Fracture mechanics of propagating 3-D fatigue cracks with parametric dislocations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Akiyuki; Ghoniem, Nasr M.
2013-07-01
Propagation of 3-D fatigue cracks is analyzed using a discrete dislocation representation of the crack opening displacement. Three dimensional cracks are represented with Volterra dislocation loops in equilibrium with the applied external load. The stress intensity factor (SIF) is calculated using the Peach-Koehler (PK) force acting on the crack tip dislocation loop. Loading mode decomposition of the SIF is achieved by selection of Burgers vector components to correspond to each fracture mode in the PK force calculations. The interaction between 3-D cracks and free surfaces is taken into account through application of the superposition principle. A boundary integral solution of an elasticity problem in a finite domain is superposed onto the elastic field solution of the discrete dislocation method in an infinite medium. The numerical accuracy of the SIF is ascertained by comparison with known analytical solution of a 3-D crack problem in pure mode I, and for mixed-mode loading. Finally, fatigue crack growth simulations are performed with the Paris law, showing that 3-D cracks do not propagate in a self-similar shape, but they re-configure as a result of their interaction with external boundaries. A specific numerical example of fatigue crack growth is presented to demonstrate the utility of the developed method for studies of 3-D crack growth during fatigue.
3D characterization of crack propagation in building stones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Crosta, G. B.
2012-04-01
Opening of fractures can strongly modify mechanical characteristics of natural stones and thus significantly decrease stability of historical and modern buildings. It is commonly thought that fractures origin from pre-existing structures of the rocks, such as pores, veins, stylolythes (Meng and Pan, 2007; Yang et al., 2008). The aim of this study is to define relationships between crack formation and textural characteristics in massive carbonate lithologies and to follow the evolution of fractures with loading. Four well known Spanish building limestones and dolostones have been analysed: Amarillo Triana (AT): a yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides or hydroxides; Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble with pore clusters orientated parallel to metamorphic foliation; Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone (mudstone), characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%); Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone (packstone) with white veins, made up exclusively by calcite in crystals up to 300 micron. All lithotypes are characterized by homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and low porosity (<10%). Three cores 20 mm in diameter have been obtained for each lithotype. Uniaxial compressive tests have been carried out in order to induce sample fracturing by a series of successive steps with application of a progressive normal stress. Crack propagation has been checked after each stress level application by microCT-RX following Hg impregnation of the sample (in a Hg porosimeter). Combination of both tests (microCT-RX and Hg porosimeter) guarantees a better characterization of small defects and their progressive propagation inside low-porous rocks than by employing solely microCT-RX (Fusi et al., 2009). Due to the reduced dimensions of sample holder (dilatometers) in porosimeter, cores have been cut with a non standard h/d = 1.5. Several cycles of: a) Hg
3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji
2010-06-01
Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.
An extensive 3D dislocation dynamics investigation of stage-I fatigue crack propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Déprés, C.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Robertson, C.; Fivel, M.
2014-12-01
Stage-I fatigue crack propagation is investigated using 3D discrete dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. Slip-based propagation mechanisms and the role of the pre-existing slip band on the crack path are emphasized. Stage-I crack growth is found to be compatible with successive decohesion of the persistent slip band/matrix interface rather than a mere effect of plastic irreversibility. Corresponding crack tip slip displacement magnitude and the associated crack growth rate are evaluated quantitatively at various tip distances from the grain boundary. This shows that grain boundaries systematically amplify slip dispersion ahead of the crack tip and consequently, slow down the stage-I crack growth rate. The results help in developing an original crack propagation model, accounting for the boundary effects relevant to polycrystals. The crack growth trend is then evaluated from calculations of the energy changes due to crack length increments. It is shown that the crack necessarily propagates by increments smaller than 10 nm.
3D numerical analysis of crack propagation of heterogeneous notched rock under uniaxial tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S. Y.; Sloan, S. W.; Sheng, D. C.; Tang, C. A.
