemble a crossover behavior can be found for the algebraic connectivity and the spectral radius, thus combining large-world and small-world behavior in one model. The considered spectral properties can be applied to transport problems on <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> graphs and the crossover behavior allows a tuning of important transport quantities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041269&hterms=Triangulation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041269&hterms=Triangulation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Representing Solar Active Regions with <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turmon, M. J.; Mukhtar, S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The solar chromosphere consists of three classes which contribute differently to ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. We describe a data set of solar images, means of segmenting the images into the constituent classes, and novel high-level representation for compact objects based on a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> spatial 'membership function'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000052&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000052&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Advancing-Front Algorithm For Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Merriam, Marshal L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Efficient algorithm performs Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to generate unstructured grids for use in computing two-dimensional flows. Once grid generated, one can optionally call upon additional subalgorithm that removes diagonal lines from quadrilateral cells nearly rectangular. Resulting approximately rectangular grid reduces cost per iteration of flow-computing algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..233R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..233R"><span>Aerial multi-camera systems: Accuracy and block <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rupnik, Ewelina; Nex, Francesco; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Oblique photography has reached its maturity and has now been adopted for several applications. The number and variety of multi-camera oblique platforms available on the market is continuously growing. So far, few attempts have been made to study the influence of the additional cameras on the behaviour of the image block and comprehensive revisions to existing flight patterns are yet to be formulated. This paper looks into the precision and accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> points <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> from diverse multi-camera oblique platforms. Its coverage is divided into simulated and real case studies. Within the simulations, different imaging platform parameters and flight patterns are varied, reflecting both current market offerings and common flight practices. Attention is paid to the aspect of completeness in terms of dense matching algorithms and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modelling - the most promising application of such systems. The experimental part demonstrates the behaviour of two oblique imaging platforms in real-world conditions. A number of Ground Control Point (GCP) configurations are adopted in order to point out the sensitivity of tested imaging networks and arising block deformations. To stress the contribution of slanted views, all scenarios are compared against a scenario in which exclusively nadir images are used for evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3737..252G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3737..252G"><span>Design of a compact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geusen, Mark, Jr.; van Amstel, Willem D.; Baumer, Stefan M. B.; Horijon, Jef L.</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>A design study for a compact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner, called Coplan, is presented. The Coplan is intended to be used for high speed, in-line coplanarity and shape measurement of electronic components, like Ball Grid Arrays and Surface Mount Devices. The scanner should have a scan length of at least 2 inches and a resolution of 5 micrometers in all 3 dimensions. First an analysis of two different scan schemes is made: a so-called pre-objective scheme using an F-(theta) scan lens and a post- objective scheme using a so-called banana field flattener, consisting of a convex, cylindrical hyperbolic mirror and a concave, cylindrical parabolic mirror. Secondly, an analysis of height resolution requirements for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and confocal depth sensing has been made. It is concluded that for both methods of depth sensing a synchronous scheme with a 50-60 degrees detection angle in cross scan direction is required. It is shown that a post-objective scheme consisting of a banana mirror system combined with <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> height detection offers the best solution for the optical requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5916..114F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5916..114F"><span>Automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vascular segmentation in CT hepatic venography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fetita, Catalin; Lucidarme, Olivier; Preteux, Francoise</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>In the framework of preoperative evaluation of the hepatic venous anatomy in living-donor liver transplantation or oncologic rejections, this paper proposes an automated approach for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation of the liver vascular structure from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CT hepatic venography data. The developed segmentation approach takes into account the specificities of anatomical structures in terms of spatial location, connectivity and morphometric properties. It implements basic and advanced morphological operators (closing, geodesic dilation, gray-level reconstruction, sup-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> connection cost) in mono- and multi-resolution filtering schemes in order to achieve an automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the opacified hepatic vessels. A thorough investigation of the venous anatomy including morphometric parameter estimation is then possible via computer-vision <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendering, interaction and navigation capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139050','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/139050"><span>TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element Heat Transfer Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mason, W.E.</p> <p>1992-03-04</p> <p>TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001696','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001696"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> using synthetic aperture radar images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>For the extraction of topographic information about Venus from stereoradar images obtained from the Magellan Mission, a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) compilation system was developed on analytical stereoplotters. The system software was extensively tested by using stereoradar images from various spacecraft and airborne radar systems, including Seasat, SIR-B, ERIM XCL, and STAR-1. Stereomodeling from radar images was proven feasible, and development is on a correct approach. During testing, the software was enhanced and modified to obtain more flexibility and better precision. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> software for establishing control points by using SAR images was also developed through a joint effort with the Defense Mapping Agency. The SAR <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system comprises four main programs, TRIDATA, MODDATA, TRISAR, and SHEAR. The first two programs are used to sort and update the data; the third program, the main one, performs iterative statistical adjustment; and the fourth program analyzes the results. Also, input are flight data and data from the Global Positioning System and Inertial System (navigation information). The SAR <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system was tested with six strips of STAR-1 radar images on a VAX-750 computer. Each strip contains images of 10 minutes flight time (equivalent to a ground distance of 73.5 km); the images cover a ground width of 22.5 km. All images were collected from the same side. With an input of 44 primary control points, 441 ground control points were produced. The adjustment process converged after eight iterations. With a 6-m/pixel resolution of the radar images, the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> adjustment has an average standard elevation error of 81 m. Development of Magellan radargrammetry will be continued to convert both SAR compilation and <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> systems into digital form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10225E..1XA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10225E..1XA"><span>Low cost <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning process using digital image processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>This paper shows the design and building of a low cost <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9282E..1TL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9282E..1TL"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction with two webcams and a laser line projector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Dongdong; Hui, Bingwei; Qiu, Shaohua; Wen, Gongjian</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) reconstruction is one of the most attractive research topics in photogrammetry and computer vision. Nowadays <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction with simple and consumable equipment plays an important role. In this paper, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction desktop system is built based on binocular stereo vision using a laser scanner. The hardware requirements are a simple commercial hand-held laser line projector and two common webcams for image acquisition. Generally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction based on passive <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> methods requires point correspondences among various viewpoints. The development of matching algorithms remains a challenging task in computer vision. In our proposal, with the help of a laser line projector, stereo correspondences are established robustly from epipolar geometry and the laser shadow on the scanned object. To establish correspondences more conveniently, epipolar rectification is employed using Bouguet's method after stereo calibration with a printed chessboard. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of the observed points are worked out with rayray <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and reconstruction outliers are removed with the planarity constraint of the laser plane. Dense <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds are derived from multiple scans under different orientations. Each point cloud is derived by sweeping the laser plane across the object requiring <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction. The Iterative Closest Point algorithm is employed to register the derived point clouds. Rigid body transformation between neighboring scans is obtained to get the complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud. Finally polygon meshes are reconstructed from the derived point cloud and color images are used in texture mapping to get a lifelike <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model. Experiments show that our reconstruction method is simple and efficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3905...67L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3905...67L"><span>Forensic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013694"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Robotic Hand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13967','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13967"><span>Forensic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scene Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.</p> <p>1999-10-12</p> <p>Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006012','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006012"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> sprag ratcheting tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wade, Michael O. (Inventor); Poland, Jr., James W. (Inventor)</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A ratcheting device comprising a driver head assembly which includes at least two <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> sprag elements positioned within a first groove within the driver head assembly such that at least one of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> sprag elements may lockingly engage the driver head assembly and a mating hub assembly to allow for rotation of the hub assembly in one direction with respect to the driver head assembly. This arrangement allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction without having to first rotate the ratcheting tool in the direction opposite the direction in which the torque is applied. This arrangement also allows the ratcheting tool to impart torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction while in the neutral position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22317338"><span>Comparing swimsuits in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner and traditional measuring methods. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22054345"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>The structure of clusters of some new carbon <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=Pathology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DPathology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=Pathology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DPathology"><span>[Real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=valvular+heart+disease&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvalvular%2Bheart%2Bdisease','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040112338&hterms=valvular+heart+disease&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvalvular%2Bheart%2Bdisease"><span>[Real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExG....46...12M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExG....46...12M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-spectral CDIs: a fast alternative to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> inversion?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macnae, James</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Virtually all airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data is interpreted using stitched 1D conductivity sections, derived from <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion or fast but fairly accurate approximations. A small subset of this AEM data recently has been inverted using either block <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models or thin plates, which processes have limitations in terms of cost and accuracy, and the results are in general strongly biased by the choice of starting models. Recent developments in spectral modelling have allowed fast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> approximations of the EM response of both vortex induction and current gathering for simple geological target geometries. Fitting these spectral responses to AEM data should be sufficient to accurately locate current systems within the ground, and the behaviour of these local current systems can in theory approximately define a conductivity structure in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. This paper describes the results of initial testing of the algorithm in fitting vortex induction in a small target at the Forrestania test range, Western Australia, using results from a versatile time-domain electromagnetic (VTEM)-Max survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BSRSL..80...42L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BSRSL..80...42L"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Radiative Transfer Modeling of Structured Winds in Massive Hot Stars with Wind<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobel, A.; Toalá, J. A.; Blomme, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We develop <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models of the structured winds of massive hot stars with the Wind<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer (RT) code. We investigate the physical properties of large-scale structures observed in the wind of the B-type supergiant HD 64760 with detailed line profile fits to Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) and rotational modulations observed with IUE in Si IV λ1395. We develop parameterized input models for Wind<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> with large-scale equatorial wind density- and velocity-structures, or so-called `Co-rotating Interaction Regions' (CIRs) and `Rotational Modulation Regions' (RMRs). The parameterized models offer important advantages for high-performance RT calculations over ab-initio hydrodynamic input models. The acceleration of the input model calculations permits us to simulate and investigate a wide variety of physical conditions in the extended winds of massive hot stars. The new modeling method is very flexible for <span class="hlt">constraining</span> the dynamic and geometric wind properties of RMRs in HD 64760. We compute that the modulations are produced by a regular pattern of radial density enhancements that protrude almost linearly into the equatorial wind. We find that the modulations are caused by narrow `spoke-like' wind regions. We present a hydrodynamic model showing that the linearly shaped radial wind pattern can be caused by mechanical wave action at the base of the stellar wind from the blue supergiant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5665...28G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5665...28G"><span>Boat's hull modeling with low-cost <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> scanners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidi, Gabriele; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>In a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition project range maps collected around the object to be modeled, need to be integrated. With portable range cameras these range maps are taken from unknown positions and their coordinate systems are local to the sensor. The problem of unifying all the measurements in a single reference system is solved by taking contiguous range maps with a suitable overlap level; taking one map as reference and doing a rototranslation of the adjacent ones by using an "Iterative Closest Point" (ICP) method. Depending on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> features over the acquired surface and on the amount of overlapping, the ICP algorithm convergence can be more or less satisfactory. Anyway it always has a random component depending on measurement uncertainty. Therefore, although each individual scan has a very good accuracy, the error's propagation may produce deviations in the aligned set respect to real surface points. In this paper a systematic study of the different alignment modality and the consequent total metric distortions on the final model, is shown. In order to experiment these techniques a case-study of industrial interest was chosen: the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling of a boat's hull mold. The experiments involved a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> based laser scanner integrated with a digital photogrammetry system. In order to check different alignment procedures, a Laser Radar capable to scan all the object surface with a single highly accurate scan, was used to create a "gold-standard" data set. All the experiments were compared with this reference and from the comparison several interesting methodological conclusions have been obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5665...28G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5665...28G"><span>Boat's hull modeling with low-cost <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> scanners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidi, Gabriele; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition project range maps collected around the object to be modeled, need to be integrated. With portable range cameras these range maps are taken from unknown positions and their coordinate systems are local to the sensor. The problem of unifying all the measurements in a single reference system is solved by taking contiguous range maps with a suitable overlap level; taking one map as reference and doing a rototranslation of the adjacent ones by using an "Iterative Closest Point" (ICP) method. Depending on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> features over the acquired surface and on the amount of overlapping, the ICP algorithm convergence can be more or less satisfactory. Anyway it always has a random component depending on measurement uncertainty. Therefore, although each individual scan has a very good accuracy, the error's propagation may produce deviations in the aligned set respect to real surface points. In this paper a systematic study of the different alignment modality and the consequent total metric distortions on the final model, is shown. In order to experiment these techniques a case-study of industrial interest was chosen: the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling of a boat's hull mold. The experiments involved a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> based laser scanner integrated with a digital photogrammetry system. In order to check different alignment procedures, a Laser Radar capable to scan all the object surface with a single highly accurate scan, was used to create a "gold-standard" data set. All the experiments were compared with this reference and from the comparison several interesting methodological conclusions have been obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1231920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1231920"><span>GPU-Accelerated Denoising in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (GD<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231920"><span>GPU-Accelerated Denoising in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (GD<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U52A..09K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U52A..09K"><span>Magmatic Systems in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets. These <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418217"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning characteristics of an amorphous silicon position sensitive detector array system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Contreras, Javier; Gomes, Luis; Filonovich, Sergej; Correia, Nuno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Isabel</p> <p>2012-02-13</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning electro-optical characteristics of a data acquisition prototype system integrating a 32 linear array of 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD) were analyzed. The system was mounted on a platform for imaging <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects using the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> principle with a sheet-of-light laser. New obtained results reveal a minimum possible gap or simulated defect detection of approximately 350 μm. Furthermore, a first study of the angle for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning was also performed, allowing for a broad range of angles to be used in the process. The relationship between the scanning angle of the incident light onto the object and the image displacement distance on the sensor was determined for the first time in this system setup. Rendering of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object profiles was performed at a significantly higher number of frames than in the past and was possible for an incident light angle range of 15 ° to 85 °.