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Sample records for 3d coseismic displacement

  1. Some thoughts on error-contributions to reconstruct 3D coseismic displacement field using the model of combining multiple independent InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Jingfa; Luo, Yi

    2012-07-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has proved an immensely powerful tool in studying earthquakes with millimetre-scale accuracy at a high spatial resolution. However, each interferogram records only the component of displacement in the direction of the satellite line of sight (LOS). Thus previous InSAR studies of displacement due to earthquakes were generally limited to one or two components of the surface displacement field. Three- dimensional (3D) surface displacement maps can provide a more comprehensive understanding of source geometry associated with earthquake. By combining interferograms from multiple look angles, it is possible to constrain the three-dimensional components of displacement [Jung et al., 2011; Wright, et al., 2004; Hong et al., 2010]. In this work, we take 2008 Gaize Ms6.9 earthquake (Tibet) for example, derive LOS surface displacement from several paths of ENVISAT ASAR images (Image mode: Track 348, descending pass; Track 341, 427, and 155, ascending pass. ScanSAR mode: Track 341, 112, 155, and 384, ascending pass), and reconstruct the 3D coseismic displacement field with the model named multiple independent InSAR with different viewing angles. Because it is difficult to distinguish tectonic signal from phase noise (eg. orbital errors, atmospheric errors, and unwrapping errors), these error-contributions may be propagated to the 3D coseismic components (vertical, north, east). In addition, for ENVISAT ASAR, it is worth notice that the radar antenna is fixed with respect to the current satellite, which may lead to different LOS observations with nearly identical viewing angles in parallel passes. Thus, when inverting 3D components with least square solution, InSAR observation errors may be magnified by the ill-conditioned system of equations in the solution. Although the ill-conditioned system of equations may result in bad solution, some InSAR observation errors can be detected by the system. In our study, we will introduce the

  2. The Complete (3-D) Co-Seismic Displacements Using Point-Like Targets Tracking With Ascending And Descending SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Liao, Mingsheng

    2013-12-01

    SAR Interferometry (InSAR) has its unique advantages, e.g., all weather/time accessibility, cm-level accuracy and large spatial coverage, however, it can only obtain one dimensional measurement along line-of-sight (LOS) direction. Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large and rapid displacements in both azimuth and range directions. Here we perform offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT) by calculating the cross-correlation with a sinc-like template. And a complete 3-D displacement field can be derived using PT offset tracking from a pair of ascending and descending data. The presented case study on 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake helps us better understand the rupture details.

  3. Regression models for estimating coseismic landslide displacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Newmark's sliding-block model is widely used to estimate coseismic slope performance. Early efforts to develop simple regression models to estimate Newmark displacement were based on analysis of the small number of strong-motion records then available. The current availability of a much larger set of strong-motion records dictates that these regression equations be updated. Regression equations were generated using data derived from a collection of 2270 strong-motion records from 30 worldwide earthquakes. The regression equations predict Newmark displacement in terms of (1) critical acceleration ratio, (2) critical acceleration ratio and earthquake magnitude, (3) Arias intensity and critical acceleration, and (4) Arias intensity and critical acceleration ratio. These equations are well constrained and fit the data well (71% < R2 < 88%), but they have standard deviations of about 0.5 log units, such that the range defined by the mean ?? one standard deviation spans about an order of magnitude. These regression models, therefore, are not recommended for use in site-specific design, but rather for regional-scale seismic landslide hazard mapping or for rapid preliminary screening of sites. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coseismic deformation due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: influence of 3-D plate structure around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, A.; Freed, A. M.; Becker, T. W.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.; Suito, H.; Hatanaka, Y.; Matsubara, M.; Takeda, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Beneath the Japan islands, the Pacific plate descends from the east and the Philippine sea plate descends from the south, causing interaction of two slabs at depth. The 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake in northern Japan had a source region with a length of ~500 km and a width of ~200 km and forced broad lithospheric and mantle regions in the region to deform. Here, we investigate the effects of slab geometry and 3D heterogeneity on the inversion of inferred coseismic slip and the resulting broad coseismic deformation throughout the region. We construct a 3-D finite element model (FEM) to generate Green's functions for use in a coseismic inversion study that allows considering the influence of complex slab geometry as well as heterogeneities in elastic structure on inferred slip. We utilize the large, land-based Japan GPS array as well as seafloor geodetic constraints in the inversion. We are particularly interested in how coseismic seafloor constraints influence inversion results. Our FEM considers a region of 4500 km x 4900 km x 670 km, incorporating the Pacific and the Philippine sea slabs by interpolating models for the Tohoku region and the Nankai trough, as well as the Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin arcs. The model region is divided into about 500,000 tetrahedral elements with average dimension ranging from 20-100 km. We also test the role of gravity on coseismic results, with initial results suggesting that gravitational loading is not an important factor because of the shallow dip of the upper Pacific slab.Our long-term objective is to study the influence of the Tohoku earthquake on evolution of stresses throughout Japan due to both coseismic and postseismic processes, the latter including afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. An accurate accounting of coseismic slip is very important to such an endeavor.

  5. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  6. Coseismic Gravity and Displacement Signatures Induced by the 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbin; Xu, Changyi; Zhu, Yiqing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) RL05 data from January 2003 to October 2014 were used to extract the coseismic gravity changes induced by the 24 May 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 deep-focus earthquake using the difference and least square fitting methods. The gravity changes obtained from GRACE data agreed well with those from dislocation theory in both magnitude and spatial pattern. Positive and negative gravity changes appeared on both sides of the epicenter. The positive signature appeared on the western side, and the peak value was approximately 0.4 microgal (1 microgal = 10(-8) m/s²), whereas on the eastern side, the gravity signature was negative, and the peak value was approximately -1.1 microgal. It demonstrates that deep-focus earthquakes Mw ≤ 8.5 are detectable by GRACE observations. Moreover, the coseismic displacements of 20 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations on the Earth's surface were simulated using an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model, and the results are consistent with the GPS results, especially the near-field results. We also estimated the gravity contributions from the coseismic vertical displacements and density changes, analyzed the proportion of these two gravity change factors (based on an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model) in this deep-focus earthquake. The gravity effect from vertical displacement is four times larger than that caused by density redistribution. PMID:27598158

  7. High-precision coseismic displacement estimation with a single-frequency GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bofeng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Li, Xingxing

    2015-07-01

    To improve the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) in the earthquake/tsunami early warning and rapid response applications, minimizing the blind zone and increasing the stability and accuracy of both the rapid source and rupture inversion, the density of existing GPS networks must be increased in the areas at risk. For economic reasons, low-cost single-frequency receivers would be preferable to make the sparse dual-frequency GPS networks denser. When using single-frequency GPS receivers, the main problem that must be solved is the ionospheric delay, which is a critical factor when determining accurate coseismic displacements. In this study, we introduce a modified Satellite-specific Epoch-differenced Ionospheric Delay (MSEID) model to compensate for the effect of ionospheric error on single-frequency GPS receivers. In the MSEID model, the time-differenced ionospheric delays observed from a regional dual-frequency GPS network to a common satellite are fitted to a plane rather than part of a sphere, and the parameters of this plane are determined by using the coordinates of the stations. When the parameters are known, time-differenced ionospheric delays for a single-frequency GPS receiver could be derived from the observations of those dual-frequency receivers. Using these ionospheric delay corrections, coseismic displacements of a single-frequency GPS receiver can be accurately calculated based on time-differenced carrier-phase measurements in real time. The performance of the proposed approach is validated using 5 Hz GPS data collected during the 2012 Nicoya Peninsula Earthquake (Mw 7.6, 2012 September 5) in Costa Rica. This shows that the proposed approach improves the accuracy of the displacement of a single-frequency GPS station, and coseismic displacements with an accuracy of a few centimetres are achieved over a 10-min interval.

  8. Improved GPS-based coseismic displacement monitoring using high-precision oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbach, U.; Schön, S.

    2015-05-01

    The determination of high-frequency displacements using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations with sampling frequencies > 1 Hz has attracted much interest in recent years, e.g., in seismology. We propose a new concept for GPS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) that takes advantage of a highly stable oscillator connected to the GPS receiver by modeling its behavior. We show that the high-frequency noise of kinematic GPS height estimates can be reduced by a factor of up to 4 to the level of 2-3 mm and the overall standard deviation including systematic long periodic errors by a factor of up to 2 to the 1 cm level. Consequently, valuable small and currently hidden vertical displacements can be detected that are not visible with classical PPP. Using data of the 2010 Chile earthquake, we demonstrate that coseismic vertical displacements with an amplitude of only 5 mm can be recovered using PPP with the proposed clock modeling strategy.

  9. The 3-D surface deformation, coseismic fault slip and after-slip of the 2010 Mw6.9 Yushu earthquake, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guohong; Shan, Xinjian; Feng, Guangcai

    2016-07-01

    Using SAR interferometry on C band Envisat descending track and L band ALOS ascending track SAR images, respectively, we firstly obtain two coseismic deformation fields and one postseismic deformation of the 2010 Yushu earthquake, Tibet, China. In the meanwhile, we also obtain the azimuthal coseismic deformation of the Yushu event by Multi Aperture Interferometry (MAI) technique. With the 3 components of one-dimensional coseismic InSAR measurements, we resolve the complete 3-dimensional deformation of the 2010 Yushu event, which shows conformity and complexity to left lateral slip mechanism. The horizontal deformation is basically consistent with a sinistral slip event; whereas the vertical displacement does show certain level of complexity, which we argue is indicative of local fault geometry variation. Based on the InSAR data and elastic dislocation assumption, we invert for coseismic fault slip and early after-slip of the Yushu event. Our inversion results show major coseismic left lateral strike slip with only minor thrust component. The after-slip model fills most of the slip gaps left by the coseismic fault slip and finds a complementary slip distribution to the coseismic fault slip, which is a good indicator that future earthquake potential on the Yushu segment has been significantly reduced.

  10. On the derivation of coseismic displacement fields using differential radar interferometry: The Landers earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Rosen, Paul A.; Goldstein, Richard M.; Gabriel, Andrew; Werner, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    We present a map of the coseimic displacement field resulting from the Landers, California, June 28, 1992, earthquake derived using data acquired from an orbiting high-resolution radar system. We achieve results more accurate than previous space studies and similar in accuracy to those obtained by conventional field survey techniques. Data from the ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar instrument acquired in April, July, and August 1992 are used to generate a high-resolution, wide area map of the displacements. The data represent the motion in the direction of the radar line of sight to centimeter level precision of each 30-m resolution element in a 113 km by 90 km image. Our coseismic displacement contour map gives a lobed pattern consistent with theoretical models of the displacement field from the earthquake. Fine structure observed as displacement tiling in regions several kilometers from the fault appears to be the result of local surface fracturing. Comparison of these data with Global Positioning System and electronic distance measurement survey data yield a correlation of 0.96; thus the radar measurements are a means to extend the point measurements acquired by traditional techniques to an area map format. The technique we use is (1) more automatic, (2) more precise, and (3) better validated than previous similar applications of differential radar interferometry. Since we require only remotely sensed satellite data with no additioanl requirements for ancillary information. the technique is well suited for global seismic monitoring and analysis.

  11. The effects of three-dimensional heterogeneous Earth model of coseismic displacement changes of the Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wulin; Zhang, Bei; Huang, Luyuan; Cheng, Huihong; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-dynamic-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four models, and the confidences are according to different models. In the whole four models, the Chlieh model (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip model not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip model, Chlieh model to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real 3-D heterogeneous earth model (Crust 1.0 model and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of 3-D heterogeneous earth model are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of 3-D crust model are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the 3-D mantle model are much smaller than that of 3-D crust model but with wider impacting area.

  12. Coseismic and postseismic surface displacements of the 10 December 2003 ( M W 6.5) Chengkung, eastern Taiwan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Horng-Yue; Yu, Shui-Beih; Kuo, Long-Chen; Liu, Chi-Ching

    2006-01-01

    The MW 6.5 Chengkung earthquake occurred in eastern Taiwan at 04:38 UTC on 10 December 2003. The GPS data from eighteen continuously recording stations (CORS) and 86 campaign-surveyed stations (CSS) collected 18 days to 9 months before and 6 days to 4 months after the main shock are utilized to analyze the coseismic and postseismic deformation associated with the Chengkung earthquake. The earthquake resulted from rupturing of the Chihshang fault, a 25-km-long segment of the Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF). The coseismic horizontal displacements in the hanging wall showed a fan-shape distribution with vectors towards the west. On the other hand, the movements of the revealed a mirror fan-shape with relatively lesser amounts of displacement. The largest coseismic displacement, which reached 126 mm and 263 mm in the horizontal and vertical components, occurred near the epicenter area in the hanging wall. The largest postseismic displacements in 109 days, which approached 59 mm and 68 mm in the horizontal and vertical components, occurred near the surface trace of the Chihshang fault (TAPO) and near the epicenter area (CHEN), respectively. The stations near the Chihshang fault indicated a more significant postseismic displacement than coseismic one.

  13. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DIn

  14. Coseismic and postseismic Coulomb stress changes on intra-continental dip-slip faults and the role of viscoelastic relaxation in the lower crust: insights from 3D finite-element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagge, Meike; Hampel, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Investigating the stress interaction of faults plays a crucial role for assessing seismic hazard of a region. The calculation of Coulomb stress changes allows quantifying stress changes on so-called receiver faults in the surrounding of a source fault that was ruptured during an earthquake. Positive Coulomb stress changes bring receiver faults closer to failure, while a negative value indicates a delay of the next earthquake. Besides the coseismic ('static') stress changes, postseismic ('transient') stress changes induced by postseismic viscoelastic relaxation occur. Here we use 3D finite-element models with arrays of normal or thrust faults to study the coseismic stress changes and the stress changes arising from postseismic relaxation in the lower crust. The lithosphere is divided into an elastic upper crust, a viscoelastic lower crust and a viscoelastic lithospheric mantle. Gravity is included in the models. Driven by extension or shortening of the model, slip on the fault planes develops in a self-consistent way. We modelled an earthquake on a 40-km-long source fault with a coseismic slip of 2 m and calculated the displacement fields and Coulomb stress changes during the coseismic and postseismic phases. The results for the coseismic phase (Bagge and Hampel, Tectonophysics in press) show that synthetic receiver faults in the hanging wall and footwall of the source fault exhibit a symmetric distribution of the coseismic Coulomb stress changes on each fault, with large areas of negative stress changes but also some smaller areas of positive values. In contrast, faults positioned in along-strike prolongation of the source fault and outside of its hanging wall and footwall undergo mostly positive stress changes. Postseismic stress changes caused by viscous flow modify the static stress changes in a way that the net Coulomb stress changes on the receiver faults change significantly through space and time. Our models allow deciphering the combined effect of stress

  15. Deep coseismic slip of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake inferred from joint inversion of fault stress changes and GPS surface displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Yang, Yinghui; Luo, Rong; Liu, Guoxiang; Zhang, Kui

    2015-07-01

    Geodetic data are increasingly being used to infer coseismic slip distribution due to its advantages of wide coverage and high accuracy. However, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive rupture pattern at depth when a source model is only constrained by geodetic surface deformation. In this study, a joint inversion approach incorporating stress changes and GPS surface displacements is explored and applied to characterize the fault slip of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China. The earthquake data for the 20-year period before the main quake, which are collected from the background seismicity catalogues, and one month of aftershock data are statistically analysed to determine the fault stress changes based on the Dieterich model. The coseismic surface deformation measurements from 158 GPS surveying sites are jointly used to constrain the solution. Our preferred rupture model reveals four high-slip concentrations on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and one on the subparallel PengGuan fault. The spatial distribution suggests that the coseismic slip occurs not only above the hypocentre but also with a significant thrusting motion, with a mean slip of 8.5 m and a maximum of 9.7 m at a depth of 10-16 km. A significant high-slip concentration is found for the first time in this study. The coseismic faulting extends toward ∼16 km southwest of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and has a dextral strike-slip with a mean displacement of 4.8 m at a depth of 7-19 km. The joint inversion model misfits (GPS: 1.7 cm, stress change: 0.02 MPa) exhibit a good compatibility between the two types of datasets. The derived slip model, which has an improved resolution at depth, explains 98% of the coseismic surface displacements and 93% of the fault stress changes.

  16. Modelling coseismic displacements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunstad, Ingrid; Anzidei, Marco; Cocco, Massimo; Baldi, Paolo; Galvani, Alessandro; Pesci, Arianna

    1999-11-01

    We propose a dislocation model for the two normal faulting earthquakes that struck the central Apennines (Umbria-Marche, Italy) on 1997 September 26 at 00:33 (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0). We fit coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements resulting from GPS measurements at several monuments of the IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano) by means of a dislocation model in an elastic, homogeneous, isotropic half-space. Our best-fitting model consists of two normal faults whose mechanisms and seismic moments have been taken from CMT solutions; it is consistent with other seismological and geophysical observations. The first fault, which is 6 km long and 7 km wide, ruptured during the 00:33 event with a unilateral rupture towards the SE and an average slip of 27 cm. The second fault is 12 km long and 10 km wide, and ruptured during the 09:40 event with a nearly unilateral rupture towards the NW. Slip distribution on this second fault is non-uniform and is concentrated in its SE portion (maximum slip is 65 cm), where rupture initiated. The 00:33 fault is deeper than the 09:40 one: the top of the first rupture is deeper than 1.7 km the top of the second is 0.6 km deep. In order to interpret the observed epicentral subsidence we have also considered the contributions of two further moderate-magnitude earthquakes that occurred on 1997 October 3 (Mw 5.2) and 6 (Mw 5.4), immediately before the GPS survey, and were located very close to the 09:40 event of September 26. We compare the pattern of vertical displacements resulting from our forward modelling of GPS data with that derived from SAR interferograms: the fit to SAR data is very good, confirming the reliability of the proposed dislocation model.

  17. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  18. Co-Seismic Mass Displacement and its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Gross, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the "shaking" that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) displacements in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field. The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results based on Chao & Gross. The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to over twenty thousand major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-2002, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies, conspiring to decrease J2 and J22 while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to "nudge" the Earth rotation pole towards approx. 140 deg.E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. Currently, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) is measuring the time-variable gravity to high degree and order with unprecedented accuracy. Our results show that great earthquakes such as the 1960 Chilean or 1964 Alaskan events cause gravitational field changes that are large enough to be detected by GRACE.

  19. Retrieving real-time precise co-seismic displacements with a standalone single-frequency GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejie; Ge, Maorong; Li, Xingxing; Babeyko, Andrey; Ramatschi, Markus; Bradke, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS) plays an increasingly important role in retrieving real-time precise co-seismic displacements for geo-hazard monitoring and early warning. Several real-time positioning approaches have been demonstrated for such purpose, such as real-time kinematic relative positioning, precise point positioning, etc., where dual-frequency geodetic receivers are applied for the removal of ionosphere delays by inter-frequency combination. At the same time, it would be also useful to develop efficient algorithms for estimating precise displacements with low-cost GPS receivers since they can make a denser network or multi-sensors combination without putting too much financial burden. In this contribution, we present a new method to retrieve precise co-seismic displacements in real-time using a standalone single-frequency receiver. In the new method, observations prior to an earthquake are utilized to establish a precise ionospheric delay prediction model, so that precise co-seismic displacements can be obtained without any convergence process. Our method was validated with an outdoor experiment as well as by re-processing of 1-Hz GPS data collected by the GEONET network during the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. For the latter, RMS against dual-frequency receivers constituted 2 cm for horizontal components and 3 cm for the vertical component. We specially address the observation biases and their impact on the accuracy of single frequency positioning. Our approach makes real-time GPS displacement monitoring with dense network much more affordable in terms of financial costs.

  20. 3-D earthquake surface displacements from differencing pre- and post-event LiDAR point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, A. K.; Nissen, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Saripalli, S.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion in aerial LiDAR surveying along active faults across the western United States and elsewhere provides a high-resolution topographic baseline against which to compare repeat LiDAR datasets collected after future earthquakes. We present a new method for determining 3-D coseismic surface displacements and rotations by differencing pre- and post-earthquake LiDAR point clouds using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, a point set registration technique widely used in medical imaging, computer vision and graphics. There is no need for any gridding or smoothing of the LiDAR data and the method works well even with large mismatches in the density of the two point clouds. To explore the method's performance, we simulate pre- and post-event point clouds using real ("B4") LiDAR data on the southern San Andreas Fault perturbed with displacements of known magnitude. For input point clouds with ~2 points per square meter, we are able to reproduce displacements with a 50 m grid spacing and with horizontal and vertical accuracies of ~20 cm and ~4 cm. In the future, finer grids and improved precisions should be possible with higher shot densities and better survey geo-referencing. By capturing near-fault deformation in 3-D, LiDAR differencing with ICP will complement satellite-based techniques such as InSAR which map only certain components of the surface deformation and which often break down close to surface faulting or in areas of dense vegetation. It will be especially useful for mapping shallow fault slip and rupture zone deformation, helping inform paleoseismic studies and better constrain fault zone rheology. Because ICP can image rotations directly, the technique will also help resolve the detailed kinematics of distributed zones of faulting where block rotations may be common.

  1. Using a 2D displacement sensor to derive 3D displacement information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Schubert F. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A 2D displacement sensor is used to measure displacement in three dimensions. For example, the sensor can be used in conjunction with a pulse-modulated or frequency-modulated laser beam to measure displacement caused by deformation of an antenna on which the sensor is mounted.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative comparative analyses of 3D lidar landslide displacement field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Benjamin D.

    Landslide ground surface displacements vary at all spatial scales and are an essential component of kinematic and hazards analyses. Unfortunately, survey-based displacement measurements require personnel to enter unsafe terrain and have limited spatial resolution. And while recent advancements in LiDAR technology provide the ability remotely measure 3D landslide displacements at high spatial resolution, no single method is widely accepted. A series of qualitative metrics for comparing 3D landslide displacement field measurement methods were developed. The metrics were then applied to nine existing LiDAR techniques, and the top-ranking methods --Iterative Closest Point (ICP) matching and 3D Particle Image Velocimetry (3DPIV) -- were quantitatively compared using synthetic displacement and control survey data from a slow-moving translational landslide in north-central Colorado. 3DPIV was shown to be the most accurate and reliable point cloud-based 3D landslide displacement field measurement method, and the viability of LiDAR-based techniques for measuring 3D motion on landslides was demonstrated.

  3. Retrieving real-time co-seismic displacements using GPS/GLONASS: a preliminary report from the September 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejie; Ge, Maorong; Babeyko, Andrey; Li, Xingxing; Diao, Faqi; Tu, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Compared with a single GPS system, GPS/GLONASS observations can improve the satellite visibility, optimize the spatial geometry and improve the precise positioning performance. Although the advantage over GPS-only methods in terms of positioning is clear, the potential contributions of GPS/GLONASS to co-seismic displacement determination and the subsequent seismic source inversion still require extensive study and validation. In this paper, we first extended a temporal point positioning model from GPS-only to GPS/GLONASS observations. Using this new model, the performance of the GPS/GLONASS method for obtaining co-seismic displacements was then validated via eight outdoor experiments on a shaking table. Our result reveals that the GPS/GLONASS method provides more accurate and robust co-seismic displacements than the GPS-only observations in a non-optimal observation environment. Furthermore, as a case study, observation data recorded during the September 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake in Chile were re-processed. At some stations, obvious biases were found between the co-seismic displacements derived from GPS-only and GPS/GLONASS observations. The subsequent slip distribution inversion on a curved fault confirms that the differences in the co-seismic displacements causes differences in the inversion results and that the slip distributions of the Illapel earthquake inferred from the GPS/GLONASS observations tend to be shallower and larger.

  4. Retrieving real-time co-seismic displacements using GPS/GLONASS: a preliminary report from the September 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejie; Ge, Maorong; Babeyko, Andrey; Li, Xingxing; Diao, Faqi; Tu, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Compared with a single GPS system, GPS/GLONASS observations can improve the satellite visibility, optimize the spatial geometry and improve the precise positioning performance. Although the advantage over GPS-only methods in terms of positioning is clear, the potential contributions of GPS/GLONASS to co-seismic displacement determination and the subsequent seismic source inversion still require extensive study and validation. In this paper, we first extended a temporal point positioning model from GPS-only to GPS/GLONASS observations. Using this new model, the performance of the GPS/GLONASS method for obtaining co-seismic displacements was then validated via eight outdoor experiments on a shaking table. Our result reveals that the GPS/GLONASS method provides more accurate and robust co-seismic displacements than the GPS-only observations in a non-optimal observation environment. Furthermore, as a case study, observation data recorded during the September 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake in Chile were re-processed. At some stations, obvious biases were found between the co-seismic displacements derived from GPS-only and GPS/GLONASS observations. The subsequent slip distribution inversion on a curved fault confirms that the differences in the co-seismic displacements causes differences in the inversion results and that the slip distributions of the Illapel earthquake inferred from the GPS/GLONASS observations tend to be shallower and larger.

  5. Use of 3-d plate in displaced angle fracture of mandible.

    PubMed

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Singh, R K; Dhasmana, Satish; Das, Somdipto; Das, Sanjib K

    2013-03-01

    Introduction Mandibular angle fractures can be treated by various methods, but even the most popular methods may not be able to give satisfactory results, as the pterygomasseteric sling and masticatory forces can result in displaced angle fracture. These displaced fragments cannot be satisfactorily retained by single miniplate fixation. The aim of this study is to assess treatment of displaced angle fracture with 3-D miniplate fixation. This study can also be considered as a therapeutic study with level V evidence. Materials and Methods This study was designed to assess the feasibility of 3-D matrix miniplate fixation in displaced angle fractures. Eighteen patients with displaced angle fractures were included in this study. Matrix miniplate fixation was done transorally under general anesthesia. Results All these cases were treated successfully, and common complications like infection (5.5% of patients), wound dehiscence (11%), paresthesia (16.7%), and malocclusion (11%) were observed in our study. Conclusions Three-dimensional miniplate fixation in displaced angle fractures provides better stability and function. PMID:24436732

  6. Finding the displacement of wood structure in heritage building by 3D laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Wang, R. Z.; Lin, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Heritage buildings are highly prone to long term damage from the microclimate, scourge and vandalism, which can result in damaged materials, structures, painting and cultural heritage items. This study will focus on finding the displacement of wood structural members through the use of a 3D laser scanner and the 4D concept of time. The results will compare the scans from different periods to find the difference (if any) in the structural member position. Wood structures usually consist of numerous wood members connected to form the structure. However, these members can be damaged in various ways such as physical mechanisms, chemical reactions, and biological corrosion. When damage to the wood structure occurs, the structural displacement can be affected, and if affected severely, can lead to a building collapse. Monitoring of the structural displacement is the best way to discover damage immediately and to preserve the heritage building. However, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Law in Taiwan prohibits the installation of monitoring instruments (e.g strain gauge, accelerometer) in historic structures (heritage buildings). Scanning the wood structure with 3D lasers is the most non-intrusive method and quickly achieves displacement through visualization. The displacement scan results can be compared with different periods and different members to analyze the severity of damage. Once the 3D scanner is installed, the whole building is scanned, and point clouds created to build the visual building model. The structural displacement can be checked via the building model and the differences are measured between each member to find the high risk damaged areas or members with large displacement. Early detection of structural damage is the most effective way means of preservation.

  7. Interactive Retro-Deformation of Terrain for Reconstructing 3D Fault Displacements.

    PubMed

    Westerteiger, R; Compton, T; Bernadin, T; Cowgill, E; Gwinner, K; Hamann, B; Gerndt, A; Hagen, H

    2012-12-01

    Planetary topography is the result of complex interactions between geological processes, of which faulting is a prominent component. Surface-rupturing earthquakes cut and move landforms which develop across active faults, producing characteristic surface displacements across the fault. Geometric models of faults and their associated surface displacements are commonly applied to reconstruct these offsets to enable interpretation of the observed topography. However, current 2D techniques are limited in their capability to convey both the three-dimensional kinematics of faulting and the incremental sequence of events required by a given reconstruction. Here we present a real-time system for interactive retro-deformation of faulted topography to enable reconstruction of fault displacement within a high-resolution (sub 1m/pixel) 3D terrain visualization. We employ geometry shaders on the GPU to intersect the surface mesh with fault-segments interactively specified by the user and transform the resulting surface blocks in realtime according to a kinematic model of fault motion. Our method facilitates a human-in-the-loop approach to reconstruction of fault displacements by providing instant visual feedback while exploring the parameter space. Thus, scientists can evaluate the validity of traditional point-to-point reconstructions by visually examining a smooth interpolation of the displacement in 3D. We show the efficacy of our approach by using it to reconstruct segments of the San Andreas fault, California as well as a graben structure in the Noctis Labyrinthus region on Mars. PMID:26357128

  8. Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2014-01-01

    Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries. PMID:24790255

  9. Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2013-10-01

    Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries. PMID:24790255

  10. An easy implementation of displacement calculations in 3D discrete dislocation dynamics codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivel, Marc; Depres, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Barnett's coordinate-free expression of the displacement field of a triangular loop in an isotropic media is revisited in a view to be implemented in 3D discrete dislocation dynamics codes. A general meshing procedure solving the problems of non-planar loops is presented. The method is user-friendly and can be used in numerical simulations since it gives the contribution of each dislocation segment to the global displacement field without defining the connectivity of closed loops. Easy to implement in parallel calculations, this method is successfully applied to large-scale simulations.

  11. 3D optical measurement of relative displacement for the tuberosities in the shoulder prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, XueFeng; Meng, LiBo; Yu, LiuPing; Zhu, YiMing; Jiang, ChunYan

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a binocular 3-D computer vision measurement system is used to measure the relative displacement for the greater and lesser tuberosities in the shoulder prosthesis. The basic principles of binocular optical measurement are introduced in detail, and the loading apparatus is designed for external rotation and anteflexion of the shoulder prosthesis. Both the motion of external rotation and anteflexion of the shoulder are measured, and the corresponding displacement values for the greater and lesser tuberosities are extracted. These results will play an important role in evaluating the stability of humeral tuberosity in the shoulder prosthesis.

  12. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed. PMID:26658477

  13. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-12-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed.

  14. GestAction3D: A Platform for Studying Displacements and Deformations of 3D Objects Using Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingrand, Diane; Renevier, Philippe; Pinna-Déry, Anne-Marie; Cremaschi, Xavier; Lion, Stevens; Rouel, Jean-Guilhem; Jeanne, David; Cuisinaud, Philippe; Soula*, Julien

    We present a low-cost hand-based device coupled with a 3D motion recovery engine and 3D visualization. This platform aims at studying ergonomic 3D interactions in order to manipulate and deform 3D models by interacting with hands on 3D meshes. Deformations are done using different modes of interaction that we will detail in the paper. Finger extremities are attached to vertices, edges or facets. Switching from one mode to another or changing the point of view is done using gestures. The determination of the more adequate gestures is part of the work

  15. 3-D Ground Displacement Monitoring of very fast-moving Landslides in Emergency Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casu, Francesco; Manconi, Andrea; Bonano, Manuela; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    On December 3rd, 2013, a large and fast-moving landslide phenomena, which occurred in South-West of Montescaglioso town (southern Italy) after some days of intense raining, caused ground displacements on the order of several meters. The mass wasting involved an important freeway connection disrupting more than 500 meters of the route and some isolated buildings. In this work we present a case study of application of SAR remote sensing techniques for retrieving ground displacement field in a landslide emergency scenario. To this aim, thanks to the availability of ascending and descending COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite acquisitions, we first applied the DInSAR technique (Massonnet et al., 1993) to both datasets, for generating differential interferograms across the investigated event. In particular, two data pairs (one ascending and one descending) involving pre- and post-event epochs and approximately spanning the same time interval were identified. Unfortunately, the DInSAR analysis produced unsatisfactory results, because of the excessive phase noise within the area of interest, mainly related to the fast-moving deformation pattern (several meters) and also to the presence of vegetation. To overcome the above mentioned limitations, the amplitude-based Pixel Offset (PO) technique (Fialko and Simons, 2001) was applied to the previous identified CSK data pairs. In this case, the PO technique allowed us to retrieve the projection of the surface displacements across and along the satellite's track (range and azimuth, respectively) for both the ascending and descending orbits. Then, by properly combining these 2-D maps of the measured surface movements, we also retrieved the 3-D ground deformation pattern, i.e. the North, East and Vertical displacement components. The ground displacements have a main SSE component, with values exceeding 10 meters. Moreover, large subsidence values were identified in those areas experiencing the largest damages, as well as a clear uplift

  16. A dual 3D DIC-system application for DSL strain and displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raurova, I.; Berggreen, C.; Eriksen, R.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a dual 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system application for DLS strain and displacement measurements, where two 3D DIC-systems are used in parallel. The bonded specimens were tested to failure under monotonic loading in a uni-axial tensile testing machine at ambient temperature. Both surface inplane strain and full-field displacement values were recorded using two DIC systems: high speed (HS) and high resolution (HR). The HS system was used in a parallel setup with the HR system in order to detect the initial failure location and crack propagation rate during the brittle failure mechanism, where an interface crack is propagating between the straps and the inner adherent. Using two inherently different DIC systems involve a number of problems. This involves synchronization of the HS and HR systems, a common illumination level and speckle pattern. This paper therefore describes guidelines for a mutual system setup, applied in an experimental study of steel/epoxy DLS joints under pure tension.