2016-05-01
Macroscopic notches play an important role in evaluating the fracture process zone (FPZ) and the strengths of a heterogeneous rock mass. Crack initiation, propagation and coalescence for unnotched, single-notched and double-notched rock specimens are numerically simulated in a 3-D numerical model (RFPA3D). A feature of the code RFPA3D is that it can numerically simulate the evolution of cracks in three-dimensional space, as well as the heterogeneity of the rock mass. For the unnotched case, special attention is given to the complete stress-strain curve and the corresponding AE events for the failure process of rock specimen. By comparing with published experimental results, the simulation results from RFPA3D are found to be satisfactory. For the single-notched case, the effect of the length and the depth of the single notch and the thickness of the specimen on the failure mode and peak stress are evaluated. The 3D FPZ is very different from that in two dimensions. For the double-notched case, the effects of the separation distance and overlap distance of the double notches, as well as influence of the homogeneity index (m) are also investigated. As the overlap distance increases, the direction of the principal tensile stress at each notch-end changes from a perpendicular direction (tensile stress field) to a nearly parallel direction (compressive stress field), which affects the evolution of the cracks from the two notches.
Gear crack propagation investigations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto
1996-01-01
Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.
3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
1998-09-23
E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.
Automatic crack propagation tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.
1985-01-01
A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, T. T.; Yvonnet, J.; Bornert, M.; Chateau, C.
2016-10-01
We provide the first direct comparisons, to our knowledge, of complex 3D micro cracking initiation and propagation in heterogeneous quasi-brittle materials modelled by the phase field numerical method and observed in X-ray microtomography images recorded during in situ mechanical testing. Some material parameters of the damage model, including the process zone (internal) length, are identified by an inverse approach combining experimental data and 3D simulations. A new technique is developed to study the micro cracking at a finer scale by prescribing the local displacements measured by digital volume correlation over the boundary of a small sub-volume inside the sample during the numerical simulations. The comparisons, performed on several samples of lightweight plaster and concrete, show a remarkable quantitative agreement between the 3D crack morphology obtained by the model and by the experiments, without any a priori knowledge about the location of the initiation of the cracks in the numerical model. The results indicate that the crack paths can be predicted in a fully deterministic way in spite of the highly random geometry of the microstructure and the brittle nature of its constituents.
3D characterization of trans- and inter-lamellar fatigue crack in (α + β) Ti alloy
Babout, Laurent; Jopek, Łukasz; Preuss, Michael
2014-12-15
This paper presents a three dimensional image processing strategy that has been developed to quantitatively analyze and correlate the path of a fatigue crack with the lamellar microstructure found in Ti-6246. The analysis is carried out on X-ray microtomography images acquired in situ during uniaxial fatigue testing. The crack, the primary β-grain boundaries and the α lamellae have been segmented separately and merged for the first time to allow a better characterization and understanding of their mutual interaction. This has particularly emphasized the role of translamellar crack growth at a very high propagation angle with regard to the lamellar orientation, supporting the central role of colonies favorably oriented for basal 〈a〉 slip to guide the crack in the fully lamellar microstructure of Ti alloy. - Highlights: • 3D tomography images reveal strong short fatigue crack interaction with α lamellae. • Proposed 3D image processing methodology makes their segmentation possible. • Crack-lamellae orientation maps show prevalence of translamellar cracking. • Angle study comforts the influence of basal/prismatic slip on crack path.
Fatigue crack tip deformation and fatigue crack propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kang, T. S.; Liu, H. W.
1972-01-01
The effects of stress ratio, prestress cycling and plate thickness on the fatigue crack propagation rate are studied on 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. Fatigue crack propagation rate increases with the plate thickness and the stress ratio. Prestress cycling below the static yield strength has no noticeable effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate. However, prestress cycling above the static yield strength causes the material to strain harden and increases the fatigue crack propagation rate. Crack tip deformation is used to study the fatigue crack propagation. The crack tip strains and the crack opening displacements were measured from moire fringe patterns. The moire fringe patterns were obtained by a double exposure technique, using a very high density master grille (13,400 lines per inch).
Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.
2013-10-01
Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.
Propagation in 3D of microwaves through density perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, T. R. N.; Köhn, A.; O'Brien, M. R.; Vann, R. G. L.