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1368083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1368083"><span>K-decompositions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> gauge theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dimofte, Tudor; Gabella, Maxime; Goncharov, Alexander B.</p> <p>2016-11-24</p> <p>This paper combines several new constructions in mathematics and physics. Mathematically, we study framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on a large class of 3-manifolds M with boundary. We introduce a moduli space $\\mathcal{L}$<sub>K</sub>(M) of framed flat connections on the boundary ∂M that extend to M. Our goal is to understand an open part of $\\mathcal{L}$<sub>K</sub>(M) as a Lagrangian subvariety in the symplectic moduli space X<sup>un</sup><sub>K</sub>(∂M) of framed flat connections on the boundary — and more so, as a “K<sub>2</sub>-Lagrangian,” meaning that the K<sub>2</sub>-avatar of the symplectic form restricts to zero. We construct an open part of $\\mathcal{L}$<sub>K</sub>(M) from elementary data associated with the hypersimplicial K-decomposition of an ideal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of M, in a way that generalizes (and combines) both Thurston’s gluing equations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> hyperbolic geometry and the cluster coordinates for framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on surfaces. By using a canonical map from the complex of configurations of decorated flags to the Bloch complex, we prove that any generic component of $\\mathcal{L}$<sub>K</sub>(M) is K<sub>2</sub>-isotropic as long as ∂M satisfies certain topological constraints (theorem 4.2). In some cases this easily implies that $\\mathcal{L}$<sub>K</sub>(M) is K<sub>2</sub>-Lagrangian. For general M, we extend a classic result of Neumann and Zagier on symplectic properties of PGL(2) gluing equations to reduce the K<sub>2</sub>-Lagrangian property to a combinatorial statement. Physically, we translate the K-decomposition of an ideal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of M and its symplectic properties to produce an explicit construction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N = 2 superconformal field theories T<sub>K</sub> [M] resulting (conjecturally) from the compactification of K M5-branes on M. This extends known constructions for K = 2. Just as for K = 2, the theories T<sub>K</sub> [M] are described as IR fixed points of abelian Chern-Simons-matter theories</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1368083-decompositions-gauge-theories','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1368083-decompositions-gauge-theories"><span>K-decompositions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> gauge theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Dimofte, Tudor; Gabella, Maxime; Goncharov, Alexander B.</p> <p>2016-11-24</p> <p>This paper combines several new constructions in mathematics and physics. Mathematically, we study framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on a large class of 3-manifolds M with boundary. We introduce a moduli spacemore » $$\\mathcal{L}$$K(M) of framed flat connections on the boundary ∂M that extend to M. Our goal is to understand an open part of $$\\mathcal{L}$$K(M) as a Lagrangian subvariety in the symplectic moduli space XunK(∂M) of framed flat connections on the boundary — and more so, as a “K2-Lagrangian,” meaning that the K2-avatar of the symplectic form restricts to zero. We construct an open part of $$\\mathcal{L}$$K(M) from elementary data associated with the hypersimplicial K-decomposition of an ideal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of M, in a way that generalizes (and combines) both Thurston’s gluing equations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> hyperbolic geometry and the cluster coordinates for framed flat PGL(K, C)-connections on surfaces. By using a canonical map from the complex of configurations of decorated flags to the Bloch complex, we prove that any generic component of $$\\mathcal{L}$$K(M) is K2-isotropic as long as ∂M satisfies certain topological constraints (theorem 4.2). In some cases this easily implies that $$\\mathcal{L}$$K(M) is K2-Lagrangian. For general M, we extend a classic result of Neumann and Zagier on symplectic properties of PGL(2) gluing equations to reduce the K2-Lagrangian property to a combinatorial statement. Physically, we translate the K-decomposition of an ideal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of M and its symplectic properties to produce an explicit construction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> N = 2 superconformal field theories TK [M] resulting (conjecturally) from the compactification of K M5-branes on M. This extends known constructions for K = 2. Just as for K = 2, the theories TK [M] are described as IR fixed points of abelian Chern-Simons-matter theories. Changes of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (2-3 moves) lead to abelian mirror symmetries that are all generated by the elementary duality between Nf = 1 SQED</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20862156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20862156"><span>Laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>: fundamental uncertainty in distance measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dorsch, R G; Häusler, G; Herrmann, J M</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>We discuss the uncertainty limit in distance sensing by laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The uncertainty in distance measurement of laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> sensors and other coherent sensors is limited by speckle noise. Speckle arises because of the coherent illumination in combination with rough surfaces. A minimum limit on the distance uncertainty is derived through speckle statistics. This uncertainty is a function of wavelength, observation aperture, and speckle contrast in the spot image. Surprisingly, it is the same distance uncertainty that we obtained from a single-photon experiment and from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Experiments confirm the theory. An uncertainty principle connecting lateral resolution and distance uncertainty is introduced. Design criteria for a sensor with minimum distanc uncertainty are determined: small temporal coherence, small spatial coherence, a large observation aperture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6944E..0EK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6944E..0EK"><span>Personal authentication using hand vein <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Ajay; Prathyusha, K. Venkata</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new approach to authenticate individuals using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of hand vein images. The proposed method is fully automated and employs palm dorsal hand vein images acquired from the low-cost, near infrared, contactless imaging. The knuckle tips are used as key points for image normalization and the extraction of region of interest. The matching scores are generated in two parallel stages; (i) hierarchical matching score from the four topologies of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> in binarized vein structures and (ii) from the geometrical features consisting of knuckle point perimeter distances in the acquired images. The weighted score level combination from these two matching scores are used to authenticate the individuals. The achieved experimental results from the proposed system using contactless, palm dorsal hand vein images are promising and suggest more user friendly alternative for user identification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......189G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......189G"><span>Causal Dynamical <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> in Four Dimensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Görlich, Andrzej</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Recent results obtained within a non-perturbative approach to quantum gravity based on the method of four-dimensional Causal Dynamical <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> are described. The phase diagram of the model consists of three phases. In the physically most interesting phase, the time-translational symmetry is spontaneously broken. Calculations of expectation values required introducing procedures taking into account the inhomogeneity of configurations. It was shown that the dynamically emerged four-dimensional background geometry corresponds to a Euclidean de Sitter space and reveals no fractality at large distances. Measurements of the covariance matrix of scale factor fluctuations allowed to reconstruct the effective action, which remained in agreement with the discrete minisuperspace action. Values of the Hausdorff dimension and spectral dimension of three-dimensional spatial slices suggest their fractal nature, which was confirmed by a direct analysis of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> structure. The Monte Carlo algorithm used to obtain presented results is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009404"><span>Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, Mark W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=adirondacks&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dadirondacks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=adirondacks&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dadirondacks"><span>A Clean Adirondack (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=clean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05277&hterms=clean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dclean"><span>A Clean Adirondack (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhTea..54..150M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhTea..54..150M"><span>Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=lies&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=lies&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlies"><span>What Lies Ahead (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=lie&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlie','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05654&hterms=lie&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlie"><span>What Lies Ahead (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1330345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1330345"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Shelby Cobra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Love, Lonnie</p> <p>2015-01-09</p> <p>ORNL's newly printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24734998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24734998"><span>Extending particle tracking capability with Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Kejia; Anthony, Stephen M; Granick, Steve</p> <p>2014-04-29</p> <p>Particle tracking, the analysis of individual moving elements in time series of microscopic images, enables burgeoning new applications, but there is need to better resolve conformation and dynamics. Here we describe the advantages of Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to extend the capabilities of particle tracking in three areas: (1) discriminating irregularly shaped objects, which allows one to track items other than point features; (2) combining time and space to better connect missing frames in trajectories; and (3) identifying shape backbone. To demonstrate the method, specific examples are given, involving analyzing the time-dependent molecular conformations of actin filaments and λ-DNA. The main limitation of this method, shared by all other clustering techniques, is the difficulty to separate objects when they are very close. This can be mitigated by inspecting locally to remove edges that are longer than their neighbors and also edges that link two objects, using methods described here, so that the combination of Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with edge removal can be robustly applied to processing large data sets. As common software packages, both commercial and open source, can construct Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> on command, the methods described in this paper are both computationally efficient and easy to implement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/221032','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/221032"><span>Coefficient adaptive <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> for strongly anisotropic problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly <span class="hlt">triangulated</span>, and the resulting <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017465','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017465"><span>Positional Awareness Map <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (PAM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7932E..0DF','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7932E..0DF"><span>DLP/DSP-based optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors for the mass market in industrial metrology and life sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frankowski, G.; Hainich, R.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>GFM has developed and constructed DLP-based optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measuring devices based on structured light illumination. Over the years the devices have been used in industrial metrology and life sciences for different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measuring tasks. This lecture will discuss integration of DLP Pico technology and DSP technology from Texas Instruments for mass market optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors. In comparison to existing mass market laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> sensors, the new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors provide a full-field measurement of up to a million points in less than a second. The lecture will further discuss different fields of application and advantages of the new generation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors for: OEM application in industrial measuring and inspection; <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> metrology in industry, life sciences and biometrics, and industrial image processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6616E..0BK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6616E..0BK"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement with phase correlation based fringe projection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kühmstedt, Peter; Munckelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Notni, Gunther</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Here we propose a method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement by means of phase correlation based fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by following features. Correlation between phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This work stands in contrast to the sole usage of phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (phase values and image co-ordinates - camera raster values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The method's main advantage is the insensitivity of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-coordinates from the absolute phase values. Thus it prevents errors in the determination of the co-ordinates and improves robustness in areas with interreflections artefacts and inhomogeneous regions of intensity. A technical advantage is the fact that the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> co-ordinates does not depend on the projection resolution. Thus the achievable quality of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> co-ordinates can be selectively improved by the use of high quality camera lenses and can participate in improvements in modern camera technologies. The presented new solution of the stereo based fringe projection with phase correlation makes a flexible, errortolerant realization of measuring systems within different applications like quality control, rapid prototyping, design and CAD/CAM possible. In the paper the phase correlation method will be described in detail. Furthermore, different realizations will be shown, i.e. a mobile system for the measurement of large objects and an endoscopic like system for CAD/CAM in dental industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925752"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Bionic Ears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. PMID:23635097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495599','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495599"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printable Graphene Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511181W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511181W"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printable Graphene Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9485E..1JM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9485E..1JM"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical thermography device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moghadam, Peyman</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, a novel handheld <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9242E..0RR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9242E..0RR"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acoustic atmospheric tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635097"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed bionic ears.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C</p> <p>2013-06-12</p> <p>The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7905E..12D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7905E..12D"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured illumination microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00691&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00691&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters"><span>Martian terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00693&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00693&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsters"><span>Martian terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00691&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00691&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Martian terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00693&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00693&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Martian terrain & airbags - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.<p/>Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.<p/>Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835649"><span>LOTT RANCH <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The Lott Ranch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28055940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28055940"><span>Deep Nonlinear Metric Learning for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Shape Retrieval.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Jin; Dai, Guoxian; Zhu, Fan; Shao, Ling; Fang, Yi</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>Effective <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape retrieval is an important problem in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis. Recently, feature learning-based shape retrieval methods have been widely studied, where the distance metrics between <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape descriptors are usually hand-crafted. In this paper, motivated by the fact that deep neural network has the good ability to model nonlinearity, we propose to learn an effective nonlinear distance metric between <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape descriptors for retrieval. First, the locality-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> linear coding method is employed to encode each vertex on the shape and the encoding coefficient histogram is formed as the global <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape descriptor to represent the shape. Then, a novel deep metric network is proposed to learn a nonlinear transformation to map the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape descriptors to a nonlinear feature space. The proposed deep metric network minimizes a discriminative loss function that can enforce the similarity between a pair of samples from the same class to be small and the similarity between a pair of samples from different classes to be large. Finally, the distance between the outputs of the metric network is used as the similarity for shape retrieval. The proposed method is evaluated on the McGill, SHREC'10 ShapeGoogle, and SHREC'14 Human shape datasets. Experimental results on the three datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..561A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..561A"><span>Influence of Gsd for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City Modeling and Visualization from Aerial Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alrajhi, Muhamad; Alam, Zafare; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA), aims to establish solid infrastructure required for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modelling, for decision making to set a mark in urban development. MOMRA is responsible for the large scale mapping 1:1,000; 1:2,500; 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scales for 10cm, 20cm and 40 GSD with Aerial <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> data. As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models are increasingly used for the presentation exploration, and evaluation of urban and architectural designs. Visualization capabilities and animations support of upcoming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geo-information technologies empower architects, urban planners, and authorities to visualize and analyze urban and architectural designs in the context of the existing situation. To make use of this possibility, first of all <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city model has to be created for which MOMRA uses the Aerial <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> data and aerial imagery. The main concise for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modelling in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia exists due to uneven surface and undulations. Thus real time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization and interactive exploration support planning processes by providing multiple stakeholders such as decision maker, architects, urban planners, authorities, citizens or investors with a three - dimensional model. Apart from advanced visualization, these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models can be helpful for dealing with natural hazards and provide various possibilities to deal with exotic conditions by better and advanced viewing technological infrastructure. Riyadh on one side is 5700m above sea level and on the other hand Abha city is 2300m, this uneven terrain represents a drastic change of surface in the Kingdom, for which <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models provide valuable solutions with all possible opportunities. In this research paper: influence of different GSD (Ground Sample Distance) aerial imagery with Aerial <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization in different region of the Kingdom, to check which scale is more sophisticated for obtaining better results and is cost manageable, with GSD (7.5cm, 10cm, 20cm and 40cm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27936932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27936932"><span>Disruption of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cancer genome blueprint.