  17. GNSS-derived Coseismic Displacement of the Gökçeada Earthquake (2014, Mw:6.9) based on 1 Hz GNSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özer Yiğit, Cemal; Tiryakioğlu, Ibrahim; Halis Saka, M.; Metin Alkan, Reha

    2015-04-01

    GNSS technology has been extensively used to measure crustal deformation and widely used to construct displacement waveforms. GNSS seismology uses GNSS receiver as displacement seismometer for earthquake studies. In other words, it can sense large dynamic displacement without saturation. In GNSS, relative positioning method requires a reference station with no-motion whereas Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method does not need any reference station. However, PPP method, unlike relative positioning method, requires readily precise GNSS satellite orbit and clock product calculated beforehand to perform absolute positioning using a single GNSS receiver data. In case of large earthquake, it may be crucial to select stable reference for relative positioning. Therefore, in order to monitor ground motion pattern caused by the earthquake, PPP method is advantageous because it provides absolute coseismic displacements with respect to a global reference frame. In this study, we investigate the pattern of coseismic displacement and velocity of the Gokceada (Turkey) earthquake (United States Geological Survey M=6.9, May 24, 2014 - 09:25:02 UTC). One hertz of 8 continuous GNSS stations, part of CORS-TR network, were processed using PPP and relative positioning techniques to estimate epoch-by-epoch positions of the sites. The epicenter distance of GNSS stations are ranging from 90 km to 250 km. CSRS-PPP and GAMIT-Track tool software were used for PPP and relative positioning solution, respectively. We analyze the ground motion characteristic of GNSS-derived displacement and velocity. Results show that the travelling time of earthquake wave for each station increased with respect to epicentral distance. Results also demonstrate that the shaking amplitude generated by the earthquake decreased while epicentral distance increased. Peak to peak displacement of the closest station to epicenter is around 10 cm and 5 cm for north and east component, respectively. For selected farthest

  18. Postseismic Displacement Following the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Detected by Continuous GPS Observation and the Effect of Viscoelastic Relaxation Using 3D- FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagi, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Hashizume, M.; Choosakul, N.; Takemoto, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Fujimori, K.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Takiguchi, H.; Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.; Kato, T.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied postseismic displacement following the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries using continuous GPS observation. We will report the results of our GPS analysis from the beginning of 2001 to the end of October 2007. We have also constructed 3D-FEM to evaluate the effect of viscoelastic relaxation following the earthquake. We will also report this result. We used continuous GPS data from 6 sites operated by Chulalongkorn Univ. and Kyoto Univ. or JAMSTEC, 2 sites by Shizuoka Univ. and JAMSTEC, 3 sites by NICT in Thailand and Myanmar, 1 site by STE-Lab, Nagoya Univ., and IGS sites which are located in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean include Japan, China and Australia. Bernese 5.0 was used for the processing of 30 sec. sampling data to obtain static solutions. From our analysis, no significant motions were detected at each site until the day of the earthquake. Although postseismic displacements still have been detected at CHMI and SIS2 in northern Thailand, far from the epicenter, they seem to be decelerated. On the other hand, at SAMP and PHKT, close to the epicenter, where postseismic displacements also became smaller, but still may take a time to stop. An about 29 cm SW-ward motion was detected at PHKT from just after the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to June 2007, which is larger than its coseismic displacement, about 26 cm. We have constructed 3D-FEM model to estimate how much viscoelastic relaxation affects postseismic displacements after the earthquake. We adopted a Maxwell viscoelastic body as well as Katagi et al. (2006), and modeled around the Andaman-Sea area using isoparametric hexahedral elements with 8 nodes (Zienkiewicz and Cheng, 1967). The Andaman-Sea is well known as a back arc basins, and its ocean floor is still spreading. Therefore, the mantle viscosity under the Sunda-plate may be smaller because of upwelling warm mantle. We are going to investigate and report the

  19. Coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake from joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data for slip within a 3-D heterogeneous Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Sui; Masterlark, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    We derive a coseismic slip model of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake on the basis of GPS and line-of-sight displacements from ALOS-2 descending interferograms, using Green's functions calculated with a 3-D finite element model (FEM). The FEM simulates a nonuniform distribution of elastic material properties and a precise geometric configuration of the irregular topographical surface. The rupturing fault is modeled as a low-angle and north dipping surface within the Main Frontal Thrust along the convergent margin of the Himalayas. The optimal model that inherits heterogeneous material properties provides a significantly better solution than that in a homogenous domain at the 95% confidence interval. The best fit solution for the domain having a nonuniform distribution of material properties reveals a rhombus-shaped slip zone of three composite asperities. Slip is primarily concentrated at a depth of 15 km with both dip-slip (maximum 6.54 m) and strike-slip (maximum 2.0 m) components, giving rise to a geodetic-based moment of 1.09 × 1021 Nm in general agreement with the seismological estimate. The optimal relative weights among GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) are deduced from a new method, MC-HVCE which combines a Monte Carlo search and a Helmert Method of Variance Components Estimation. This method determines the relative weights in a systemic approach which preserves the intrinsic solution smoothness. The joint solution is significantly better than those inverted from each individual data set. This methodology allows us to integrate multiple data sets of geodetic observations with seismic tomography, in an effort to achieve a better understanding of seismic ruptures within crustal heterogeneity.

  20. Efficient near-real-time monitoring of 3D surface displacements in complex landslide scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allasia, Paolo; Manconi, Andrea; Giordan, Daniele; Baldo, Marco; Lollino, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    Ground deformation measurements play a key role in monitoring activities of landslides. A wide spectrum of instruments and methods is nowadays available, going from in-situ to remote sensing approaches. In emergency scenarios, monitoring is often based on automated instruments capable to achieve accurate measurements, possibly with a very high temporal resolution, in order to achieve the best information about the evolution of the landslide in near-real-time, aiming at early warning purposes. However, the available tools for a rapid and efficient exploitation, understanding and interpretation of the retrieved measurements is still a challenge. This issue is particularly relevant in contexts where monitoring is fundamental to support early warning systems aimed at ensuring safety to people and/or infrastructures. Furthermore, in many cases the results obtained might be of difficult reading and divulgation, especially when people of different backgrounds are involved (e.g. scientists, authorities, civil protection operators, decision makers, etc.). In this work, we extend the concept of automatic and near real time from the acquisition of measurements to the data processing and divulgation, in order to achieve an efficient monitoring of surface displacements in landslide scenarios. We developed an algorithm that allows to go automatically and in near-real-time from the acquisition of 3D displacements on a landslide area to the efficient divulgation of the monitoring results via WEB. This set of straightforward procedures is called ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning), and has been already successfully applied in several emergency scenarios. The algorithm includes: (i) data acquisition and transfer protocols; (ii) data collection, filtering, and validation; (iii) data analysis and restitution through a set of dedicated software, such as ©3DA [1]; (iv) recognition of displacement/velocity threshold and early warning (v) short term

  1. Performance of ultrasound based measurement of 3D displacement using a curvilinear probe for organ motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Emma J.; Miller, Naomi R.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Evans, Phillip M.; Symonds-Tayler, J. Richard N.

    2007-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue tracking is of interest for monitoring organ motion during therapy. Our goal is to assess the tracking performance of a curvilinear 3D ultrasound probe in terms of the accuracy and precision of measured displacements. The first aim was to examine the depth dependence of the tracking performance. This is of interest because the spatial resolution varies with distance from the elevational focus and because the curvilinear geometry of the transducer causes the spatial sampling frequency to decrease with depth. Our second aim was to assess tracking performance as a function of the spatial sampling setting (low, medium or high sampling). These settings are incorporated onto 3D ultrasound machines to allow the user to control the trade-off between spatial sampling and temporal resolution. Volume images of a speckle-producing phantom were acquired before and after the probe had been moved by a known displacement (1, 2 or 8 mm). This allowed us to assess the optimum performance of the tracking algorithm, in the absence of motion. 3D speckle tracking was performed using 3D cross-correlation and sub-voxel displacements were estimated. The tracking performance was found to be best for axial displacements and poorest for elevational displacements. In general, the performance decreased with depth, although the nature of the depth dependence was complex. Under certain conditions, the tracking performance was sufficient to be useful for monitoring organ motion. For example, at the highest sampling setting, for a 2 mm displacement, good accuracy and precision (an error and standard deviation of <0.4 mm) were observed at all depths and for all directions of displacement. The trade-off between spatial sampling, temporal resolution and size of the field of view (FOV) is discussed.

  2. Near field 3D displacement of El Mayor-Cupapah Earthquake: A hybrid approach. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Limon, F. J.; Nissen, E.; Glennie, C. L.; Krishnan, A.; Oskin, M. E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Leprince, S.; Saripalli, S.; Arregui, S. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Kreylos, O.; Banesh, D.; Fletcher, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The surface rupture produced on April 4th of 2010 by the M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake is an ideal target to be analyzed by remote sensing techniques. It produced over 100 km of scarps, with vertical and horizontal slip on the order of 2 to 3 m in scarcely vegetated, rugged terrain underlain by mostly igneous rocks. A 3D displacement field (DF) was calculated by matching pre- to post-event airborne LiDAR point clouds through the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, which first segments the point clouds into discrete windows, and for each, iteratively converges on a rigid body transformation comprising a translation and a rotation that best aligns the pre- to post-event point clouds. After testing different window sizes, we used a square window 100m a side. The El Mayor-Cucapah LiDAR data sets present special challenges for the ICP technique. The point clouds differ considerably in point density, by ~1:700. This, and the lower precision of the pre-earthquake data, limit the accuracy of the DF results. Despite these issues, the vertical and East-West (E-W) components of the DF from ICP very clearly delineate the trace of the surface rupture, showing east-side down dextral-normal motion in agreement with field measurements and the focal mechanism reported for this event. A systematic error in the LiDAR instrument used for the pre-event survey caused severe distortion of the North-South (N-S) component of the LiDAR returns. After reprocessing the source pre-event point cloud in various ways to correct for the systematic error, a more plausible pattern for the N-S component was obtained for the DF. To have another perspective for the horizontal DF, a subpixel correlation analysis of optical satellite images (SPOT 2.5 m panchromatic images) before and after the earthquake, was performed using the COSI-Corr software. We combined the N-S component from this analysis with the E-W and vertical components of the ICP results, and present the analysis of the resulting

  3. Development of a displacement- and frequency-noise-free interferometer in a 3D configuration for gravitational wave detection.

    PubMed

    Kokeyama, Keiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Kawamura, Seiji; Chen, Yanbei; Sugamoto, Akio

    2009-10-23

    The displacement- and frequency-noise-free interferometer (DFI) is a multiple laser interferometer array for gravitational-wave detection free from both the displacement noise of optics and laser frequency noise. So far, partial experimental demonstrations of the DFI have been done in 2D table top experiments. In this Letter, we report the complete demonstration of a 3D DFI. The DFI consists of four Mach-Zehnder interferometers with four mirrors and two beam splitters The attained maximum suppression of the displacement noise of both mirrors and beam splitters was 40 dB at about 50 MHz. The nonvanishing DFI response to a gravitational wave was successfully confirmed using multiple electro-optic modulators and computing methods. PMID:19905742

  4. Unified system for holographic measurement in fluid and solid mechanics: use of the system for 3D displacement measurement on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Donald H.; Chan, Victor S. S.; Halliwell, Neil A.; Coupland, Jeremy M.

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports the use of a new holographic measurement system in the study of 3D surface displacements. Although equally applicable to fluid and solid mechanics, the aim of this report is to demonstrate the system's use in quantitative surface displacement measurements with a classical cantilever experiment, using a continuous-wave diode-pumped YAG laser system. The reported results exhibit an accuracy corresponding to other interferometric systems, but with a much larger displacement range. The measurement system employs a novel optical image shifting method to eliminate the problem of directional ambiguity. In addition, the reported system uses 3D complex correlation rather than 2D real correlation, thereby offering a direct method for measuring 3D displacement in 3D space. FInally, with the novel use of an optical fiber to probe the recorded holographic image space, it is found to be a simple matter to directly obtain 3D displacement measurements at precisely known surface locations.

  5. 3D displacements maps of the L'Aquila earthquake by applying SISTEM method to GPS and ENVISAT and ALOS DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Anzidei, Marco; Briole, Pierre; de Michele, Marcello; Elias, Panagiotis; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    We present an application of the novel SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation from geodetic and satellite deformation Measurements) approach [Guglielmino et al., 2009] to obtain a 3D estimation of the ground deformation pattern produced by the April 6, 2009, Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, the most destructive in the Abruzzo region since the huge 1703 earthquake [Boschi et al., 2000; Chiarabba et al., 2005]. The focal mechanism of the main shock is of normal faulting with NE-SW oriented T-axis [INGV, 2009]. Most of the aftershocks, located by the INGV seismic network, are in the depth range 5÷15 km, depicting a SW dipping fault plane [INGV, 2009]. Field observations [EMERGEO working group, 2009] have identified surface ground cracks with centimeter to decimeters throws over a wide belt running along the Paganica Fault. A closely spaced GPS (Global Positioning System) network was set up in this sector of the Apennines after 1999 [Anzidei et al., 2005] and more than 10 Continuous GPS (CGPS) stations have been operating in this region over the last years. On March 30 2008, INGV installed five GPS receivers on selected benchmarks of the Central Apennine Geodetic Network (CaGeoNet) bordering the L'Aquila basin in order to detect the eventual ground movements during the seismic sequence. These stations were crucial to resolve the near-field co-seismic deformation pattern properly, allowing direct observation of the details of co-seismic displacement related to the main shock. Thanks to the ESA Earth Watching project, which made Envisat data quickly available after their acquisition, we performed a DInSAR (Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis of ascending and descending images sampling the date of the earthquake. In particular, we analyze the descending pair for the interval 27/04/2008 - 12/04/2009 (tbline = 350 days; Bperp = 44m) and the ascending pair for the interval 11/03/2009 - 15/04/2009 (tbline = 35 days; Bperp = 227m

  6. Force sensing using 3D displacement measurements in linear elastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinzeng; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2016-07-01

    In cell traction microscopy, the mechanical forces exerted by a cell on its environment is usually determined from experimentally measured displacement by solving an inverse problem in elasticity. In this paper, an innovative numerical method is proposed which finds the "optimal" traction to the inverse problem. When sufficient regularization is applied, we demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves the widely used approach using Green's functions. Motivated by real cell experiments, the equilibrium condition of a slowly migrating cell is imposed as a set of equality constraints on the unknown traction. Our validation benchmarks demonstrate that the numeric solution to the constrained inverse problem well recovers the actual traction when the optimal regularization parameter is used. The proposed method can thus be applied to study general force sensing problems, which utilize displacement measurements to sense inaccessible forces in linear elastic bodies with a priori constraints.

  7. Force sensing using 3D displacement measurements in linear elastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinzeng; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2016-04-01

    In cell traction microscopy, the mechanical forces exerted by a cell on its environment is usually determined from experimentally measured displacement by solving an inverse problem in elasticity. In this paper, an innovative numerical method is proposed which finds the "optimal" traction to the inverse problem. When sufficient regularization is applied, we demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves the widely used approach using Green's functions. Motivated by real cell experiments, the equilibrium condition of a slowly migrating cell is imposed as a set of equality constraints on the unknown traction. Our validation benchmarks demonstrate that the numeric solution to the constrained inverse problem well recovers the actual traction when the optimal regularization parameter is used. The proposed method can thus be applied to study general force sensing problems, which utilize displacement measurements to sense inaccessible forces in linear elastic bodies with a priori constraints.

  8. 3D displacements maps of the L'Aquila earthquake by applying SISTEM method to GPS and ENVISAT and ALOS DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Anzidei, Marco; Briole, Pierre; de Michele, Marcello; Elias, Panagiotis; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    We present an application of the novel SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation from geodetic and satellite deformation Measurements) approach [Guglielmino et al., 2009] to obtain a 3D estimation of the ground deformation pattern produced by the April 6, 2009, Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, the most destructive in the Abruzzo region since the huge 1703 earthquake [Boschi et al., 2000; Chiarabba et al., 2005]. The focal mechanism of the main shock is of normal faulting with NE-SW oriented T-axis [INGV, 2009]. Most of the aftershocks, located by the INGV seismic network, are in the depth range 5÷15 km, depicting a SW dipping fault plane [INGV, 2009]. Field observations [EMERGEO working group, 2009] have identified surface ground cracks with centimeter to decimeters throws over a wide belt running along the Paganica Fault. A closely spaced GPS (Global Positioning System) network was set up in this sector of the Apennines after 1999 [Anzidei et al., 2005] and more than 10 Continuous GPS (CGPS) stations have been operating in this region over the last years. On March 30 2008, INGV installed five GPS receivers on selected benchmarks of the Central Apennine Geodetic Network (CaGeoNet) bordering the L'Aquila basin in order to detect the eventual ground movements during the seismic sequence. These stations were crucial to resolve the near-field co-seismic deformation pattern properly, allowing direct observation of the details of co-seismic displacement related to the main shock. Thanks to the ESA Earth Watching project, which made Envisat data quickly available after their acquisition, we performed a DInSAR (Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis of ascending and descending images sampling the date of the earthquake. In particular, we analyze the descending pair for the interval 27/04/2008 - 12/04/2009 (tbline = 350 days; Bperp = 44m) and the ascending pair for the interval 11/03/2009 - 15/04/2009 (tbline = 35 days; Bperp = 227m

  9. Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array

    PubMed Central

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. PMID:27526935

  10. Gravity driven deterministic lateral displacement for suspended particles in a 3D obstacle array.

    PubMed

    Du, Siqi; Drazer, German

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple modification to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move parallel to the basal plane of the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle size. Therefore, taking advantage of both the in-plane and out-of-plane motion of the particles, it is possible to achieve the simultaneous fractionation of a polydisperse suspension into multiple streams. PMID:27526935

  11. Cross-sensor SAR image offsets for deriving coseismic displacements: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake using ERS and Envisat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wei, S.; Jonsson, S.; Avouac, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a powerful imaging technique for measuring ground deformation, either through Interferometric SAR (InSAR) or image offset tracking. However, these methods are only applied to SAR images acquired by the same satellite, which limits the measurement capability for many earthquakes. Here we propose a novel approach that allows for calculating offsets between images acquired from the European ERS and Envisat satellites. To achieve this cross-sensor offset calculation, we first coregister pre-event (ERS) and post-event (Envisat) SAR images separately to generate averaged pre- and post-event SAR amplitude maps. We then compute the orbital offsets between these two maps in order to resample the ERS average map onto the grid of the averaged Envisat image. We finally calculate the cross-sensor image offsets based on cross-correlating selected sub-images distributed throughout the coregistered averaged SAR maps. Application to the 2001 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field coseismic displacement field right above the epicenter. We compare our measurements with the surface displacement field predicted from the published source model of Copley et al. [2011]. This model was derived from tele-seismic waveforms and limited far-field geodetic data. The comparison between the two displacement maps shows consistent displacement patterns, yet a systematic shift, which likely is due to the limited near-fault resolution of the data used in the previous model. We then perform a joint inversion using the newly derived SAR image offsets and tele-seismic waveforms. The preferred source model suggests a compact slip pattern at depths of 20-30 km with a peak slip of ~10 meters and a fairly short rise time (<3s). The large slip rate and low attenuation in the crust are likely responsible for the widely felt ground shaking despite of its compact source area. The result demonstrates that it is possible to correlate non-coherent SAR images

  12. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Teng; Wei, Shengji; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image offset tracking is increasingly being used for measuring ground displacements, e.g., due to earthquakes and landslide movement. However, this technique has been applied only to images acquired by the same or identical satellites. Here we propose a novel approach for determining offsets between images acquired by different satellite sensors, extending the usability of existing SAR image archives. The offsets are measured between two multiimage reflectivity maps obtained from different SAR data sets, which provide significantly better results than with single preevent and postevent images. Application to the 2001 Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field deformation using multiple preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining the intense shaking observed in the earthquake.

  13. On-machine measurement of the grinding wheels' 3D surface topography using a laser displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yongcheng; Zhao, Qingliang; Guo, Bing

    2014-08-01

    A method of non-contact, on-machine measurement of three dimensional surface topography of grinding wheels' whole surface was developed in this paper, focusing on an electroplated coarse-grained diamond grinding wheel. The measuring system consists of a Keyence laser displacement sensor, a Keyence controller and a NI PCI-6132 data acquisition card. A resolution of 0.1μm in vertical direction and 8μm in horizontal direction could be achieved. After processing the data by LabVIEW and MATLAB, the 3D topography of the grinding wheel's whole surface could be reconstructed. When comparing the reconstructed 3D topography of the grinding wheel's marked area to its real topography captured by a high-depth-field optical digital microscope (HDF-ODM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), they were very similar to each other, proving that this method is accurate and effective. By a subsequent data processing, the topography of every grain could be extracted and then the active grain number, the active grain volume and the active grain's bearing ration could be calculated. These three parameters could serve as the criterion to evaluate the grinding performance of coarse-grained diamond grinding wheels. Then the performance of the grinding wheel could be evaluated on-machine accurately and quantitatively.

  14. Digital holographic interferometer using simultaneously three lasers and a single monochrome sensor for 3D displacement measurements.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; De la Torre-Ibarra, M H; Santoyo, F Mendoza; Moreno, Ivan

    2010-09-13

    The use of digital holographic interferometry for 3D measurements using simultaneously three illumination directions was demonstrated by Saucedo et al. (Optics Express 14(4) 2006). The technique records two consecutive images where each one contains three holograms in it, e.g., one before the deformation and one after the deformation. A short coherence length laser must be used to obtain the simultaneous 3D information from the same laser source. In this manuscript we present an extension of this technique now illuminating simultaneously with three different lasers at 458, 532 and 633 nm, and using only one high resolution monochrome CMOS sensor. This new configuration gives the opportunity to use long coherence length lasers allowing the measurement of large object areas. A series of digital holographic interferograms are recorded and the information corresponding to each laser is isolated in the Fourier spectral domain where the corresponding phase difference is calculated. Experimental results render the orthogonal displacement components u, v and w during a simple load deformation. PMID:20940878

  15. Unified system for 3D holographic displacement and velocity measurements in fluid and solid mechanics: design and construction of the recording camera and interrogation assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Donald H.; Chan, Victor S. S.; Halliwell, Neil A.; Coupland, Jeremy M.

    1999-10-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to 3D displacement and velocity measurements that unifies the disciplines of holographic interferometry and holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV). Equally applicable to fluid and solid mechanics, the overall system enables quantitative displacement measurements between two holographically recorded events from either particle or surface scattering sites, working with both pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. The resulting measurements exhibit an accuracy corresponding to interferometric system, but with a dynamic range found with PIV systems. Most importantly, this paper introduces the novel use of an optical fiber to specify the measurement points, remove optical aberrations of windows, and eliminate directional ambiguity. An optical fiber is used to probe the recorded holographic image space at each 3D measurement point in order to extract the 3D displacement vectors. This fiber system also employs a novel optical image shifting method to eliminate the problem of directional ambiguity. In addition, the reported system uses 3D complex optical correlation rather than 2D real digital correlation. It is therefore a simple matter to directly obtain 3D displacement and velocity measurements at precisely known 3D locations in the object space. By correlating both the amplitude and phase information in the holographic image, this system can measure spatial distributions of displacements even when the presence of severe aberrations preclude the detection of sharp images.

  16. Impact of plasma response on plasma displacements in DIII-D during application of external 3D perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingen, Andreas; Ferraro, N. M.; Shafer, M.W.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Evans, T. E.; Hillis, Donald Lee; Snyder, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied 3D resonant magnetic perturbations are modelled with and without self-consistent plasma response. The plasma response is calculated using a linear two-fluid model. A synthetic diagnostic is used to simulate soft x-ray (SXR) emission within the steep gradient region of the pedestal, 0.98 > > 0.94. Two methods for simulating the SXR emission given the perturbed fields are considered. In the first method, the emission is assumed to be constant on magnetic field lines, with the emission on each line determined by the penetration depth into the plasma. In the second method, the emission is taken to be a function of the perturbed electron temperature and density calculated by the two-fluid model. It is shown that the latter method is more accurate within the plasma, but is inadequate in the scrape-off layer due to the breakdown of the linearized temperature equation in the two-fluid model. The resulting synthetic emission is compared to measured SXR data, which show helical m = 11 1 displacements around the 11/3 rational surface of sizes up to 5 cm, depending on the poloidal angle. The helical displacements around the 11/3 surface are identified to be directly related to the kink response, caused by amplification of non-resonant components of the magnetic field due to plasma response. The role of different plasma parameters is investigated, but it appears that the electron rotation plays a key role in the formation of screening and resonant amplification, while the kinking appears to be sensitive to the edge current density. It is also hypothesized that the plasma response affects the edge-localized-mode (ELM) stability, i.e. the discharge s operational point relative to the peeling ballooning stability boundary.

  17. Construction of 3D polymer brushes by dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography: understanding the molecular displacement for ultrafine and high-speed patterning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaojian; Zhou, Xuechang; Xie, Zhuang; Gao, Tingting; Zheng, Zijian

    2015-02-01

    Dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography (DNL) is a versatile scanning probe-based technique that can be employed for fabricating ultrafine 3D polymer brushes under ambient conditions. Many fundamental studies and applications require the large-area fabrication of 3D structures. However, the fabrication throughput and uniformity are still far from satisfactory. In this work, the molecular displacement mechanism of DNL is elucidated by systematically investigating the synergistic effect of z extension and contact time. The in-depth understanding of molecular displacement results in the successful achievement of ultrafine control of 3D structures and high-speed patterning at the same time. Remarkably, one can prepare arbitrary 3D polymer brushes on a large area (1.3 mm × 1.3 mm), with <5% vertical and lateral size variations, and a patterning speed as much as 200-fold faster than the current state-of-the-art. PMID:25256006

  18. Determination of 3D surface displacement rates in the Upper Rhine Graben based on GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Knöpfler, A.; Masson, F.; Ulrich, P.; Heck, B.

    2012-04-01

    regional network GURN actually consists of approx. 80 permanently operating GNSS sites of different data providers in Germany, France and Switzerland. The first work steps in the context of GURN were dominated by a detailed analysis of the GNSS data base (e.g., instrumental change artefacts). This analysis included a comparison of the working group related results (EOST, GIK), where different software packages and data handling strategies were used to derive 3D coordinate time series as basis for the determination of a 3D surface displacement field. Due to very small expected velocities in the URG region, the recent GURN focus is on the reliable derivation of site velocities, therefore effects of datum realisation have to be handled with care. The presentation gives an insight into the joint venture GURN focussing on recent results (e.g., 3D surface velocity field).

  19. Tilt scanning interferometry: a 3D k-space representation for depth-resolved structure and displacement measurement in scattering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galizzi, Gustavo E.; Coupland, Jeremy M.; Ruiz, Pablo D.

    2010-09-01

    Tilt Scanning Interferometry (TSI) has been recently developed as an experimental method to measure multi-component displacement fields inside the volume of semitransparent scattering materials. It can be considered as an extension of speckle interferometry in 3D, in which the illumination angle is tilted to provide depth information, or as an optical diffraction tomography technique with phase detection. It relies on phase measurements to extract the displacement information, as in the usual 2D counterparts. A numerical model to simulate the speckle fields recorded in TSI has been recently developed to enable the study on how the phase and amplitude are affected by factors such as refraction, absorption, scattering, dispersion, stress-optic coupling and spatial variations of the refractive index, all of which may lead to spurious displacements. In order to extract depth-resolved structure and phase information from TSI data, the approach had been to use Fourier Transformation of the intensity modulation signal along the illumination angle axis. However, it turns out that a more complete description of the imaging properties of the system for tomographic optical diffraction can be achieved using a 3D representation of the transfer function in k-space. According to this formalism, TSI is presented as a linear filtering operation. In this paper we describe the transfer function of TSI in 3D k-space, evaluate the 3D point spread function and present simulated results.

  20. Investigation of 3D glenohumeral displacements from 3D reconstruction using biplane X-ray images: Accuracy and reproducibility of the technique and preliminary analysis in rotator cuff tear patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Skalli, Wafa; Lagacé, Pierre-Yves; Billuart, Fabien; Ohl, Xavier; Cresson, Thierry; Bureau, Nathalie J; Rouleau, Dominique M; Roy, André; Tétreault, Patrice; Sauret, Christophe; de Guise, Jacques A; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tears may be associated with increased glenohumeral instability; however, this instability is difficult to quantify using currently available diagnostic tools. Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and registration method of the scapula and humeral head, based on sequences of low-dose biplane X-ray images, has been proposed for glenohumeral displacement assessment. This research aimed to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of this technique and to investigate its potential with a preliminary application comparing RC tear patients and asymptomatic volunteers. Accuracy was assessed using CT scan model registration on biplane X-ray images for five cadaveric shoulder specimens and showed differences ranging from 0.6 to 1.4mm depending on the direction of interest. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was assessed through two operators who repeated the reconstruction of five subjects three times, allowing defining 95% confidence interval ranging from ±1.8 to ±3.6mm. Intraclass correlation coefficient varied between 0.84 and 0.98. Comparison between RC tear patients and asymptomatic volunteers showed differences of glenohumeral displacements, especially in the superoinferior direction when shoulder was abducted at 20° and 45°. This study thus assessed the accuracy of the low-dose 3D biplane X-ray reconstruction technique for glenohumeral displacement assessment and showed potential in biomechanical and clinical research. PMID:26350569

  1. Characteristics of capacitance-micro-displacement for model of complex interior surface of the 3D Taiji ball and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ruo-Gu; Jiang, Kun; Qing, Zhao-Bo; Liu, Yue-Hui; Yan, Jun

    2006-11-01

    Taiji image originated from ancient China. It is not only the Taoism emblem but also the ancient graphic presentation sign to everything origin. It either has a too far-reaching impact on traditional culture of China, or is influencing the development of current natural science. On the basis of analyzing the classical philosophic theory of two-dimensional (2-D) Taiji image, we developed it into the model of complex interior surface-three-dimensional (3-D) Taiji ball, and explored its possible applications. Combining modern mathematics and physics knowledge, we have studied on the physical meaning of 3-D Taiji ball, thus the plane change of original Taiji image is developed into space change which is more close to the real world. The change layers are obvious increased notably, and the amount of information included in this model increases correspondingly. We also realized a special paper 3-D Taiji ball whose surface is coved with metal foil by means of laser manufacture. A new experiment set-up for measuring micro displace has been designed and constituted thus the relation between capacitance and micro displacement for the 3-D Taiji ball has performed. Experimental and theoretical analyses are also finished. This models of 3-D Taiji ball for physical characteristics are the first time set up. Experimental data and fitting curves between capacitance and micro displacement for the special paper Taiji ball coved with metal foil are suggested. It is shown that the special Taiji ball has less leakage capacitance or more strengthen electric field than an ordinary half ball capacitance. Finally their potential applied values are explored.