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Achinger-Kawecka, Joanna; Clark, Susan J</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in chromosome conformation capture technologies are improving the current appreciation of how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome architecture affects its function in different cell types and disease. Long-range chromatin interactions are organized into topologically associated domains, which are known to play a role in <span class="hlt">constraining</span> gene expression patterns. However, in cancer cells there are alterations in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome structure, which impacts on gene regulation. Disruption of topologically associated domains architecture can result in alterations in chromatin interactions that bring new regulatory elements and genes together, leading to altered expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Here, we discuss the impact of genetic and epigenetic changes in cancer and how this affects the spatial organization of chromatin. Understanding how disruptions to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> architecture contribute to the cancer genome will provide novel insights into the principles of epigenetic gene regulation in cancer and mechanisms responsible for cancer associated mutations and rearrangements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>, -y, -z coordinates, down-hole depth, and stratigraphic information are available. 4) We grouped stratigraphic units into four main layers based on analysis of geological settings of the modeling area. The stratigraphic units extend from Quaternary, Cretaceous, Carboniferous to Devonian. In order to facilitate the determination of each unit boundaries, a series of standard code was used to integrate data with different descriptive attributes. 5) The Quaternary and Cretaceous units are characterized by subhorizontal layers. Kriging interpolation was processed to the borehole data in order to estimate data distribution and surface relief for the layers. 6) The Carboniferous and Devonian units are folded. The lack of software support, concerning simulating folds and the shallow depth of boreholes and cross sections <span class="hlt">constrained</span> the determination of geological boundaries. A strategy of digitalizing the fold surfaces from cross sections and establishing them as inclined strata was followed. The modeling was simply subdivided into two steps. The first step consisted of importing data into the modeling software. The second step involved the construction of subhorizontal layers and folds, which were <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by geological maps, cross sections and outcrops. The construction of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stratigraphic model is of high relevance to further simulation and application, such as 1) lithological modeling; 2) answering simple questions such as "At which unit is the water table?" and calculating volume of groundwater storage during assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contamination; and 3) assigned by geotechnical properties in grids and providing them for user required application. Acknowledgements: Borehole data is kindly provided by the Municipality of Aachen. References: 1. Janet T. Watt, Jonathan M.G. Glen, David A. John and David A. Ponce (2007) Three-dimensional geologic model of the northern Nevada rift and the Beowawe geothermal system, north-central Nevada. Geosphere, v. 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1330345','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1330345"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Shelby Cobra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>Love, Lonnie</p> <p>2016-11-02</p> <p>ORNL's newly printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14134B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14134B"><span>Quasi <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dispersion experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bakucz, P.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231527"><span>ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sinclair, Michael B</p> <p>2012-01-05</p> <p>ShowMe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10329E..24Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10329E..24Z"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interferometric shape measurement technique using coherent fiber bundles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>In-situ <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurements with submicron shape uncertainty of fast rotating objects in a cutting lathe are expected, which can be achieved by simultaneous distance and velocity measurements. Conventional tactile methods, coordinate measurement machines, only support ex-situ measurements. Optical measurement techniques such as <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and conoscopic holography offer only the distance, so that the absolute diameter cannot be retrieved directly. In comparison, laser Doppler distance sensors (P-LDD sensor) enable simultaneous and in-situ distance and velocity measurements for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. In order to achieve shape measurement uncertainties below 1 μm, a P-LDD sensor with a dual camera based scattered light detection has been investigated. Coherent fiber bundles (CFB) are employed to forward the scattered light towards cameras. This enables a compact and passive sensor head in the future. Compared with a photo detector based sensor, the dual camera based sensor allows to decrease the measurement uncertainty by the order of one magnitude. As a result, the total shape uncertainty of absolute <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurements can be reduced to about 100 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8011E..7QM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8011E..7QM"><span>Metrological analysis of the human foot: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multisensor exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9316E..0CC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9316E..0CC"><span>Dual multispectral and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured light laparoscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clancy, Neil T.; Lin, Jianyu; Arya, Shobhit; Hanna, George B.; Elson, Daniel S.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Intraoperative feedback on tissue function, such as blood volume and oxygenation would be useful to the surgeon in cases where current clinical practice relies on subjective measures, such as identification of ischaemic bowel or tissue viability during anastomosis formation. Also, tissue surface profiling may be used to detect and identify certain pathologies, as well as diagnosing aspects of tissue health such as gut motility. In this paper a dual modality laparoscopic system is presented that combines multispectral reflectance and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface imaging. White light illumination from a xenon source is detected by a laparoscope-mounted fast filter wheel camera to assemble a multispectral image (MSI) cube. Surface shape is then calculated using a spectrally-encoded structured light (SL) pattern detected by the same camera and <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> using an active stereo technique. Images of porcine small bowel were acquired during open surgery. Tissue reflectance spectra were acquired and blood volume was calculated at each spatial pixel across the bowel wall and mesentery. SL features were segmented and identified using a `normalised cut' algoritm and the colour vector of each spot. Using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry defined by the camera coordinate system the multispectral data could be overlaid onto the surface mesh. Dual MSI and SL imaging has the potential to provide augmented views to the surgeon supplying diagnostic information related to blood supply health and organ function. Future work on this system will include filter optimisation to reduce noise in tissue optical property measurement, and minimise spot identification errors in the SL pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dshooting','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=shooting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dshooting"><span>Supernova Remnant in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p> wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model using all of this information. A program called <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model. Commercial software was then used to create the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fly-through. <p/> The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. <p/> This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. <p/> High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=sulphur&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsulphur','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11748&hterms=sulphur&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsulphur"><span>Supernova Remnant in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p> wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model using all of this information. A program called <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model. Commercial software was then used to create the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> fly-through. <p/> The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. <p/> This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. <p/> High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26861680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26861680"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Graphene Aerogels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong</p> <p>2016-04-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of a graphene aerogel with true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25651841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25651841"><span>Determination of the human spine curve based on laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poredoš, Primož; Čelan, Dušan; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija</p> <p>2015-02-05</p> <p>The main objective of the present method was to automatically obtain a spatial curve of the thoracic and lumbar spine based on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape measurement of a human torso with developed scoliosis. Manual determination of the spine curve, which was based on palpation of the thoracic and lumbar spinous processes, was found to be an appropriate way to validate the method. Therefore a new, noninvasive, optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> method for human torso evaluation in medical practice is introduced. Twenty-four patients with confirmed clinical diagnosis of scoliosis were scanned using a specially developed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser profilometer. The measuring principle of the system is based on laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with one-laser-plane illumination. The measurement took approximately 10 seconds at 700 mm of the longitudinal translation along the back. The single point measurement accuracy was 0.1 mm. Computer analysis of the measured surface returned two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> curves. The first curve was determined by manual marking (manual curve), and the second was determined by detecting surface curvature extremes (automatic curve). The manual and automatic curve comparison was given as the root mean square deviation (RMSD) for each patient. The intra-operator study involved assessing 20 successive measurements of the same person, and the inter-operator study involved assessing measurements from 8 operators. The results obtained for the 24 patients showed that the typical RMSD between the manual and automatic curve was 5.0 mm in the frontal plane and 1.0 mm in the sagittal plane, which is a good result compared with palpatory accuracy (9.8 mm). The intra-operator repeatability of the presented method in the frontal and sagittal planes was 0.45 mm and 0.06 mm, respectively. The inter-operator repeatability assessment shows that that the presented method is invariant to the operator of the computer program with the presented method. The main novelty of the presented paper is the development of a new, non-contact method</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244259-dark-matter','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244259-dark-matter"><span>Dark matter in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.</p> <p>2016-03-21</p> <p>We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our methodmore » using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. Furthermore, we conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and <span class="hlt">constrain</span> or measure the presence of anisotropies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244259','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244259"><span>Dark matter in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.</p> <p>2016-03-21</p> <p>We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. Furthermore, we conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and <span class="hlt">constrain</span> or measure the presence of anisotropies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1155793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1155793"><span>Dark Matter in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alves, Daniele S.M.; Hedri, Sonia El; Wacker, Jay G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. We conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and <span class="hlt">constrain</span> or measure the presence of anisotropies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18837173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18837173"><span>Implementing a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> protocol in bereavement research: a methodological discussion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Briller, Sherylyn H; Meert, Kathleen L; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Thurston, Celia S; Kabel, Allison</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is a comparative strategy for examining data that strengthens qualitative and multi-method research. Despite the benefits of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> noted in the research methods literature, few concrete models for operationalization of protocols exist. Lack of documentation of explicit <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> procedures is especially true in the area of bereavement research. This article describes how an interdisciplinary research team implemented a <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> protocol in a study of the needs of bereaved parents. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> enabled the integration of diverse data sources, methods, and disciplinary perspectives. These processes yielded a more meaningful typology of bereaved parents' needs than would have otherwise been possible. Extending the use of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> will enhance multi-faceted understandings of bereavement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CG.....34..738P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CG.....34..738P"><span>Tensor<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: A computer graphics program to simulate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> real-time deformation and visualization of geometric bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Tensor<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> models representing geological bodies. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950022310&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950022310&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Algorithms for high aspect ratio oriented <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Posenau, Mary-Anne K.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> phase in which points are added to the partition to enable <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G51A0859F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G51A0859F"><span>Reducing Non-Uniqueness in Satellite Gravity Inversion using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Object Oriented Image Analysis Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has been usually reduced by using a priori information from various sources, e.g. seismic tomography models. The reduction in non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures (objects) in seismic tomography models. However, these processes introduce additional uncertainty through the conversion relations due to the dependency on the other physical parameters such as temperature and pressure, or through the bias in the interpretation due to user choices and experience. In this research, a new methodology is introduced to extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical data using a state-of-art <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOA) technique. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OOA is tested using a set of synthetic models that simulate the real situation in the study area of this research. Then, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OOA is used to extract <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface objects from a real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic tomography model. The extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects are used to reconstruct a forward model and its response is compared with the measured satellite gravity. Finally, the result of the forward modelling, based on the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects, is used to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the inversion process of satellite gravity data. Through this work, a new object-based approach is introduced to interpret and extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface objects from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical data. This can be used to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> modelling and inversion of potential field data using the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures from other methods. In summary, a new approach is introduced to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> inversion of satellite gravity measurements and enhance interpretation capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348942"><span>Strategies for nonobtuse boundary Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murphy, M. |; Gable, C.W.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Delaunay <span class="hlt">Triangulations</span> with nonobtuse triangles at the boundaries satisfy a minimal requirement for Control Volume meshes. They motivate this quality requirement, discuss it in context with others that have been proposed, and give point placement strategies that generate the fewest or close to the fewest number of Steiner points needed to satisfy it for a particular problem instance. The advantage is that this strategy places a number of Steiner points proportional to the combinatorial size of the input rather than the local feature size, resulting in far fewer points in many cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..403S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..403S"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling. In our experiments, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models will be represented by using standard formats of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds and <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8611E..0NM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8611E..0NM"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrafast laser scanner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...813263B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...813263B"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.K2003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.K2003H"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Kitaev spin liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hermanns, Maria</p> <p></p> <p>The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B5..587S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B5..587S"><span>Crowdsourcing Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22003697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22003697"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis for early diagnosis of malignant lung nodules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Baz, Ayman; Nitzken, Matthew; Elnakib, Ahmed; Khalifa, Fahmi; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Falk, Robert; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An alternative method of diagnosing malignant lung nodules by their shape, rather than conventional growth rate, is proposed. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces of the detected lung nodules are delineated by spherical harmonic analysis that represents a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface of the lung nodule supported by the unit sphere with a linear combination of special basis functions, called Spherical Harmonics (SHs). The proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis is carried out in five steps: (i) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lung nodule segmentation with a deformable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary controlled by a new prior visual appearance model; (ii) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh model of the segmented lung nodule surface; (iii) mapping this model to the unit sphere; (iv) computing the SHs for the surface; and (v) determining the number of the SHs to delineate the lung nodule. We describe the lung nodule shape complexity with a new shape index, the estimated number of the SHs, and use it for the K-nearest classification into malignant and benign lung nodules. Preliminary experiments on 327 lung nodules (153 malignant and 174 benign) resulted in a classification accuracy of 93.6%, showing that the proposed method is a promising supplement to current technologies for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21761703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21761703"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis for early diagnosis of malignant lung nodules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Bazl, Ayman; Nitzken, Matthew; Khalifa, Fahmi; Elnakib, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Falk, Robert; El-Ghar, Mohammed Abo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An alternative method for diagnosing malignant lung nodules by their shape rather than conventional growth rate is proposed. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces of the detected lung nodules are delineated by spherical harmonic analysis, which represents a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface of the lung nodule supported by the unit sphere with a linear combination of special basis functions, called spherical harmonics (SHs). The proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis is carried out in five steps: (i) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lung nodule segmentation with a deformable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary controlled by two probabilistic visual appearance models (the learned prior and the estimated current appearance one); (ii) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh model of the segmented lung nodule surface; (iii) mapping this model to the unit sphere; (iv) computing the SHs for the surface, and (v) determining the number of the SHs to delineate the lung nodule. We describe the lung nodule shape complexity with a new shape index, the estimated number of the SHs, and use it for the K-nearest classification to distinguish malignant and benign lung nodules. Preliminary experiments on 327 lung nodules (153 malignant and 174 benign) resulted in the 93.6% correct classification (for the 95% confidence interval), showing that the proposed method is a promising supplement to current technologies for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED23B0644K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED23B0644K"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Viewing: Odd Perception - Illusion? reality? or both?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kisimoto, K.; Iizasa, K.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We live in the three dimensional space, don't we? It could be at least four dimensions, but that is another story. In either way our perceptual capability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Viewing is <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by our 2D-perception (our intrinsic tools of perception). I carried out a few visual experiments using topographic data to show our intrinsic (or biological) disability (or shortcoming) in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-recognition of our world. Results of the experiments suggest: (1) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-surface model displayed on a 2D-computer screen (or paper) always has two interpretations of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>- surface geometry, if we choose one of the interpretation (in other word, if we are hooked by one perception of the two), we maintain its perception even if the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-model changes its viewing perspective in time shown on the screen, (2) more interesting is that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-real solid object (e.g.,made of clay) also gives above mentioned two interpretations of the geometry of the object, if we observe the object with one-eye. Most famous example of this viewing illusion is exemplified by a magician, who died in 2007, Jerry Andrus who made a super-cool paper crafted dragon which causes visual illusion to one-eyed viewer. I, by the experiments, confirmed this phenomenon in another perceptually persuasive (deceptive?) way. My conclusion is that this illusion is intrinsic, i.e. reality for human, because, even if we live in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-space, our perceptional tool (eyes) is composed of 2D sensors whose information is reconstructed or processed to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> by our experience-based brain. So, (3) when we observe the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-surface-model on the computer screen, we are always one eye short even if we use both eyes. One last suggestion from my experiments is that recent highly sophisticated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>- models might include too many information that human perceptions cannot handle properly, i.e. we might not be understanding the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world (geospace) at all, just illusioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945691"><span>NIF Ignition Target <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Point Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D</p> <p>2008-11-05</p> <p>We have developed an input file for running <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15456005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15456005"><span>SYDESCO: a laser-video scanner for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scoliosis evaluations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Treuillet, S; Lucas, Y; Crepin, G; Peuchot, B; Pichaud, J C</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>SYDESCO is a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision system developed for trunk surface topography. This structured light surface scanner uses the principle of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>-based range sensing to infer <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape. The complete trunk acquisition is fast (2 seconds). The accuracy of the metric data is ensured by a subpixel image detection and a calibration process, which rectifies image deformations. A preliminary study presents results on 50 children in a gymnastics school. These children, aged between eight to sixteen years, are particularly exposed to spinal deformities. An asymmetry index is calculated from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data to detect the pathologic cases. These results have been compared to an independent medical diagnosis. The system results have been confirmed for 72,1% of the patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3040G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3040G"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Thermal Stratification of Koycegiz Lake, Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurcan, Tugba; Kurtulus, Bedri; Avsar, Ozgur; Avsar, Ulas</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Water temperature in lakes, streams and coastal areas is an important indicator for several purposes (water quality, aquatic organism, land use, etc..). There are over a hundred lakes in Turkey. Most of them locates in the area known as the Lake District in southwestern Turkey. The Study area is located at the south and southwest part of Turkey in Muǧla region. The present study focuses on determining possible thermocline changes in Lake Koyceǧiz by in-situ measurements. The measurement were done by two snapshot campaign at July and August 2013. Using Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University geological engineering floating platform, temperature, specific conductance, salinity and depth values were measured with the YSI 6600 and Horiba U2 devices in surface and depth of Lake Köyceǧiz at specific grid. When the depth of the water and the coordinates were measured by GPS. Scattered data interpolation is used to perform interpolation on a scattered dataset that resides in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature color mesh grid were generated by using Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and Natural neighbor interpolation methodology. At the end of the study a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conceptual lake temperature dynamics model was reconstructed using MATLAB functions. The results show that Koycegiz Lake is a meromictic lake and has a significance decrease of Temperature at 7m of depth.In this regard, we would like also to thank TUBITAK project (112Y137), French Embassy in Turkey and Sıtkı Kocman Foundation for their financial support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21135435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21135435"><span>Vehicle Surveillance with a Generic, Adaptive, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Vehicle Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leotta, Matthew J; Mundy, Joseph L</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>In automated surveillance, one is often interested in tracking road vehicles, measuring their shape in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world space, and determining vehicle classification. To address these tasks simultaneously, an effective approach is the <span class="hlt">constrained</span> alignment of a prior model of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vehicle shape to images. Previous <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vehicle models are either generic but overly simple or rigid and overly complex. Rigid models represent exactly one vehicle design, so a large collection is needed. A single generic model can deform to a wide variety of shapes, but those shapes have been far too primitive. This paper uses a generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vehicle model that deforms to match a wide variety of passenger vehicles. It is adjustable in complexity between the two extremes. The model is aligned to images by predicting and matching image intensity edges. Novel algorithms are presented for fitting models to multiple still images and simultaneous tracking while estimating shape in video. Experiments compare the proposed model to simple generic models in accuracy and reliability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape recovery from images and tracking in video. Standard techniques for classification are also used to compare the models. The proposed model outperforms the existing simple models at each task.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9684E..3AB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9684E..3AB"><span>Surface roughness measurement with laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bai, Fuzhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Chaoping</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A surface roughness measurement method is introduced in the paper, which is based on laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and digital image processing technique. In the measuring system, we use the line-structured light as light source, microscope lens and high-accuracy CCD sensor as displacement sensor as well. In addition, the working angle corresponding to the optimal sensitivity is considered in the optical structure design to improve the measuring accuracy. Through necessary image processing operation for the light strip image, such as center-line extraction with the barycenter algorithm, Gaussian filtering, the value of roughness is calculated. A standard planing surface is measured experimentally with the proposed method and the stylus method (Mitutoyo SJ-410) respectively. The profilograms of surface appearance are greatly similar in the shape and the amplitude to two methods. Also, the roughness statistics values are close. The results indicate that the laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> with the line-structured light can be applied to measure the surface roughness with the advantages of rapid measurement and visualized display of surface roughness profile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28504940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28504940"><span>Good Random Multi-<span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of Surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Medeiros Filho, Esdras; Siqueira, Marcelo</p> <p>2017-05-12</p> <p>We introduce the Hierarchical Poisson Disk Sampling Multi-<span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> (HPDS-MT) of surfaces, a novel structure that combines the power of multi-<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (MT) with the benefits of Hierarchical Poisson Disk Sampling (HPDS). MT is a general framework for representing surfaces through variable resolution triangle meshes, while HPDS is a well-spaced random distribution with blue noise characteristics. The distinguishing feature of the HPDS-MT is its ability to extract adaptive meshes whose triangles are guaranteed to have good shape quality. The key idea behind the HPDS-MT is a preprocessed hierarchy of points, which is used in the construction of a MT via incremental simplification. In addition to proving theoretical properties on the shape quality of the triangle meshes extracted by the HPDS-MT, we provide an implementation that computes the HPDS-MT with high accuracy. Our results confirm the theoretical guarantees and outperform similar methods. We also prove that the Hausdorff distance between the original surface and any (extracted) adaptive mesh is bounded by the sampling distribution of the radii of Poisson-disks over the surface. Finally, we illustrate the advantages of the HPDS-MT in some typical problems of geometry processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793405','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793405"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Cavern Enlargement Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-4','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-4"><span>America's National Parks <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> (4)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-04-11</p> <p>article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 4)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.   ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-3','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-3"><span>America's National Parks <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> (3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-12-30</p> <p>article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 3)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.   ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-2','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-2"><span>America's National Parks <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> (2)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-12-30</p> <p>article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 2)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.   ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-1','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/america-national-parks-1"><span>America's National Parks <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> (1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-12-30</p> <p>article title:  America's National Parks Viewed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> by NASA's MISR (Anaglyph 1)   ... four new anaglyphs that showcase 33 of our nation's national parks, monuments, historical sites and recreation areas in glorious <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.   ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085742"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound in fetal spina bifida.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schramm, T; Gloning, K-P; Minderer, S; Tutschek, B</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound can be used to study the fetal spine, but skeletal mode can be inconclusive for the diagnosis of fetal spina bifida. We illustrate a diagnostic approach using 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound and indicate possible pitfalls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8618E..0PZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8618E..0PZ"><span>An interactive multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The progresses in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information. They yield a realistic representation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display and user interaction system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16011109"><span>[<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570784','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA570784"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Extensions for Trustworthy Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>modifications to the floor planning stage of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> design flow that are necessary to support our design approach. We strongly recommend that the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> EDA ...and we outline problems, challenges, attacks, solutions, and topics for future research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Requirements for automated <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> IC design tools for the physical layout of components. Since fully automated Electronic Design Automation ( EDA ) for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..209W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..209W"><span>True <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Images and Their Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image, especially a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> oblique image, it has true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images and the applications of true <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images in a couple of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city modeling projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA553040','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA553040"><span>Microfabricating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Structures by Laser Origami</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-09</p> <p>10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures com...materials Figure 1. (A–C) Schematic illustrating the steps in the laser origami process and (D) a resulting folded out-of-plane <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure. that can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA264825','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA264825"><span>Laser Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Volumetric Display System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012955','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012955"><span>2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visual Tracker for Rover Mast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm computes a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> locations. The algorithm rejects points, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3075G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3075G"><span>Complex crustal structures: their <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grav/mag modelling and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Menzel, Peter</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Our new techniques for modelling and visualization are user-friendly because they are highly interactive, ideally real-time and topology conserving and can be used for both flat and spherical models in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. These are important requirements for joint inversion for gravity and magnetic modelling of fields and their derivatives, <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by seismic and structural input from independent data sources. A borehole tool for magnetic and gravity modelling will also be introduced. We are already close to satisfying the demand of treating several geophysical methods in a single model for subsurface evaluation purposes and aim now for fulfilling most of the constraints: consistency of modelling results and measurements and geological plausibility as well. For <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modelling, polyhedrons built by triangles are used. All elements of the gravity and magnetic tensors can be included. In the modelling interface, after geometry changes the effect on the model is quickly updated because only the changed triangles have to be recalculated. Because of the triangular model structure, our approach can handle complex structures very well and flexible (e.g. overhangs of salt domes or plumes). For regional models, the use of spherical geometries and calculations is necessary and available. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization is performed with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printer (Ultimaker 2) and gives new insights into even rather complicated Earth subsurface structures. Inversion can either be run over the whole model, but typically it is used in smaller parts of the model, helping to solve local problems and/or proving/disproving local hypotheses. The basic principles behind this interactive approach are high performance optimized algorithms (CMA-ES: Covariance-matrix-adoption-evolution-strategy). The efficiency of the algorithm is rather good in terms of stable convergence due to topological model validity. Potential field modelling is always influenced by edge effects. To avoid this, a simple but very robust method has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=advanced+AND+materials&pg=5&id=EJ748295','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=advanced+AND+materials&pg=5&id=EJ748295"><span>Teaching Geography with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. We developed and presented <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=2&id=EJ1101114','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=2&id=EJ1101114"><span>Expanding Geometry Understanding with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the rise of personal desktop <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers have become readily…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..127S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..127S"><span>Imaging a Sustainable Future in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photography as well as promoting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photographs, samples for new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photographs taken with modern <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> methodology, as well as to catch new trends in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, an updated synoptic overview of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3-d+AND+printing&id=EJ1101114','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3-d+AND+printing&id=EJ1101114"><span>Expanding Geometry Understanding with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the rise of personal desktop <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers have become readily…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+systems&pg=5&id=EJ748295','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+systems&pg=5&id=EJ748295"><span>Teaching Geography with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. We developed and presented <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444770','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444770"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing and Its Urologic Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6803E..0RE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6803E..0RE"><span>Beowulf <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: a case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engle, Rob</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> formats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020054405"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows. In particular, we examine the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 4D textures on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6974K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6974K"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000449&hterms=landfills&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlandfills','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000449&hterms=landfills&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dlandfills"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Perspective Pasadena, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9018E..0AM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9018E..0AM"><span>State of the art of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning systems and inspection of textile surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montilla, M.; Orjuela-Vargas, S. A.; Philips, W.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The rapid development of hardware and software in the digital image processing field has boosted research in computer vision for applications in industry. The development of new electronic devices and the tendency to decrease their prices makes possible new developments that few decades ago were possible only in the imagination. This is the case of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging technology which permits to detect failures in industrial products by inspecting aspects on their <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface. In search of an optimal solution for scanning textiles we present in this paper a review of existing techniques for digitizing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces. Topographic details of textiles can be obtained by digitizing surfaces using laser line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, phase shifting optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, projected-light, stereo-vision systems and silhouette analysis. Although we are focused on methods that have been used in the textile industry, we also consider potential mechanisms used for other applications. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the evaluated methods and state a summary of potential implementations for the textile industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=validation+AND+method&pg=6&id=EJ968448','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=validation+AND+method&pg=6&id=EJ968448"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torrance, Harry</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is an important component of mixed methods designs. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=method+AND+Research+AND+mixed&pg=3&id=EJ968448','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=method+AND+Research+AND+mixed&pg=3&id=EJ968448"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torrance, Harry</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is an important component of mixed methods designs. <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/437676','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/437676"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> modular gripper design tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely <span class="hlt">constrained</span>. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">d</span> fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7524E..0BH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7524E..0BH"><span>Case study: Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: benefits of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing for 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Handy Turner, Tara</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monitors were available and few software packages provided <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conversions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/413525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/413525"><span>Mini <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for shallow gas reconnaissance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The Mini <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image of gas charged bodies. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28533140','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28533140"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive surgical visualization system using mobile spatial information acquisition and autostereoscopic display.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Zhencheng; Weng, Yitong; Chen, Guowen; Liao, Hongen</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) visualization of preoperative and intraoperative medical information becomes more and more important in minimally invasive surgery. We develop a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive surgical visualization system using mobile spatial information acquisition and autostereoscopic display for surgeons to observe surgical target intuitively. The spatial information of regions of interest (ROIs) is captured by the mobile device and transferred to a server for further image processing. Triangular patches of intraoperative data with texture are calculated with a dimension-reduced <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm and a projection-weighted mapping algorithm. A point cloud selection-based warm-start iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is also developed for fusion of the reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> intraoperative image and the preoperative image. The fusion images are rendered for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> autostereoscopic display using integral videography (IV) technology. Moreover, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of medical image corresponding to observer's viewing direction is updated automatically using mutual information registration method. Experimental results show that the spatial position error between the IV-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> autostereoscopic fusion image and the actual object was 0.38±0.92mm (n=5). The system can be utilized in telemedicine, operating education, surgical planning, navigation, etc. to acquire spatial information conveniently and display surgical information intuitively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22417497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22417497"><span>High-speed weight estimation of whole herring (Clupea harengus) using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> machine vision.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Toldnes, Bendik; Bondø, Morten; Østvik, Stein Ove</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Weight is an important parameter by which the price of whole herring (Clupea harengus) is determined. Current mechanical weight graders are capable of a high throughput but have a relatively low accuracy. For this reason, there is a need for a more accurate high-speed weight estimation of whole herring. A 3-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) machine vision system was developed for high-speed weight estimation of whole herring. The system uses a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system above a conveyor belt moving at a speed of 1000 mm/s. Weight prediction models were developed for several feature sets, and a linear regression model using several 2-dimensional (2D) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> features enabled more accurate weight estimation than using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume only. Using the combined 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> features, the root mean square error of cross-validation was 5.6 g, and the worst-case prediction error, evaluated by cross-validation, was ±14 g, for a sample (n = 179) of fresh whole herring. The proposed system has the potential to enable high-speed and accurate weight estimation of whole herring in the processing plants. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> machine vision system presented in this article enables high-speed and accurate weight estimation of whole herring, thus enabling an increase in profitability for the pelagic primary processors through a more accurate weight grading. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JPRS...49...23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JPRS...49...23K"><span>Model-based <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> scene analysis from stereoscopic image sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koch, Reinhard</p> <p></p> <p>A vision-based <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> scene analysis system is described that is capable to model complex real-world scences like buildings automatically from stereoscopic image pairs. Input to the system is a sequence of stereoscopic images taken with two standard CCD Cameras and TV lenses. The relative orientation of both cameras to each other is known by calibration. The camera pair is then moved throughout the scene and a long sequence of closely spaced views is recorded. Each of the stereoscopic image pairs is rectified and a dense map of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface points is obtained by area correlation, object segmentation, interpolation, and <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> camera motion relative to the scene coordinate system is tracked directly from the image sequence which allows to fuse <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface measurements from different view points into a consistent <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model scence. The surface geometry of each scene object is approximated by a triangular surface mesh which stores the surface texture in a texture map. From the textured <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models, realistic looking image sequences from arbitrary view points can be synthesized using computer graphics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4309...26X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4309...26X"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement of the human body for apparel mass customization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Bugao; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Tong</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body-scanning system using the multi-line <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique, and methods for body size extraction and body modeling. The scanning system can rapidly acquire the surface data of a body, provide accurate body dimensions, many of which are not measurable with conventional methods, and also construct a body form based on the scanned data as a digital model of the body for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9473E..0JO','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9473E..0JO"><span>Effects of camera location on the reconstruction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flare trajectory with two cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özsaraç, Seçkin; Yeşilkaya, Muhammed</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Flares are used as valuable electronic warfare assets for the battle against infrared guided missiles. The trajectory of the flare is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of the counter measure. Reconstruction of the three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) position of a point, which is seen by multiple cameras, is a common problem. Camera placement, camera calibration, corresponding pixel determination in between the images of different cameras and also the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm affect the performance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position estimation. In this paper, we specifically investigate the effects of camera placement on the flare trajectory estimation performance by simulations. Firstly, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> trajectory of a flare and also the aircraft, which dispenses the flare, are generated with simple motion models. Then, we place two virtual ideal pinhole camera models on different locations. Assuming the cameras are tracking the aircraft perfectly, the view vectors of the cameras are computed. Afterwards, using the view vector of each camera and also the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the flare, image plane coordinates of the flare on both cameras are computed using the field of view (FOV) values. To increase the fidelity of the simulation, we have used two sources of error. One is used to model the uncertainties in the determination of the camera view vectors, i.e. the orientations of the cameras are measured noisy. Second noise source is used to model the imperfections of the corresponding pixel determination of the flare in between the two cameras. Finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the flare is estimated using the corresponding pixel indices, view vector and also the FOV of the cameras by <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. All the processes mentioned so far are repeated for different relative camera placements so that the optimum estimation error performance is found for the given aircraft and are trajectories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711146T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711146T"><span>Particle acceleration at <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconnecting magnetic separators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Threlfall, James; Neukirch, Thomas; Parnell, Clare; Stevenson, Julie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present results of test particle orbit calculations in three different environments which model separator reconnection in three dimensions. The test particle (electron and proton) orbits are calculated using the relativistic guiding centre approximation. We investigate test particle orbits in a time-dependent (analytical) electro-magnetic field configuration [detailed in Threlfall et al. (A&A, in press); arXiv:1410.6465]. These results are also compared with orbits based upon large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD simulations of both a single reconnecting magnetic separator and an observationally driven <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of a solar active region which contains several topological features of interest, including separators. We discuss how the test-particle orbits and the energy gain depend on the initial conditions, and how observations (for example, of solar flares) may be used to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> model parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARH35004L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARH35004L"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team</p> <p></p> <p>Constructing three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> silicon based Tepuis, constructing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> wax printing and the latest home designed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> bio-printer. Although <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/585058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/585058"><span>RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tutorials for GMS users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was developed from the single-species transport code, MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and GMS on a routine basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..122...41Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..122...41Q"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> change detection - Approaches and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data acquisition and generation, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> aspects of the data. The inclusion of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data for change detection (termed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, we discuss important issues in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/750231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/750231"><span>Single-step assembly of complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> microstructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hui, E.E.; Howe, R.T.; Rodgers, M.S.</p> <p>2000-01-04</p> <p>This paper describes three-dimensional microstructures fabricated in a planar process and assembled in a single step. Multiple plates are <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by hinges in such a way as to reduce the assembly process to a single degree-of-freedom of motion. Serial microassembly of these structures is simpler; moreover, self-assembly using hydrodynamic forces during release is much more feasible than with earlier, multiple degree-of-freedom hinged structures. A 250-{micro}m corner cube reflector, a 6-sided closed box, and a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> model of the Berkeley Campanile clock tower have been demonstrated in the 4-level polysilicon SUMMiT MEMS foundry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...11..151D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...11..151D"><span>K-decompositions and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> gauge theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimofte, Tudor; Gabella, Maxime; Goncharov, Alexander B.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This paper combines several new constructions in mathematics and physics. Mathematically, we study framed flat PGL( K, ℂ)-connections on a large class of 3-manifolds M with boundary. We introduce a moduli space ℒ K ( M) of framed flat connections on the boundary ∂ M that extend to M. Our goal is to understand an open part of ℒ K ( M) as a Lagrangian subvariety in the symplectic moduli space {{X}}_K^{un}(partial M) of framed flat connections on the boundary — and more so, as a "K2-Lagrangian," meaning that the K2-avatar of the symplectic form restricts to zero. We construct an open part of ℒ K ( M) from elementary data associated with the hypersimplicial K-decomposition of an ideal <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of M, in a way that generalizes (and combines) both Thurston's gluing equations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> hyperbolic geometry and the cluster coordinates for framed flat PGL( K, ℂ)-connections on surfaces. By using a canonical map from the complex of configurations of decorated flags to the Bloch complex, we prove that any generic component of ℒ K ( M) is K2-isotropic as long as ∂ M satisfies certain topological constraints (theorem 4.2). In some cases this easily implies that ℒ K ( M) is K2-Lagrangian. For general M, we extend a classic result of Neumann and Zagier on symplectic properties of PGL(2) gluing equations to reduce the K2-Lagrangian property to a combinatorial statement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5370.1254Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5370.1254Z"><span>Parameterization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> brain structures for statistical shape analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Litao; Jiang, Tianzi</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Statistical Shape Analysis (SSA) is a powerful tool for noninvasive studies of pathophysiology and diagnosis of brain diseases. It also provides a shape constraint for the segmentation of brain structures. There are two key problems in SSA: the representation of shapes and their alignments. The widely used parameterized representations are obtained by preserving angles or areas and the alignments of shapes are achieved by rotating parameter net. However, representations preserving angles or areas do not really guarantee the anatomical correspondence of brain structures. In this paper, we incorporate shape-based landmarks into parameterization of banana-like <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> brain structures to address this problem. Firstly, we get the <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> surface of the object and extract two landmarks from the mesh, i.e. the ends of the banana-like object. Then the surface is parameterized by creating a continuous and bijective mapping from the surface to a spherical surface based on a heat conduction model. The correspondence of shapes is achieved by mapping the two landmarks to the north and south poles of the sphere and using an extracted origin orientation to select the dateline during parameterization. We apply our approach to the parameterization of lateral ventricle and a multi-resolution shape representation is obtained by using the Discrete Fourier Transform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8894885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8894885"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> of communication skills in qualitative research instruments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Begley, C M</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Triangulation</span> is a credible and useful method of conducting research which can result in an increase in both quality and quantity of data gathered. The five documented types of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> (data, investigator, theoretical, methodological, unit of analysis) do not completely answer all the needs of nurse researchers, particularly in the field of qualitative research. Using more than one method of data collection from within the same research tradition (within-method <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>) is an accepted and effective technique. Extending the concept of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> to include the development of research tools leads to the proposal that the conscious use of two or three types of communication within each qualitative research instrument would improve its effectiveness over a tool which used only one type. This application of '<span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of communication skills' is considered within each of the major qualitative research tools, and the benefits outlined. The implications for nursing research and nurse researchers of consciously using non-verbal cues to supplement verbal information are described. It is suggested that using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of communication skills in this way may improve the validity of data obtained and, if clearly documented, increase the credibility of the findings. In particular, when conducting qualitative interviews, the expert use of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of communication skills will enhance the quality and quantity of data gathered. To this end, novice researchers need education and practice in using communication skills to best effect, in order to ensure the validity and completeness of their findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss042e031282.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss042e031282.html"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printer Coupon removal and stowage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-09</p> <p>iss042e031282 (12/09/2014) ---US Astronaut Barry (Butch) Wilmore holding a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coupon works with the new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer aboard the International Space Station. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing experiment in zero gravity demonstrates that a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer works normally in space. In general, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer extrudes streams of heated plastic, metal or other material, building layer on top of layer to create 3 dimensional objects. Testing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer using relatively low-temperature plastic feedstock on the International Space Station is the first step towards establishing an on-demand machine shop in space, a critical enabling component for deep-space crewed missions and in-space manufacturing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2787...