  2. Co-seismic displacements from differencing and sub-pixel correlation of multi-temporal LiDAR and cadastral surveys: application to the Greendale Fault, Canterbury, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, B. G.; Van Dissen, R.; Quigley, M.; Litchfield, N. J.; McInnes, C.; Leprince, S.; Barrell, D.; Stahl, T. A.; Bilderback, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Surface rupture on the dextral strike-slip Greendale fault during the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury), earthquake in New Zealand terminated in a releasing bend at the western end of the fault. Our first-ever co-seismic application of multi-temporal aerial LiDAR, coupled with cadastral surveying, real time kinematic GPS scarp profiling and offset mapping provides unprecedented documentation of surface displacements at the western end of the Greendale fault, particularly at the transition into the releasing bend. Cadastral trilateration data from the northern end of the releasing bend area demonstrate that the hanging wall (NE) side of the fault moved 1.5 m to the southeast while the footwall (SW) side of the fault moved 0.6 m to the southwest. This resulted in an oblique transtensional net slip of 2.5 m. At the southern end of the releasing bend, the north-side-down transtensional structure transitions into a north-side down transpressional structure. High-resolution absolute vertical motions associated with this transition, as well as relationships of drainage morphology to fault geometry, are captured by differencing of pre- and post-fault LiDAR. Vertical differencing reveals the distribution of vertical offsets, with some scarps defined that have vertical displacement gradients of only 1:1000. The geomorphology of these subtle vertical displacements reveals that the transition into the releasing bend is accommodated by a restraining stepover. Sub-pixel correlation of the pre-and post-earthquake LiDAR rasters using COSI-Corr (http://www.tectonics.caltech.edu/slip_history/spot_coseis/index.html) additionally reveal E-W shortening of approximately 0.8 m across a discontinuity that represents one side of the restraining stepover. This is consistent with the cadastral survey results. Our results demonstrate the utility of multi-temporal LiDAR for documenting both the vertical and horizontal components of co-seismic deformation.

  3. Terrestrial laser scanning point clouds time series for the monitoring of slope movements: displacement measurement using image correlation and 3D feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Pierrick; Jean-Philippe, Malet; André, Stumpf; Anne, Puissant; Julien, Travelletti

    2016-04-01

    Dense multi-temporal point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have proved useful for the study of structure and kinematics of slope movements. Most of the existing deformation analysis methods rely on the use of interpolated data. Approaches that use multiscale image correlation provide a precise and robust estimation of the observed movements; however, for non-rigid motion patterns, these methods tend to underestimate all the components of the movement. Further, for rugged surface topography, interpolated data introduce a bias and a loss of information in some local places where the point cloud information is not sufficiently dense. Those limits can be overcome by using deformation analysis exploiting directly the original 3D point clouds assuming some hypotheses on the deformation (e.g. the classic ICP algorithm requires an initial guess by the user of the expected displacement patterns). The objective of this work is therefore to propose a deformation analysis method applied to a series of 20 3D point clouds covering the period October 2007 - October 2015 at the Super-Sauze landslide (South East French Alps). The dense point clouds have been acquired with a terrestrial long-range Optech ILRIS-3D laser scanning device from the same base station. The time series are analyzed using two approaches: 1) a method of correlation of gradient images, and 2) a method of feature tracking in the raw 3D point clouds. The estimated surface displacements are then compared with GNSS surveys on reference targets. Preliminary results tend to show that the image correlation method provides a good estimation of the displacement fields at first order, but shows limitations such as the inability to track some deformation patterns, and the use of a perspective projection that does not maintain original angles and distances in the correlated images. Results obtained with 3D point clouds comparison algorithms (C2C, ICP, M3C2) bring additional information on the

  4. Accurate high-resolution measurements of 3-D tissue dynamics with registration-enhanced displacement encoded MRI.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Arnold D; Merchant, Samer S; Hsu, Edward W

    2014-06-01

    Displacement fields are important to analyze deformation, which is associated with functional and material tissue properties often used as indicators of health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques like DENSE and image registration methods like Hyperelastic Warping have been used to produce pixel-level deformation fields that are desirable in high-resolution analysis. However, DENSE can be complicated by challenges associated with image phase unwrapping, in particular offset determination. On the other hand, Hyperelastic Warping can be hampered by low local image contrast. The current work proposes a novel approach for measuring tissue displacement with both DENSE and Hyperelastic Warping, incorporating physically accurate displacements obtained by the latter to improve phase characterization in DENSE. The validity of the proposed technique is demonstrated using numerical and physical phantoms, and in vivo small animal cardiac MRI. PMID:24771572

  5. Accurate High-Resolution Measurements of 3-D Tissue Dynamics With Registration-Enhanced Displacement Encoded MRI

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Samer S.; Hsu, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Displacement fields are important to analyze deformation, which is associated with functional and material tissue properties often used as indicators of health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques like DENSE and image registration methods like Hyperelastic Warping have been used to produce pixel-level deformation fields that are desirable in high-resolution analysis. However, DENSE can be complicated by challenges associated with image phase unwrapping, in particular offset determination. On the other hand, Hyperelastic Warping can be hampered by low local image contrast. The current work proposes a novel approach for measuring tissue displacement with both DENSE and Hyperelastic Warping, incorporating physically accurate displacements obtained by the latter to improve phase characterization in DENSE. The validity of the proposed technique is demonstrated using numerical and physical phantoms, and in vivo small animal cardiac MRI. PMID:24771572

  6. Dosimetric impacts of applicator displacements and applicator reconstruction-uncertainties on 3D image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schindel, Joshua; Zhang, Winson; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Sun, Wenqing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the dosimetric impact of applicator displacements and applicator reconstruction-uncertainties through simulated planning studies of virtual applicator shifts. Material and methods Twenty randomly selected high-dose-rate (HDR) titanium tandem-and-ovoid (T&O) plans were retrospectively studied. MRI-guided, conformal brachytherapy (MRIG-CBT) plans were retrospectively generated. To simulate T&O displacement, the whole T&O set was virtually shifted on treatment planning system in the cranial (+) and the caudal (–) direction after each dose calculation. Each shifted plan was compared to an unshifted plan. To simulate T&O reconstruction-uncertainties, each tandem and ovoid was separately shifted along its axis before performing the dose calculation. After the dose calculation, the calculated isodose lines and T&O were moved back to unshifted T&O position. Shifted and shifted-back plan were compared. Results Regarding the dosimetric impact of the simulated T&O displacements, rectal D2cc values were observed as being the most sensitive to change due to T&O displacement among all dosimetric metrics regardless of point A (p < 0.013) or MRIG-CBT plans (p < 0.0277). To avoid more than 10% change, ± 1.5 mm T&O displacements were accommodated for both point A and MRIG-CBT plans. The dosimetric impact of T&O displacements on sigmoid (p < 0.0005), bladder (p < 0.0001), HR-CTV (p < 0.0036), and point A (p < 0.0015) were significantly larger in the MRIG-CBT plans than point A plans. Regarding the dosimetric impact of T&O reconstruction-uncertainties, less than ± 3.0 mm reconstruction-uncertainties were also required in order to avoid more than 10% dosimetric change in either the point A or MRIG-CBT plans. Conclusions The dosimetric impact of simulated T&O displacements was significantly larger in the MRIG-CBT plans than in the point A plans. Either ± 3 mm T&O displacement or a ± 4.5 mm T&O reconstruction-uncertainty could cause greater than 10% dosimetric

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell-induced 3D displacement field of cell-adhesion matrices with differing elasticities.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasuyuki; Kawase, Naoki; Ju, Yang; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Cells maintain homeostasis and perform various functions by interacting mechanically with a cell-adhesive matrix. Regarding cellular differentiation, it has been found that matrix elasticity can determine the differentiation lineage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Direct quantitative measurements of the mechanical interaction between MSCs and matrix for differentiation, however, have yet to be reported. Herein, the displacement field of the cell-adhesive matrix was observed quantitatively using a digital volume correlation (DVC) method. Maximum displacement and cellular traction stress were analyzed when the MSC differentiated into a neuron-like cell or an osteoblast-like cell on a soft or hard elastic matrix, respectively. The function of non-muscle myosin II (NMM II), which plays an important role in intracellular cytoskeletal dynamics, was investigated during cellular differentiation. The mechanical interaction (maximum displacement and subjected area of the matrix) between the cell and matrix was dependent on matrix elasticity. It has also been shown that the mechanical interaction between the intracellular cytoskeleton and cell-adhesion matrix is indispensable for cellular differentiation. This work provides the first quantitative visualization of the mechanical interaction between MSCs and the cell-adhesion matrix for differentiation. PMID:26945874

  8. Co-seismic vertical displacements from a single post-seismic lidar DEM: example from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišin, Ivana; Hinojosa-Corona, Alejandro; Parsons, Barry

    2015-07-01

    A method is outlined by means of which it is possible to estimate high-resolution vertical displacements due to an earthquake even in the case where high-resolution topography is lacking before the earthquake. This result can be achieved by combining a highly accurate, post-event digital elevation model (DEM), for example lidar, with archived satellite imagery. The method is illustrated by calculating vertical displacements for the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. For this earthquake, there are both pre- and post-event lidar DEMs from which vertical displacements may also be estimated after correcting for the lateral advection of topography due to horizontal displacements. A comparison between the two means of deriving vertical displacements shows generally good agreement, with the displacements obtained using satellite imagery performing better in high relief areas. As a result of this property, we are able to trace the vertical offsets due to the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake as the rupture jumped from the Pescadores fault to the Borrego fault in propagating through the high relief of the Sierra Cucapah.

  9. Coseismic deformation induced by the Sumatra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, E.; Casarotti, E.; Devoti, R.; Melini, D.; Piersanti, A.; Pietrantonio, G.; Riguzzi, F.

    2006-08-01

    The giant Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 caused permanent deformations effects in a region of previously never observed extension. The GPS data from the worldwide network of permanent IGS sites show significant coseismic displacements in an area exceeding 10 7 km 2, reaching most of South-East Asia, besides Indonesia and India. We have analyzed long GPS time series histories in order to characterize the noise type of each site and, consequently, to precisely assess the formal errors of the coseismic offset estimates. The synthetic simulations of the coseismic displacement field obtained by means of a spherical model using different rupture histories indicate that a major part of the energy release took place in a fault plane similar to that obtained by Ammon et al. (2005) and Vigny et al. (2005) but with a larger amount of compressional slip on the northern segment of the fault area.

  10. Polymorphism of iron at high pressure: A 3D phase-field model for displacive transitions with finite elastoplastic deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattré, A.; Denoual, C.

    2016-07-01

    A thermodynamically consistent framework for combining nonlinear elastoplasticity and multivariant phase-field theory is formulated at large strains. In accordance with the Clausius-Duhem inequality, the Helmholtz free energy and time-dependent constitutive relations give rise to displacive driving forces for pressure-induced martensitic phase transitions in materials. Inelastic forces are obtained by using a representation of the energy landscape that involves the concept of reaction pathways with respect to the point group symmetry operations of crystal lattices. On the other hand, additional elastic forces are derived for the most general case of large strains and rotations, as well as nonlinear, anisotropic, and different elastic pressure-dependent properties of phases. The phase-field formalism coupled with finite elastoplastic deformations is implemented into a three-dimensional Lagrangian finite element approach and is applied to analyze the iron body-centered cubic (α-Fe) into hexagonal close-packed (ɛ-Fe) phase transitions under high hydrostatic compression. The simulations exhibit the major role played by the plastic deformation in the morphological and microstructure evolution processes. Due to the strong long-range elastic interactions between variants without plasticity, a forward α → ɛ transition is energetically unfavorable and remains incomplete. However, plastic dissipation releases considerably the stored strain energy, leading to the α ↔ ɛ ↔α‧ (forward and reverse) polymorphic phase transformations with an unexpected selection of variants.

  11. Coseismic source model of the 2003 Mw 6.8 Chengkung earthquake, Taiwan, determined from GPS measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ching, K.-E.; Rau, R.-J.; Zeng, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A coseismic source model of the 2003 Mw 6.8 Chengkung, Taiwan, earthquake was well determined with 213 GPS stations, providing a unique opportunity to study the characteristics of coseismic displacements of a high-angle buried reverse fault. Horizontal coseismic displacements show fault-normal shortening across the fault trace. Displacements on the hanging wall reveal fault-parallel and fault-normal lengthening. The largest horizontal and vertical GPS displacements reached 153 and 302 mm, respectively, in the middle part of the network. Fault geometry and slip distribution were determined by inverting GPS data using a three-dimensional (3-D) layered-elastic dislocation model. The slip is mainly concentrated within a 44 ?? 14 km slip patch centered at 15 km depth with peak amplitude of 126.6 cm. Results from 3-D forward-elastic model tests indicate that the dome-shaped folding on the hanging wall is reproduced with fault dips greater than 40??. Compared with the rupture area and average slip from slow slip earthquakes and a compilation of finite source models of 18 earthquakes, the Chengkung earthquake generated a larger rupture area and a lower stress drop, suggesting lower than average friction. Hence the Chengkung earthquake seems to be a transitional example between regular and slow slip earthquakes. The coseismic source model of this event indicates that the Chihshang fault is divided into a creeping segment in the north and the locked segment in the south. An average recurrence interval of 50 years for a magnitude 6.8 earthquake was estimated for the southern fault segment. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. World's largest coseismic strike-slip offset: The 1855 rupture of the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand, and implications for displacement/length scaling of continental earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, D. W.; Little, T. A.

    2006-12-01

    We used detailed microtopographic surveys to measure fault offset along the southern trace of the Wairarapa fault, near Wellington, New Zealand, which most recently experienced a Mw > 8.1 earthquake in 1855. Our measurements at 16 localities support the inference that dextral slip in 1855 reached 18.7 m and averaged ˜16 m over the 16 km length that we studied. Five measurements were made where a single active strand comprises the fault zone, yielding "smallest" dextral offsets of 13.0-18.7 m. At Pigeon Bush, sequential beheading of a stream and new 14C dating support the interpretation that its 18.7 ± 1.0 m of offset accumulated in 1855. We also measured three "next-smallest" offsets on single-strand faults of 26.3-32.7 m, evidence that dextral slip during the previous event was ˜14 m. Eight measurements were made where the Wairarapa fault includes two closely spaced strands, yielding smallest dextral offsets of 12.9-16.0 m. At Tauherenikau River, 14C dating of postoffset mud yielded ages indistinguishable from A.D. 1855. Combining all single-strand and two-strand (minimum) estimates yields an average dextral slip of 15.5 ± 1.4 m in the study area. Historical observations and our data indicate that vertical slip reached ˜2.5 m. The large displacement and short (˜145 km) strike length yield an unusually high displacement/length ratio for the rupture. As suggested by previous dislocation modeling, we propose that the rupture extended tens of kilometers downdip (W) to merge with the underlying subduction interface. Alternatively, the rupture may have been strongly segmented at depth, yielding an earthquake with an unusually large static stress drop.

  13. Deciphering cumulative fault slip vectors from fold scarps: Relationships between long-term and coseismic deformations in central Western Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Béon, Maryline; Suppe, John; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Chen, Yue-Gau; Ustaszewski, Michaela E.

    2014-07-01

    We document the 30 ka cumulative slip history and long-term slip vector azimuth on the northern Chelungpu fault based on a series of fault-bend folded alluvial terraces and draw quantitative relationships between geological structure, deformation observed from the geomorphology, and coseismic displacements during the 1999 Mw = 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. In our study area, three main terrace levels show progressive folding by kink band migration in relation to the underlying fault geometry, forming a main N-S fold scarp up to ~193 m high and secondary E-W scarps. Detailed analysis using 5 m resolution digital elevation model allows us to characterize the scarp morphology and quantify the deformation parameters, namely, terrace heights, fold scarp relief, and fold limb width and slope angle. The 3-D deformation of the highest terrace, dated by optically stimulated luminescence at 30.2 ± 4.0 ka, enables to simultaneously determine amplitude and azimuth of the long-term slip vector based on scarp relief. The long-term slip vector, oriented N338° ± 6°, is found to parallel the Chi-Chi coseismic displacements in this area. Cumulative slip and dating results yield a constant slip rate of 17.7 ± 2.2 mm/a in the direction N338° ± 6°. Late Quaternary shortening rates observed at four sites vary along strike in a similar way to Chi-Chi coseismic displacements. Together with the collinearity of long-term and coseismic slip vectors at our study site, this suggests that Chi-Chi earthquake is a characteristic earthquake for the Chelungpu thrust with recurrence interval ~470 years. We also discuss implications for the regional and long-term distribution of shortening in the central Western Foothills.

  14. Holographic velocimetry using object-conjugate reconstruction (OCR): a new approach for simultaneous, 3D displacement measurement in fluid and solid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, D. H.; Chan, V. S. S.; Halliwell, N. A.; Coupland, J. M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper reports on a new form of holographic metrology that enables displacement measurement in both fluid and solid mechanics simultaneously. In such instances, existing holographic methods for displacement measurement would require the application of multiple techniques in a hybrid fashion. Known as object-conjugate reconstruction (OCR), our new approach unifies the disciplines of holographic velocimetry and holographic interferometry. Using complex correlation processing, it provides a sub-wavelength resolution for all three components of displacement and enables automated data extraction at selected points throughout a volume in space.

  15. Equivalent Body Force Finite Elements Method and 3-D Earth Model Applied In 2004 Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W.; Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-dynamic-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four models, and the confidences are according to different models. In the whole four models, the Chlieh model (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip model not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip model, Chlieh model to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real 3-D heterogeneous earth model (Crust 1.0 model and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of 3-D heterogeneous earth model are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of 3-D crust model are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the 3-D mantle model are much smaller than that of 3-D crust model but with wider impacting area.

  16. Near-field and far-field effects of elastic structure on coseismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Akinori; Becker, Thorsten; Freed, Andy; Sato, Hiroshi; Okaya, David; Suito, Hisashi; Yarai, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Takaya

    2016-04-01

    Coseismic deformation due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Japan, was detected by dense GPS network of over 1200 stations and several seafloor stations. Using these observations, we investigated effects of elastic structure on coseismic deformation with a 3-D finite element model incorporating geometry of the regional plate boundaries and elastic structures. First, we computed displacement fields for different elastic models with the same coseismic slip distribution to understand the effect of elastic structures. We assumed the three structure models: (a) Homogeneous model, (b) two-layered model considering crust-mantle structure (rigidity of 35 and 65 GPa, respectively) (Layered model), (c) crust-mantle model with cold subducting slab (85 GPa) (Slab model). We found the two contradicting effects: (1) In the far field (mostly at onshore stations), the amount of displacement decreases with the increase of the average rigidity. (2) In the near field at offshore stations, the amount of surface displacement increases with the increase of rigidity across the faults. This is because the stiffer (less deformable) footwall requires more movement of the hanging wall to accommodate the slip. Next, we inverted the observed displacements to obtain slip distribution for three elastic structures. The patterns of inverted slip distribution are basically similar for all three models but the amount of maximum slip is not simply related to average rigidity of structure models. The maximum slip increases from 39 m in Homogeneous model to 40 m in Layered model and then falls to 38 m in Slab model. These changes show that crust-mantle layering is more effective on far field while slab effect is more important in the near field.

  17. The 3D lithospheric structure and plate tectonics of the on-going Taiwan arc-continent collision and delamination: a context for understanding patterns of geomorphic uplift and contemporary stress and geodetic displacement fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.; Carena, S.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    3D mapping of local and global tomographic data have considerably clarified the underlying architecture and long-term kinematics of ongoing arc-continent collision and subduction reversal in Taiwan, including the role of delamination of the continental mantle lithosphere and lowermost crust as an integral part of the ongoing collision. This subduction by continental delamination produces a new delamination Moho in northernmost Taiwan and is accompanied by extensional deformation and oroclinal bending of the overlying crust and now dead compressional mountain belt in northernmost Taiwan, even though subduction of Eurasian lithosphere continues at depth, with the Eurasian slab extending vertically to the mantle transtion zone. This subducting Eurasian continental lithosphere is continuous as a single intact slab across the Eurasian ocean-continent boundary, with the South China Sea Eurasian lithosphere to the south undergoing classic oceanic subduction. In this presentation we show that a 3D understanding of the geometry and long-term plate kinematics of this arc-continent collision informs and illuminates our understanding of [1] patterns of geomorphic uplift on a 100Ka timescale, [2] contemporary horizontal geodetic displacement fields, and [3] contemporary stress fields in the upper 100km determined from focal-mechanism inversions and borehole breakouts. Patterns of uplift and magmatism are closely linked to the locus of current delamination at depth. The contemporary horizontal displacement field shows on-going oroclinal bending. The very large changes in stress orientation are immediately clarified by their locations relative to fundamental structures, including the delamination Moho and the deep slabs of the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates.

  18. An analytical approach to estimate curvature effect of coseismic deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jie; Sun, Wenke; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-06-01

    We present an analytical approach to compute the curvature effect by the new analytical solutions of co-seismic deformation derived for the homogeneous sphere model. We consider two spheres with different radii: one is the same as earth, the other with a larger radius can approximate a half-space model. Then, we calculate the co-seismic displacements for the two spheres and define the relative percentage of the displacements as the curvature effect. The near-field curvature effect is defined relative to the maximum co-seismic displacement. The results show that the maximum curvature effect is about 4% for source depths of less than 100 km, and about 30% for source depths of less than 600 km. For the far-field curvature effect, we define it relative to the observing point. The curvature effect is extremely large and sometimes exceeds 100%. Moreover, this new approach can be used to estimate any planet's curvature effect quantitatively. For a smaller sphere, such as the Moon, the curvature effect is much larger than that of the Earth, with an inverse ratio to the earth's radius.

  19. An analytical approach to estimate curvature effect of coseismic deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jie; Sun, Wenke; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical approach to compute the curvature effect by the new analytical solutions of coseismic deformation derived for the homogeneous sphere model. We consider two spheres with different radii: one is the same as earth and the other with a larger radius can approximate a half-space model. Then, we calculate the coseismic displacements for the two spheres and define the relative percentage of the displacements as the curvature effect. The near-field curvature effect is defined relative to the maximum coseismic displacement. The results show that the maximum curvature effect is about 4 per cent for source depths of less than 100 km, and about 30 per cent for source depths of less than 600 km. For the far-field curvature effect, we define it relative to the observing point. The curvature effect is extremely large and sometimes exceeds 100 per cent. Moreover, this new approach can be used to estimate any planet's curvature effect quantitatively. For a smaller sphere, such as the Moon, the curvature effect is much larger than that of the Earth, with an inverse ratio to the earth's radius.

  20. Investigation of the best coseismic fault model of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake based on mechanisms of postseismic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Endra; Meilano, Irwan; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Hanifa, Nuraini Rahma; Susilo

    2016-03-01

    We investigate three available coseismic fault models of the 2006 M7.8 Java tsunami earthquake, as reported by Fujii and Satake (2006), Bilek and Engdahl (2007), and Yagi and Fukahata (2011), in order to find the best coseismic model based on mechanisms of postseismic deformation associated with viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip. We construct a preliminary rheological model using vertical data, obtaining a final rheological model after we include horizontal and vertical components of afterslip in the further process. Our analysis indicates that the coseismic fault model of Fujii and Satake (2006) provides a better and more realistic result for a rheological model than the others. The best-fit rheological model calculated using the coseismic fault model of Fujii and Satake (2006) comprises a 60 ± 5 km elastic layer thickness with a viscosity of 2.0 ± 1.0 × 1017 Pa s in the asthenosphere. Also, we find that afterslip is dominant over the horizontal displacements, while viscoelastic relaxation is dominant over the vertical displacement. Additionally, in comparison to the coseismic displacement found through GPS data taken at BAKO station, our calculation indicates that Fujii and Satake (2006) modeled coseismic displacements with less GPS data misfit than the other examined models. Finally, we emphasize that our methodology for evaluating the best coseismic fault model can satisfactorily explain the postseismic deformation of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake.

  1. The Rudbār Mw 7.3 earthquake of 1990 June 20; seismotectonics, coseismic and geomorphic displacements, and historic earthquakes of the western `High-Alborz', Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberian, Manuel; Walker, Richard

    2010-09-01

    The Rudbār earthquake of 1990 June 20, the first large-magnitude earthquake with 80 km left-lateral strike-slip motion in the western `High-Alborz' fold-thrust mountain belt, was one of the largest, and most destructive, earthquakes to have occurred in Iran during the instrumental period. We bring together new and existing data on macroseismic effects, the rupture characteristics of the mainshock, field data, and the distribution of aftershocks, to provide a better description of the earthquake source, its surface ruptures, and active tectonic characteristics of the western `High-Alborz'. The Rudbār earthquake is one of three large magnitude events to have occurred in this part of the Alborz during recorded history. The damage distribution of the 1485 August 15 Upper Polrud earthquake suggests the east-west Kelishom left-lateral fault, which is situated east of the Rudbār earthquake fault, as a possible source. The 1608 April 20 Alamutrud earthquake may have occurred on the Alamutrud fault farther east. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that total left-lateral displacements on the Rudbār fault are a maximum of ~1 km. Apparent left-lateral river displacements of ~200 m on the Kashachāl fault and up to ~1.5 km of the Kelishom fault, which are situated at the eastern end of the Rudbār earthquake fault, also appear to indicate rather small cumulative displacements. Given the relatively small displacements, the presently active left-lateral strike-slip faults of the western High-Alborz fold-thrust belt, may be younger than onset of deformation within the Alborz Mountains as a whole.

  2. Coseismic and postseismic motion of a landslide: Observations, modeling, and analogy with tectonic faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, P.; Perfettini, H.; Taipe, E.; Guillier, B.

    2014-10-01

    We document the first time series of a landslide reactivation by an earthquake using continuous GPS measurements over the Maca landslide (Peru). Our survey shows a coseismic response of the landslide of about 2 cm, followed by a relaxation period of 5 weeks during which postseismic slip is 3 times greater than the coseismic displacement itself. Our results confirm the coseismic activation of landslides and provide the first observation of a postseismic displacement. These observations are consistent with a mechanical model where slip on the landslide basal interface is governed by rate and state friction, analogous to the mechanics of creeping tectonic faults, opening new perspectives to study the mechanics of landslides and active faults.

  3. Quantifying Coseismic Normal Fault Rupture at the Seafloor: The 2004 Les Saintes Earthquake (Mw 6.3) Along the Roseau Fault (French Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartin, J.; Leclerc, F.; Cannat, M.; Petersen, S.; Augustin, N.; Bezos, A.; Bonnemains, D.; Chavagnac, V.; Choi, Y.; Godard, M.; Haaga, K.; Hamelin, C.; Ildefonse, B.; Jamieson, J. W.; John, B. E.; Leleu, T.; Massot-Campos, M.; Mevel, C.; Nomikou, P.; Olive, J. A. L.; Paquet, M.; Rommevaux, C.; Rothenbeck, M.; Steinführer, A.; Tominaga, M.; Triebe, L.; Garcia, R.; Gracias, N.; Feuillet, N.; Deplus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Direct observations of coseismic fault displacement and rupture-related features are essential to understand seismic cycles, to quantify seismic hazard, and to constrain rupture dynamics. They are also needed to trace the paleoseismic history of active faults. Such observations in submarine environments are practically absent, but critical to assess associated tsunami hazard. The ODEMAR cruise studied a ~10 km section of the Roseau Fault (RF) off Les Saintes Islands (Guadeloupe, French Lesser Antilles), a normal fault that generated a Mw 6.3 earthquake in 2004 that triggered a tsunami (<3.5 m of run-up). Microbathymetric data and video observations conducted with the autonomous underwater vehicle ABYSS (GEOMAR) and the remotely operated vehicle VICTOR (IFREMER) allow us to document recent fault-related deformation features. First, the RF hangingwall shows an indurated and ubiquitous rippled sediment layer, locally covered by recent, unconsolidated sediments reworked by currents. Seafloor photomosaics show the indurated layer disrupted by extensional cracks (up to few m long, several 10s of cm wide, ~30 cm deep) along >1 km and by the RF scarp base, that are certainly very young as they are not covered by unconsolidated sediments. Second, video imagery reveals well-preserved, subvertical and polished fault planes exposed at the RF scarp base. Videomosacing and video derived 3D terrain models of a fault outcrop (~12 m long, ~5 m high) reveal on the fault plane a thin, continuous line of unconsolidated sediment sub-parallel to and 10s' of cm above the fault/sediment contact. The line represents the paleo-fault/sediment contact prior to a very recent displacement event, as strong currents in the area would otherwise have washed out the sediment. The fault surface above this line is rougher than that below it. Based on the apparent young age of these features, and given the recurrence time of seismic events along the RF (hundreds to a few thousands of years for Mw 6

  4. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  5. Global coseismic deformations, GNSS time series analysis, and earthquake scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métivier, Laurent; Collilieux, Xavier; Lercier, Daphné; Altamimi, Zuheir; Beauducel, François

    2014-12-01

    We investigate how two decades of coseismic deformations affect time series of GPS station coordinates (Global Navigation Satellite System) and what constraints geodetic observations give on earthquake scaling laws. We developed a simple but rapid model for coseismic deformations, assuming different earthquake scaling relations, that we systematically applied on earthquakes with magnitude larger than 4. We found that coseismic displacements accumulated during the last two decades can be larger than 10 m locally and that the cumulative displacement is not only due to large earthquakes but also to the accumulation of many small motions induced by smaller earthquakes. Then, investigating a global network of GPS stations, we demonstrate that a systematic global modeling of coseismic deformations helps greatly to detect discontinuities in GPS coordinate time series, which are still today one of the major sources of error in terrestrial reference frame construction (e.g., the International Terrestrial Reference Frame). We show that numerous discontinuities induced by earthquakes are too small to be visually detected because of seasonal variations and GPS noise that disturb their identification. However, not taking these discontinuities into account has a large impact on the station velocity estimation, considering today's precision requirements. Finally, six groups of earthquake scaling laws were tested. Comparisons with our GPS time series analysis on dedicated earthquakes give insights on the consistency of these scaling laws with geodetic observations and Okada coseismic approach.

  6. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  7. Analysis of 2012 M8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake coseismic slip model based on GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Efendi, Joni

    2016-05-01

    The CGPS (Continuous Global Position System) data of Sumatran GPS Array (CGPS) and Indonesian Geospatial Agency (BIG) in Sumatra are processed to estimate the best fit coseismic model of 2012 M8.6 Indian Ocean earthquake. For GPS data processing, we used the GPS Analysis at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) 10.5 software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to generate position time series of each GPS stations and estimate the coseismic offset due to the Earthquake. The result from GPS processing indicates that the earthquake caused displacement northeast ward up to 25 cm in northern Sumatra. Results also show subsidence at the northern Sumatran while the central part of Sumatra show northwest direction displacement, but we cannot find whether the subsidence or the uplift signal associated to the earthquake due to the vertical data quality. Based on the GPS coseismic data, we evaluate the coseismic slip model of Indian Ocean Earthquake produced by previous study [1], [2], [3]. We calculated coseismic displacement using half-space with earthquake slip model input and compare it with the displacement produced form GPS data.

  8. Coseismic Deformation Field and Fault Slip Distribution of the 2015 Chile Mw8.3 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chunyan; Zuo, Ronghu; Shan, Xin Jian; Zhang, Guohong; Zhang, Yingfeng; Song, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    On September 16, 2015, a magnitude 8.3 earthquake struck west of Illapel, Chile. We analyzed Sentinel-1A/IW InSAR data on the descending track acquired before and after the Chile Mw8.3 earthquake of 16 September 2015. We found that the coseismic deformation field of this event consists of many semi circular fringes protruding to east in an approximately 300km long and 190km wide region. The maximum coseismic displacement is about 1.33m in LOS direction corresponding to subsidence or westward shift of the ground. We inverted the coseismic fault slip based on a small-dip single plane fault model in a homogeneous elastic half space. The inverted coseismic slip mainly concentrates at shallow depth above the hypocenter with a symmetry shape. The rupture length along strike is about 340 km with maximum slip of about 8.16m near the trench. The estimated moment is 3.126×1021 N.m (Mw8.27) the maximum depth of coseismic slip near zero appears to 50km. We also analyzed the postseismic deformation fields using four interferograms with different time intervals. The results show that postseismic deformation occurred in a narrow area of approximately 65km wide with maximum slip 11cm, and its predominant motion changes from uplift to subsidence with time. that is to say, at first, the postseismic deformation direction is opposite to that of coseismic deformation, then it tends to be consistent with coseismic deformation.It maybe indicates the differences and changes in the velocity between the Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continental plate.

  9. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  10. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  11. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  12. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  13. Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

  14. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  15. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  16. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  17. Three-dimensional lidar point-cloud visualization and analysis of coseismic deformation using LidarViewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskin, M. E.; Kreylos, O.; Banesh, D.; Hamann, B.; Gold, P. O.; Elliott, A. J.; Hinojosa, A.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    We summarize new point-cloud analysis techniques, and results obtained from lidar data collected from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake surface rupture, using LidarViewer, an open-source software platform developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Imaging of earthquake deformation with multi-resolution and multi-temporal lidar presents several challenges for visualization and analysis. Instruments, data resolution, and even the geodetic reference frame may change significantly between surveys. Grid-based techniques fail to adequately represent fully 3-D features, such as scarps and vegetation, and introduce aliasing artifacts that are especially troublesome when the deformation signal sought is less than the point spacing. Once obtained, the resulting dense field of 3-D vectors derived from differential lidar are difficult to visualize together with the terrain, limiting interpretation of these results. Points are the native, resolution-independent format of lidar, but working with massive point data sets can overwhelm system memory. LidarViewer overcomes these challenges using hierarchal data storage, view-dependent rendering, and an efficient, recursive data analysis framework. Pre-earthquake airborne lidar, collected as part of a regional survey, are very sparse (0.013 pts/m2) compared to the post-earthquake survey (9 pts/m2). A simple, \\chi2 minimization approach to matching these data sets takes advantage of this dramatic resolution difference to extract 3-D ground motion. We visualize the resulting displacement field in a 3-D environment using streamline-based approaches, colored by elevation change, and superimposed on the post-earthquake topography. This fused data product encourages exploration and assessment of the deformation signal and its relationship to landscape features, such as fault scarps, vegetation, and topographic relief. Terrestrial lidar scans collected within two weeks of the earthquake reveal the surface rupture at centimeter resolution

  18. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  19. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  20. Comparison of Holocene With Coseismic Vertical Deformation Accompanying the Great 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands Megathrust Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. W.; Briggs, R.; Frohlich, C.; Papabatu, A. K.; Billy, D.; Brown, A.; Meltzner, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 earthquake in the western Solomons arc is the first major seismic rupture of this segment of plate boundary in historical times. A remarkable property of this region is the existence of coral- fringed islands located in a belt from ~90 km to as close as ~5 km from the trench. This setting provides a unique opportunity in which to measure forearc vertical movements using corals and other data to reveal relationships among coseismic vertical displacement, extremely rapid uplift of the outer forearc, and slower uplift of the main volcanic arc. The location of maximum coseismic uplift along a trench-parallel belt adjacent to the trench is consistent with the trench-parallel belt of maximum Holocene uplift rates. However, islands along the main volcanic arc lie in the swath of coseismic subsidence located arcward and parallel to the uplift zone. These islands typically have mean Holocene uplift rates up to ~1mm/yr. Thus, coseismic uplift correlates with rapid outer forearc Holocene uplift, but coseismic subsidence occurred throughout the more slowly uplifting volcanic arc. Using these observations, we can deconvolve and isolate the components of co- seismic, interseismic, and net vertical deformation and seek to address the underlying mechanisms. Interpretation is complicated by the late Quaternary history that includes subsidence of both the inner and outer arc islands prior to initiation of the ongoing net uplift since ~50 ka.

  1. Necessity of using heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain to calculate co-seismic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Huai; Huang, Luyuan; Qu, Wulin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    Co-seismic deformation and stress changes, which reflect the elasticity of the earth, are very important in the earthquake dynamics, and also to other issues, such as the evaluation of the seismic risk, fracture process and triggering of earthquake. Lots of scholars have researched the dislocation theory and co-seismic deformation and obtained the half-space homogeneous model, half-space stratified model, spherical stratified model, and so on. Especially, models of Okada (1992) and Wang (2003, 2006) are widely applied in the research of calculating co-seismic and post-seismic effects. However, since both semi-infinite space model and layered model do not take the role of the earth curvature or heterogeneity or topography into consideration, there are large errors in calculating the co-seismic displacement of a great earthquake in its impacted area. Meanwhile, the computational methods of calculating the co-seismic strain and stress are different between spherical model and plane model. Here, we adopted the finite element method which could well deal with the complex characteristics (such as anisotropy, discontinuities) of rock and different conditions. We use the mash adaptive technique to automatically encrypt the mesh at the fault and adopt the equivalent volume force replace the dislocation source, which can avoid the difficulty in handling discontinuity surface with conventional (Zhang et al., 2015). We constructed an earth model that included earth's layered structure and curvature, the upper boundary was set as a free surface and the core-mantle boundary was set under buoyancy forces. Firstly, based on the precision requirement, we take a testing model - - a strike-slip fault (the length of fault is 500km and the width is 50km, and the slippage is 10m) for example. Because of the curvature of the Earth, some errors certainly occur in plane coordinates just as previous studies (Dong et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2012). However, we also found that: 1) the co-seismic

  2. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  3. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  4. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  5. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  6. Coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2007 M5.5 Ghazaband fault earthquake, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, H.; Amelung, F.; Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.

    2015-05-01

    Time series analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data reveals coseismic and postseismic surface displacements associated with the 2007 M5.5 earthquake along the southern Ghazaband fault, a major but little studied fault in Pakistan. Modeling indicates that the coseismic surface deformation was caused by ~9 cm of strike-slip displacement along a shallow subvertical fault. The earthquake was followed by at least 1 year of afterslip, releasing ~70% of the moment of the main event, equivalent to a M5.4 earthquake. This high aseismic relative to the seismic moment release is consistent with previous observations for moderate earthquakes (M < 6) and suggests that smaller earthquakes are associated with a higher aseismic relative to seismic moment release than larger earthquakes.

  7. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  8. Co-Seismic Deformations Impact on Geodetic Time Series and Reference Frame Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metivier, L.; Collilieux, X.; Lercier, D.; Altamimi, Z.; Beauducel, F.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major sources of error in reference frame determination comes from the undetected discontinuities in station position time series, particularly in GNSS data. Until now, discontinuities in station position time series due to large earthquakes were usually detected visually. Based on a geophysical modeling, we develop a method to predict the effect of co-seismic deformations on position series. Investigating a global network of GPS stations, we demonstrate that a systematic global modeling of co-seismic deformations helps greatly to detect discontinuities in GPS coordinate time series. We show that numerous discontinuities induced by earthquakes are too small to be visually detected because of seasonal variations and GPS noise that disturb their identification. However, not taking these discontinuities into account has a large impact on the station velocity estimation, considering today's precision requirements. Beyond time series discontinuities, we also investigate GPS station displacements induced by two decades of accumulated seismicity. We show here that the accumulation of very small co-seismic deformations may explain non-linear behaviors of GPS station position. It raises the unexpected question of the treatment of such station non-linear motions in reference frame elaboration.

  9. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  10. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  11. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  12. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  14. Coseismic vertical deformation during the great 2007 Solomon Islands megathrust rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, R.; Taylor, F. W.; Frohlich, C.; Papabatu, A. K.; Billy, D.; Brown, A.; Meltzner, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    A joint US-Solomon Islands team visited the epicentral area of the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake a few weeks after the event. We used coral microatolls, satellite imagery, and displaced geomorphic and cultural features to map the coseismic deformation pattern in the region directly above and adjacent to the subduction megathrust rupture. Among our main findings is that most slip occurred on the shallow portion of the megathrust and that slip appears to have reached the deformation front at Ranongga island, which was uplifted as much as ~2.5 m when the rupture propagated across the subducting Simbo ridge transform. Simbo island, which sits on the downgoing Australian plate and lies only 8 km across the plate boundary from uplifted Ranongga, subsided ~0.7 m coseismically and experienced only subdued ground motions. The line of zero vertical displacement (hingeline) runs closely along the southwestern coasts of Vella Lavella, Ghizo, and Parara islands, implying a persistent structural relationship between the downdip limit of coseismic slip and these coastlines. A broad, asymmetrical subsidence trough as deep as ~0.7 m extends across Vella Lavella, Kolombangara, Parara, and New Georgia. Uplift of ~0.35 m on the westermost tip of Rendova, along with overall subsidence of Rendova and Tetepare, place a firm limit on the southeastern extent of rupture. Uplift of Mono and subsidence of Fauro and the Shortlands, and no resolvable vertical change on Bougainville, define a rupture length of nearly 250 km between Rendova and the Woodlark rise.

  15. Coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the South Napa earthquake inferred from modeling of Global Positioning System data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. R.; Svarc, J. L.; Pollitz, F. F.; Floyd, M.; Funning, G.; Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic ground deformation due to the 24 August 2014 M6 South Napa earthquake was recorded by continuous GPS (CGPS) sites of the Plate Boundary Observatory, Bay Area Regional Deformation, and USGS networks. Additionally, survey-mode GPS (SGPS) measurements were carried out following the event to densify the spatial coverage and record postseismic deformation. We compare earthquake offsets estimated using two sets of time series for the same sites, one with position estimates at five minute intervals and the other at one day intervals. On average the offset magnitudes from the five-minute positions are ~70% those estimated from the daily data, demonstrating that substantial postseismic deformation occurred immediately following the coseismic slip. Fitting the daily position time series for sites within ~35 km of the epicenter with a combination of coseismic offset and a logarithmic decay that begins immediately following the event indicates that cumulative displacement from 25 August 2014 to 24 September 2014 is on average ~70% of the estimated displacement on 24 August at these sites. While earthquakes on creeping faults of the San Andreas system have often generated postseismic displacement of similar magnitude to the coseismic, the mapped trace associated with this earthquake was not known to creep. Using the coseismic offsets estimated from the five-minute solutions and a Bayesian inference approach, the most likely planar fault that passes through the epicenter and intersects the Earth's surface is vertical and strikes 155o, in good agreement with seismic moment tensor estimates. The peak GPS-inferred coseismic slip extends ~12 km northwest and up-dip of the hypocenter. Initial postseismic slip models derived from GPS data show shallow afterslip near and to the southeast of the inferred coseismic slip; the afterslip is generally shallower and southeast of the zone of aftershocks. However, the resulting GPS residuals exhibit more complex spatial patterns that

  16. Coseismic and initial postseismic deformation from the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake, observed by global positioning system, electronic distance meter, creepmeters, and borehole strainmeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, J.; Murray, J.R.; Snyder, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS), electronic distance meter, creepmeter, and strainmeter measurements spanning the M 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake are examined. Using these data from 100 sec through 9 months following the main-shock, the Omori's law, with rate inversely related to time, l/t p and p ranging between 0.7 and 1.3, characterizes the time-dependent deformation during the post-seismic period; these results are consistent with creep models for elastic solids. With an accurate function of postseismic response, the coseismic displacements can be estimated from the high-rate, 1-min sampling GPS; and the coseismic displacements are approximately 75% of those estimated from the daily solutions. Consequently, fault-slip models using daily solutions overestimate coseismic slip. In addition, at 2 months and at 8 months following the mainshock, postseismic displacements are modeled as slip on the San Andreas fault with a lower bound on the moment exceeding that of the coseismic moment.

  17. Coseismic slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.9 Maule, Chile earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, Fred F.; Brooks, Ben; Tong, Xiaopeng; Bevis, Michael G.; Foster, James H.; Burgmann, Roland

    2011-01-01

    [1] Static offsets produced by the February 27, 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake as measured by GPS and InSAR constrain coseismic slip along a section of the Andean megathrust of dimensions 650 km (in length) × 180 km (in width). GPS data have been collected from both campaign and continuous sites sampling both the near-field and far field. ALOS/PALSAR data from several ascending and descending tracks constrain the near-field crustal deformation. Inversions of the geodetic data for distributed slip on the megathrust reveal a pronounced slip maximum of order 15 m at ∼15–25 km depth on the megathrust offshore Lloca, indicating that seismic slip was greatest north of the epicenter of the bilaterally propagating rupture. A secondary slip maximum appears at depth ∼25 km on the megathrust just west of Concepción. Coseismic slip is negligible below 35 km depth. Estimates of the seismic moment based on different datasets and modeling approaches vary from 1.8 to 2.6 × 1022 N m. Our study is the first to model the static displacement field using a layered spherical Earth model, allowing us to incorporate both near-field and far-field static displacements in a consistent manner. The obtained seismic moment of 1.97 × 1022 N m, corresponding to a moment magnitude of 8.8, is similar to that obtained by previous seismic and geodetic inversions.

  18. Coseismic and Postseismic motion of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake from InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yangmao; Xu, Caijun; Li, Zhenhong; Liu, Yang; Feng, Wanpeng; Shan, Xinjian

    2014-05-01

    On 12 May 2008, a Mw 7.9 earthquake occurred on the Longmen Shan fault system at the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau near Wenchuan City. In this paper, we generated a precise coseismic displacement map covering the epicenter of this large event from L-band ALOS PALSAR imagery by identifying and excluding ALOS interferograms with obvious ionospheric perturbations. Combined with GPS-derived coseismic displacements, a joint model taking into account both coseismic and postseismc motion was constructed to investigate the cosesimic slip distribution of the Wenchuan earthquake and the viscous structure in the Longmenshan region. Our best model suggests this large earthquake was associated with a very complex fault rupture. The slips of Hongkou, Yuejiashan, Beichuan and Hanwang segments were dominated by thrust movements and the Qingchuan segment experienced a dominant right-lateral strike slip. Major slip occurred mainly at the depth of less than 10 km, with a maximum slip of 10.6 m on the northeastern part of the Hongkou segment. Our estimated geodetic moment was approximately 9.30×10 ^ 20 N m (Mw 7.92), which is consistent with previous seismological results. The midcrust to lower crustal viscosity derived from the joint model in a Maxwell half-space was 3×10 ^ 17 Pa s, which places a strong low bound on the viscosity in the Longmenshan region. It is believed that postseismic motion time series results covering a longer time span might have the potential to improve this constraint.

  19. 3D MHD Simulations of Tokamak Disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James

    2014-10-01

    Two disruption scenarios are modeled numerically by use of the CORSICA 2D equilibrium and NIMROD 3D MHD codes. The work follows the simulations of pressure-driven modes in DIII-D and VDEs in ITER. The aim of the work is to provide starting points for simulation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques currently in the CDR phase for ITER. Pressure-driven instability growth rates previously observed in simulations of DIIID are verified; Halo and Hiro currents produced during vertical displacements are observed in simulations of ITER with implementation of resistive walls in NIMROD. We discuss plans to exercise new code capabilities and validation.

  20. Coseismic and early postseismic deformation due to the 25 April 2015, Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake from InSAR and GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, K. M.; Sunil, P. S.; Agrawal, Ritesh; Saji, Ajish P.; Ramesh, D. S.; Rajawat, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data reveals coseismic and early postseismic (4-88 days) surface displacements associated with the 25 April 2015, Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. The pattern of early postseismic surface uplift and subsidence is found to be opposite to that of the coseismic motion. InSAR and GPS data were jointly inverted for coseismic and postseismic slip on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). We consider a complex ramp-flat-ramp-flat subsurface structure of the MHT with four connected fault planes dipping toward north from the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). The inverted coseismic slip distribution follows an elliptical pattern, extending east-southeastward from the hypocenter with maximum amplitude of 5.7 m above the upper edge of the midcrustal ramp. We infer early postseismic afterslip (4-16 days) of 0.2-0.47 m toward downdip of the coseismic slip asperity and another patch with 0.1-0.2 m slip toward east. The shallow portion of the MHT toward south is found to have remained unruptured during the earthquake, nor did it slip aseismically after the earthquake, suggesting possibility of large events in the future.

  1. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  2. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  3. Three-dimensional surface displacements and rotations from differencing pre- and post-earthquake LiDAR point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Edwin; Krishnan, Aravindhan K.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Saripalli, Srikanth

    2012-08-01

    The recent explosion in sub-meter resolution airborne LiDAR data raises the possibility of mapping detailed changes to Earth's topography. We present a new method that determines three-dimensional (3-D) coseismic surface displacements and rotations from differencing pre- and post-earthquake airborne LiDAR point clouds using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Tested on simulated earthquake displacements added to real LiDAR data along the San Andreas Fault, the method reproduces the input deformation for a grid size of ∼50 m with horizontal and vertical accuracies of ∼20 cm and ∼4 cm, values that mimic errors in the original spot height measurements. The technique also measures rotations directly, resolving the detailed kinematics of distributed zones of faulting where block rotations are common. By capturing near-fault deformation in 3-D, the method offers new constraints on shallow fault slip and rupture zone deformation, in turn aiding research into fault zone rheology and long-term earthquake repeatability.

  4. Co-seismic and post-seismic effects of the Tohoku-Oki M W 9.0 earthquake in North and Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chengjun; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengxuan; Qi, Bangshen; Wang, Lianjie

    2016-01-01

    Using the US Geological Survey (USGS) finite fault model, the co-seismic horizontal displacement and horizontal principal stress field in North and Northeast China generated by the Tohoku-Oki M W 9.0 earthquake of March 11th, 2011, were retrieved by linear elastic finite element numerical simulation. On this basis, the static Coulomb failure stress variations of the main active faults and tectonic zones in North and Northeast China were calculated, and the triggering effect of the earthquake on seismicity in North and Northeast China was discussed. Results were as follows: (1) the co-seismic horizontal displacement field caused by the great earthquake was eastward in North China; the maximum value, which occurred in the Shandong Peninsula and north Jiangsu Province, was about 12 mm; and the values gradually decreased from east to west. The co-seismic horizontal displacement field in Northeast China was SE-SEE and the maximum value, which occurred in northeast Jilin Province, was about 30 mm. The simulated results for the co-seismic horizontal displacement field were in good agreement with GPS observational results. (2) The near-surface co-seismic maximum horizontal principal stress (ΔσHmax) was tensile stress ranging from 0 to 2.0 KPa. From Northeast China to North China, the direction gradually altered from NW to NWW to nearly EW to NEE. The co-seismic minimum horizontal principal stress (ΔσHmax) was compressive as well as tensile stress, with a magnitude of 0-0.75 KPa, which is approximately equal to zero. From Northeast China to North China, the direction gradually changed to NNW from NE to NNE to nearly NS. Although the co-seismic stress effect generated by the great earthquake had some effect on the present tectonic stress field of North and Northeast China, its influence was too slight to change the present framework of the regional tectonic stress field. (3) Coulomb failure stress variations on active fault zones in North and Northeast China mainly

  5. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  6. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  7. LLNL-Earth3D

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  8. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  9. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  11. Coseismic and postseismic slip of the 2011 magnitude-9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Shinzaburo; Nishimura, Takuya; Suito, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Tobita, Mikio; Imakiire, Tetsuro

    2011-07-21

    Most large earthquakes occur along an oceanic trench, where an oceanic plate subducts beneath a continental plate. Massive earthquakes with a moment magnitude, M(w), of nine have been known to occur in only a few areas, including Chile, Alaska, Kamchatka and Sumatra. No historical records exist of a M(w) = 9 earthquake along the Japan trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Okhotsk plate, with the possible exception of the ad 869 Jogan earthquake, the magnitude of which has not been well constrained. However, the strain accumulation rate estimated there from recent geodetic observations is much higher than the average strain rate released in previous interplate earthquakes. This finding raises the question of how such areas release the accumulated strain. A megathrust earthquake with M(w) = 9.0 (hereafter referred to as the Tohoku-Oki earthquake) occurred on 11 March 2011, rupturing the plate boundary off the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. Here we report the distributions of the coseismic slip and postseismic slip as determined from ground displacement detected using a network based on the Global Positioning System. The coseismic slip area extends approximately 400 km along the Japan trench, matching the area of the pre-seismic locked zone. The afterslip has begun to overlap the coseismic slip area and extends into the surrounding region. In particular, the afterslip area reached a depth of approximately 100 km, with M(w) = 8.3, on 25 March 2011. Because the Tohoku-Oki earthquake released the strain accumulated for several hundred years, the paradox of the strain budget imbalance may be partly resolved. This earthquake reminds us of the potential for M(w) ≈ 9 earthquakes to occur along other trench systems, even if no past evidence of such events exists. Therefore, it is imperative that strain accumulation be monitored using a space geodetic technique to assess earthquake potential. PMID:21677648

  12. Quantifying slip balance in the earthquake cycle: Coseismic slip model constrained by interseismic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lifeng; Hainzl, Sebastian; Mai, P. Martin

    2015-12-01

    The long-term slip on faults has to follow, on average, the plate motion, while slip deficit is accumulated over shorter timescales (e.g., between the large earthquakes). Accumulated slip deficits eventually have to be released by earthquakes and aseismic processes. In this study, we propose a new inversion approach for coseismic slip, taking interseismic slip deficit as prior information. We assume a linear correlation between coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit and invert for the coefficients that link the coseismic displacements to the required strain accumulation time and seismic release level of the earthquake. We apply our approach to the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. Under the assumption that the largest slip almost fully releases the local strain (as indicated by borehole measurements), our results suggest that the strain accumulated along the Tohoku-Oki earthquake segment has been almost fully released during the 2011 M9 rupture. The remaining slip deficit can be attributed to the postseismic processes. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. We also estimate the required time of strain accumulation for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake to be ~25 years (confidence interval of [17, 43] years), consistent with the observed average recurrence time of ~22 years for M6 earthquakes in Parkfield. For the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we estimate the recurrence time of ~500-700 years. This new inversion approach for evaluating slip balance can be generally applied to any earthquake for which dense geodetic measurements are available.

  13. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  14. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  15. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  16. Printing 3D dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Walters, Peter; Stoimenov, Boyko

    2009-03-01

    We present a new approach to the fabrication of soft dielectric elastomer actuators using a 3D printing process. Complete actuators including active membranes and support structures can be 3D printed in one go, resulting in a great improvement in fabrication speed and increases in accuracy and consistency. We describe the fabrication process and present force and displacement results for a double-membrane antagonistic actuator. In this structure controlled prestrain is applied by the simple process of pressing together two printed actuator halves. The development of 3D printable soft actuators will have a large impact on many application areas including engineering, medicine and the emerging field of soft robotics.

  17. 3D Faulting Numerical Model Related To 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake Based On DInSAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Tizzani, Pietro; Solaro, Giuseppe; Pepe, Susi; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the surface displacements in the area affected by the April 6, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy) through an advanced 3D numerical modeling approach, by exploiting DInSAR deformation velocity maps based on ENVISAT (Ascending and Descending orbits) and COSMO-SkyMed data (Ascending orbit). We benefited from the available geological and geophysical information to investigate the impact of known buried structures on the modulation of the observed ground deformation field; in this context we implemented the a priori information in a Finite Element (FE) Environment considering a structural mechanical physical approach. The performed analysis demonstrate that the displacement pattern associated with the Mw 6.3 main-shock event is consistent with the activation of several fault segments of the Paganica fault. In particular, we analyzed the seismic events in a structural mechanical context under the plane stress mode approximation to solve for the retrieved displacements. We defined the sub-domain setting of the 3D FEM model using the information derived from the CROOP M-15 seismic line. We assumed stationarity and linear elasticity of the involved materials by considering a solution of classical equilibrium mechanical equations. We evolved our model through two stages: the model compacted under the weight of the rock successions (gravity loading) until it reached a stable equilibrium. At the second stage (co-seismic), where the stresses were released through a slip along the faults, by using an optimization procedure we retrieved: (i) the active seismogenic structures responsible for the observed ground deformation, (ii) the effects of the different mechanical constraints on the ground deformation pattern and (iii) the spatial distribution of the retrieved stress field. We evaluated the boundary setting best fit configuration responsible for the observed ground deformation. To this aim, we first generated several forward structural mechanical models

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  20. 3D scanning modeling method application in ancient city reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo

    2015-07-01

    With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of 3D scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in 3D modeling is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a 3D scanning modeling method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid modeling was proposed. Based on the 3D scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for 3D modeling and virtual display of ancient city.

  1. Fault pseudotachylyte: a coseismic lightning rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, E. C.; Conder, J. A.; MathanaSekaran, N.; Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    of melt during the formation of a pseudotachylite vein. The increase in melt temperature is the most important factor affecting electrical conductivity in the fault plane. When the melt temperature rises from 1300 to 2000K, its electrical conductivity increases about 80 times. This implies that once a continuous pseudotachylite sheet-like vein is formed during an earthquake, the vein has a much higher electrical conductivity than its host-rock. The dramatic increase in electrical conductivity along the pseudotachylite plane might be synchronous with the generation of the coseismic electrical current. Thus, regardless of its origin, any electrical current produced during an earthquake will travel along the pseudotachylite plane which acts as a lightning rod. The magnetization of a solid due to an electrical current results from Biot-Savart law which states that an electrical current generates a magnetic field. The solidification of the pseudotachylite vein does not happen at once but proceeds from the margin inwards as an electrical current may still pass through the conducting pseudotachylite. Therefore, the host-rock of the pseudotachylite vein or its solidified margin can be magnetized by a coseismic current.

  2. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  3. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  4. Rapid ductile afterslip from coseismic heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. D.; Meade, B. J.; Savage, H. M.; Rowe, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes are typically followed by months of afterslip, the total of which is generally an order of magnitude smaller than the seismic slip. The classic model for afterslip envisions seismic slip transferring stress to adjacent regions, driving accelerated stable sliding that expands the rupture area. However, a small proportion of earthquakes exhibit unusually large and rapid afterslip in the hours immediately following rupture. Here we present a new model that bridges the transition from seismic to postseismic deformation and may explain these observations of rapid afterslip. Seismic slip produces a significant temperature rise that slowly diffuses into the surrounding material following the cessation of seismic slip. Any process with strong temperature dependence is more sensitive to this heat transient than to the ambient temperatures present during the interseismic period. Coupling the temperature evolution of a fault to a ductile flow law we model postseismic deformation during the heat transient. Our idea of coseismic heating enhancing ductile flow is supported by field observations of micro-shear zones adjacent to psuedotachylyte veins. Enhanced ductility is largely confined to the zone that deformed seismically, making our model equivalent to rapid afterslip. Combining analytic and numerical methods we solve for the total afterslip in terms of the slip rate and fault strength during seismic slip and the ductile flow parameters. Our results are sensitive to the assumed rheology and deforming zone thickness, and while total afterslip is generally small some plausible parameter ranges predict afterslip comparable to or greater than the seismic slip developing over timescales shorter than an hour. We demonstrate that rapid afterslip can drive significant frictional heating, leading to a thermal runaway instability that produces a near total postseismic stress drop. To conclude we investigate the tsunami magnitude that rapid afterslip could produce.

  5. GPS Constrained Coseismic Slip of the 26 December 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Shen, Z.; Wan, Y.; Zeng, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake is one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded since 1900. The event took place at the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone between the Australia and Sundaland plate in the south and the India and Burma plate in the north. Despite of its great size and catastrophic consequences, the magnitude and rupture distribution of the earthquake are still not well constrained yet. We ensemble a GPS data set from continuous and survey mode stations in the region to obtain the coseismic displacement field. The continuous data set includes these from the IGS stations located in East Asia and around the Northern Indian Ocean, from the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China in mainland China and South China Sea, and from Caltech's Indonesian GPS network in central Sumatra. Three months and ten days of data before and after the quake respectively are processed to derive the coseismic displacement offsets using the GAMIT and QOCA softwares. Three additional data sets of coseismic displacement offsets are also incorporated, one from the southeast Asia area (Vigny et al., 2005), another from the India subcontinent (Banerjee et al., 2005), and the third from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (http://www.seires.net/content/view/122/52/). These data are used to invert for fault rupture which is devised as dislocation in a layered elastic media. We also adopt the `Earth flattening' method to accommodate the curvature effect of the Earth's surface, which is significant at the far field and should not be neglected. The fault model is composed of multiple tiles, meshing the interface of the subduction slab, with second order smoothing applied to enforce slip continuity. Our result shows dominant thrust faulting for all the patches, ranging from ~2.5 m to 7 m in amplitude, with the largest slip centered around the central section of the rupture zone 5°-10°N latitude. Rupture is also accompanied with meter level right slip for the

  6. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  7. Inherited structures impact on co-seismic surface deformation pattern during the 2013 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, Amaury; Klinger, Yann; Grandin, Raphael; Delorme, Arthur; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of earthquake processes and the interaction of earthquake rupture with Earth's free surface relies on the resolution of the observations. Recent and detailed post-earthquake measurements bring new insights on shallow mechanical behavior of rupture processes as it becomes possible to measure and locate surficial deformation distribution. The 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan, offers a nice opportunity to comprehend where and why surficial deformation might differs from at-depth localized slip. This earthquake ruptured the Hoshab fault over 200 km; the motion was mainly left lateral with a small and discontinuous vertical component in the southern part of the rupture. Using images with the finest resolution currently available, we measured the surface displacement amplitude and its orientation at the ground surface (including the numerous tensile cracks). We combined these measurements with the 1:500 scale ground rupture map to focus on the behavior of the frontal rupture in the area where deformation distributes. Comparison with orientations of inherited tectonic structures, visible in older rocks formation surrounding the actual 2013 rupture, shows the control exercised by such structures on co-seismic rupture distribution. Such observation raises the question on how pre-existing tectonic structures in a medium, mapped in several seismically active places around the globe; can control the co-seismic distribution of the deformation during earthquakes.

  8. Coseismic fault zone deformation revealed with differential lidar: Examples from Japanese Mw ∼7 intraplate earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Edwin; Maruyama, Tadashi; Ramon Arrowsmith, J.; Elliott, John R.; Krishnan, Aravindhan K.; Oskin, Michael E.; Saripalli, Srikanth

    2014-11-01

    We use two recent Japanese earthquakes to demonstrate the rich potential, as well as some of the challenges, of differencing repeat airborne Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) topographic data to measure coseismic fault zone deformation. We focus on densely-vegetated sections of the 14 June 2008 Iwate-Miyagi (Mw 6.9) and 11 April 2011 Fukushima-Hamadori (Mw 7.1) earthquake ruptures, each covered by 2 m-resolution pre-event and 1 m-resolution post-event bare Earth digital terrain models (DTMs) obtained from commercial lidar providers. Three-dimensional displacements and rotations were extracted from these datasets using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. These displacements remain coherent close to surface fault breaks, as well as within dense forest, despite intervals of ∼2 years (Iwate-Miyagi) and ∼4 years (Fukushima-Hamadori) encompassed by the lidar scenes. Differential lidar analysis is thus complementary to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and sub-pixel correlation techniques which often break down under conditions of long time intervals, dense vegetation or steep displacement gradients. Although the ICP displacements are much noisier than overlapping InSAR line-of-sight displacements, they still provide powerful constraints on near-surface fault slip. In the Fukushima-Hamadori case, near-fault displacements and rotations are consistent with decreased primary fault slip at very shallow depths of a few tens of meters, helping to account for the large, along-strike heterogeneity in surface offsets observed in the field. This displacement field also captures long-wavelength deformation resulting from the 11 March 2011 Tohoku great earthquake.

  9. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  10. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  11. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  12. Characterizing subaqueous co-seismic scarps using coeval specific sedimentary events; a case study in Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Reyss, J.; Feuillet, N.; Leclerc, F.; Moreno, E.