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2787...62A"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> measurement for rapid prototyping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Optical <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurement can realize both. Classical <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93j3524P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93j3524P"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> weak lensing: Modified theories of gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pratten, Geraint; Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Brax, Philippe</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Weak lensing (WL) promises to be a particularly sensitive probe of both the growth of large-scale structure as well as the fundamental relation between matter density perturbations and metric perturbations, thus providing a powerful tool with which we may <span class="hlt">constrain</span> modified theories of gravity (MG) on cosmological scales. Future deep, wide-field WL surveys will provide an unprecedented opportunity to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> deviations from General Relativity. Employing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analysis based on the spherical Fourier-Bessel expansion, we investigate the extent to which MG theories will be <span class="hlt">constrained</span> by a typical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WL survey configuration including noise from the intrinsic ellipticity distribution σɛ of source galaxies. Here, we focus on two classes of screened theories of gravity: (i) f (R ) chameleon models and (ii) environmentally dependent dilaton models. We use one-loop perturbation theory combined with halo models in order to accurately model the evolution of the matter power spectrum with redshift in these theories. Using a χ2 analysis, we show that for an all-sky spectroscopic survey, the parameter fR0 can be <span class="hlt">constrained</span> in the range fR0<5 ×10-6(9 ×10-6) for n =1 (2 ) with a 3 σ confidence level. This can be achieved by using relatively low-order angular harmonics ℓ<100 . Higher-order harmonics ℓ>100 could provide tighter constraints but are subject to nonlinear effects, such as baryonic feedback, that must be accounted for. We also employ a Principal Component Analysis in order to study the parameter degeneracies in the MG parameters. The confusion from intrinsic ellipticity correlation and modification of the matter power spectrum at a small scale due to feedback mechanisms is briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ExG....47..260K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ExG....47..260K"><span>Joint inversions of two VTEM surveys using quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TDEM and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic inversion algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaminski, Vlad; Di Massa, Domenico; Viezzoli, Andrea</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In the current paper, we present results of a joint quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) inversion of two versatile time domain electromagnetic (VTEM) datasets, as well as a joint <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> inversion of associated aeromagnetic datasets, from two surveys flown six years apart from one another (2007 and 2013) over a volcanogenic massive sulphide gold (VMS-Au) prospect in northern Ontario, Canada. The time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data were inverted jointly using the spatially <span class="hlt">constrained</span> inversion (SCI) approach. In order to increase the coherency in the model space, a calibration parameter was added. This was followed by a joint inversion of the total magnetic intensity (TMI) data extracted from the two surveys. The results of the inversions have been studied and matched with the known geology, adding some new valuable information to the ongoing mineral exploration initiative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA454916','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA454916"><span>Expedient Gap Definition Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LADAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D ...developed an algorithm to extract from this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud any user-defined number of 2D slices. ASI has incorporated this sensor and algorithm into...direction, ASI has developed an algorithm to condense the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D profiles that describe the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364720"><span>Digital holography and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This feature issue on Digital Holography and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663679','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663679"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> carotid plaque MR Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parker, Dennis L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA515632','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA515632"><span>Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Displays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-24</p> <p>Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9036E..29O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9036E..29O"><span>Dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendered vertebra using commercial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rendered vertebra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040782&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040782&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>An advancing front Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm designed for robustness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mavriplis, D. J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm is described for generating an unstructured mesh about an arbitrary two-dimensional configuration. Mesh points are generated automatically by the algorithm in a manner which ensures a smooth variation of elements, and the resulting <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> constitutes the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of these points. The algorithm combines the mathematical elegance and efficiency of Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithms with the desirable point placement features, boundary integrity, and robustness traditionally associated with advancing-front-type mesh generation strategies. The method offers increased robustness over previous algorithms in that it cannot fail regardless of the initial boundary point distribution and the prescribed cell size distribution throughout the flow-field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930003212','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930003212"><span>An advancing front Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm designed for robustness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mavriplis, D. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm is described for generating an unstructured mesh about an arbitrary two-dimensional configuration. Mesh points are generated automatically by the algorithm in a manner which ensures a smooth variation of elements, and the resulting <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> constitutes the Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of these points. The algorithm combines the mathematical elegance and efficiency of Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithms with the desirable point placement features, boundary integrity, and robustness traditionally associated with advancing-front-type mesh generation strategies. The method offers increased robustness over previous algorithms in that it cannot fail regardless of the initial boundary point distribution and the prescribed cell size distribution throughout the flow-field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014847','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014847"><span>FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - A Companion to Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koenig, Patti</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computer program, written in the Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to use Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for constructing three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)-appearing graphics. The FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects or load representations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The FastScript<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> side.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4780S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4780S"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF - a means of public access to geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - objects, using the example of GTA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In geology, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163599"><span>Performance evaluation of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> based range sensors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guidi, Gabriele; Russo, Michele; Magrassi, Grazia; Bordegoni, Monica</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The performance of 2D digital imaging systems depends on several factors related with both optical and electronic processing. These concepts have originated standards, which have been conceived for photographic equipment and bi-dimensional scanning systems, and which have been aimed at estimating different parameters such as resolution, noise or dynamic range. Conversely, no standard test protocols currently exist for evaluating the corresponding performances of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging systems such as laser scanners or pattern projection range cameras. This paper is focused on investigating experimental processes for evaluating some critical parameters of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equipment, by extending the concepts defined by the ISO standards to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain. The experimental part of this work concerns the characterization of different range sensors through the extraction of their resolution, accuracy and uncertainty from sets of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data acquisitions of specifically designed test objects whose geometrical characteristics are known in advance. The major objective of this contribution is to suggest an easy characterization process for generating a reliable comparison between the performances of different range sensors and to check if a specific piece of equipment is compliant with the expected characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59L...1P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59L...1P"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9828E..06H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9828E..06H"><span>An aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing test mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This paper provides an overview of an aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology. A series of aerial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207828"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-10-07</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCar..64..113W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCar..64..113W"><span>Remote measurement methods for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling purposes using BAE Systems' Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Stewart; Pietrzak, Arleta</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Efficient, accurate data collection from imagery is the key to an economical generation of useful geospatial products. Incremental developments of traditional geospatial data collection and the arrival of new image data sources cause new software packages to be created and existing ones to be adjusted to enable such data to be processed. In the past, BAE Systems' digital photogrammetric workstation, SOCET SET®, met fin de siècle expectations in data processing and feature extraction. Its successor, SOCET GXP®, addresses today's photogrammetric requirements and new data sources. SOCET GXP is an advanced workstation for mapping and photogrammetric tasks, with automated functionality for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction, orthorectification and mosaicking, feature extraction and creation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models with texturing. BAE Systems continues to add sensor models to accommodate new image sources, in response to customer demand. New capabilities added in the latest version of SOCET GXP facilitate modeling, visualization and analysis of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6511E..2FN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6511E..2FN"><span>Linear programming approach to optimize <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data obtained from multiple view angiograms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noël, Peter B.; Xu, Jinhui; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Singh, Vikas; Schafer, Sebastian; Walczak, Alan M.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) vessel data from CTA or MRA are not always available prior to or during endovascular interventional procedures, whereas multiple 2D projection angiograms often are. Unfortunately, patient movement, table movement, and gantry sag during angiographic procedures can lead to large errors in gantry-based imaging geometries and thereby incorrect <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Therefore, we are developing methods for combining vessel data from multiple 2D angiographic views obtained during interventional procedures to provide <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel data during these procedures. Multiple 2D projection views of carotid vessels are obtained, and the vessel centerlines are indicated. For each pair of views, endpoints of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> centerlines are reconstructed using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> based on the provided gantry geometry. Previous investigations indicated that translation errors were the primary source of error in the reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Therefore, the errors in the translations relating the imaging systems are corrected by minimizing the L1 distance between the reconstructed endpoints, after which the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> centerlines are reconstructed using epipolar constraints for every pair of views. Evaluations were performed using simulations, phantom data, and clinical cases. In simulation and phantom studies, the RMS error decreased from 6.0 mm obtained with biplane approaches to 0.5 mm with our technique. Centerlines in clinical cases are smoother and more consistent than those calculated from individual biplane pairs. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> centerlines are calculated in about 2 seconds. These results indicate that reliable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessel data can be generated for treatment planning or revision during interventional procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7239E..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7239E..02B"><span>Basic theory on surface measurement uncertainty of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beraldin, J. Angelo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) imaging systems are now widely available, but standards, best practices and comparative data have started to appear only in the last 10 years or so. The need for standards is mainly driven by users and product developers who are concerned with 1) the applicability of a given system to the task at hand (fit-for-purpose), 2) the ability to fairly compare across instruments, 3) instrument warranty issues, 4) costs savings through <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging. The evaluation and characterization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging sensors and algorithms require the definition of metric performance. The performance of a system is usually evaluated using quality parameters such as spatial resolution/uncertainty/accuracy and complexity. These are quality parameters that most people in the field can agree upon. The difficulty arises from defining a common terminology and procedures to quantitatively evaluate them though metrology and standards definitions. This paper reviews the basic principles of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging systems. Optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and time delay (timeof- flight) measurement systems were selected to explain the theoretical and experimental strands adopted in this paper. The intrinsic uncertainty of optical distance measurement techniques, the parameterization of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface and systematic errors are covered. Experimental results on a number of scanners (Surphaser®, HDS6000®, Callidus CPW 8000®, ShapeGrabber® 102) support the theoretical descriptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5013...38R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5013...38R"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Reconstruction of Static Human Body with a Digital Camera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Remondino, Fabio</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Nowadays the interest in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction and modeling of real humans is one of the most challenging problems and a topic of great interest. The human models are used for movies, video games or ergonomics applications and they are usually created with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner devices. In this paper a new method to reconstruct the shape of a static human is presented. Our approach is based on photogrammetric techniques and uses a sequence of images acquired around a standing person with a digital still video camera or with a camcorder. First the images are calibrated and orientated using a bundle adjustment. After the establishment of a stable adjusted image block, an image matching process is performed between consecutive triplets of images. Finally the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of the matched points are computed with a mean accuracy of ca 2 mm by forward ray intersection. The obtained point cloud can then be <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> to generate a surface model of the body or a virtual human model can be fitted to the recovered <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data. Results of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> human point cloud with pixel color information are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084110"><span>Taking advantage of selective change driven processing for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vegara, Francisco; Zuccarello, Pedro; Boluda, Jose A; Pardo, Fernando</p> <p>2013-09-27</p> <p>This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven) vision to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction in static scenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859055','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859055"><span>Taking Advantage of Selective Change Driven Processing for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Scanning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vegara, Francisco; Zuccarello, Pedro; Boluda, Jose A.; Pardo, Fernando</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven) vision to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active <span class="hlt">Triangulation</span>. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction in static scenes. PMID:24084110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21156386','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21156386"><span>Noninvasive computational imaging of cardiac electrophysiology for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> infarct.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Linwei; Wong, Ken C L; Zhang, Heye; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Myocardial infarction (MI) creates electrophysiologically altered substrates that are responsible for ventricular arrhythmias, such as tachycardia and fibrillation. The presence, size, location, and composition of infarct scar bear significant prognostic and therapeutic implications for individual subjects. We have developed a statistical physiological model-<span class="hlt">constrained</span> framework that uses noninvasive body-surface-potential data and tomographic images to estimate subject-specific transmembrane-potential (TMP) dynamics inside the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> myocardium. In this paper, we adapt this framework for the purpose of noninvasive imaging, detection, and quantification of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> scar mass for postMI patients: the framework requires no prior knowledge of MI and converges to final subject-specific TMP estimates after several passes of estimation with intermediate feedback; based on the primary features of the estimated spatiotemporal TMP dynamics, we provide <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> imaging of scar tissue and quantitative evaluation of scar location and extent. Phantom experiments were performed on a computational model of realistic heart-torso geometry, considering 87 transmural infarct scars of different sizes and locations inside the myocardium, and 12 compact infarct scars (extent between 10% and 30%) at different transmural depths. Real-data experiments were carried out on BSP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from four postMI patients, validated by gold standards and existing results. This framework shows unique advantage of noninvasive, quantitative, computational imaging of subject-specific TMP dynamics and infarct mass of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> myocardium, with the potential to reflect details in the spatial structure and tissue composition/heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> infarct scar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1295115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1295115"><span>Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nanofabrication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.</p> <p>2016-05-16</p> <p>Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNS31B1171M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNS31B1171M"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> DC/IP BOREHOLE-TO-BOREHOLE IMAGING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milkereit, B.; Qian, W.; Bongajum, E. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Our goal is the development of robust <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> DC/IP imaging technology for rock mass characterization. This work focuses on the use of multi-electrode array surface and borehole electric methods to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conductivity and chargeability earth models. Over the past 3 years, we carried out field projects to evaluate the use of cross-borehole electrical methods for imaging subsurface conductive zones and to quantify chargeability effects. Several single borehole vertical resistivity profiles (VRP), borehole-to-borehole, and borehole-to-surface resistivity tomography (BRT) survey tests have been successfully conducted. The multichannel borehole DC/IP resistivity data acquisition system consists of multiple borehole cables, each with 24 electrodes which may act as either source or receiver. When a constant injection voltage is applied between electrodes, the boreholes need to be water filled so as the electrode array couples to the rock formation. The borehole cable design allows a seamless integration of borehole and surface measurements with or without simultaneous readings from surface electrodes. The system has the capacity to acquire more than 1000 full waveform resistance and chargeability readings per hour. We established a multi-step procedure for data acquisition, processing and interpretation. For the borehole-to-borehole application, we have successfully mapped conductive zones between boreholes up to 350m apart. Using at least two boreholes helps to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the direction (azimuth) of the imaged conductive zones. Borehole resistivity tomography test surveys were conducted to map three-dimensional massive sulfide zones between boreholes in the Sudbury area. Both surface and in-mine borehole acquisition geometries were tested. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conductivity model for massive sulfides was derived from a four-borehole acquisition geometry. We continue to utilize the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> IP (induced polarization) information in the inversion process and develop new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tomographic inversion</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1295115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1295115"><span>Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nanofabrication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.</p> <p>2016-05-16</p> <p>Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183171"><span>Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Nanofabrication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S</p> <p>2016-06-28</p> <p>Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=5&id=EJ915469','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D&pg=5&id=EJ915469"><span>Wow! <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Content Awakens the Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gordon, Dan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>From her first encounter with stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972444.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ972444.pdf"><span>Pathways for Learning from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to find out if <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=glasses&pg=3&id=EJ915469','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=glasses&pg=3&id=EJ915469"><span>Wow! <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Content Awakens the Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gordon, Dan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>From her first encounter with stereoscopic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA484244','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA484244"><span>Infrastructure for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging Test Bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-05-11</p> <p>analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> meshing. Fig. 5: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning result In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA05274.