    2012-12-01

    Improvements of active fault surveying have shown that creep, or alternating creep and co-seismic displacements, are not rare. Nevertheless, either on land (trenching), or in subaqueous setting (seismic imaging and coring), active fault offsets, investigated for paleoseismic purpose, are sometimes assumed as co-seismic without direct evidences. At the opposite, within adequate sedimentary archives, some gravity reworking events may be attributed to earthquake triggering, but often do not permit to locate the responsible fault and the co-seismic rupture. In the here-discussed example, both types of observations could be associated: faulting offsets and specific sedimentary events "sealing" them. Several very high resolution (VHR) seismic profiles obtained during The GWADASEIS cruise (Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, February-March 2009) evidenced frequent "ponding" of reworked sediments in the deepest areas. These bodies are acoustically transparent (few ms t.w.t. thick) and often deposited on the hanging walls of dominantly normal faults, at the base of scarps, as previously observed along the North Anatolian Fault (Beck et al., 2007, doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.12.031). Their thicknesses appear sufficient to compensate (i.e. bury) successive offsets, resulting in a flat and horizontal sea floor through time. Offshore Montserrat and Nevis islands, piston coring (4 to 7 m long) was dedicated to characterize the most recent of these particular layers. An up to 2m-thick "homogenite" appears capping the RedOx water/sediment interface. 210Pb and 137Cs activities lack in the homogenite, while a normal unsupported 210Pb decrease profile and a 137Cs peak, corresponding to the Atmospheric Nuclear Experiments (1962), are present below (Beck et al. 2012, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-1-2012). This sedimentary event and the coeval scarp are post-1970 AD, and attributed either to the March 16th 1985 earthquake or to the October 8th 1974 one (respectively Mw6.3 and Mw7.4). Based on the

  13. First direct observation of coseismic slip and seafloor rupture along a submarine normal fault and implications for fault slip history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartín, Javier; Leclerc, Frédérique; Olive, Jean-Arthur; Mevel, Catherine; Cannat, Mathilde; Petersen, Sven; Augustin, Nico; Feuillet, Nathalie; Deplus, Christine; Bezos, Antoine; Bonnemains, Diane; Chavagnac, Valérie; Choi, Yujin; Godard, Marguerite; Haaga, Kristian A.; Hamelin, Cédric; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jamieson, John W.; John, Barbara E.; Leleu, Thomas; MacLeod, Christopher J.; Massot-Campos, Miquel; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Paquet, Marine; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Steinführer, Anja; Tominaga, Masako; Triebe, Lars; Campos, Ricard; Gracias, Nuno; Garcia, Rafael; Andreani, Muriel; Vilaseca, Géraud

    2016-09-01

    Properly assessing the extent and magnitude of fault ruptures associated with large earthquakes is critical for understanding fault behavior and associated hazard. Submarine faults can trigger tsunamis, whose characteristics are defined by the geometry of seafloor displacement, studied primarily through indirect observations (e.g., seismic event parameters, seismic profiles, shipboard bathymetry, coring) rather than direct ones. Using deep-sea vehicles, we identify for the first time a marker of coseismic slip on a submarine fault plane along the Roseau Fault (Lesser Antilles), and measure its vertical displacement of ∼ 0.9 m in situ. We also map recent fissuring and faulting of sediments on the hangingwall, along ∼3 km of rupture in close proximity to the fault's base, and document the reactivation of erosion and sedimentation within and downslope of the scarp. These deformation structures were caused by the 2004 Mw 6.3 Les Saintes earthquake, which triggered a subsequent tsunami. Their characterization informs estimates of earthquake recurrence on this fault and provides new constraints on the geometry of fault rupture, which is both shorter and displays locally larger coseismic displacements than available model predictions that lack field constraints. This methodology of detailed field observations coupled with near-bottom geophysical surveying can be readily applied to numerous submarine fault systems, and should prove useful in evaluating seismic and tsunamigenic hazard in all geodynamic contexts.

  14. Analysis of the Far-Field Co-seismic and Post-seismic Responses Caused by the 2011 M W 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhigang; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Langping; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed the far-field co-seismic response of the M W 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, which occurred on March 11th 2011 at the Japan Trench plate boundary. Our analysis indicates that the far-field co-seismic displacement was very sensitive to the magnitude of this event, and that a significant co-seismic surface displacement from earthquakes in the Japan Trench region can be observed in Eurasia only for events of M W ≥ 8.0. We also analyzed the temporal characteristics of the near-field post-seismic deformation caused by the afterslip and the viscoelastic relaxation following the Japan earthquake. Next, we performed a simulation to analyze the influence of the two post-seismic effects previously mentioned on the far-field post-seismic crustal deformation. The simulation results help explain the post-seismic crustal deformation observed on the Chinese mainland 1.5 years after the event. Fitting results revealed that after the M W 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the afterslip decayed exponentially, and may eventually disappear after 4 years. The far-field post-seismic displacement in Eurasia caused by the viscoelastic relaxation following this earthquake will reach the same magnitude as the co-seismic displacement in approximately 10 years. In addition, the co- and post-seismic Coulomb stress on several NE-trending faults in the northeastern and northern regions of the Chinese mainland were significantly enhanced because of the M W 9.0 earthquake, especially on the Yilan-Yitong and the Dunhua-Mishan faults (the northern section of the Tan-Lu fault zone) as well as the Yalujiang and the Fuyu-Zhaodong faults.

  15. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  16. Reconciling Pre- and Co-Seismic Deformation at Megathrusts: Tohoku Informing Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Govers, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    One of the outstanding goals of earthquake science is to effectively anticipate the earthquake characteristics of a future event - magnitude, rupture area, slip history - through the judicious application of models that use observations of inter-earthquake deformation and the history of earthquakes along that plate boundary segment. The series of great earthquakes over the past decade since the 2004 Mw 9.2 Sumatra earthquake have demonstrated both the sobering reality that our current models of subduction zone earthquake genesis are insufficient but more positively have provided a wealth of data and observations that can be used to develop improved framework models of the lithospheric behavior through the earthquake cycle in subduction zones. Some of the issues that recent observations raise are straightforward, while others imply aspects of the subduction process that have not been previously considered important. Based on observations of a range of great earthquakes since 2004, and with a particular focus on the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku event we can identify a suite of key issues that include: (1) Patterns of inter-seismic deformation (strain accumulation) are not simply the converse of the co-seismic elastic strain release. (2) Deformation of the slab during the earthquake cycle is a common occurrence and its role in buffering upper-plate deformation is a key consideration in the potential tsunamigenic character of a subduction system. (3) Rates of pre-earthquake deformation (e.g. observed upper-plate GPS displacements) and inferred slip deficit accumulation on the megathrust are inconsistent with co-seismic displacements/fault slip and recurrence intervals. (4) Patterns of megathrust locked patches, degrees of coupling and other parameterizations that are used to define earthquake potential have only a loose agreement with the actual patterns of slip and moment release seen in the ensuing great earthquake. Simple elastic models do provide a general agreement between

  17. Coseismic and Postseismic slip distribution of the 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake deduced from A Bayesian Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Gong, X.

    2011-12-01

    In inversion of geodetic data for distribution of fault slip minimizing the first or second order derivatives of slip across fault plane is generally employed to smooth slips of neighboring patches.Smoothing parameter is subjective selected to determine the relative weight placed on fitting data versus smoothing the slip distribution.We use the Fully Bayesian Inversion method(Fukuda,2008)to simultaneously estimate the slip distribution and smoothing parameter objectively in a Bayesian framework. The distributed slips,the posterior probability density function and the smoothing parameter is formulated with Bayes' theorem and sampled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Here We will apply this method to Coseismic and Postseismic displacement data from the 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and compare the results of this method with generally favored method.

  18. Relationship Between Afterslip of 2003 Tokachi Earthquakes and Coseismic-slip of 2004 Kushiro Earthquakes Using Viscoelastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Takemura, H.

    2010-12-01

    The studies of afterslip distribution of large plate interface earthquakes are important for revealing frictional properties on faults, and investigating trigger processes to adjacent faults. After 2003 Tokachi Earthquake (M8.0), Hokkaido, Japan, post seismic deformation was observed, and this observation indicates occurrence of afterslip at eastern side of the earthquake. After 1.2 yr of the Tokachi Earthquake, two large events (M7.1, M6.9) occurred at off Kushiro, which is located 150km east from the Tokachi Earthquake. It is considered that these two events may be triggered by the afterslip of the Tokachi Earthquake. To investigate the trigger process, we estimate special and temporal afterslip distribution. The effect of viscoelastic relaxation at the asthenosphere is important on post seismic surface deformation (Matsu’ura and Sato, GJI, 1989; Sato and Matsu’ura, GJI, 1992). We estimate afterslip distribution of large interplate earthquakes using viscoelastic media. We consider not only viscoelastic responses of coseismic slip but also viscoelastic responses of afterslips (Sato and Higuchi, AGU Fall Meeting, 2009). Because many studies suggested that the magnitude of afterslips was comparable to that of coseismic slip, viscoelastic responses of afterslips should not be negligible. Therefore, surface displacement data include viscoelastic response of coseismic slip, viscoelastic response of afterslips which occurred just after coseismic period to just before the present, and elastic response of the present afterslip. We estimate afterslip distribution of the Tokachi Earthquake using GPS data by GSI, Japan. We use CAMP model (Hashimoto et al, PAGEOPH, 2004) as a plate interface between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. The viscoelastic results show that afterslips concentrate deeper parts of the plate interface at the eastern adjoining area of the Tokachi Earthquake. Just before the Kushiro Events (1-1.2 yr after the Tokachi Earthquake

  19. Coseismic Slip and Afterslip Associated to The Mw9.14 Aceh-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlieh, M.; Avouac, J.; Sieh, K.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Ji, C.; Hebert, H.; Sladen, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Subarya, C.; Galetzka, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 is the first giant earthquake to occur since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology and therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these most dreadful and rare events. We determine co-seismic and post-seismic deformation over the first month following the main shock using a variety of geodetic data. These include ground displacements from near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra and in-situ paleogeodetic and remotely sensed observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs, campaign data and continuous GPS measurements from Thailand and Malaysia. The co-seismic model is mainly constrained from co-seismic displacement derived from daily solutions at 34 cGPS stations. It shows that earthquake ruptured the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of about 1300 km and a width of less than 150 km releasing a total moment of 6.7-7.0 1022 Nm, (equivalent to Mw=9.15. This moment is slightly in excess of the 6.2 1022 Nm moment released over the first 500s, as estimated from the inversion of seismic records. The latitudinal distribution of released moment derived from the two models compare remarkably well. This pattern is also found consistent with the 500s long source time function and rupture velocity derived from T waves recorded in the Indian Ocean. Finally, this co-seismic model is found consistent with the observed tsunami as measured from altimetric satellite measurements of the tsunami by JASON and TOPEX, as well as with the arrival times of the tsunami recorded by tide gage records at a number of sites bordering the Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea. We find no need for slow slip or delayed slip as proposed in some early studies. However, the geodetic data postdating the main shock by up to 40 days, require that slip must have continued on the plate interface after the 500s long seismic rupture. The

  20. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  1. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  2. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  3. Multivariable Observations of Pre and Co-Seismic Electromagnetic Activity in Peru: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraud, J. A.; Lira, J. A.; Montes, L.; Rosas, S.; Centa, V.; Bleier, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw8.0 earthquake in Pisco, Peru of August 15, 2007 was reported previously and shown to have produced extensive co-seismic luminescence away from the epicenter. Continued research will be presented in which a high coincidence exists between the location of the areas where the luminescence was video recorded and reported by qualified witnesses and the geological formation in the bay in which Jurassic and Cretaceous lithologic igneous components are present, a condition that contributes to the displacement of electric charges in the rock. Additionally, the San Lorenzo Island has become the focus of a new research effort due to the past record of pre-seismic EQLs reported and published in relation with the mega-earthquake of 1746, the previously reported co-seismic EQLs in 2007 and new evidence of pre-seismic EQLs reported one and a half days before a ML4.6 earthquake on July 29, 2012. New experiments are hitherto being deployed in San Lorenzo Island to pursue the identification of favorable conditions for the propagation of electric charges in connection with pressure on rocks due to seismic activity. Thus, continuously recording video cameras, charge potential measuring plates, recording of HF and VHF noise and the installation of a new magnetometer to detect pulse activity in the local magnetic field and twin (+/-) air conductivity sensors are being installed on the island. Additionally, a new rock experiment to analyze the displacement of charges with local rocks is under way. The expectation of a Mega earthquake in the Lima area is building up as we approach the third century without mayor seismic activity in the area so the deployment of a new network of five magnetometers for the Lima area has started.

  4. "Coseismic foliations" in gouge and cataclasite: experimental observations and consequences for interpreting the fault rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven; Griffiths, James; Fondriest, Michele; Di Toro, Giulio; Demurtas, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Foliated gouges and cataclasites are commonly interpreted as the product of distributed (aseismic) fault creep. However, foliated fault rocks are often associated with localized slip surfaces, the latter indicating potentially unstable (seismic) behavior. One possibility is that such fault zones preserve the effects of both seismic slip and slower aseismic creep. An alternative possibility explored here is that some foliated fault rocks and localized slip surfaces develop contemporaneously during seismic slip. We studied the microstructural evolution of calcite-dolomite gouges deformed experimentally at slip velocities <1.13 m/s and for total displacements of 0.03 - 1 m, in the range expected for the average coseismic slip during earthquakes of Mw 3-7. As strain progressively localized in the gouge layers at the onset of high-velocity shearing, an initial mixed assemblage of calcite and dolomite grains evolved quickly to an organized, foliated fabric. The foliation was defined mainly by compositional layering and grain size variations that formed by cataclasis and shearing of individual foliation domains. Quantitative image analysis (e.g. grain size, strain) showed that the most significant microstructural changes in the bulk gouge occurred before and during dynamic weakening (<0.08 m displacement). Strain was localized to a bounding slip surface by the end of dynamic weakening and thus microstructural evolution in the bulk gouge ceased. Our experiments suggest that certain types of foliated gouge and cataclasite can form by distributed brittle "flow" as strain localizes to a bounding slip surface during coseismic shearing. We will also present preliminary observations of natural calcite-dolomite foliated cataclasites from the Campo Imperatore normal fault, central Italy, which bear striking resemblance to our well-characterized experimental examples.

  5. Enhancements to the opera-3d suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Christopher P.

    1997-02-01

    The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules—a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers.

  6. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  7. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  8. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  9. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  10. Nondestructive quantitative 3D characterization of a car brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jueptner, Werner P. O.; Osten, Wolfgang; Andrae, Peter; Nadeborn, Werner

    1996-07-01

    Holographic interferometry enables the accurate measurement of 3D displacement fields. However, the determination of 3D- displacement vectors of objects with complex surfaces requires to measure the 3D-object coordinates not only to consider local sensitivities but to distinguish between in- plane deformation, i.e. strains, and out-of-plane components, i.e. shears, too. To this purpose both the surface displacement and coordinates have to be combined and it is advantageous to make the data available for CAE- systems. The object surface has to be approximated analytically from the measured point cloud to generate a surface mesh. The displacement vectors can be assigned to the nodes of this surface mesh and the components of the deformation can be evaluated for an experimental stress analysis. They also can be compared to the results of FEM- calculations. The brake saddle of a car brake is such a complex formed object where the surface cannot be described by fundamental mathematical functions. The 3D-object coordinates were measured in a separate topometric set-up using a modified fringe projection technique to acquire absolute phase values. By means of a geometrical model the phase data were mapped onto coordinates precisely. The determination of 3D-displacement vectors required the measurement of several interference phase distributions for at least three independent sensitivity directions as well as the 3D-position of each measuring point. These geometric quantities had to be transformed into a reference coordinate system of the interferometric set-up in order to calculate the geometric matrix. The necessary transformation were realized by means of a detection of object features in both data sets and a subsequent determination of the external camera orientation. This paper presents a consistent solution for the measurement and combination of shape and displacement data including their transformation into simulation systems for the car brake. This is an example

  11. Excess strain in the Echigo Plain sedimentary basin, NE Japan: evidence from coseismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Suito, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Dong, Q.; Shibayama, T.

    2016-06-01

    Coseismic deformation depends on both the source fault and on the elastic properties of the crust. Large coseismic deformation associated with the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake enabled us to investigate strain anomalies from crustal inhomogeneity. Concentrated contractional strain was observed in the Echigo Plain (Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone) before the Tohoku-oki earthquake, whereas continuous and campaign global navigation satellite system measurements show a widespread distribution of coseismic extensional strain in and around the plain. A 1-D displacement profile shows high strain (7.2 ± 0.7 microstrain) in a 17 km long section across the Echigo Plain and low strain (3.3 ± 0.4 microstrain) along a 15 km long section east of the plain, despite the latter being closer to the megathrust fault source. We performed numerical modelling of coseismic deformation using a heterogeneous subsurface structure and successfully reproduced excess extension in the plain, which is filled by low-rigidity sediments. This study demonstrates the importance of considering heterogeneous crust in deformation modelling.

  12. Seismic recording of small zero frequency displacement from moderate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Di Luccio, Francesca

    2005-06-01

    The use of modern broadband seismometers allows the observation of dynamic and static near-field effects. In the fortunate case of the great 1994 Bolivia earthquake a 6 mm coseismic permanent offset was observed at distances of about 600 km. On the other hand no surface static displacement from moderate events has been observed yet. This is mainly due to the intrinsic difficulties in the instrument removal. In the present paper we analyze broadband waveforms from a couple of events in southern Italy, recorded at distance of 50 km, by applying the technique for instrument removal recently introduced by Zhu [2003]. We derive stable and reliable measures of very small coseismic static offset produced by moderate magnitude earthquakes. Our results, successfully tested against synthetic prediction, give permanent displacement of a few tenths of millimeters, one order of magnitude smaller than usual geodetic resolution.

  13. 3D quasi-dynamic modeling of earthquake cycles of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake by considering high-speed friction and thermal pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibazaki, B.; Tsutsumi, A.; Shimamoto, T.; Noda, H.

    2012-12-01

    Some observational studies [e.g. Hasegawa et al., 2011] suggested that the 2011 great Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Mw 9.0) released roughly all of the accumulated elastic strain on the plate interface owing to considerable weakening of the fault. Recent studies show that considerable weakening can occur at a high slip velocity because of thermal pressurization or thermal weakening processes [Noda and Lapusta, 2010; Di Toro et al., 2011]. Tsutsumi et al. [2011] examined the frictional properties of clay-rich fault materials under water-saturated conditions and found that velocity weakening or strengthening occurs at intermediate slip velocities and that dramatic weakening occurs at high slip velocities. This dramatic weakening at higher slip velocities is caused by pore-fluid pressurization via frictional heating or gouge weakening. In the present study, we investigate the generation mechanism of megathrust earthquakes along the Japan trench by performing 3D quasi-dynamic modeling with high-speed friction or thermal pressurization. We propose a rate- and state-dependent friction law with two state variables that exhibit weak velocity weakening or strengthening with a small critical displacement at low to intermediate velocities, but a strong velocity weakening with a large critical displacement at high slip velocities [Shibazaki et al., 2011]. We use this friction law for 3D quasi-dynamic modeling of a cycle of the great Tohoku-oki earthquake. We set several asperities where velocity weakening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. Outside of the asperities, velocity strengthening occurs at low to intermediate slip velocities. At high slip velocities, strong velocity weakening occurs both within and outside of the asperities. The rupture of asperities occurs at intervals of several tens of years, whereas megathrust events occur at much longer intervals (several hundred years). Megathrust slips occur even in regions where velocity strengthening occurs at low to

  14. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  15. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  16. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  17. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  18. Coseismic growth of the Tungshih anticline during the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graveleau, F.; Suppe, J.; Ustaszewski, M.; Chang, K.; Stephane, D.; Huang, M.

    2009-12-01

    The 1999 Chichi earthquake hit Taiwan western foothills 10 years ago. It has produced a 100 km long surface rupture that strikes predominantly North-South in its southern part but turns abruptly to the west northward. It has entailed large coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements (respectively up to 9 and 15-16 m ; Yang et al., 2000 ; Lee et al., 2005) which have been proved to be linked to the geometry of the Chinshui shale decollement surface (Yue et al., 2005). We present here our investigations on one of the most north-eastern structures that has been activated during the earthquake : the Tungshih anticline. This fold, striking SW-NE across the Daan river, grew abruptly by more than 10 m (Lee, et al., 2005). It has generated a significant relief that has dramatically modified the stream flow regime across the uplifted area by notably triggering rapid incision and cutting narrow gorges. Property destruction and casualties occurred essentially along reverse faults and fold scarps bounding the limbs of the structure (Chen et al., 2007). Our analysis aims at continuing the documentation of the structural geology of the fold, its growth patterns and its kinematical place within the foothill fault and fold system (Lee, et al., 2005). To do that, we couple RTK GPS field measurements of deformed morphotectonic features, high resolution topographic data (DEMs before and after the earthquake, lidar measurements), high resolution horizontal and vertical displacement fields and subsurface data (seismic lines and well logs). Our preliminary results allow us to refine the coseismic uplift map across the valley and to detail its evolution along the fold strike. It brings new insights on the deformation mechanisms involved during the earthquake and can be linked to the geological record preserved in the subsurface. Finally, our data are incorporated within the existing fault model of the foothills (the Chelungpu and Sany thrusts) so as to improve its geometry and

  19. Impact Damage of 3D Orthogonal Woven Composite Circular Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Changgan; Sun, Baozhong; Qiu, Yiping; Gu, Bohong

    2007-11-01

    The damages of 3D orthogonal woven composite circular plate under quasi-static indentation and transverse impact were tested with Materials Test System (MTS) and modified split Hopkinson bar (SHPB) apparatus. The load vs. displacement curves during quasi-static penetration and impact were obtained to study the energy absorption of the composite plate. The fluctuation of the impact stress waves has been unveiled. Differences of the load-displacement curves between the quasi-static and impact loading are discussed. This work also aims at establishing a unit-cell model to analyze the damage of composites. A user material subroutine which named VUMAT for characterizing the constitutive relationship of the 3-D orthogonal woven composite and the damage evolution is incorporated with a finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit to simulate the impact damage process of the composite plates. From the comparison of the load-displacement curves and energy absorption curves of the composite plate between experimental and FEM simulation, it is shown that the unit-cell model of the 3D woven composite and the VUMAT combined with the ABAQUS/Explicit can calculate the impact responses of the circular plate precisely. Furthermore, the model can also be extended to simulate the impact behavior of the 3D woven composite structures.

  20. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  1. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  2. STELLOPT Modeling of the 3D Diagnostic Response in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel A

    2013-05-07

    The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria.

  3. Coseismic deformation of the May 21st, 2003, Mw = 6.8 Boumerdes earthquake, Algeria, from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles, K.; Lammali, K.; Mahsas, A.; Calais, E.; Briole, P.

    2004-07-01

    On May 21st, 2003, a Mw = 6.8 earthquake struck the central part of northern Algeria causing extensive damage in the Boumerdes area, 40 km east of Algiers. It is among the largest events to occur in the western Mediterranean over the past 25 years. We present GPS measurements of horizontal coseismic displacements that provide new constraints on the rupture geometry. Modeling the data with a uniform dislocation on a rectangular fault in an elastic half-space, we find that the rupture occurred on a reverse fault dipping 42°S, with its upper edge 6 km offshore and lower edge 4 km inland. The amplitude distribution of the coseismic displacements indicates that the rupture did not reach the surface, at least in its western part, and ended to the west around 3.4°E. Offshore faults like that of the Boumerdes earthquake could account for part of the Africa-Eurasia relative plate motion in the western Mediterranean and represent a significant seismic threat for Algeria.

  4. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  5. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  6. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  7. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  8. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  9. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  10. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  11. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  12. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  13. Coseismic Faults and Crust Deformation Accompanied the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China by Field Investigation and InSAR Interferogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, K.; Si, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Ozawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    The devastated Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the steep eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau in Sichuan, China, on 12 May 2008. Over 86,592 people were dead or missing, 374159 injured, and more than 4.8 million homeless. The ruptures possibly occurred over a length of 285 km along the northeast striking Longmen Shan (LMS) thrust belt. In order to study the oversized fault ruptures, existing active faults related and relationships with the damages caused, we conducted field investigations during 4-15 June and 3-9 October 2008, covered about 140km length of LMS faults, including Beichuan(BC), Anxian(AC), Mianzhu, Shifang, Pengzhou, Dujiangyan, Yingxiu (YX) and Wenchuan. On the field investigation we found coseismic surface faults along several profiles perpendicular to the LMS faults. The coseismic surface faults we discovered were at Leigu(L), Hanwang(H), Yinghua(Y), Bailu(BL), Xiaoyudong(X), and Baiyunding (BYD). Of them the maximum vertical displacement reached 4.6m at L, Beichuan County. The uplifting displacements dominated in the southwestern section of the rupture. Moreover, the northwest-striking left-lateral fault was found with horizontal displacement of 2.8m, and vertical of 1.5m as well, at X, Pengzhou City. The left-lateral fault, inversely under-controlled movement of right- lateral fault in the area, showed the complexity of the fault movements. The field results showed the coseismic surface ruptures locally while the overall faults movements and Crust deformation could be understood by the Interferometric SAR(InSAR) technique (NIED, 2008) using data from the Phased Array L-band SAR sensor (PALSAR) equipped on Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). The larger deformation zones detected by InSAR interferogram occurred with a width of ~30 km in southwestern section, and of ~10km in northeastern section of LMS faults. In the southwestern section, the deformation zone occurred mostly within the existing active faults zones: Guanxian

  14. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  15. Coseismic Slip Distribution of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Deduced from Land and Seafloor Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, T.; Kido, M.; Osada, Y.; Inazu, D.; Ohzono, M.; Tsushima, H.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Miura, S.; Shinohara, M.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) occurred on 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku district, northeastern Japan, where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the overriding continental plate. A number of models of the coseismic slip distribution of this earthquake have been already proposed based on seismological, geodetic, and tsunami data. Here, we present comprehensive coseismic slip distribution model based not only on land GPS data but also on seafloor geodetic observations, which are obtained through recent observation cruises. We combined displacements at seafloor sites that are deduced from two different types of seafloor observations with the displacements at land GPS stations. One is the seafloor crustal deformation observation with GPS/Acoustic ranging (GPS/A). Horizontal displacements associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake at 2 GPS/A stations are estimated by comparing the station positions deduced from the observations before and after the earthquake. Another type of the seafloor data is seafloor water pressure that is observed by means of ocean bottom pressure gauge (OBP). We analyzed OBP data observed at 2 cabled and 4 self pop-up stations, and estimated vertical displacements due to the main shock. Displacements at 5 GPS/A stations of Japan Coast Guard [Sato et al., 2011, science] are also included to estimate the coseismic slip distribution of the earthquake. Estimated slip distribution of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake shows following features. 1) The area of large slip ( > 20 m) is about 100 km x 200 km on the plate interface shallower than 30 km in depth. 2) There is no large slip occurred off southern Iwate prefecture on the plate interface throughout shallow to deep. 3) The latitudinal range of the area of large slip almost corresponds to the one of the area of strong interplate coupling zone off Miyagi prefecture. 4) Significant slip is estimated around the rupture area of 1978 M7.4 Miyagi-oki earthquake (40

  16. 3D ESPI and 3D shearography measurements applied to NDT and FEM analysis validation for industrial quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Erwin K.; Riner, Marc

    2001-10-01

    Laser interferometric methods opened the way to measure displacements and deformations of an object in a while- field, non-contact and 3D manner. Therefore, they are used in non-destructive testing and validation of 3D finite element (FE) simulation results. This paper emphasizes the fact that the process of validating an FE result comprises in turn the validation and assessment of the optical measurement method and the experimental bou8ndary condition. Application examples for FE analysis validation and NDT from machine engineering, space technology, and biomedical engineering are presented.

  17. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  18. Measurement of Along-track Displacements due to the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake Using X-band Multiple-Aperture SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. S.; Jo, M. J.; Yun, S. H.; Jung, H. I.; Koh, Y. C.; Webb, F.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) has been developed for measuring surface displacements in along-track direction as an alternative method of amplitude offset tracking method. Various studies on geological phenomena have been carried out using MAI technique with C-band and L-band SAR data, but application of MAI to X-band SAR is challenging due to its more severe temporal decorrelation compared to longer wavelength radar. The Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) mission consisting of four identical radar satellites has a powerful capability to minimize temporal baselines maintaining high coherence. This offers a good chance for MAI application for precise measurement of along-track displacements. In this study, we demonstrate the MAI performance of X-band SAR for the M6.0, South Napa Earthquake occurred on August 24, 2014. A coseismic CSK pair data (July 26 and August 27, 2014) acquired from descending orbit was used to show the along-track displacements in the fault zone. In order to evaluate the precision for measuring MAI deformation on the Napa Earthquake using CSK data, we produced a coherence map of the interferogram because the MAI precision is a function of interferometric coherence. However, we found that standard deviation of MAI phase does not coincide with the theoretical variation. The measurement uncertainty of along-track displacements was estimated by using the predefined empirical equation which was established through the performance test using multi-path CSK dataset at Kilauea Volcano region. The uncertainty map of the along-track displacements in the South Napa Earthquake region provides a reliable metric to estimate the variance/covariance of the data, useful for 3-D displacement field construction and geophysical modeling.

  19. Gravity and spatial orientation in virtual 3D-mazes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Manuel; Lipshits, Mark; McIntyre, Joseph; Berthoz, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In order to bring new insights into the processing of 3D spatial information, we conducted experiments on the capacity of human subjects to memorize 3D-structured environments, such as buildings with several floors or the potentially complex 3D structure of an orbital space station. We had subjects move passively in one of two different exploration modes, through a visual virtual environment that consisted of a series of connected tunnels. In upright displacement, self-rotation when going around corners in the tunnels was limited to yaw rotations. For horizontal translations, subjects faced forward in the direction of motion. When moving up or down through vertical segments of the 3D tunnels, however, subjects facing the tunnel wall, remaining upright as if moving up and down in a glass elevator. In the unconstrained displacement mode, subjects would appear to climb or dive face-forward when moving vertically; thus, in this mode subjects could experience visual flow consistent with rotations about any of the 3 canonical axes. In a previous experiment, subjects were asked to determine whether a static, outside view of a test tunnel corresponded or not to the tunnel through which they had just passed. Results showed that performance was better on this task for the upright than for the unconstrained displacement mode; i.e. when subjects remained "upright" with respect to the virtual environment as defined by subject's posture in the first segment. This effect suggests that gravity may provide a key reference frame used in the shift between egocentric and allocentric representations of the 3D virtual world. To check whether it is the polarizing effects of gravity that leads to the favoring of the upright displacement mode, the experimental paradigm was adapted for orbital flight and performed by cosmonauts onboard the International Space Station. For these flight experiments the previous recognition task was replaced by a computerized reconstruction task, which proved

  20. 3d visualization of atomistic simulations on every desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Dan; Silverman, Amihai; Adler, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Once upon a time, after making simulations, one had to go to a visualization center with fancy SGI machines to run a GL visualization and make a movie. More recently, OpenGL and its mesa clone have let us create 3D on simple desktops (or laptops), whether or not a Z-buffer card is present. Today, 3D a la Avatar is a commodity technique, presented in cinemas and sold for home TV. However, only a few special research centers have systems large enough for entire classes to view 3D, or special immersive facilities like visualization CAVEs or walls, and not everyone finds 3D immersion easy to view. For maximum physics with minimum effort a 3D system must come to each researcher and student. So how do we create 3D visualization cheaply on every desktop for atomistic simulations? After several months of attempts to select commodity equipment for a whole room system, we selected an approach that goes back a long time, even predating GL. The old concept of anaglyphic stereo relies on two images, slightly displaced, and viewed through colored glasses, or two squares of cellophane from a regular screen/projector or poster. We have added this capability to our AViz atomistic visualization code in its new, 6.1 version, which is RedHat, CentOS and Ubuntu compatible. Examples using data from our own research and that of other groups will be given.

  1. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  2. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  3. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  4. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  5. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  6. Examination of an active submarine fault off the southeast Izu Peninsula, central Japan, using field evidence for coseismic uplift and a characteristic earthquake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Akihisa; Mitsui, Yuta; Kawate, Shigeto; Kim, Haeng Yoong

    2015-12-01

    Detailed mapping and radiocarbon dating of emergent marine sessile assemblages show that coseismic uplift occurred at 1256-950 BC, AD 1000-1270, AD 1430-1660, and AD 1506-1815 in the southern Izu Peninsula, central Japan. Employing a characteristic earthquake model, this study reconstructed the source fault for the uplift events from the spatial distribution of coseismic vertical displacements and historical documents. The source is inferred to be a reversal fault located about 3 km off the southern Izu Peninsula that is 25 km long and 13 km wide (strike = 250°, dip = 52° to the north) and slip of 2.7 m and has generated a Mw 7 class earthquake.