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA05274.html"><span>Berries on the Ground 2 <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-02-12</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> anaglyph, from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, shows a microscopic image taken of soil featuring round, blueberry-shaped rock formations on the crater floor at Meridiani Planum, Mars. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to view this image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=3&id=ED567764','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=3&id=ED567764"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Molecular Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=3&id=EJ1111854','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&pg=3&id=EJ1111854"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing. What's the Harm?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Health concerns from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nanotechnology&pg=5&id=EJ1082413','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nanotechnology&pg=5&id=EJ1082413"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18663815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18663815"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elastic control for mobile devices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=floods&pg=2&id=EJ1082225','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=floods&pg=2&id=EJ1082225"><span>Immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geovisualization in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate how immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+vision&id=EJ982397','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3D+AND+vision&id=EJ982397"><span>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vision in Teaching Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zabunov, Svetoslav</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED567764.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED567764.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Molecular Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA462126','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA462126"><span>Computer Assisted Cancer Device - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>tomosynthesis images of the breast. iCAD has identified several sources of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tomosynthesis data, and has begun adapting its image analysis...collaborative relationships with major manufacturers of tomosynthesis equipment. 21. iCAD believes that tomosynthesis , a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> breast imaging technique...purported advantages of tomosynthesis relative to conventional mammography include; improved lesion visibility, improved lesion detectability and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polymer&pg=6&id=EJ1082413','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polymer&pg=6&id=EJ1082413"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+physical&pg=4&id=EJ982397','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+physical&pg=4&id=EJ982397"><span>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Vision in Teaching Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zabunov, Svetoslav</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28399141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28399141"><span>Case study of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fingerprints applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Feng; Liang, Jinrong; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Zhang, David; Lai, Zhihui</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Human fingers are <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D) fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER) of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fingerprint recognition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230460','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230460"><span>A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geostatistical Mapping Tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun</p> <p>1999-02-09</p> <p>This software provides accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir modeling tools and high quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745004"><span>Topology dictionary for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video understanding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel approach that achieves <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video understanding. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video consists of a stream of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> videos. We showcase an application for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=galaxies&pg=4&id=EJ968847','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=galaxies&pg=4&id=EJ968847"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, or Not to Be?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Norbury, Keith</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=floods&id=EJ1082225','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=floods&id=EJ1082225"><span>Immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geovisualization in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate how immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=popcorn&id=EJ968847','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=popcorn&id=EJ968847"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, or Not to Be?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Norbury, Keith</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=printing+AND+organs&id=EJ1111854','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=printing+AND+organs&id=EJ1111854"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing. What's the Harm?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Health concerns from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-ARC-1955-A-20573.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-ARC-1955-A-20573.html"><span>DOUGLAS XA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-1 #413 AIRPLANE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1955-07-27</p> <p>DOUGLAS XA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL Testing the boundary layer control of the A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for take off from an aircraft carrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-ARC-1955-A-20572.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-ARC-1955-A-20572.html"><span>DOUGLAS XA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-1 #413 AIRPLANE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1955-07-27</p> <p>DOUGLAS XA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-1 #413 AIRPLANE MOUNTED IN THE NACA AMES RESEARCH CENTER'S 40X80_FOOT SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL sweptback wing Testing the wing boundary layer control of the A<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in the 40 x 80 wind tunnel. Boundary layer control was added to increase the lift of the wing for aircraft carrier take off and landing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230079"><span>Static & Dynamic Response of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Jerry</p> <p>1996-07-15</p> <p>NIKE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a large deformations <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8979E..0OZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8979E..0OZ"><span>Integration of real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image acquisition and multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Seamless integration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display systems offers enhanced experience in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects displayed on a glasses-free <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system. A prototype of the integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system is built to demonstrate the real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> acquisition and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display capability of our proposed system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10023E..1BB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10023E..1BB"><span>Rail profile control using laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> scanners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boronahin, Ð. ńlexandr M.; Larionov, Daniil Yu.; Podgornaya, Liudmila N.; Shalymov, Roman V.; Filatov, Yuri V.; Bokhman, Evgueny D.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Rail track geometric parameters measurement requires knowledge of left and right rail head location in each section. First of all displacement in transverse plane of rail head point located at a distance of 14 mm below the running surface, must be controlled [1]. It is carried out by detecting of each rail profile using <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> laser scanners. Optical image recognition is carried out successfully in the laboratory, approaches used for this purpose are widely known. However, laser scanners operation has several features on railways leading to necessity of traditional approaches adaptation for solving these particular problems. The most significant problem is images noisiness due to the solar flashes and the effect of "Moon path" on the smooth rail surface. Using of optical filters gives inadequate result, because scanner laser diodes radiation frequency varies with temperature changes that forbid the use of narrow-band filters. Consideration of these features requires additional constructive and algorithmic solutions, including involvement of information from other sensors of the system. The specific usage of optical scanners for rail profiles control is the subject of the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptEn..51e4302W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptEn..51e4302W"><span>Blind guidance system based on laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Jih-Huah; Wang, Jinner-Der; Fang, Wei; Lee, Yun-Parn; Shan, Yi-Chia; Kao, Hai-Ko; Ma, Shih-Hsin; Jiang, Joe-Air</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We propose a new guidance system for the blind. An optical <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> method is used in the system. The main components of the proposed system comprise of a notebook computer, a camera, and two laser modules. The track image of the light beam on the ground or on the object is captured by the camera and then the image is sent to the notebook computer for further processing and analysis. Using a developed signal-processing algorithm, our system can determine the object width and the distance between the object and the blind person through the calculation of the light line positions on the image. A series of feasibility tests of the developed blind guidance system were conducted. The experimental results show that the distance between the test object and the blind can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 8.5% within the range of 40 and 130 cm, while the test object width can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 4.5% within the range of 40 and 130 cm. The application potential of the designed system to the blind guidance can be expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5347593','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5347593"><span>Quon <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> language for quantum information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6135..142D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6135..142D"><span>2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> switchable displays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> displays is the ability to switch between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CQGra..34d5007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CQGra..34d5007H"><span>6D Interpretation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We show that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity exists. More generally, we interpret <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429"><span>BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Samuel</p> <p>2014-04-14</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042666"><span>Fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Silicon Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.</p> <p>2012-06-06</p> <p>Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> detectors is also briefly reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805790"><span>Biocompatible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria</p> <p>2016-01-20</p> <p>The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S23A2470L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S23A2470L"><span>A successive three-point scheme for fast ray tracing in complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, F.; Xu, T.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Z.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ray-tracing method that can be applied to computations of traveltime and ray-paths of seismic transmitted, reflected and turning waves in complex geologic models, which consist of arbitrarily shaped blocks whose boundaries are matched by <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> interfaces for computational efficiency. The new ray-tracing scheme combines the segmentally iterative ray tracing (SIRT) method and the pseudo-bending scheme so as to become a robust and fast ray-tracing method for seismic waves. The new method is extension of our previous constant block models and constant gradient block models to generally heterogeneous block models, and incorporates <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> interfaces defining boundaries of complex geological bodies, so that it becomes applicable for practical problems. A successive three-point perturbation scheme is formulated that iteratively updates the midpoints of a segment based on an initial ray-path. The corrections of the midpoints are accomplished by first-order analytic formulae according to locations of the midpoint inside the block or on the boundaries of the blocks, to which the updating formulae of the pseudo-bending method and SIRT algorithm are applied instead of the traditional iterative methods. Numerical experiments, including an example in the Bohemian Massif, demonstrate that successive three-point scheme is effective and capable for kinematic ray tracing in complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneous media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6474418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6474418"><span>The ising model on the dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> random surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aleinov, I.D.; Migelal, A.A.; Zmushkow, U.V. )</p> <p>1990-04-20</p> <p>The critical properties of Ising model on the dynamical <span class="hlt">triangulated</span> random surface embedded in D-dimensional Euclidean space are investigated. The strong coupling expansion method is used. The transition to thermodynamical limit is performed by means of continuous fractions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640...76C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640...76C"><span>Examining laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> system performance using a software simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collier, Jeffery S.; Nurre, Joseph H.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>The invention of the laser diode, the microcomputer and the CCD camera have made possible the new technology of <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> measurement systems. Current applications range from scanning the insides of old pipes, to a vision tool for the blind. As such, it is important that techniques be developed to minimize the error in laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> measurement systems. Due to the nonlinear nature of the problem and the fact that error is dependent on an ever changing and vast number of subjects, a computer simulation was written to examine the trade-off between occlusion and data quality. A computer simulation allows for a large amount of flexibility. The software gives the user the ability to calculate the error for a given <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> configuration without having to build and test the actual hardware. This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the simulator. Limitless laser <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> systems can be modeled and most subjects represented in CAD files can be used in the computer simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28644874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28644874"><span>Position and orientation inference via on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Advani, Madhu; Weile, Daniel S</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This work proposes a new approach to determine the spatial location and orientation of an object using measurements performed on the object itself. The on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm we outline could be implemented in lieu of, or in addition to, well-known alternatives such as Global Positioning System (GPS) or standard <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, since both of these correspond to significantly different geometric pictures and necessitate different hardware and algorithms. We motivate the theory by describing situations in which on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> would be useful and even preferable to standard methods. The on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm we outline involves utilizing dumb beacons which broadcast omnidirectional single frequency radio waves, and smart antenna arrays on the object itself to infer the direction of the beacon signals, which may be used for onboard calculation of the position and orientation of the object. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method and its noise tolerance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5482487','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5482487"><span>Position and orientation inference via on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Advani, Madhu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This work proposes a new approach to determine the spatial location and orientation of an object using measurements performed on the object itself. The on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm we outline could be implemented in lieu of, or in addition to, well-known alternatives such as Global Positioning System (GPS) or standard <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>, since both of these correspond to significantly different geometric pictures and necessitate different hardware and algorithms. We motivate the theory by describing situations in which on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> would be useful and even preferable to standard methods. The on-board <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> algorithm we outline involves utilizing dumb beacons which broadcast omnidirectional single frequency radio waves, and smart antenna arrays on the object itself to infer the direction of the beacon signals, which may be used for onboard calculation of the position and orientation of the object. Numerical examples demonstrate the utility of the method and its noise tolerance. PMID:28644874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820600','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820600"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Shear-Wave Imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5221698','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5221698"><span>Pathways for Learning from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to find out if <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation were on emotions and immersion, with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......129N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......129N"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Development of SIUE Campus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nellutla, Shravya</p> <p></p> <p>Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer graphics software for designing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8648E..0UJ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8648E..0UJ"><span>The psychology of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>With <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> production. In our second study, we found <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156596','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156596"><span>On <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of the plane by pencils of conics. II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazareva, V B; Shelekhov, A M</p> <p>2013-06-30</p> <p>The present work continues our previous paper in which all possible <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of the plane using three pencils of circles were listed. In the present article we find all projectively distinct <span class="hlt">triangulations</span> of the plane by pencils of conics that are obtained by projecting regular three-webs, cut out on a nondegenerate cubic surface by three pencils of planes, whose axes lie on this surface. Bibliography: 6 titles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030816&hterms=cartography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcartography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030816&hterms=cartography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcartography"><span>Yet another method for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and contouring for automated cartography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>De Floriani, L.; Falcidieno, B.; Nasy, G.; Pienovi, C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm is presented for hierarchical subdivision of a set of three-dimensional surface observations. The data structure used for obtaining the desired <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is also singularly appropriate for extracting contours. Some examples are presented, and the results obtained are compared with those given by Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The data points selected by the algorithm provide a better approximation to the desired surface than do randomly selected points.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030816&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTriangulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030816&hterms=Triangulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTriangulation"><span>Yet another method for <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and contouring for automated cartography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>De Floriani, L.; Falcidieno, B.; Nasy, G.; Pienovi, C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm is presented for hierarchical subdivision of a set of three-dimensional surface observations. The data structure used for obtaining the desired <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is also singularly appropriate for extracting contours. Some examples are presented, and the results obtained are compared with those given by Delaunay <span class="hlt">triangulation</span>. The data points selected by the algorithm provide a better approximation to the desired surface than do randomly selected points.