  7. Coseismic damage and softening of fault rocks at seismogenic depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, W. Ashley; Mitchell, Thomas M.; Renner, Jörg; Di Toro, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    Elastic stiffness, a critical property for stress-orientation, propagation of earthquake ruptures and associated seismic waves, and the capability of crustal rocks to store strain energy, is expected to be highly variable throughout the seismic cycle due to complex sequences of damage and healing. Post-seismic healing and exhumation-related alteration render it impossible to assess how well rock stiffness as measured in the laboratory on samples collected from fault zones represents in situ, coseismic rock stiffness at seismogenic depths. Here we estimate the in situ, coseismic stiffness of fault rocks from the pseudotachylyte-bearing Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Italian Southern Alps), using aspect ratio measurements of pseudotachylyte injection veins and numerical simulations. Aspect ratios of injection veins cutting across tonalite and cataclasite exhibit a maximum vein aperture positively correlating with vein length. To model vein opening, fault and injection veins are assumed to be filled with pressurized melt. Consistent with recent results from studies of melt lubrication we assume that the magnitude of the melt pressure is in equilibrium with the fault-normal stress and the fault vein approximately maintains constant thickness during slip. The numerical simulations of injection vein opening due to pressurized frictional melt indicate that the average in situ coseismic stiffness of the wall rocks is 5-50 times smaller than the stiffness obtained from laboratory measurements on the same rocks in their present-day state. The disagreement between laboratory measurements and simulations brings into question the appropriateness of using laboratory-derived values for rock stiffness to model coseismic processes at depth.

  8. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  9. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  10. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  11. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  12. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  13. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  14. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  15. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  16. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  17. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  18. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  19. 3D statistical shape models incorporating 3D random forest regression voting for robust CT liver segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.

    2015-03-01

    During image segmentation, 3D Statistical Shape Models (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the model surface. In addition, landmark appearance is modeled only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for 3D SSM segmentation based on 3D Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a 3D spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized 3D Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within 3D search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.

  20. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  1. Application of SAR data to monitoring earth surface changes and displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, H.

    Surface changes and displacement caused by earthquake and volcanic activities can be detected by satellite radar interferometric technology using L-band JERS-1 SAR images. For the detection of the coseismic deformation of the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake, interferometric analysis shows 0.6 meter surface displacement along the radar line-of-sight direction around Kobe City and 1.1 meter displacement in Awaji Island where epicenter is located. For the detection of volcanic body deformation in Iwo-jima, the analysis shows concentric circular subsiding displacement that agrees with the results of ground measurement.

  2. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  3. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  4. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  5. Mechanical and Microphysical Constraints on Co-seismic Rupture into the Creeping Segment of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. E.; Chester, F. M.; Chester, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Experimentally-determined mechanical properties of clay-rich fault rock, and the associated micromechanical processes, are used to constrain the conditions of slip instability along the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Using smectite-rich fault gouge collected from the Central Deforming Zone (CDZ) of the SAF in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), rotary and triaxial shear deformation experiments were conducted at rates that correspond to co-seismic slip (1 m/s) and in-situ creep (~10-10 s-1). Frictional strength depends on rate, temperature, availability of pore water, and fabric development, all of which reflect operation of different microscopic mechanisms at high and low shear rates. On the basis of the results, we use an energy balance for a propagating rupture to evaluate the potential for seismic slip along the CDZ. Appropriate scaling of the gouge strength from experimental to in-situ conditions, particularly for seismic slip rates, is critical to evaluating seismic hazards. Accordingly, the micromechanical processes identified from results of the deformation experiments are used to constrain and evaluate several different scaling relations between strength, critical displacement, and normal stress for the CDZ gouge. Experiments show that, at in situ creep rates, dislocation glide in clay is the rate-controlling mechanism and is responsible for the low strength (μ = 0.11), which limits the potential energy available for sustaining co-seismic frictional slip. As a consequence, microseismic patches within the CDZ are predicted to arrest for all scaling relationships under in-situ deformation conditions. Dynamic weakening at co-seismic rates involves thermal fluid pressurization, and for some scaling relations may be sufficient to sustain propagation of a rupture that nucleates within the adjacent locked segment into the CDZ

  6. JAS3D v. 2.4

    2009-06-29

    JAS3D is a three-dimensional finite element program originally designed to solve Lagrangian quasistatic non-linear mechanics problems, and subsequently extended to include both implicit and explicit dynamics. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. Innovative multilevel nonlinear iterative methods are used to solve the equations. A wide variety of material constitutive models are available, and contact interface logic is implemented. Two Lagrangian uniform-strain elements are available: an eighth-node hexahedronmore » for solids and a four-node quadrilateral for shells. Both use hourglass stiffness to control zero-energy modes. In addition, a version of the hexahedron is available with uniform pressure and a deviatoric response scalable from the mean response of the original element up to a fully-integrated response. Bodies under analysis may be loaded by surface pressures and concentrated forces, specified displacements, or body forces from gravity, steady-state transport, or thermal expansion.« less

  7. The 3D model: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using 3D parameter plots.

    PubMed

    Picker, Katharina M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using 3D parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the 3D model in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of 3D modeling. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different 3D parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are

  8. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  9. Geodetically inferred coseismic and postseismic slip due to the M 5.4 31 October 2007 Alum Rock earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Simpson, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    On 31 October 2007 the M 5.4 Alum Rock earthquake occurred near the junction between the Hayward and Calaveras faults in the San Francisco Bay Area, producing coseismic and postseismic displacements recorded by 10 continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments. The cumulative postseismic displacements over the four months following the earthquake are linearly related to the cumulative number of aftershocks and are comparable in magnitude to the coseis mic displacements. The postseismic signal suggests that, in addition to afterslip at seismogenic depths, localized right-lateral/reverse slip occurred on dipping shallow fault surfaces southwest of the Calaveras. The spatial distribution of slip inferred by inverting the GPS data is compatible with a model in which moderate Calaveras fault earthquakes rupture locked patches surrounded by areas of creep, afterslip, and microseismicity (Oppenheimer et al., 1990). If this model and existing Calaveras fault slip rate estimates are correct, a slip deficit remains on the 2007 Alum Rock rupture patch that may be made up by aseismic slip or slip in larger earthquakes. Recent studies (e.g., Manaker et al., 2005) suggest that at depth the Hayward and central Calaveras faults connect via a simple continuous surface illuminated by the Mission Seismic Trend (MST), implying that a damaging earthquake rupture could involve both faults (Graymer et al., 2008). If this geometry is correct, the combined coseismic and postseismic slip we infer for the 2007 Alum Rock event predicts static Coulomb stress increases of ???0:6 bar on the MST surface and on the northern Calaveras fault ???5 km northwest of the Alum Rock hypocenter.

  10. Coseismic gravity changes of the 2010 earthquake in Central Chile from satellite gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Matsuo, K.

    2010-12-01

    Fault dislocations modify gravity fields by deforming layer boundaries with density contrasts (e.g. surface uplift and subsidence) and by changing density of rocks due to volume strain (coseismic dilatation and compression). Coseismic changes in gravity have been first mapped using the data from GRACE satellite for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman (SA) Earthquake (Han et al., 2006). No earthquakes after that event left gravity signatures detectable with GRACE including the 2005 Nias Earthquake, Indonesia. The 2010 February 27 Chile Earthquake (Mw=8.8), the largest event after the 2004 SA Earthquake, ruptured the boundary between the Nazca and the South American Plates known as the Constitución-Concepción seismic gap. Here we present the coseismic gravity changes of the 2010 Chile Earthquake. A monthly GRACE data set (Level-2, RL04, Center for Space Research, Univ. Texas) consists of the coefficients of spherical harmonics with degree and order complete to 60. We replaced the Earth’s oblateness values with those from SLR, and applied a fan filter with averaging radius of 300 km to reduce short wavelength noises. We also reduced longitudinal stripes by using polynomials of degree 3 for coefficients with orders 15 or higher. In order to correct for changes in soil moisture, snow and canopy water, we used the GLDAS hydrological models. After expanding the equivalent water depth data to spherical harmonics, we applied the same fan filter and converted them to gravity changes. They showed negative jump at the back-arc side of the faults with the largest drop of ~5 microgal 200-300 km to the east of the epicenter. In order to calculate predicted gravity changes, we assumed fault parameters composed of two rectangular faults inferred from coseismic displacements of GPS stations. We used Sun et al. (2009) to calculate gravity changes caused by their slips in a spherical, layered earth. Because the original program assumed dry earth (i.e. surface uplift anywhere is interpreted

  11. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  12. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  13. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  14. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  15. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  16. A comparison of 2D and 3D digital image correlation for a membrane under inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murienne, Barbara J.; Nguyen, Thao D.

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) is becoming widely used to characterize the behavior of structures undergoing 3D deformations. However, the use of 3D-DIC can be challenging under certain conditions, such as high magnification, and therefore small depth of field, or a highly controlled environment with limited access for two-angled cameras. The purpose of this study is to compare 2D-DIC and 3D-DIC for the same inflation experiment and evaluate whether 2D-DIC can be used when conditions discourage the use of a stereo-vision system. A latex membrane was inflated vertically to 5.41 kPa (reference pressure), then to 7.87 kPa (deformed pressure). A two-camera stereo-vision system acquired top-down images of the membrane, while a single camera system simultaneously recorded images of the membrane in profile. 2D-DIC and 3D-DIC were used to calculate horizontal (in the membrane plane) and vertical (out of the membrane plane) displacements, and meridional strain. Under static conditions, the baseline uncertainty in horizontal displacement and strain were smaller for 3D-DIC than 2D-DIC. However, the opposite was observed for the vertical displacement, for which 2D-DIC had a smaller baseline uncertainty. The baseline absolute error in vertical displacement and strain were similar for both DIC methods, but it was larger for 2D-DIC than 3D-DIC for the horizontal displacement. Under inflation, the variability in the measurements were larger than under static conditions for both DIC methods. 2D-DIC showed a smaller variability in displacements than 3D-DIC, especially for the vertical displacement, but a similar strain uncertainty. The absolute difference in the average displacements and strain between 3D-DIC and 2D-DIC were in the range of the 3D-DIC variability. Those findings suggest that 2D-DIC might be used as an alternative to 3D-DIC to study the inflation response of materials under certain conditions.

  17. Interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and slow slip event deformation above a shallow subduction thrust in the western Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, L. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Bevis, M. G.; Phillips, D. A.; Walter, J. I.; Kendrick, E. C.; Papabatu, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The western Solomon Islands are a remarkable natural laboratory to investigate processes occurring on the shallowest (<10 km depth) portions of the subduction interface. Islands within the New Georgia Group are located <15 km from the San Cristobal Trench, with the subduction thrust located only a few km beneath the southwest coast of islands like Rannonga and Rendova. This offers a globally unique opportunity to use GPS and other land-based methods to monitor deformation processes very close to the trench at a subduction zone. We present results from a campaign GPS network in the western Solomons that has been operated from 1996-present. The data from 1996-2002 indicate interseismic coupling on the shallow portion of the interface, at a rate of nearly 100% of the relative plate motion. Coupling does not appear to extend deeper than ~20 km depth, and the relatively shallow down-dip limit of coupling is consistent with subduction of young (<6 Ma) oceanic crust of the Woodlark Basin. We also show evidence for a slow slip event in late 2000, observed at a GPS site near Gizo that was running continuously from 1999-2002. In April 2007, an Mw 8.1 earthquake occurred on the subduction thrust beneath the network, resulting in large coseismic displacements at nearby campaign GPS sites. The earthquake caused widespread coastal uplift and subsidence in the region, as revealed by studies of coral microatolls following the earthquake (Taylor et al., 2008). We invert displacements of the GPS sites jointly with vertical displacements of coral microatolls to evaluate the coseismic slip during the earthquake. The area of the interface that underwent slip in the earthquake matches well with the region that was interseismically coupled just prior to the 2007 earthquake. The data also require large coseismic slip on the shallow interface near the trench, which likely contributed to the generation of a large, damaging tsunami following the earthquake. We also show results from a recent

  18. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  19. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  1. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  2. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  3. 300-km-long co-seismic surface rupture produced by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake along the active Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, A.; Rao, G.; Yan, B.

    2012-12-01

    The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 (Ms 8.1) Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 and ruptured active faults of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), which marks the boundary between the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. Although many studies of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake have described the ground deformation features, rupture mechanism, and structural features of the seismogenic fault zone associated with this event, debate remains concerning the total length of the co-seismic surface rupture zone and whether the earthquake ruptured the Qingchuan Fault in the northeastern segment of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), China. Based on our initial fieldwork carried out 2 days after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, we reported that the earthquake produced a ~285-km-long surface rupture zone along the LSTB, at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, dominated by thrust slip and right-lateral displacement along the central and northeastern segments of the zone, and by left-lateral displacement along the southeastern segment (Lin et al., 2009, 2010). However, other field-based studies have reported that the total length of the co-seismic surface rupture zone is 200-240 km and that the Qingchuan Fault was not ruptured by the Wenchuan earthquake (e.g., Liu-Zeng et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2009; Yin, 2010; Zhang et al., 2010). The length of surface rupture produced by large, individual earthquakes is a key parameter in assessing the seismic moment, the rupture mechanism, the degree of seismic hazard, and the activity of a seismogenic fault, including the recurrence interval of large earthquakes and the long-term slip rate. Therefore, additional work is needed to constrain the length of the co-seismic surface rupture and the location of rupture termination at the northeastern segment of the LSTB, in order to accurately assess the nature of the seismic hazard in the densely populated Sichuan region of China. In this study, we present new field

  4. Coseismic and Early Post-Seismic Slip Distributions of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy) Seismic Sequence: New Insights in the Faults Activation and Resulting Stress Changes on Adjacent Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheloni, D.; Giuliani, R.; D'Agostino, N.; Mattone, M.; Bonano, M.; Fornaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Reale, D.

    2015-12-01

    The 2012 Emilia sequence (main shocks Mw 6.1 May 20 and Mw 5.9 May 29) ruptured two thrust segments of a ~E-W trending fault system of the buried Ferrara Arc, along a portion of the compressional system of the Apennines that had remained silent during past centuries. Here we use the rupture geometry constrained by the aftershocks and new geodetic data (levelling, InSAR and GPS measurements) to estimate an improved coseismic slip distribution of the two main events. In addition, we use post-seismic displacements, described and analyzed here for the first time, to infer a brand new post-seismic slip distribution of the May 29 event in terms of afterslip on the same coseismic plane. In particular, in this study we use a catalog of precisely relocated aftershocks to explore the different proposed geometries of the proposed thrust segments that have been published so far and estimate the coseismic and post-seismic slip distributions of the ruptured planes responsible for the two main seismic events from a joint inversion of the geodetic data.Joint inversion results revealed that the two earthquakes ruptured two distinct planar thrust faults, characterized by single main coseismic patches located around the centre of the rupture planes, in agreement with the seismological and geological information pointing out the Ferrara and the Mirandola thrust faults, as the causative structures of the May 20 and May 29 main shocks respectively.The preferred post-seismic slip distribution related to the 29 May event, yielded to a main patch of afterslip (equivalent to a Mw 5.6 event) located westward and up-dip of the main coseismic patch, suggesting that afterslip was triggered at the edges of the coseismic asperity. We then use these co- and post-seismic slip distribution models to calculate the stress changes on adjacent fault.

  5. Coseismic slip distribution of the 1923 Kanto earthquake, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Nyst, M.; Nishimura, T.; Thatcher, W.

    2005-01-01

    The slip distribution associated with the 1923 M = 7.9 Kanto, Japan, earthquake is reexamined in light of new data and modeling. We utilize a combination of first-order triangulation, second-order triangulation, and leveling data in order to constrain the coseismic deformation. The second-order triangulation data, which have not been utilized in previous studies of 1923 coseismic deformation, are associated with only slightly smaller errors than the first-order triangulation data and expand the available triangulation data set by about a factor of 10. Interpretation of these data in terms of uniform-slip models in a companion study by Nyst et al. shows that a model involving uniform coseismic slip on two distinct rupture planes explains the data very well and matches or exceeds the fit obtained by previous studies, even one which involved distributed slip. Using the geometry of the Nyst et al. two-plane slip model, we perform inversions of the same geodetic data set for distributed slip. Our preferred model of distributed slip on the Philippine Sea plate interface has a moment magnitude of 7.86. We find slip maxima of ???8-9 m beneath Odawara and ???7-8 m beneath the Miura peninsula, with a roughly 2:1 ratio of strike-slip to dip-slip motion, in agreement with a previous study. However, the Miura slip maximum is imaged as a more broadly extended feature in our study, with the high-slip region continuing from the Miura peninsula to the southern Boso peninsula region. The second-order triangulation data provide good evidence for ???3 m right-lateral strike slip on a 35-km-long splay structure occupying the volume between the upper surface of the descending Philippine Sea plate and the southern Boso peninsula. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Fluid Dynamic Evidence for Extremely Low Viscosity Coseismic Fault Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Meneghini, F.; Rowe, C. D.; Moore, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    We combine geological observations of fault rock textures with fluid mechanics to constrain the mechanics of a fault zone during a subduction earthquake. We analyze buoyant intrusive features in a fault rock that formed at 12- 14 km depth in a large-scale thrust fault embedded in a paleo-accretionary prism in Kodiak Island, AK. The fault rock can been interpreted as either a pseudotachylyte or fluidized ultracataclasite. The intrusive structures provide new, direct evidence on the coseismic rheology of the fault. The asymmetric buoyant intrusions are most readily understood as Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with an unusually short wavelengths relative to the thickness of the layer. The geometry requires a moderately high Reynolds number flow (Re~1-10) in order to produce the observed wavelength to thickness ratio. The resulting rise velocity under these conditions is ~40 cm/s. Since the shear strain in the layer is over order 1 and the deformation is continuous, the rise velocity must be comparable to the horizontal shear velocity during emplacement. Thus, the geometry alone requires that the fault rocks were intruded coseismically. Furthermore, the Reynolds number constraint combined with the computed rise velocity provides a maximum bound on the viscosity of the fluid during emplacement. The coseismic fault fluid at this locality must have had a viscosity of \\ll 10 Pa-s. This viscosity constraint is compatible with the viscosity of the silicate melt of the observed composition at 1300-1400°, which is consistent with the temperature constraints imposed by the absence of plagioclase survivor grains. In summary, both the fluid dynamical and geological evidence points to an extraordinarily low viscosity fluid in the fault zone during rupture and hence extremely low local stress in the fault during an earthquake.

  7. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  8. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of

  9. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  10. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  11. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  12. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  13. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  14. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  15. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  16. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Estefania Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  17. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  18. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  19. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  20. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  1. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day. PMID:27242064

  2. Coseismic and post-seismic signatures of the Sumatra 2004 December and 2005 March earthquakes in GRACE satellite gravity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panet, I.; Mikhailov, V.; Diament, M.; Pollitz, F.; King, G.; de Viron, O.; Holschneider, M.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The GRACE satellite mission has been measuring the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations since 2002 April. Although these variations are mainly due to mass transfer within the geofluid envelops, they also result from mass displacements associated with phenomena including glacial isostatic adjustment and earthquakes. However, these last contributions are difficult to isolate because of the presence of noise and of geofluid signals, and because of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution (>400 km half-wavelength). In this paper, we show that a wavelet analysis on the sphere helps to retrieve earthquake signatures from GRACE geoid products. Using a wavelet analysis of GRACE geoids products, we show that the geoid variations caused by the 2004 December (Mw = 9.2) and 2005 March (Mw = 8.7) Sumatra earthquakes can be detected. At GRACE resolution, the 2004 December earthquake produced a strong coseismic decrease of the gravity field in the Andaman Sea, followed by relaxation in the area affected by both the Andaman 2004 and the Nias 2005 earthquakes. We find two characteristic timescales for the relaxation, with a fast variation occurring in the vicinity of the Central Andaman ridge. We discuss our coseismic observations in terms of density changes of crustal and upper-mantle rocks, and of the vertical displacements in the Andaman Sea. We interpret the post-seismic signal in terms of the viscoelastic response of the Earth's mantle. The transient component of the relaxation may indicate the presence of hot, viscous material beneath the active Central Andaman Basin. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  3. A Simulation of crustal deformation around sourthwest Japan using 3D Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oma, T.; Ito, T.; Sasajima, R.

    2015-12-01

    In southwest Japan, the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian plate at the Nankai Trough. Megathrust earthquakes have been occurred with recurrence intervals of about 100-150 years. Previous studies have estimated co-seismic slip distribution at the 1944 Tokankai and the 1946 Nankai earthquakes and interplate plate coupling along the Nankai Trough. Many of previous studies employed a homogeneous elastic half space or elastic and viscoelastic layers structure. However, these assumptions as mentioned above are inadequate, since inhomogeneous structure is exceled in the real earth result from subducting plate. Therefore, in order to estimate the effect of inhomogeneous structure on the crustal deformation, we calculate crustal deformation due to Megathrust earthquake using 3-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). We use FEM software PyLith v2.1. In this study, we construct a finite element mesh with the region of 3000km(SW) × 2300km(NS) × 400km(depth) cover Japanese Islands, using Cubit 13.0. This mesh is considered topography, the Philippine Sea plate, the Pacific plate, Moho discontinuity, and curvature of the earth. In order to examine differences of surface displacement between inhomogeneous and homogeneous structures, we use co-seismic slip distribution of the 1944 and 1946 earthquakes estimated by Sagiya and Thatcher (1999). In result, surface elastic response under inhomogeneous structure becomes 30% larger than it's homogeneous structure at the Muroto cape. This difference indicates that co-seismic slip or plate coupling distribution estimated from Green's function under an assumption of homogeneous structure is overestimated. Then, we calculate viscoelastic response assuming Maxwell rheology model and viscosity as 1×1019. As a result, predicted horizontal velocity of viscoelastic response due to the events corresponds to 10 % of observed present deformation. It suggest that spatial pattern of plate coupling might be change when we

  4. High Resolution, Large Deformation 3D Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    López-Fagundo, Cristina; Reichner, Jonathan; Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is a powerful approach for quantifying cell-material interactions that over the last two decades has contributed significantly to our understanding of cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. In addition, recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and traction force analysis (3D TFM) have highlighted the significance of the third dimension in influencing various cellular processes. Yet irrespective of dimensionality, almost all TFM approaches have relied on a linear elastic theory framework to calculate cell surface tractions. Here we present a new high resolution 3D TFM algorithm which utilizes a large deformation formulation to quantify cellular displacement fields with unprecedented resolution. The results feature some of the first experimental evidence that cells are indeed capable of exerting large material deformations, which require the formulation of a new theoretical TFM framework to accurately calculate the traction forces. Based on our previous 3D TFM technique, we reformulate our approach to accurately account for large material deformation and quantitatively contrast and compare both linear and large deformation frameworks as a function of the applied cell deformation. Particular attention is paid in estimating the accuracy penalty associated with utilizing a traditional linear elastic approach in the presence of large deformation gradients. PMID:24740435

  5. Co-seismic Corresponding Analysis of the Earth's Free Oscillations Gravity Signal Induced by the East Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Chen, C.; Du, J.; Wang, Q.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's free oscillations always happen after strong earthquakes. Observations and studies on the Earth's free oscillations will provide an important reference for understanding the Earth's internal structure and anisotropic characters. As the Earth's spherical oscillations always induce the Earth surface's vertical displacement which can be observed by gravimeter consecutively, the correlation signal of the Earth's free oscillations will be obtained. The earthquake (Mw=9.0) happened in the 130km (38.322°N, 142.369°E) of the Pacific sea area which located at the east of Sendai City at GMT time 05:46:23, on March 11th, 2011, has been the biggest earthquake in Japan so far, which has caused the Pacific Ocean not only tsunami disaster but also induced the Earth's free oscillations worldwide. After strong earthquakes, the Earth oscillates with spheroidal and toroidal modes. The former cause gravity changes which can be detected with sensitive instruments. For this purpose, we used continuous gravity measurements with LaCoste&Romberg Earth Tide spring gravimeter (gPhone) to make continuous gravity measurement in China University of Geosciences, Wuhan. The Microg-LaCoste gPhone is a portable Earth tide gravimeter equipped with a 0.1 μGal resolution feedback. The core sensor is the patented LaCoste & Romberg (LR) zero-length spring suspension system. We analyzed on the co-seismic corresponding signals of the observed gravity data after the earthquake (Mw=9.0) happened in the east of Honshu, Japan on 3.11. Then we provided the observed Earth's free oscillations results recorded by #94 gPhone which aroused by this strong earthquake. Spectral analysis of detided and depressured records showed significant peaks in normal modes within frequency range. These peaks are above noise level and they are in good accordance with seismic theories. Here, we show some examples of normal modes registration after great earthquakes, such as: We estimated 43 Earth's free oscillation

  6. Coseismic liquefaction phenomenon analysis by COSMO-SkyMed: 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Saroli, Michele; Pulvirenti, Luca; Moro, Marco; Bignami, Christian; Falcucci, Emanuela; Gori, Stefano; Modoni, Giuseppe; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    The liquefaction phenomenon that occurred in the coseismic phase of the May 20, 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquake (ML 5.9) is investigated. It was induced by the water pressure increase in the buried and confined sand layers. The level-ground liquefaction was the result of a chaotic ground oscillation caused by the earthquake shaking and the observed failures were due to the upward water flow caused by the excess of pore pressures. We exploited the capability of the differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) technique to detect soil liquefactions and estimate their surface displacements, as well as the high sensitivity to surface changes of complex coherence, SAR backscattering and intensity correlation. To this aim, a set of four COSMO-SkyMed X-band SAR images, covering the period April 1-June 6, 2012, was used. Geological-geotechnical analysis was also performed in order to ascertain if the detected SAR-based surface effects could be due to the compaction induced by liquefaction of deep sandy layers. In this regards, the results obtained from 13 electrical cone penetrometer tests show the presence of a fine to medium sandy layer at depths, ranging between 9 and 13 m, which probably liquefied during the earthquake, inducing vertical displacements between 3 and 16 cm. The quantitative results from geological-geotechnical analysis and the surface punctual effects measured by DInSAR are in good agreement, even if some differences are present, probably ascribable to the local thickness and depth variability of the sandy layer, or to lack of deformation detection due to DInSAR decorrelation. The adopted approach permitted us to define the extent of the areas that underwent liquefaction and to quantify the local subsidence related to these phenomena. The latter achievement provides useful information that must be considered in engineering practices, in terms of expected vertical deformations.

  7. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  8. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  9. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  10. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  11. Interferograms of Coseismic Deformation from the May 12, 2008, Sichuan, China, Earthquake obtained by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Enomoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Fukahata, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A devastating earthquake hit southern China on May 12, 2008, and claimed more than 80,000 casualties. This event is the first M8 earthquake in history in and around the Sichuan basin. The epicenter is located near the Sichuan basin, and aftershocks are aligned in the NE-SW direction parallel to the Longmen Shan fault zone, which suggests that this active fault zone bounding the basin and mountain ranges is the source of this event. It is important to reveal the fault movement from the viewpoints of future earthquake hazard evaluation and tectonics of collision zone. Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (hereafter ALOS) has been conducting observation of the earth's surface since its launch on Jan. 24, 2006. ALOS is equipped with an L-band synthetic aperture radar, Phased Array L-band SAR (hereafter PALSAR), which is suitable for the observation of heavily vegetated areas. We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images along 8 paths acquired before and after the mainshock and revealed entire features of coseismic deformation using the Gamma software and hole-filled SRTM DEM by Jarvis et al.(2008). We observe fringes around the Longmen Shan fault zone. In spite of different period and timing of acquisition of SAR images, several fringes can be traced across the interferograms. These continuous fringes can be recognized in an about 100km wide region surrounding the fault zone and regarded as coseismic deformations. We can count 8-9 fringes, i.e. 90-100cm LOS displacements, between the fault zone and Chengdu located about 50km away from the Pengguan fault, southern most trace of the Longmen Shan fault zone. On the other hand, we could not obtain correlation high enough in the source region due to large displacements. This low correlation zone can be traced nearly 240km along the surface faults. It is worth noting that numbers of fringes are almost the same on the both sides of the source region. This pattern suggests right-lateral motion on a steeply dipping fault plane. On the

  12. Geodetic Inversion Analysis Method of Coseismic Slip Distribution Using a Three-dimensional Finite Element High-fidelity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have focused on geodetic inversion analysis method of coseismic slip distribution with combination of observation data of coseismic crustal deformation on the ground and simplified crustal models such like analytical solution in elastic half-space (Okada, 1985). On the other hand, displacements on the seafloor or near trench axes due to actual earthquakes has been observed by seafloor observatories (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Tohoku Earthquake) (Sato et. al. 2011) (Kido et. al. 2011)). Also, some studies on tsunamis due to the Tohoku Earthquake indicate that large fault slips near the trench axis may have occurred. Those facts suggest that crustal models considering complex geometry and heterogeneity of the material property near the trench axis should be used for geodetic inversion analysis. Therefore, our group has developed a mesh generation method for finite element models of the Japanese Islands of higher fidelity and a fast crustal deformation analysis method for the models. Degree-of-freedom of the models generated by this method is about 150 million. In this research, the method is extended for inversion analyses of coseismic slip distribution. Since inversion analyses need computation of hundreds of slip response functions due to a unit fault slip assigned for respective divided cells on the fault, parallel computing environment is used. Plural crustal deformation analyses are simultaneously run in a Message Passing Interface (MPI) job. In the job, dynamic load balancing is implemented so that a better parallel efficiency is obtained. Submitting the necessary number of serial job of our previous method is also possible, but the proposed method needs less computation time, places less stress on file systems, and allows simpler job management. A method for considering the fault slip right near the trench axis is also developed. As the displacement distribution of unit fault slip for computing response function, 3rd order B

  13. Long-term changes to river regimes prior to late Holocene coseismic faulting, Canterbury, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jocelyn K.; Nicol, Andrew; Howard, Matthew E.

    2003-09-01

    Two sites are described from range front faults along the foothills of the Southern Alps of New Zealand, where apparently a period of 200-300 years of accelerated river incision preceded late Holocene coseismic ruptures, each probably in excess of M w 7.5. They relate to separate fault segments and seismic events on a transpressive system associated with fault-driven folding, but both show similar evidence of off-plane aseismic deformation during the downcutting phase. The incision history is documented by the ages, relative elevations and profiles of degradation terraces. The surface dating is largely based on the weathering rind technique of McSaveney (McSaveney, M.J., 1992. A Manual for Weathering-rind Dating of Grey Sandstones of the Torlesse Supergroup, New Zealand. 92/4, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences), supported by some consistent radiocarbon ages. On the Porters Pass Fault, drainage from Red Lakes has incised up to 12 m into late Pleistocene recessional outwash, but the oldest degradation terrace surface T I is dated at only 690±50 years BP. The upper terraces T I and T II converge uniformly downstream right across the fault trace, but by T III the terrace has a reversed gradient upstream. T II and T III break into multiple small terraces on the hanging wall only, close to the fault trace. Continued backtilting during incision caused T IV to diverge downstream relative to the older surfaces. Coseismic faulting displaced T V and all the older terraces by a metre high reverse scarp and an uncertain right lateral component. This event cannot be younger than a nearby ca. 500 year old rock avalanche covering the trace. The second site in the middle reaches of the Waipara River valley involves the interaction of four faults associated with the Doctors Anticline. The main river and tributaries have incised steeply into a 2000 year old mid-Holocene, broad, degradation surface downcutting as much as 55 m. Beginning approximately 600 years ago

  14. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  15. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  16. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  17. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  18. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  19. Shape and 3D acoustically induced vibrations of the human eardrum characterized by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Rosowski, John J.

    2014-07-01

    The eardrum or Tympanic Membrane (TM) transfers acoustic energy from the ear canal (at the external ear) into mechanical motions of the ossicles (at the middle ear). The acousto-mechanical-transformer behavior of the TM is determined by its shape and mechanical properties. For a better understanding of hearing mysteries, full-field-of-view techniques are required to quantify shape, nanometer-scale sound-induced displacement, and mechanical properties of the TM in 3D. In this paper, full-field-of-view, three-dimensional shape and sound-induced displacement of the surface of the TM are obtained by the methods of multiple wavelengths and multiple sensitivity vectors with lensless digital holography. Using our developed digital holographic systems, unique 3D information such as, shape (with micrometer resolution), 3D acoustically-induced displacement (with nanometer resolution), full strain tensor (with nano-strain resolution), 3D phase of motion, and 3D directional cosines of the displacement vectors can be obtained in full-field-ofview with a spatial resolution of about 3 million points on the surface of the TM and a temporal resolution of 15 Hz.