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21204956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21204956"><span>Finding evidence for massive neutrinos using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> weak lensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kitching, T. D.; Heavens, A. F.; Verde, L.; Serra, P.; Melchiorri, A.</p> <p>2008-05-15</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cosmic shear to <span class="hlt">constrain</span> massive neutrino parameters. We find that if the total mass is substantial (near the upper limits from large scale structure, but setting aside the Ly alpha limit for now), then <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cosmic shear+Planck is very sensitive to neutrino mass and one may expect that a next generation photometric redshift survey could <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the number of neutrinos N{sub {nu}} and the sum of their masses m{sub {nu}}=im{sub i} to an accuracy of {delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.08 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.03 eV, respectively. If in fact the masses are close to zero, then the errors weaken to {delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.10 and {delta}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.07 eV. In either case there is a factor 4 improvement over Planck alone. We use a Bayesian evidence method to predict joint expected evidence for N{sub {nu}} and m{sub {nu}}. We find that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cosmic shear combined with a Planck prior could provide 'substantial' evidence for massive neutrinos and be able to distinguish 'decisively' between many competing massive neutrino models. This technique should 'decisively' distinguish between models in which there are no massive neutrinos and models in which there are massive neutrinos with |N{sub {nu}}-3| > or approx. 0.35 and m{sub {nu}} > or approx. 0.25 eV. We introduce the notion of marginalized and conditional evidence when considering evidence for individual parameter values within a multiparameter model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361316"><span>Optically rewritable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> liquid crystal displays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image can be refreshed, on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bi-stable display, security elements, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26562233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26562233"><span>Medical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for the Radiologist.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing as it relates to their field, including types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies and materials used to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557154"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imaging in forensic odontology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter</p> <p>2010-06-16</p> <p>This paper describes the investigation of a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> methods. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> methods of image capture were evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPJP8121G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPJP8121G"><span>NUBEAM developments and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> halo modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Recent developments related to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> halo simulation design will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671424"><span>Medical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for the Radiologist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing as it relates to their field, including types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies and materials used to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25093879"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting of tissues and organs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> functional living tissues. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1346357-cross-correlating-galaxy-surveys','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1346357-cross-correlating-galaxy-surveys"><span>Cross-correlating 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> galaxy surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Passaglia, Samuel; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott</p> <p>2017-06-08</p> <p>Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors ofmore » $${\\sim}1.2$$ to $${\\sim}1.8$$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of $${\\sim}2$$ to $${\\sim}12$$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..95l3508P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..95l3508P"><span>Cross-correlating 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> galaxy surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Passaglia, Samuel; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously <span class="hlt">constrain</span> the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ˜1.2 to ˜1.8 on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-z parameter constraints by factors of ˜2 to ˜12 over internal photo-z reconstructions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.396b2019G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.396b2019G"><span>Extra Dimensions: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in PDF Documentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graf, Norman A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content into PDF files from a variety of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615429"><span>Automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of electrophysiology catheters from two-view monoplane C-arm image sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baur, Christoph; Milletari, Fausto; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Navab, Nassir; Fallavollita, Pascal</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Catheter guidance is a vital task for the success of electrophysiology interventions. It is usually provided through fluoroscopic images that are taken intra-operatively. The cardiologists, who are typically equipped with C-arm systems, scan the patient from multiple views rotating the fluoroscope around one of its axes. The resulting sequences allow the cardiologists to build a mental model of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of the catheters and interest points from the multiple views. We describe and compare different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> catheter reconstruction strategies and ultimately propose a novel and robust method for the automatic reconstruction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> catheters in non-synchronized fluoroscopic sequences. This approach does not purely rely on <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> but incorporates prior knowledge about the catheters. In conjunction with an automatic detection method, we demonstrate the performance of our method compared to ground truth annotations. In our experiments that include 20 biplane datasets, we achieve an average reprojection error of 0.43 mm and an average reconstruction error of 0.67 mm compared to gold standard annotation. In clinical practice, catheters suffer from complex motion due to the combined effect of heartbeat and respiratory motion. As a result, any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction algorithm via <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> is imprecise. We have proposed a new method that is fully automatic and highly accurate to reconstruct catheters in three dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1214316','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1214316"><span>How We <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Print Aerogel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-23</p> <p>A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010400"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20140010400'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140010400_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140010400_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140010400_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140010400_hide"></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003610"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.9</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010563"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 13.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002585','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002585"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 13.1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150008956"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003790"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000769"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147891"><span>A high capacity <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steganography algorithm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft09015S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft09015S"><span>FIT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: Fitting optical spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>FIT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420397','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/420397"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> packaging for integrated circuit systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> system designs: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923614K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22923614K"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kent, Brian R.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We present the refinement of a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016tdms.conf...31Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016tdms.conf...31Z"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew; MacDonald, Nicole; Jensen, Dorte Juul</p> <p></p> <p>A three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electron backscattering diffraction technique. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain and deformed matrix, was reconstructed. The result shows a very complex structure containing several large protrusions and retrusions. A correlation between the protrusions/retrusions and the deformed matrix in front of the boundary shows that the deformed microstructure has a very strong influence on the formation of protrusions/retrusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230630"><span>Explicit <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Hydrodynamic FEM Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-11-07</p> <p>DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815736','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815736"><span>An Improved Version of TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krasnykh, Anatoly</p> <p>2003-07-29</p> <p>An improved version of the TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft11009N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ascl.soft11009N"><span>RHOCUBE: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density distributions modeling code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>RHOCUBE models <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012779"><span>FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Manual: 12.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587944','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA587944"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-HIM: A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> -HIM: A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8836K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8836K"><span>Radio <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of solar radio emissions associated with the 2012 July 23 CME</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krupar, Vratislav; Kruparova, Oksana; Santolik, Ondrej; Bothmer, Volker; Mrotzek, Niclas; Eastwood, Jonathan P.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of magnetized plasma that may cause severe geomagnetic storms if Earth directed. The backside CME from 2012 July 23 belongs among historical extreme solar events due to associated solar energetic particle fluxes and the CME-driven shock speed above 2000 kms-1. Here, we focus on analysis of associated interplanetary (IP) radio emissions. The frequency drift of the IP type II burst provides us with a reasonable speed of the CME-driven shock. We have successfully applied a radio direction-finding technique to IP type II and type III bursts observed by the two identical radio receivers aboard the two STEREO spacecraft. The radio <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> technique allows us to localize radio sources in the IP medium. The obtained locations of the type II and type III bursts are in a very good agreement with the CME direction. We demonstrate the complementarity between radio <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction techniques for space weather applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRA..11512326W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRA..11512326W"><span><span class="hlt">Triangulating</span> the height of cosmic noise absorption: A method for estimating the characteristic energy of precipitating electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wild, P.; Honary, F.; Kavanagh, A. J.; Senior, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Energetic electrons (tens to hundreds of keV) deposit significant energy into the D layer of the ionosphere. Riometers provide a means of monitoring this electron precipitation by measuring the associated cosmic noise absorption (CNA), but individually they are incapable of resolving the associated energy. However, the combination of two imaging riometers with overlapping beams allows an estimate of the height of peak CNA and so the associated energy to be made. We examine two methods for estimating the height of CNA using data from two imaging riometers in northern Fennoscandia; a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction of CNA using Occam's inversion and a technique based upon the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> of discrete absorption structures are developed. We compare these two methods with the results from a previously published technique. It is found that for the case studies and test phantoms the height <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction offer improvement over previous methods. These techniques are tested by comparison with data from the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar. Observations show good correlation between the estimates of peak height of CNA from EISCAT and from the <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction methods for this case. Three case studies are examined in detail, a slowly varying absorption, afternoon spike, and evening absorption spike event. Estimates of the characteristic energy are made. The substorm event had a characteristic energy of ˜5 keV, whereas the characteristic energy for the morning event was 17-20 keV. Analyses indicate the afternoon spike event having characteristic energy greater than 100 keV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518713','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518713"><span><span class="hlt">TRIANGULATION</span> OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; McComas, D. J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B–V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B–V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7–2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B–V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7–2.7 keV) and the B–V plane, allowing us to <span class="hlt">triangulate</span> the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W1..527T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W1..527T"><span>Geospatial Data Processing for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City Model Generation, Management and Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toschi, I.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Revolti, A.; Soria, G.; Piffer, S.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Recent developments of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technologies and tools have increased availability and relevance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data (from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> points to complete city models) in the geospatial and geo-information domains. Nevertheless, the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data is still underexploited and mainly confined to visualization purposes. Therefore, the major challenge today is to create automatic procedures that make best use of available technologies and data for the benefits and needs of public administrations (PA) and national mapping agencies (NMA) involved in "smart city" applications. The paper aims to demonstrate a step forward in this process by presenting the results of the SENECA project (Smart and SustaiNablE City from Above - <a href="http://seneca.fbk.eu"target="_blank">http://seneca.fbk.eu</a>). State-of-the-art processing solutions are investigated in order to (i) efficiently exploit the photogrammetric workflow (aerial <span class="hlt">triangulation</span> and dense image matching), (ii) derive topologically and geometrically accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geo-objects (i.e. building models) at various levels of detail and (iii) link geometries with non-spatial information within a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geo-database management system accessible via web-based client. The developed methodology is tested on two case studies, i.e. the cities of Trento (Italy) and Graz (Austria). Both spatial (i.e. nadir and oblique imagery) and non-spatial (i.e. cadastral information and building energy consumptions) data are collected and used as input for the project workflow, starting from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry capture and modelling in urban scenarios to geometry enrichment and management within a dedicated webGIS platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14609658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14609658"><span>Optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface digitizing in forensic medicine: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> documentation of skin and bone injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard</p> <p>2003-11-26</p> <p>Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&id=EJ1113956','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%223d+printing%22+OR+%224d+printing%22+OR+manufacturing+OR+%22new+opportunities+in+manufacturing%22+OR+%22+south+korea%22&id=EJ1113956"><span>Do-It-Yourself: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology is widely…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808080"><span>XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and Xflow: combining declarative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for the Web with generic data flows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have combined XML<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which provides declarative, interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3-d+AND+printing&id=EJ1113956','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=3-d+AND+printing&id=EJ1113956"><span>Do-It-Yourself: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology is widely…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036197"><span>Modeling cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Here, we highlight recent advances related to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603943"><span>Quantifying Modes of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cell Migration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> movies of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010856','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010856"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed Bioanalytical Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>While <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27.4002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27.4002B"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>While <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-printed bioanalytical devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012677','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012677"><span>Eyes on the Earth <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Eyes on the Earth <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767"><span>Modeling Cellular Processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. Here, we highlight recent advances related to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10115E..1AS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10115E..1AS"><span>Quantum dot based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photonic devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakellari, Ioanna; Kabouraki, Elmina; Gray, David; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this work, we present our most recent results on the fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> high-resolution woodpile photonic crystals containing an organic-inorganic silicon-zirconium (Si-Zr) composite and cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). The structures are fabricated by combining <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Direct Laser Writing by two-photon absorption and in-situ synthesis of CdS nanoparticles inside the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photonic matrix. The CdS-Zr-Si composite material exhibits a high nonlinear refractive index value measured by means of Z-scan method. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> woodpile photonic structures with varying inlayer periodicity from 600nm to 500nm show clear photonic stop bands in the wavelength region between 1000nm to 450nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28001145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28001145"><span>DNA biosensing with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin</p> <p>2017-01-16</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025653"><span>Designing Biomaterials for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim</p> <p>2016-10-10</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746729','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4746729"><span><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing for Tissue Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27PErpOJ7VA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27PErpOJ7VA"><span><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeMcVYomYVg','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeMcVYomYVg"><span>Future Engineers <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Print Timelapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03030.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03030.html"><span>Landslide in Kashmir <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-10-12</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on October 11, 2005 with digital topography from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It depicts a large landslide which occurred in Kashmir, Pakistan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0KNf0eaxcc','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0KNf0eaxcc"><span>Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00678.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA00678.html"><span>Sojourner Favorite Rocks - in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-07-13</p> <p>Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, from NASA Mars Pathfinder. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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