  20. Coseismic Offsets on PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Real, or Spurious?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, A. J.; Agnew, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    We have observed coseismic strain offsets during many significant earthquakes, at all locations in the 74-instrument PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network. The M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 induced the largest offsets thus far, on BSMs located within the San Jacinto fault zone - the "Anza cluster". Here we present analyses of trends in the observed offsets for the Anza cluster, as well as inspection of their inferred borehole lithology. We find that offsets rarely agree with elastic dislocation theory in magnitude and sign, and speculate that they are controlled more by localized geologic constraints than by triggered fault slip, as has been suggested in previous studies (e.g. Linde and Johnson, 1989).

  1. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  2. Improved Coseismic Deformation Observations of the 1995 Mw 7.2 Gulf of Aqaba Earthquake based on ERS and JERS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guangcai; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Klinger, Yann

    2014-05-01

    The Mw 7.2 earthquake that occurred on the Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Gulf of Aqaba on November 22, 1995 was the largest earthquake to occur in the area for at least 400 years. Several published studies have focused on estimating the source parameters of this earthquake, but the reported models differ significantly. Some suggest that two or even three en-echelon segments of the DST within the gulf ruptured in the earthquake, while others report that only the segment between the Elat and Aragonese deeps was activated. The earthquake's location under the waters of the Gulf of Aqaba means that near-field data are limited. In addition, no coseismic GPS or conventional geodetic measurements are available. Therefore, InSAR observations have been the key data, along with seismic data, in estimating the source parameters of this earthquake. However, previous InSAR studies did not include all existing coseismic SAR data and were also based on sub-optimal data-processing strategies. Here, we improve the previous InSAR studies of the Gulf of Aqaba earthquake by (1) adding previously unused coseismic InSAR data, (2) using more recent data processing methods as well as along-track Multiple Aperture Interferometric (MAI) observations, and (3) estimating the source fault geometry and slip using more reliable InSAR data. In this study, we include two previously unused InSAR datasets, one ascending ERS image pair (track T114) and one descending JERS dataset (Path 254). The inclusion of these data provides a more complete map of the coseismic deformation field, compared to previous studies. In addition, we improve the earlier InSAR data processing work by carefully removing orbital errors with a 2D quadratic model after masking out the coseismic deformation and we avoid using images with strong atmospheric signals. Furthermore, we use MAI to constrain better the north-south coseismic displacement component, which was the main displacement component of this primarily left

  3. Field evidence for a hybrid interfacial-coseismic seismoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Kulessa, B.; Pugin, A.

    2014-12-01

    In May, 2011, we carried out a field experiment in Leda Clay sediments near Ottawa, Canada to investigate whether seismoelectric conversions might be observed along with the clear P, S and PS converted waves regularly observed during near-surface seismic reflection surveys in that environment. Although high electrical conductivities (~10 Ωm below 6 m depth) were expected to result in weak electrical fields, we were encouraged by the availability of an IVI Minivib 1 vibroseis source, and by the presence of interfacial targets including the top of bedrock at ~23 m depth as well as porosity and textural changes within the overburden revealed by geotechnical logs. Seismic and seismoelectric shot records were acquired separately using both the MiniVib and an in-hole shotgun source. The recording system included 26 grounded dipoles, 4.5 m in length, all equipped with custom-made differential amplifiers. Harmonic subtraction, remote reference subtraction, and stacking of shot records were used to combat electrical noise levels associated with unstable powerline harmonics and apparent AM radio demodulation. Seismic and seismoelectric shot records bear a striking resemblance to each other; direct and refracted P-waves as well as P, S, and PS wave reflections all appear clearly in the seismoelectric records. At first glance, these would appear to be simply co-seismic seismoelectric effects. However, closer inspection reveals that some precede their corresponding seismic arrivals by several milliseconds, and exhibit broader bandwidths (up to 600 Hz) and better coherency. They are inferred to have been generated beneath each dipole receiver by upward travelling P and S-waves arriving at an interface, defined by contrasts in porosity and clay content, 7 m below the surface. These arrivals do not conform to either true co-seismic or true interfacial effects and therefore present a new challenge to our understanding of seismoelectric phenomena.

  4. Coseismic ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo

    2016-04-01

    Despite primary energy disturbances from the Sun, oscillations of the Earth surface due to a large earthquake will couple with the atmosphere and therefore the ionosphere, then the so-called coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) can be detected in the ionosphere. Using a combination of techniques, total electron content, HF Doppler, and ground magnetometer, a new time-sequence of such effects propagation were developed on observational basis and ideas on explanation provided. In the cases of 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, infrasonic waves accompanying the propagation of seismic Rayleigh waves were observed in the ionosphere by all the three kinds of techniques. This is the very first report to present CIDs recorded by different techniques at co-located sites and profiled with regard to changes of both ionospheric plasma and current (geomagnetic field) simultaneously. Comparison between the oceanic (2011 Tohoku) and inland (2008 Wenchuan) earthquakes revealed that the main directional lobe of latter case is more distinct which is perpendicular to the direction of the fault rupture. We argue that the different fault slip (inland or submarine) may affect the way of couplings of lithosphere with atmosphere. References Zhao, B., and Y. Hao (2015), Ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A revisit, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021035. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2013), Teleseismic magnetic effects (TMDs) of 2011 Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 3914-3923, doi:10.1002/jgra.50326. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2012), Multi-instrument observation on co-seismic ionospheric effects after great Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A02305, doi:10.1029/2011JA017036.

  5. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  6. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  7. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  8. Repositioning accuracy of two different mask systems-3D revisited: Comparison using true 3D/3D matching with cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit . E-mail: judit.boda-heggemann@radonk.ma.uni-heidelberg.de; Walter, Cornelia; Rahn, Angelika; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Loeb, Iris; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The repositioning accuracy of mask-based fixation systems has been assessed with two-dimensional/two-dimensional or two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) matching. We analyzed the accuracy of commercially available head mask systems, using true 3D/3D matching, with X-ray volume imaging and cone-beam CT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiotherapy (intracranial/head-and-neck tumors) were evaluated (14 patients with rigid and 7 with thermoplastic masks). X-ray volume imaging was analyzed online and offline separately for the skull and neck regions. Translation/rotation errors of the target isocenter were analyzed. Four patients were treated to neck sites. For these patients, repositioning was aided by additional body tattoos. A separate analysis of the setup error on the basis of the registration of the cervical vertebra was performed. The residual error after correction and intrafractional motility were calculated. Results: The mean length of the displacement vector for rigid masks was 0.312 {+-} 0.152 cm (intracranial) and 0.586 {+-} 0.294 cm (neck). For the thermoplastic masks, the value was 0.472 {+-} 0.174 cm (intracranial) and 0.726 {+-} 0.445 cm (neck). Rigid masks with body tattoos had a displacement vector length in the neck region of 0.35 {+-} 0.197 cm. The intracranial residual error and intrafractional motility after X-ray volume imaging correction for rigid masks was 0.188 {+-} 0.074 cm, and was 0.134 {+-} 0.14 cm for thermoplastic masks. Conclusions: The results of our study have demonstrated that rigid masks have a high intracranial repositioning accuracy per se. Given the small residual error and intrafractional movement, thermoplastic masks may also be used for high-precision treatments when combined with cone-beam CT. The neck region repositioning accuracy was worse than the intracranial accuracy in both cases. However, body tattoos and image guidance improved the accuracy. Finally, the combination of both mask

  9. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied aerodynamic design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1988-01-01

    Several inverse methods have been compared and initial results indicate that differences in results are primarily due to coordinate systems and fuselage representations and not to design procedures. Further, results from a direct-inverse method that includes 3-D wing boundary layer effects, wake curvature, and wake displacement are presented. These results show that boundary layer displacements must be included in the design process for accurate results.

  10. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004

  11. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  12. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  13. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  14. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  15. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  16. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  17. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  18. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  19. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  20. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  1. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  2. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  3. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  4. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  5. PFLOW: A 3-D Numerical Modeling Tool for Calculating Fluid-Pressure Diffusion from Coulomb Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Meir, A.; Dyer, G.; Ma, K.; Chan, C.

    2009-12-01

    A new 3D time-dependent pore-pressure diffusion model PFLOW is developed to investigate the response of pore fluids to the crustal deformation generated by strong earthquakes in heterogeneous geologic media. Given crustal strain generated by changes in Coulomb stress, this MATLAB-based code uses Skempton's coefficient to calculate resulting changes fluid pressure. Pore-pressure diffusion can be tracked over time in a user-defined model space with user-prescribed Neumann or Dirchilet boundary conditions and with spatially variable values of permeability. PFLOW employs linear or quadratic finite elements for spatial discretization and first order or second order, explicit or implicit finite difference discretization in time. PFLOW is easily interfaced with output from deformation modeling programs such as Coulomb (Toda et al., 2007) or 3D-DEF (Gomberg and Ellis, 1994). The code is useful for investigating to first-order the evolution of pore pressure changes induced by changes in Coulomb stress and their possible relation to water-level changes in wells or changes in stream discharge. It can also be used for student research and classroom instruction. As an example application, we calculate the coseismic pore pressure changes and diffusion induced by volumetric strain associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan. The Chi-Chi earthquake provides an unique opportunity to investigate the spatial and time-dependent poroelastic response of near-field rocks and sediments because there exist extensive observational data of water-level changes and crustal deformation. The integrated model allows us to explore whether changes in Coulomb stress can adequately explain hydrologic anomalies observed in areas such as Taiwan’s western foothills and the Choshui River alluvial plain. To calculate coseismic strain, we use the carefully calibrated finite fault-rupture model of Ma et al. (2005) and the deformation modeling code Coulomb 3.1 (Toda et al., 2007

  6. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  7. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  8. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  9. Fish body surface data measurement based on 3D digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Qian, Chen; Yang, Wenkai

    2016-01-01

    To film the moving fish in the glass tank, light will be bent at the interface of air and glass, glass and water. Based on binocular stereo vision and refraction principle, we establish a mathematical model of 3D image correlation to reconstruct the 3D coordinates of samples in the water. Marking speckle in fish surface, a series of real-time speckle images of swimming fish will be obtained by two high-speed cameras, and instantaneous 3D shape, strain, displacement etc. of fish will be reconstructed.

  10. A Deformable Generic 3D Model of Haptoral Anchor of Monogenean

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903

  11. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    PubMed

    Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903

  12. 3D tongue motion from tagged and cine MR images.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Murano, Emi Z; Lee, Junghoon; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the deformation of the tongue during human speech is important for head and neck surgeons and speech and language scientists. Tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to image 2D motion, and data from multiple image planes can be combined via post-processing to yield estimates of 3D motion. However, lacking boundary information, this approach suffers from inaccurate estimates near the tongue surface. This paper describes a method that combines two sources of information to yield improved estimation of 3D tongue motion. The method uses the harmonic phase (HARP) algorithm to extract motion from tags and diffeomorphic demons to provide surface deformation. It then uses an incompressible deformation estimation algorithm to incorporate both sources of displacement information to form an estimate of the 3D whole tongue motion. Experimental results show that use of combined information improves motion estimation near the tongue surface, a problem that has previously been reported as problematic in HARP analysis, while preserving accurate internal motion estimates. Results on both normal and abnormal tongue motions are shown. PMID:24505742

  13. Integration of 3D intraoperative ultrasound for enhanced neuronavigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Keith D.; Ji, Songbai; Hartov, Alex; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.

    2012-03-01

    True three-dimensional (3D) volumetric ultrasound (US) acquisitions stand to benefit intraoperative neuronavigation on multiple fronts. While traditional two-dimensional (2D) US and its tracked, hand-swept version have been recognized for many years to advantage significantly image-guided neurosurgery, especially when coregistered with preoperative MR scans, its unregulated and incomplete sampling of the surgical volume of interest have limited certain intraoperative uses of the information that are overcome through direct volume acquisition (i.e., through 2D scan-head transducer arrays). In this paper, we illustrate several of these advantages, including image-based intraoperative registration (and reregistration) and automated, volumetric displacement mapping for intraoperative image updating. These applications of 3D US are enabled by algorithmic advances in US image calibration, and volume rasterization and interpolation for multi-acquisition synthesis that will also be highlighted. We expect to demonstrate that coregistered 3D US is well worth incorporating into the standard neurosurgical navigational environment relative to traditional tracked, hand-swept 2D US.

  14. Northern California Seismic Attenuation: 3-D Qp and Qs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, 3-D Qp and Qs crustal models have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and 3-D velocity models, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the 3-D volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.

  15. Measurements of Rb with impact parameters and displaced vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C. J.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N. J.; Ash, W. W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K. G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H. R.; Barakat, M. B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A. O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J. R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G. R.; Brau, J. E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W. M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, P. N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coller, J. A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R. F.; Coyne, D. G.; D'oliveira, A.; Damerell, C. J.; Daoudi, M.; de Sangro, R.; de Simone, P.; dell'orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P. Y.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Elia, R.; Etzion, E.; Falciai, D.; Fero, M. J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hart, E. L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M. E.; Hughes, E. W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D. J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Kang, H. J.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H. W.; Kim, Y.; King, M. E.; King, R.; Kofler, R. R.; Krishna, N. M.; Kroeger, R. S.; Labs, J. F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J. A.; Leith, D. W.; Liu, M. X.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H. L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A. K.; Meadows, B. T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P. M.; Moffeit, K. C.; Mours, B.; Müller, G.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L. S.; Panvini, R. S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T. J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K. T.; Plano, R. J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C. Y.; Punkar, G. D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Reeves, T. W.; Reidy, J.; Rensing, P. E.; Rochester, L. S.; Rothberg, J. E.; Rowson, P. C.; Russell, J. J.; Saxton, O. H.; Schaffner, S. F.; Schalk, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schneekloth, U.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Sen, S.; Serbo, V. V.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, G.; Shapiro, S. L.; Sherden, D. J.; Shmakov, K. D.; Simopoulos, C.; Sinev, N. B.; Smith, S. R.; Snyder, J. A.; Stamer, P.; Steiner, H.; Steiner, R.; Strauss, M. G.; Su, D.; Suekane, F.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Swartz, M.; Szumilo, A.; Takahashi, T.; Taylor, F. E.; Torrence, E.; Turk, J. D.; Usher, T.; Va'vra, J.; Vannini, C.; Vella, E.; Venuti, J. P.; Verdier, R.; Verdini, P. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Waite, A. P.; Watts, S. J.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weiss, E. R.; Whitaker, J. S.; White, S. L.; Wickens, F. J.; Williams, D. A.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, S. H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, R. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Woods, M.; Word, G. B.; Wyss, J.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamartino, J. M.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S. J.; Young, C. C.; Yuta, H.; Zapalac, G.; Zdarko, R. W.; Zeitlin, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, J.

    1996-02-01

    We present measurements of Rb using the SLD at the SLC. The analyses use 2D and 3D impact parameter tags and a displaced 3D vertex tag which all exploit the small size and stability of the e+e- interaction point and the precision 3D CCD pixel vertex detector to achieve high bb¯-tagging efficiencies and purities. The combined measurement yields Rb=0.229+/-0.011 and is consistent with standard model predictions.

  16. New Observations of Coseismic Fault Zone Deformation from Differencing Pre- and Post-Earthquake Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Borsa, A. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Maruyama, T.; Oskin, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-meter resolution airborne LiDAR topography comprises a critical part of the research infastructure along several major active faults in western North America, where it provides a topographic baseline against which future, post-earthquake LiDAR surveys can be differenced. Here, we describe two differencing methods - one based on the Iterative Closest Point algorithm, the other on cross-correlation techniques - that enable the 3-D surface deformation field to be determined. This contrasts with conventional InSAR and pixel-tracking techniques which measure line-of-sight and horizontal displacement components only. An additional advantage is that LiDAR differencing retains coherence in the presence of steep displacement gradients, such as close to surface ruptures, and it is therefore well-suited for probing the slip distribution and mechanical properties of the shallow part of the fault zone. We illustrate using two recent Mw ~7 earthquakes in Mexico and Japan which are the first near-complete ruptures to be captured in this way. For the 4 April 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquake, the 3-D displacements are used to explore whether significant slip occurred on low-angle detachment faults, as has been postulated by some field geologists. For the 11 April 2011 Fukushima-Hamadori (Japan) earthquake, coherent LiDAR displacements from the interior part of the fault zone are used to help bridge a critical observational gap between surface faulting offsets (measured in the field) and slip occurring at depths of a few kilometers (inferred from InSAR). Challenges include the treatment of vegetation and the dependence on older, "legacy" LiDAR datasets - third party surveys which were not optimized for earthquake studies and for which important data acquisition and processing metrics are unavailable.

  17. Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.

  18. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  19. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  20. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  1. Coseismic and Postseismic Deformation Due to the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake Detected by ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, J.; Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.

    2011-12-01

    analysis showed several centimeters of westward displacements, but almost none vertical component. These results suggest that this signal is due to an afterslip and/or visco-elastic response. The second postseismic signal is observed along Laguna Salada fault by a relatively long (half a year) descending interferogram. This signal is not well correlated with topography, which reduces the possibility of atmospheric noise. On the other hand, it can be reasonably explained by an afterslip above a large coseismic slip patch, although there still remains the possibility of atmospheric noise as only one interferogram captures this signal.

  2. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  8. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  9. New method of 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.

  10. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  11. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  12. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  17. Pernicious progressive coseismic rock-mass degradation and rock-avalanche volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSaveney, M. J.; Massey, C. I.

    2013-12-01

    Some effects of the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquake sequence provide new insights into processes leading to rock slides and rock avalanches. These processes are, as yet, part way through defining a mass that will fall. They are causing deep-seated gravitational slope deformation, but they have much relevance to predicting the reach of rock slides and rock avalanches because they are defining a future landslide volume. The phenomenon can be called pernicious, progressive, coseismic rock-mass degradation: pernicious because it will eventually destroy an affected portion of a mountain edifice, given time and enough shaking. In a series of severe aftershocks in 2011, small co-seismic ground movements opened cracks for 300 m along a hillside, some 50 m back from an 80-m-high former coastal cliff in an extinct (Miocene) basalt volcano. Investigations to determine the significance of the movement involved measuring displacement, crack widths and orientations, terrestrial laser scans of the cliff face, a geological log of the cliff, drilling with core recovery into the hill top to below the cliff base, and downhole logging of seismic velocities. The core revealed a scoriaceous basalt flow at depth containing non-cooling related fractures, some of which were fresh, but unrelated to drilling. The flow corresponded to a prominent down-hole logged seismic velocity contrast. We do not discuss details of this site, but discuss the insight it gave us into the wider problem of rock-mass degradation to become a rock slide or rock avalanche. A key to the process is the presence in a brittle rock mass of a large seismic velocity contrast to slow input elastic body waves, and thereby amplify seismic stress fluctuations, sometimes out of the elastic response range. With time and mountain erosion, the position of the velocity contrast is advected higher into the edifice. There, the rock mass is subject to high static shear stresses induced by the mass and the edifice shape. During some

  18. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  19. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  20. surf3d: A 3-D finite-element program for the analysis of surface and corner cracks in solids subjected to mode-1 loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A computer program, surf3d, that uses the 3D finite-element method to calculate the stress-intensity factors for surface, corner, and embedded cracks in finite-thickness plates with and without circular holes, was developed. The cracks are assumed to be either elliptic or part eliptic in shape. The computer program uses eight-noded hexahedral elements to model the solid. The program uses a skyline storage and solver. The stress-intensity factors are evaluated using the force method, the crack-opening displacement method, and the 3-D virtual crack closure methods. In the manual the input to and the output of the surf3d program are described. This manual also demonstrates the use of the program and describes the calculation of the stress-intensity factors. Several examples with sample data files are included with the manual. To facilitate modeling of the user's crack configuration and loading, a companion program (a preprocessor program) that generates the data for the surf3d called gensurf was also developed. The gensurf program is a three dimensional mesh generator program that requires minimal input and that builds a complete data file for surf3d. The program surf3d is operational on Unix machines such as CRAY Y-MP, CRAY-2, and Convex C-220.

  1. The Mw 5.9 February 2014 Cephalonia earthquake (Greece): 3D deformation field and source modeling from multiple SAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Pezzo, Giuseppe; Tolomei, Cristiano; Atzori, Simone; Ganas, Athanassios; Karastathis, Vassilios; Salvi, Stefano; Kontoes, Charalampos; Antonioli, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    On Jan. 26, 2014 at 13:55 UTC an Mw 6.0 earthquake struck the island of Cephalonia, Greece, followed five hours later by an Mw 5.3 aftershock, and by an Mw 5.9 event on Feb. 3, 2014 (National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Geodynamics), causing extensive structural damages and inducing widespread environmental effects. We measured the 3D coseismic deformation field of the Feb. 3, 2014 event, by applying Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR), Intensity cross-correlation and Spectral Diversity (also known as Multi Aperture Interferometry) to descending passes of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed satellites and ascending passes of the German Space Agency (DLR) TanDEM-X satellite. These techniques allowed the observation of four independent displacement components (descending and ascending radar line-of-sight and azimuth), each of which was measured with two different techniques, resulting in an increased spatial coverage, robustness and sensitivity to all Cartesian displacement components. Our SAR measurements were found to be in very good agreement with those from available continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) stations. We modeled the seismic source of the Feb. 3, 2014 earthquake with a joint inversion of the eight SAR displacement maps, using the analytical solutions for dislocation in an elastic half-space. Firstly, we considered a model based on a single-fault plane and carried out a non-linear inversion to estimate its geometric and kinematic source parameters, assuming a uniform slip. Subsequently, we performed a linear inversion to retrieve the slip distribution, adopting a damped and Non-Negative Least Squares approach. Slip values were computed on a variable-size mesh, which maximizes the model resolution matrix. We find the majority of the observed surface deformation to be explained by a 20 km long ~N-S oriented and west-dipping fault running parallel to the east coast of the Paliki peninsula, with a main right

  2. Strain localization driven by co-seismic pore fluid pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James; Platt, John; Brantut, Nicolas; Rudnicki, John

    2015-04-01

    The absence of a thermal anomaly associated with the San Andreas fault, and low driving stress resolved on it, suggest that such mature faults weaken dramatically during seismic slip. Thermal pressurization (TP) and thermal decomposition (TD) are two mechanisms to explain this co-seismic weakening. Both rely on elevated pore pressures in a fluid-saturated gouge, with TP achieving this through thermal expansion of native pore fluid and TD by releasing additional pore fluid (e.g., H2O or CO2) during a reaction. We use a one-dimensional model for a fluid-saturated gouge layer sheared between two undeforming half-spaces to study how TP (Rice et al., Platt et al., JGR-B, 2014) and TD (Platt et al., submitted JGR-B) drive seismic strain localization. A linear stability analysis is first used to predict the localized zone thickness for each of the weakening mechanisms. Using representative parameters for fault gouge we predict localized zone thicknesses of a few tens of microns, in line with laboratory (Kitajima et al., 2010) and field (Chester and Chester, 1998) observations. Next we use numerical simulations to study how the localized zone develops once nonlinear effects become important. These show that the final localized zone thickness is very similar to the linear stability prediction. In the simulations, the onset of localization accelerates fault weakening, making co-seismic strain localization an important consideration, apparently neglected in all current earthquake simulations. Finally we show how a secondary instability can lead to migration of the deforming zone across the gouge layer. This instability is driven by hydrothermal diffusion for TP, and by reactant depletion for TD. Our results show that migration must be taken into account when inferring the width of the deforming zone from field observations. Even when the zone of localized straining is only a few tens of microns wide, migration can lead to a final strain profile with a zone of roughly uniform

  3. Strain localization driven by co-seismic pore fluid pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. D.; Brantut, N.; Rice, J. R.; Rudnicki, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The absence of a thermal anomaly associated with the San Andreas fault, and low driving stress resolved on it, suggest that such mature faults weaken dramatically during seismic slip. Thermal pressurization (TP) and thermal decomposition (TD) are two mechanisms to explain this co-seismic weakening. Both rely on elevated pore pressures in a fluid-saturated gouge, with TP achieving this through thermal expansion of native pore fluid and TD by releasing additional pore fluid (e.g., H2O or CO2) during a reaction. We use a one-dimensional model for a fluid-saturated gouge layer sheared between two undeforming half-spaces to study how TP (Rice et al., Platt et al., JGR-B, 2014) and TD (Platt et al., submitted JGR-B) drive seismic strain localization. A linear stability analysis is first used to predict the localized zone thickness for each of the weakening mechanisms. Using representative parameters for fault gouge we predict localized zone thicknesses of a few tens of microns, in line with laboratory (Kitajima et al., 2010) and field (Chester and Chester, 1998) observations. Next we use numerical simulations to study how the localized zone develops once nonlinear effects become important. These show that the final localized zone thickness is very similar to the linear stability prediction. In the simulations, the onset of localization accelerates fault weakening, making co-seismic strain localization an important consideration, apparently neglected in all current earthquake simulations. Finally we show how a secondary instability can lead to migration of the deforming zone across the gouge layer. This instability is driven by hydrothermal diffusion for TP, and by reactant depletion for TD. Our results show that migration must be taken into account when inferring the width of the deforming zone from field observations. Even when the zone of localized straining is only a few tens of microns wide, migration can lead to a final strain profile with a zone of roughly uniform

  4. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  5. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  6. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  7. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  8. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  9. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  10. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  11. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  12. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  13. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  14. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  15. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  16. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  17. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  18. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  19. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  20. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  1. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  2. Coseismic fault zone deformation caused by the 2014 Mw=6.2 Nagano-ken-hokubu, Japan, earthquake on the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line revealed with differential LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Ishimura, D.; Homma, S.; Mukoyama, S.; Niwa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw = 6.2 Nagano-ken-hokubu earthquake struck northern Nagano, central Japan, on November 22, 2014, and accompanied a 9-km-long surface rupture mostly along the previously mapped N-NW trending Kamishiro fault, one of the segments of the 150-km-long Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line active fault system. While we mapped the rupture and measured vertical displacement of up to 80 cm at the field, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) shows densely spaced fringes on the hanging wall side, suggesting westward or uplift movement associated with thrust faulting. The mainshock focal mechanism and aftershock hypocenters indicate the source fault dips to the east but the InSAR images cannot exactly differentiate between horizontal and vertical movements and also lose coherence within and near the fault zone itself. To reveal near-field deformation and shallow fault slip, here we demonstrate a differential LiDAR analysis using a pair of 1 m-resolution pre-event and post-event bare Earth digital terrain models (DTMs) obtained from commercial LiDAR provider. We applied particle image velocity (PIV) method incorporating elevation change to obtain 3-D vectors of coseismic displacements (Mukoyama, 2011, J. Mt. Sci). Despite sporadic noises mostly due to local landslides, we detected up to 1.5 m net movement at the tip of the hanging wall, more than the field measurement of 80 cm. Our result implies that a 9-km-long rupture zone is not a single continuous fault but composed of two bow-shaped fault strands, suggesting a combination of shallow fault dip and modest amount (< 1.5 m) of slip. Eastward movement without notable subsidence on the footwall also supports the low angle fault dip near the surface, and significant fault normal contraction, observed as buckled cultural features across the fault zone. Secondary features, such as subsidiary back-thrust faults confirmed at the field, are also visible as a significant contrast of vector directions and slip amounts.

  3. 3D-HST results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the 3D-HST data.

  4. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  5. 3D model reconstruction of underground goaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan

    2005-10-01

    Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.

  6. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems. PMID:22752138

  7. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care. PMID:25620087

  9. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  10. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  11. 3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.

    2012-04-01

    In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins

  12. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  13. A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison; de Bever, Josh; Farrer, Alexis; Coats, Brittany; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison

  14. A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Allison; Bever, Josh de; Farrer, Alexis; Coats, Brittany; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison

  15. Open Fissure Folds record coseismic loading and postseismic stress relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Open Fissure Folds hosted by high pressure/low temperature metamorphic rocks of south Evia (Greece) are introduced, their structural and microstructural record is analysed, and a mechanical model is proposed. Open Fissure Folds are preserved as at least two parallel folded quartz-feldspar veins separated by narrow buckled rock columns. The veins originated as tensile cracks that propagated in the middle crust driven by high differential stress. Features diagnostic for Open Fissure Folds indicate that the rock columns represented the layers of high viscosity, and not the veins as consistently reported in many previous studies on folded veins. This record is taken to indicate that buckling of the rock columns initiated after arrest of the fractures and terminated prior to complete vein sealing. Accordingly, mechanical decoupling by open fissures allowed for buckling of the rock columns in response to episodic creep of the host rocks according to stress relaxation, as expected for postseismic deformation in the earthquake cycle. I propose that the parental fractures propagated in response to quasi-instantaneous coseismic loading of the middle crust. Buckling was attributed to transient postseismic creep and stress relaxation. Complete sealing of the veins occurred when stresses were largely relaxed. Each Open Fissure Fold records the stress and strain history of a single earthquake.

  16. Contribution of Geodetic Datum in GNSS Networks to Monitored Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Alpay; Dogan, Ugur; Aydin, Cuneyt

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of datum definition on the monitored displacements of GNSS networks. The datum definition is a significant problem in terms of reliable deformation analysis and interpretation on determining the deformation in GNSS networks. The observations have been analyzed to show the reliability analysis of a group of station in the network and the influence of datum definition on the deformations of GNSS monitoring networks. For this purpose, we studied GPS observations in the CORS-TR network collected on a set of 13 station to detect co-seismic deformation of the 23 October 2011 (Mw=7.2) Van earthquake in the eastern of Turkey. The GPS observations were processed in the ITRF 2008 reference frame using the Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. Seven datum configuration modes which depend on the number of datum stations, which are selected from 9 IGS stations, were defined to determine co-seismic deformation of the Van earthquake and the deformations of GPS stations were computed for every datum definition. Our results indicate that each station showed different temporal behavior and significant relative motions with respect to datum definition. On the other hand, the distribution of the datum stations around the monitored region seems to be very important factor for determining the displacements. To show the effect of datum station distribution, we compare the displacements obtained from two different datum configuration modes (mode 1: 4 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI" located at Eurasian plate, which are far away from the region, and mode 2: 9 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI, TUBI, CRAO, ZECK, NICO, DRAG" located around the region). For instance, co-seismic displacements for station MURA, which is the closest station to the earthquake epicenter (˜43 km), amounted to -82.24 ± 0.60 mm for the north component, 12.01 ± 0.76 mm for the east component and -25.19 ± 2.49 mm for the up component with respect to mode 1, -89

  17. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  18. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  19. Myocardial 3D strain calculation by combining cine DENSE and cine SENC imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Aaron T.; Zhong, Xiaodong; Spottiswoode, Bruce. S.; Epstein, Frederick. H.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) strain maps of the myocardium provide a coordinate-system-independent quantification of myocardial deformation and kinematics. We combine two MRI techniques, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) and strain encoding (SENC), to fully formulate a 3D strain map in a single slice of myocardium. The method utilizes two-dimensional DENSE in-plane displacement measurements in two adjacent slices in conjunction with a single SENC through-plane strain measure to calculate the 3D strain tensor. Six volunteers were imaged and the technique demonstrated 3D strain measures in all volunteers that are consistent with those reported in the literature from 3D tagging. The mean peak strain (+/− standard deviation) for six healthy volunteers for the first, second and third principal strains are 0.42 +/−0.11, −0.10 +/−0.03, and −0.21 +/−0.02, respectively. These results show that this technique is capable of reliably quantifying 3D cardiac strain. PMID:19322795

  20. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Allen, R.; Romano, M.; Fratini, A.; Pasquariello, G.

    2009-12-01

    This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume) and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  1. Introducing the depth transfer curve for 3D capture system characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goma, Sergio R.; Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas

    2011-03-01

    3D technology has recently made a transition from movie theaters to consumer electronic devices such as 3D cameras and camcorders. In addition to what 2D imaging conveys, 3D content also contains information regarding the scene depth. Scene depth is simulated through the strongest brain depth cue, namely retinal disparity. This can be achieved by capturing an image by horizontally separated cameras. Objects at different depths will be projected with different horizontal displacement on the left and right camera images. These images, when fed separately to either eye, leads to retinal disparity. Since the perception of depth is the single most important 3D imaging capability, an evaluation procedure is needed to quantify the depth capture characteristics. Evaluating depth capture characteristics subjectively is a very difficult task since the intended and/or unintended side effects from 3D image fusion (depth interpretation) by the brain are not immediately perceived by the observer, nor do such effects lend themselves easily to objective quantification. Objective evaluation of 3D camera depth characteristics is an important tool that can be used for "black box" characterization of 3D cameras. In this paper we propose a methodology to evaluate the 3D cameras' depth capture capabilities.

  2. [3D Super-resolution Reconstruction and Visualization of Pulmonary Nodules from CT Image].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Fan, Xing; Yang, Ying; Tian, Xuedong; Gu, Lixu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to propose an algorithm for three-dimensional projection onto convex sets (3D POCS) to achieve super resolution reconstruction of 3D lung computer tomography (CT) images, and to introduce multi-resolution mixed display mode to make 3D visualization of pulmonary nodules. Firstly, we built the low resolution 3D images which have spatial displacement in sub pixel level between each other and generate the reference image. Then, we mapped the low resolution images into the high resolution reference image using 3D motion estimation and revised the reference image based on the consistency constraint convex sets to reconstruct the 3D high resolution images iteratively. Finally, we displayed the different resolution images simultaneously. We then estimated the performance of provided method on 5 image sets and compared them with those of 3 interpolation reconstruction methods. The experiments showed that the performance of 3D POCS algorithm was better than that of 3 interpolation reconstruction methods in two aspects, i.e., subjective and objective aspects, and mixed display mode is suitable to the 3D visualization of high resolution of pulmonary nodules. PMID:26710449

  3. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  4. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  5. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  6. Automatic needle segmentation in 3D ultrasound images using 3D Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Qiu, Wu; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    3D ultrasound (US) is a new technology that can be used for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as obstetrical, vascular, and urological imaging, and has been explored greatly potential in the applications of image-guided surgery and therapy. Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese woman, and a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode which is needle-like is being used to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding currently. Now a 3D US guidance system has been developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localizations of the electrode and the tumor position during treatment. In this paper, we described two automated techniques, the 3D Hough Transform (3DHT) and the 3D Randomized Hough Transform (3DRHT), which is potentially fast, accurate, and robust to provide needle segmentation in 3D US image for use of 3D US imaging guidance. Based on the representation (Φ , θ , ρ , α ) of straight lines in 3D space, we used the 3DHT algorithm to segment needles successfully assumed that the approximate needle position and orientation are known in priori. The 3DRHT algorithm was developed to detect needles quickly without any information of the 3D US images. The needle segmentation techniques were evaluated using the 3D US images acquired by scanning water phantoms. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of two 3D needle segmentation algorithms described in this paper.

  7. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  8. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  9. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  10. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  11. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  12. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  13. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  14. 3D camera tracking from disparity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Woo, Woontack

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust camera tracking method that uses disparity images computed from known parameters of 3D camera and multiple epipolar constraints. We assume that baselines between lenses in 3D camera and intrinsic parameters are known. The proposed method reduces camera motion uncertainty encountered during camera tracking. Specifically, we first obtain corresponding feature points between initial lenses using normalized correlation method. In conjunction with matching features, we get disparity images. When the camera moves, the corresponding feature points, obtained from each lens of 3D camera, are robustly tracked via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking algorithm. Secondly, relative pose parameters of each lens are calculated via Essential matrices. Essential matrices are computed from Fundamental matrix calculated using normalized 8-point algorithm with RANSAC scheme. Then, we determine scale factor of translation matrix by d-motion. This is required because the camera motion obtained from Essential matrix is up to scale. Finally, we optimize camera motion using multiple epipolar constraints between lenses and d-motion constraints computed from disparity images. The proposed method can be widely adopted in Augmented Reality (AR) applications, 3D reconstruction using 3D camera, and fine surveillance systems which not only need depth information, but also camera motion parameters in real-time.

  15. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  16. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  17. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  18. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  19. Visual inertia of rotating 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Pantle, A J; Mark, L S

    1998-02-01

    Five experiments were designed to determine whether a rotating, transparent 3-D cloud of dots (simulated sphere) could influence the perceived direction of rotation of a subsequent sphere. Experiment 1 established conditions under which the direction of rotation of a virtual sphere was perceived unambiguously. When a near-far luminance difference and perspective depth cues were present, observers consistently saw the sphere rotate in the intended direction. In Experiment 2, a near-far luminance difference was used to create an unambiguous rotation sequence that was followed by a directionally ambiguous rotation sequence that lacked both the near-far luminance cue and the perspective cue. Observers consistently saw the second sequence as rotating in the same direction as the first, indicating the presence of 3-D visual inertia. Experiment 3 showed that 3-D visual inertia was sufficiently powerful to bias the perceived direction of a rotation sequence made unambiguous by a near-far luminance cue. Experiment 5 showed that 3-D visual inertia could be obtained using an occlusion depth cue to create an unambiguous inertia-inducing sequence. Finally, Experiments 2, 4, and 5 all revealed a fast-decay phase of inertia that lasted for approximately 800 msec, followed by an asymptotic phase that lasted for periods as long as 1,600 msec. The implications of these findings are examined with respect to motion mechanisms of 3-D visual inertia. PMID:9529911

  20. Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaichi, Naoto; Miura, Masato; Arai, Jun; Mishina, Tomoyuki

    2015-03-01

    The quality of the integral 3D images created by a 3D imaging system was improved by combining multiple LCDs to utilize a greater number of pixels than that possible with one LCD. A prototype of the display device was constructed by using four HD LCDs. An integral photography (IP) image displayed by the prototype is four times larger than that reconstructed by a single display. The pixel pitch of the HD display used is 55.5 μm, and the number of elemental lenses is 212 horizontally and 119 vertically. The 3D image pixel count is 25,228, and the viewing angle is 28°. Since this method is extensible, it is possible to display an integral 3D image of higher quality by increasing the number of LCDs. Using this integral 3D display structure makes it possible to make the whole device thinner than a projector-based display system. It is therefore expected to be applied to the home television in the future.

  1. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  2. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  3. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  4. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  5. Shell Element Verification & Regression Problems for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, E

    2008-02-01

    A series of quasi-static regression/verification problems were developed for the triangular and quadrilateral shell element formulations contained in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's explicit finite element program DYNA3D. Each regression problem imposes both displacement- and force-type boundary conditions to probe the five independent nodal degrees of freedom employed in the targeted formulation. When applicable, the finite element results are compared with small-strain linear-elastic closed-form reference solutions to verify select aspects of the formulations implementation. Although all problems in the suite depict the same geometry, material behavior, and loading conditions, each problem represents a unique combination of shell formulation, stabilization method, and integration rule. Collectively, the thirty-six new regression problems in the test suite cover nine different shell formulations, three hourglass stabilization methods, and three families of through-thickness integration rules.

  6. 3-D simulations of solar and stellar convection and magnetoconvection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Å.; Stein, R. F.

    1990-05-01

    We present the key components of a 3-D code designed for simulating the hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes. Some particular properties of the code are: (1) the ability to handle strong stratification (extensive simulations with bottom/top pressure ratios of 3×104 have been performed, and simulations with pressure ratios of 5×106 are being initiated); (2) a detailed treatment of the radiating surface; (3) a functional form of the subgrid-scale diffusion designed to minimize the influence on resolved motions; (4) boundary conditions open to flows. The top boundary allows the transmission of short period waves, while the bottom boundary condition was designed to enforce a displacement node for radial pressure modes.

  7. 3D cancer cell migration in a confined matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Amani; Sun, Bo

    Cancer cell migration is widely studied in 2D motion, which does not mimic the invasion processes in vivo. More recently, 3D cell migration studies have been performed. The ability of cancer cells to migrate within the extracellular matrix depends on the physical and biochemical features of the extracellular matrix. We present a model of cell motility in confined matrix geometry. The aim of the study is to study cancer migration in collagen matrix, as a soft tissue, to investigate their motility within the confined and surrounding collagen environment. Different collagen concentrations have been used to show the ability of these cancer cells to move through such a complex structure by measuring Cancer cell migration velocity as well as the displacement. Graduate student physics department.

  8. 3D deformation field throughout the interior of materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Huiqing; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-09-01

    This report contains the one-year feasibility study for our three-year LDRD proposal that is aimed to develop an experimental technique to measure the 3D deformation fields inside a material body. In this feasibility study, we first apply Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) algorithm to pre-existing in-situ Xray Computed Tomography (XCT) image sets with pure rigid body translation. The calculated displacement field has very large random errors and low precision that are unacceptable. Then we enhance these tomography images by setting threshold of the intensity of each slice. DVC algorithm is able to obtain accurate deformation fields from these enhanced image sets and the deformation fields are consistent with the global mechanical loading that is applied to the specimen. Through this study, we prove that the internal markers inside the pre-existing tomography images of aluminum alloy can be enhanced and are suitable for DVC to calculate the deformation field throughout the material body.

  9. Co-seismic dilatational strain in the far field of great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Fu, Li-Yun; Wang, Chi-yuen; Yan, Rui; Zhao, Lian-feng

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of the coseismic dilatational strain has been a topic of active debate. Recent studies show that the co-seismic change of dilatational strain in the far field of large earthquakes is often far greater than that predicted from static strain theory, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we study this mechanism by comparing the tidal responses of crustal strain and water level documented in the Fuxin well, northeastern China, before and after three great earthquakes (the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.1 Tohoku earthquake and the 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra earthquake). We show that, before each earthquake, the phase of water-level fluctuation lagged behind that of the dilatational strain, due to the delay of groundwater flow to the well with respect to the tidal strain. Following each earthquake, however, the phase of water-level fluctuations increased and became the same as that of the dilatational strain. In addition, we show that the predicted change in water level from the co-seismic dilatational strain has the same sign, amplitude and time history as those of the observed coseismic change in water level. The similarity between the simulated and observed coseismic water-level change, together with the similarity in phase between the tidal response of water level and that of dilatational strain after the earthquake, suggest that the dominant mechanism for the coseismic dilatational strain in the Fuxin well is the co-seismic change in pore pressure in the vicinity of the well.

  10. Regional coseismic landslide hazard assessment without historical landslide inventories: A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritikos, Theodosios; Robinson, Tom R.; Davies, Tim R. H.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, regional coseismic landslide hazard analyses require comprehensive historical landslide inventories as well as detailed geotechnical data. Consequently, such analyses have not been possible where these data are not available. A new approach is proposed herein to assess coseismic landslide hazard at regional scale for specific earthquake scenarios in areas without historical landslide inventories. The proposed model employs fuzzy logic and geographic information systems to establish relationships between causative factors and coseismic slope failures in regions with well-documented and substantially complete coseismic landslide inventories. These relationships are then utilized to estimate the relative probability of landslide occurrence in regions with neither historical landslide inventories nor detailed geotechnical data. Statistical analyses of inventories from the 1994 Northridge and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes reveal that shaking intensity, topography, and distance from active faults and streams are the main controls on the spatial distribution of coseismic landslides. Average fuzzy memberships for each factor are developed and aggregated to model the relative coseismic landslide hazard for both earthquakes. The predictive capabilities of the models are assessed and show good-to-excellent model performance for both events. These memberships are then applied to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, using only a digital elevation model, active fault map, and isoseismal data, replicating prediction of a future event in a region lacking historic inventories and/or geotechnical data. This similarly results in excellent model performance, demonstrating the model's predictive potential and confirming it can be meaningfully applied in regions where previous methods could not. For such regions, this method may enable a greater ability to analyze coseismic landslide hazard from specific earthquake scenarios, allowing for mitigation measures and emergency response plans

  11. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  12. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  13. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  14. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  15. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  16. Angular description for 3D scattering centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Raynal, Ann Marie; Ling, Hao; Moore, John; Velten, Vincent J.

    2006-05-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field from an electrically large target can often be well modeled as if it is emanating from a discrete set of scattering centers (see Fig. 1). In the scattering center extraction tool we developed previously based on the shooting and bouncing ray technique, no correspondence is maintained amongst the 3D scattering center extracted at adjacent angles. In this paper we present a multi-dimensional clustering algorithm to track the angular and spatial behaviors of 3D scattering centers and group them into features. The extracted features for the Slicy and backhoe targets are presented. We also describe two metrics for measuring the angular persistence and spatial mobility of the 3D scattering centers that make up these features in order to gather insights into target physics and feature stability. We find that features that are most persistent are also the most mobile and discuss implications for optimal SAR imaging.

  17. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  18. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  19. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  20. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  1. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  2. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  3. Decoder for 3-D color codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd

    Transversal circuits are important components of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several classes of quantum error-correcting codes are known to have transversal implementations of any logical Clifford operation. However, to achieve universal quantum computation, it would be helpful to have high-performance error-correcting codes that have a transversal implementation of some logical non-Clifford operation. The 3-D color codes are a class of topological codes that permit transversal implementation of the logical π / 8 -gate. The decoding problem of a 3-D color code can be understood as a graph-matching problem on a three-dimensional lattice. Whether this class of codes will be useful in terms of performance is still an open question. We investigate the decoding problem of 3-D color codes and analyze the performance of some possible decoders.

  4. Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.

  5. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-06-04

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  6. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  7. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced. PMID:10372188

  8. 3D EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to 3D and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show 3D GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of 3D EIT are compelling. PMID:27203184

  9. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  10. Local Diagnosis of Reconnection in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate (I,II) an approach to find reconnection sites in 3D where there is no flux function for guidance, and where local observational signatures for the ``violation of frozen flux'' are under developed, if not non-existent. We use 2D and 3D PIC simulations of asymmetric guide field reconnection to test our observational hierarchy of single spacecraft kinetic diagnostics - all possible with present state of the art instrumentation. The proliferation of turbulent, electron inertial scale layers in the realistic 3D case demonstrates that electron demagnetization, while necessary, is not sufficient to identify reconnection sites. An excellent local, observable, single spacecraft proxy is demonstrated for the size of the theoretical frozen flux violation. Since even frozen flux violations need not imply reconnection is at hand, a new calibrated dimensionless method is used to determine the importance of such violations. This measure is available in 2D and 3D to help differentiate reconnection layers from weaker frozen flux violating layers. We discuss the possibility that this technique can be implemented on MMS. A technique to highlight flow geometries conducive to reconnection in 3D simulations is also suggested, that may also be implementable with the MMS flotilla. We use local analysis with multiple necessary, but theoretically independent electron kinetic conditions to help reduce the probability of misidentification of any given layer as a reconnection site. Since these local conditions are all necessary for the site, but none is known to be sufficient, the multiple tests help to greatly reduce false positive identifications. The selectivity of the results of this approach using PIC simulations of 3D asymmetric guide field reconnection will be shown using varying numbers of simultaneous conditions. Scudder, J.D., H. Karimabadi, W. Daughton and V. Roytershteyn I, II, submitted Phys. Plasma., 2014

  11. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  12. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  13. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  14. Solar abundances and 3D model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger

    2010-03-01

    We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing 3D hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our 3D model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.

  15. Visualization of liver in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

    1991-05-01

    Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

  16. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  17. Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to

  18. FARGO3D: Hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    A successor of FARGO (ascl:1102.017), FARGO3D is a versatile HD/MHD code that runs on clusters of CPUs or GPUs, with special emphasis on protoplanetary disks. FARGO3D offers Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical geometry; 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional calculations; and orbital advection (aka FARGO) for HD and MHD calculations. As in FARGO, a simple Runge-Kutta N-body solver may be used to describe the orbital evolution of embedded point-like objects. There is no need to know CUDA; users can develop new functions in C and have them translated to CUDA automatically to run on GPUs.

  19. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  20. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  1. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology. PMID:26548335

  2. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  3. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  4. Comparison of Structurally Controlled Landslide Hazard Simulation to the Co-seismic Landslides Caused by the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galang, J. A. M. B.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The M_w 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is one of the more destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines in the 21st century. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 million USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparations for this type of landslides rely heavily on the identification of fracture-related slope instability. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations of discontinuity sets were mapped using remote sensing techniques with the aid of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) obtained in 2012. The DTM used is an IFSAR derived image with a 5-meter pixel resolution and approximately 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. Separately, a manually derived landslide inventory has been performed using post-earthquake satellite images and LIDAR. The results were compared to the landslide inventory which identified at least 873 landslides. Out of the 873 landslides identified through the inventory, 786 or 90% intersect the simulated structural-controlled landslide hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow

  5. Comparison of the Structurally Controlled Landslides Numerical Model Results to the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake Co-seismic Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario Galang, Jan Albert; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    The M 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is the most destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines since 2012. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". Its name, taken after the barangay (village) where the fault is best exposed and was first seen. The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 billion USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparedness against this type of landslide therefore, relies heavily on the identification of fracture-related unstable slopes. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations or discontinuity sets were mapped in the field with the aid of a 2012 IFSAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 5-meter pixel resolution and < 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. The results were compared to a post-earthquake landslide inventory of 456 landslides. Out the total number of landslides identified from post-earthquake high-resolution imagery, 366 or 80% intersect the structural-controlled hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The

  6. Deformation Band Shear Zones Formed in Unconsolidated Sediment From Repeated Late Holocene Coseismic Deformation Along the 1906 Rupture Trace of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, J. N.; Cashman, S. M.; Crawford, R.; Deis, A.; Cashman, K. V.

    2005-12-01

    Two trenches were excavated across the 1906 rupture trace of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Alder Creek, near Manchester, CA, in Mendocino County for the purpose of structural and microstructural analysis of deformed late Holocene unconsolidated sediment. The site records coseismic rupture in the form of upward terminations of deformation band faults and written historical accounts of the 1906 rupture directly adjacent to the site. Based on the age of the deposits exposed and paleoseismic record of the northern SAF, as many as three to five surface faulting events have occurred, including ~5 m of dextral displacement during the 1906 earthquake. Deformation band shear zones, 2-20mm thick, form an upward-branching 1-2m. wide array of splay faults developed in unconsolidated silt and very fine- to medium-grained sand. Vertical displacement on individual deformation band faults is generally <5cm. Microstructural characteristics (porosity, grain size, grain orientation) of oriented samples collected at ~ 2 m in depth were measured in thin section using image analysis of SEM backscatter images. Porosity estimated from SEM images is slightly lower in deformation bands (39.0±1.8%) than in sand in the same horizon several m. from the fault (42.9±0.9%) or in 1-5 mm wide sand lenses bracketed by deformation bands (42.9±2.0%). Deformation band samples contain significantly more very fine and fine sand, and less medium and coarse sand, than samples collected from the same horizon several m. from the fault. Grain size distributions record grain size reduction from grain fracturing within deformation bands. Also, fractured grains in sand adjacent to deformation bands and angular to acicular small grains within deformation bands attest to grain breakage accompanying development of deformation bands. All horizontal samples show a strong preferred orientation of elongate grains. Clustering of grain long axis orientations is more pronounced in deformation band faults than in sand

  7. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  8. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  9. 3D finite element model for treatment of cleft lip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong

    2009-02-01

    Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic 3D finite element model (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a 3D geometrical model of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric model, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the model step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the model, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the model. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient model.

  10. 3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.

  11. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  12. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  13. 3D active stabilization system with sub-micrometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Kursu, Olli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Rahkonen, Timo; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Stable positioning between a measurement probe and its target from sub- to few micrometer scales has become a prerequisite in precision metrology and in cellular level measurements from biological tissues. Here we present a 3D stabilization system based on an optoelectronic displacement sensor and custom piezo-actuators driven by a feedback control loop that constantly aims to zero the relative movement between the sensor and the target. We used simulations and prototyping to characterize the developed system. Our results show that 95% attenuation of movement artifacts is achieved at 1 Hz with stabilization performance declining to ca. 70% attenuation at 10 Hz. Stabilization bandwidth is limited by mechanical resonances within the displacement sensor that occur at relatively low frequencies, and are attributable to the sensor's high force sensitivity. We successfully used brain derived micromotion trajectories as a demonstration of complex movement stabilization. The micromotion was reduced to a level of ∼1 µm with nearly 100 fold attenuation at the lower frequencies that are typically associated with physiological processes. These results, and possible improvements of the system, are discussed with a focus on possible ways to increase the sensor's force sensitivity without compromising overall system bandwidth. PMID:22900045

  14. 3D Active Stabilization System with Sub-Micrometer Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Rahkonen, Timo; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Stable positioning between a measurement probe and its target from sub- to few micrometer scales has become a prerequisite in precision metrology and in cellular level measurements from biological tissues. Here we present a 3D stabilization system based on an optoelectronic displacement sensor and custom piezo-actuators driven by a feedback control loop that constantly aims to zero the relative movement between the sensor and the target. We used simulations and prototyping to characterize the developed system. Our results show that 95 % attenuation of movement artifacts is achieved at 1 Hz with stabilization performance declining to ca. 70 % attenuation at 10 Hz. Stabilization bandwidth is limited by mechanical resonances within the displacement sensor that occur at relatively low frequencies, and are attributable to the sensor's high force sensitivity. We successfully used brain derived micromotion trajectories as a demonstration of complex movement stabilization. The micromotion was reduced to a level of ∼1 µm with nearly 100 fold attenuation at the lower frequencies that are typically associated with physiological processes. These results, and possible improvements of the system, are discussed with a focus on possible ways to increase the sensor's force sensitivity without compromising overall system bandwidth. PMID:22900045

  15. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  16. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  17. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  18. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics. PMID:26237523

  19. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  20. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  1. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  2. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  3. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  4. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  5. 3-D Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide 3-D volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture

  6. Crack interaction with 3-D dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian

    CRACKS in a solid often interact with other crystal defects such as dislocation loops. The interaction effects are of 3-D character yet their analytical treatment has been mostly limited to the 2-D regime due to mathematical complications. This paper shows that distribution of the stress intensity factors along a crack front due to arbitrary dislocation loops may be expressed as simple line integrals along the loop contours. The method of analysis is based on the 3-D Bueckner-Rice weight function theory for elastic crack analysis. Our results have significantly simplified the calculations for 3-D dislocation loops produced in the plastic processes at the crack front due to highly concentrated crack tip stress fields. Examples for crack-tip 3-D loops and 2-D straight dislocations emerging from the crack tip are given to demonstrate applications of the derived formulae. The results are consistent with some previous analytical solutions existing in the literature. As further applications we also analyse straight dislocations that are parallel or perpendicular to the crack plane but are not parallel to the crack front.

  7. Holography of incoherently illuminated 3D scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Rosen, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We review several methods of generating holograms of 3D realistic objects illuminated by incoherent white light. Using these methods, it is possible to obtain holograms with a simple digital camera, operating in regular light conditions. Thus, most disadvantages characterizing conventional holography, namely the need for a powerful, highly coherent laser and meticulous stability of the optical system are avoided. These holograms can be reconstructed optically by illuminating them with a coherent plane wave, or alternatively by using a digital reconstruction technique. In order to generate the proposed hologram, the 3D scene is captured from multiple points of view by a simple digital camera. Then, the acquired projections are digitally processed to yield the final hologram of the 3D scene. Based on this principle, we can generate Fourier, Fresnel, image or other types of holograms. To obtain certain advantages over the regular holograms, we also propose new digital holograms, such as modified Fresnel holograms and protected correlation holograms. Instead of shifting the camera mechanically to acquire a different projection of the 3D scene each time, it is possible to use a microlens array for acquiring the entire projections in a single camera shot. Alternatively, only the extreme projections can be acquired experimentally, while the middle projections are predicted digitally by using the view synthesis algorithm. The prospective goal of these methods is to facilitate the design of a simple, portable digital holographic camera which can be useful for a variety of practical applications.

  8. 3D puzzle reconstruction for archeological fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jampy, F.; Hostein, A.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.; Truchetet, F.

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of broken artifacts is a common task in archeology domain; it can be supported now by 3D data acquisition device and computer processing. Many works have been dedicated in the past to reconstructing 2D puzzles but very few propose a true 3D approach. We present here a complete solution including a dedicated transportable 3D acquisition set-up and a virtual tool with a graphic interface allowing the archeologists to manipulate the fragments and to, interactively, reconstruct the puzzle. The whole lateral part is acquired by rotating the fragment around an axis chosen within a light sheet thanks to a step-motor synchronized with the camera frame clock. Another camera provides a top view of the fragment under scanning. A scanning accuracy of 100μm is attained. The iterative automatic processing algorithm is based on segmentation into facets of the lateral part of the fragments followed by a 3D matching providing the user with a ranked short list of possible assemblies. The device has been applied to the reconstruction of a set of 1200 fragments from broken tablets supporting a Latin inscription dating from the first century AD.

  9. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  10. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    PubMed

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  11. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  12. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  13. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  14. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  15. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  16. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  17. Digital In-Line Holography System for 3D-3C Particle Tracking Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Mokrane; Lebrun, Denis; Allano, Daniel

    Digital in-line holography is a suitable method for measuring three dimensional (3D) velocity fields. Such a system records directly on a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera a couple of diffraction patterns produced by small particles illuminated by a modulated laser diode. The numerical reconstruction is based on the wavelet transformation method. A 3D particle field is reconstructed by computing the wavelet components for different scale parameters. The scale parameter is directly related to the axial distance between a given particle and the CCD camera. The particle images are identified and localized by analyzing the maximum of the wavelet transform modulus (WTMM) and the equivalent diameter of the particle image (Deq). Afterwards, a 3D point-matching (PM) algorithm is applied to the pair of sets containing the 3D particle locations. In the PM algorithm, the displacement of the particles is modeled by an affine transformation. This affine transformation is based on the use of the dual number quaternions. Afterwards, the velocity-field extraction is performed. This system is tested with simulated particle field displacements and the feasibility is checked with an experimental displacement.

  18. 3D-Printed Small-Animal Immobilizer for Use in Preclinical Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McCarroll, Rachel E; Rubinstein, Ashley E; Kingsley, Charles V; Yang, Jinzhong; Yang, Peiying; Court, Laurence E

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a method for immobilizing the subjects of small-animal studies using a study group–specific 3D-printed immobilizer that significantly reduces interfraction rotational variation. A cone-beam CT scan acquired from a single specimen in a study group was used to create a 3D-printed immobilizer that can be used for all specimens in the same study group. 3D printing allows for the incorporation of study-specific features into the immobilizer design, including geometries suitable for use in MR and CT scanners, holders for fiducial markers, and anesthesia nose cones of various sizes. Using metrics of rotational setup variations, we compared the current setup in our small-animal irradiation system, a half-pipe bed, with the 3D-printed device. We also assessed translational displacement within the immobilizer. The printed design significantly reduced setup variation, with average reductions in rotational displacement of 76% ± 3% (1.57 to 0.37°) in pitch, 78% ± 3% (1.85 to 0.41°) in yaw, and 87% ± 3% (5.39 to 0.70°) in roll. Translational displacement within the printed immobilizer was less than 1.5 ± 0.3 mm. This method of immobilization allows for repeatable setup when using MR or CT scans for the purpose of radiotherapy, streamlines the workflow, and places little burden on the study subjects. PMID:26424253

  19. Coseismic Coastal Movements Associated with Strong Submarine Paleoearthquakes in the Eastern Segment of the Hellenic Arc: Observations from Rhodes Isl. (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, I.; Papadopoulos, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern segment of the Hellenic Arc and Trench system is characterized by the occurrence of large earthquakes and tsunamis known from both the historical and geological record particularly in Rhodes Isl. (Greece). Historical sources maintain direct evidence of coseismic uplift in the eastern coast of Rhodes, e.g. the very large earthquake of 12 October 1856 (M~7.5), caused ground uplift while the sea receded permanently. Similar observations have been made regarding the earthquake of c. 227 BC who caused the collapse of Colossus in Rhodes and the tsunamigenic earthquake of c. AD 142. Such observations, supported by the instrumental record of seismicity, make realistic the suggestion that the historical earthquakes had their epicenters offshore but close to Rhodes city. However, in SW Asia Minor at the opposite side of Rhodes, coastal subsidence was reported as a result of the strong earthquake sequence of February-April 1851. The occurrence of strong tsunamis after some earthquakes is an independent evidence for significant, submarine coseismic fault displacement very likely in the Rhodes Abyssal Plain of water depth up to 3 km. On the other hand, geological observations have indicated that the eastern side of Rhodes has systematically uplifted during the Holocene with uplift amplitude increasing from S to N with average velocity ranging from 0 in Prasonisi at south to 1 mm/yr at the NE side of the island where coseismic uplift was reported historically. We compare the historical rate of uplift with the geologically estimated rate. To this aim we compiled a new catalogue of historical earthquakes that caused coseismic uplift in the coastal zone of Rhodes city and adopted that they had their epicenters offshore but very close to the city. From damage descriptions maximum macroseismic intensity was assigned to each one of the earthquakes. Then intensity was converted to earthquake magnitude from empirical relationships found for instrumental Greek earthquakes

  20. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  1. Volume rendering for interactive 3D segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, Klaus D.; Derz, Claus

    1997-05-01

    Combined emission/absorption and reflection/transmission volume rendering is able to display poorly segmented structures from 3D medical image sequences. Visual cues such as shading and color let the user distinguish structures in the 3D display that are incompletely extracted by threshold segmentation. In order to be truly helpful, analyzed information needs to be quantified and transferred back into the data. We extend our previously presented scheme for such display be establishing a communication between visual analysis and the display process. The main tool is a selective 3D picking device. For being useful on a rather rough segmentation, the device itself and the display offer facilities for object selection. Selective intersection planes let the user discard information prior to choosing a tissue of interest. Subsequently, a picking is carried out on the 2D display by casting a ray into the volume. The picking device is made pre-selective using already existing segmentation information. Thus, objects can be picked that are visible behind semi-transparent surfaces of other structures. Information generated by a later connected- component analysis can then be integrated into the data. Data examination is continued on an improved display letting the user actively participate in the analysis process. Results of this display-and-interaction scheme proved to be very effective. The viewer's ability to extract relevant information form a complex scene is combined with the computer's ability to quantify this information. The approach introduces 3D computer graphics methods into user- guided image analysis creating an analysis-synthesis cycle for interactive 3D segmentation.

  2. 3-D inversion of magnetotelluric Phase Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Prasanta; Uyeshima, Makoto

    2010-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of the magnetotelluric (MT) has become a routine practice among the MT community due to progress of algorithms for 3-D inverse problems (e.g. Mackie and Madden, 1993; Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005). While availability of such 3-D inversion codes have increased the resolving power of the MT data and improved the interpretation, on the other hand, still the galvanic effects poses difficulties in interpretation of resistivity structure obtained from the MT data. In order to tackle the galvanic distortion of MT data, Caldwell et al., (2004) introduced the concept of phase tensor. They demonstrated how the regional phase information can be retrieved from the observed impedance tensor without any assumptions for structural dimension, where both the near surface inhomogeneity and the regional conductivity structures can be 3-D. We made an attempt to modify a 3-D inversion code (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) to directly invert the phase tensor elements. We present here the main modification done in the sensitivity calculation and then show a few synthetic studies and its application to the real data. The synthetic model study suggests that the prior model (m_0) setting is important in retrieving the true model. This is because estimation of correct induction scale length lacks in the phase tensor inversion process. Comparison between results from conventional impedance inversion and new phase tensor inversion suggests that, in spite of presence of the galvanic distortion (due to near surface checkerboard anomalies in our case), the new inverion algorithm retrieves the regional conductivitity structure reliably. We applied the new inversion to the real data from the Indian sub continent and compared with the results from conventional impedance inversion.

  3. Recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Oana G.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2001-06-01

    Texture as a surface representation is the subject of a wide body of computer vision and computer graphics literature. While texture is always associated with a form of repetition in the image, the repeating quantity may vary. The texture may be a color or albedo variation as in a checkerboard, a paisley print or zebra stripes. Very often in real-world scenes, texture is instead due to a surface height variation, e.g. pebbles, gravel, foliage and any rough surface. Such surfaces are referred to here as 3D textured surfaces. Standard texture recognition algorithms are not appropriate for 3D textured surfaces because the appearance of these surfaces changes in a complex manner with viewing direction and illumination direction. Recent methods have been developed for recognition of 3D textured surfaces using a database of surfaces observed under varied imaging parameters. One of these methods is based on 3D textons obtained using K-means clustering of multiscale feature vectors. Another method uses eigen-analysis originally developed for appearance-based object recognition. In this work we develop a hybrid approach that employs both feature grouping and dimensionality reduction. The method is tested using the Columbia-Utrecht texture database and provides excellent recognition rates. The method is compared with existing recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces. A direct comparison is facilitated by empirical recognition rates from the same texture data set. The current method has key advantages over existing methods including requiring less prior information on both the training and novel images.

  4. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C