2014-07-01
Simulations using 3D and 2D full-wave codes have shown that edge filaments in tokamak plasmas can significantly affect the propagation of microwaves across a broad frequency spectrum, resulting in scattering angles of up to 46°. Parameter scans were carried out for density perturbations comparable in width and amplitude to MAST filaments and the effect on the measured emission was calculated. 3D effects were discovered in the case of an obliquely incident beam. In general, the problem of electromagnetic propagation past wavelength-sized 3D inhomogeneities is not well understood, yet is of importance for both heating and diagnostic applications in the electron cyclotron frequency range for tokamaks, as well as atmospheric physics. To improve this understanding, a new cold-plasma code, EMIT-3D, was written to extend full-wave microwave simulations in magnetized plasmas to 3D, and make comparisons to the existing 2D code IPF-FDMC. This work supports MAST experiments using the SAMI diagnostic to image microwave emission from the plasma edge due to mode conversion from electron Bernstein waves. Significant fluctuations in the SAMI data mean that detailed modelling is required to improve its interpretation.
Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangloff, Richard P.
1990-01-01
This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.
Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology
Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing
2014-01-01
In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the “energy conversion factor” is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris. PMID:25048684
Crack propagation in bamboo's hierarchical cellular structure.
Habibi, Meisam K; Lu, Yang
2014-07-07
Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.
Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mullins, M.
1982-01-01
Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.
Discrete Method of Images for 3D Radio Propagation Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novak, Roman
2016-09-01
Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of 3D deterministic radio propagation modeling as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of 3D reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time 3D graphics.
Wang, Shen; Huang, Songling; Zhao, Wei; Wei, Zheng
2015-02-01
In this paper, SH (shear horizontal) guided waves propagating in the circumferential direction of pipeline are modeled in 3 dimensions, with the aim for axial cracking detection implementation in ILI (in-line inspection) tools in mind. A theoretical formulation is given first, followed by an explanation about the 3D numerical modeling work. Displacement wave structures from the simulation and dispersion equation are compared to verify the effectiveness of the FEM package. Transverse slots along the axial direction are modeled to simulate axial cracking. Reflection and transmission coefficients curves are obtained to provide insight in using circumferential SH guided waves for quantitative testing of axial pipeline cracking.
3D Multispectral Light Propagation Model For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new 3D light propagation model aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue model that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and modeling the vessel wall interface. We describe our model, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.
Mean stress effect in fatigue crack propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabeshfar, K.; Williams, T. R. G.
1980-01-01
Crack propagation rates in three different grades of mild steel and two types of age hardening aluminium alloys have been measured for different stress ratios. The results show a pronounced stress ratio effect for all these materials. A model of fatigue crack propagation is formulated in terms of the size of the cyclic plastic instability zone at the crack tip rather than the zone of plastic yielding. The micro-plastic instability zone is measured by a parameter involving the ratio of the maximum stress intensity and the stress level at which macro-plastic instability occurs in the {S}/{N} curve of plain fatigue test pieces. Such a parameter provides a means of normalizing crack propagation results obtained for various stress ratios.
Meshfree Simulations of Ductile Crack Propagations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shaofan; Simonsen, Cerup B.
2005-03-01
In this work, a meshfree method is used to simulate ductile crack growth and propagation under finite deformation and large scale yielding conditions. A so-called parametric visibility condition and its related particle splitting procedure have been developed to automatically adapt the evolving strong continuity or fracture configuration due to an arbitrary crack growth in ductile materials. It is shown that the proposed meshfree crack adaption and re-interpolation procedure is versatile in numerical simulations, and it can capture some essential features of ductile fracture and ductile crack surface morphology, such as the rough zig-zag pattern of crack surface and the ductile crack front damage zone, which have been difficult to capture in previous numerical simulations.
Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins.
Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K
1998-11-01
Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Borja, R. I.
2009-12-01
Stress concentration induced by the heterogeneity in brittle geomaterials is generally considered as the driving force in the evolution of the microstructure (such as the crack and pore microstructure). Specifically, modeling heterogeneity is key to properly predicting the nucleation, coalescence and propagation of micro-cracks in brittle solids. In this paper, we propose a two-scale model for frictional cracks in fractured brittle media. The major crack in the study domain is modeled at a macro level, while the micro-cracks are modeled at a finer scale. The macro-scale behavior is described by a standard boundary value problem. The finer-scale problem is modeled using the notion of representative elementary volume (REV) consisting of a solid volume with distributed micro-cracks. Periodic boundary condition and small strain formulation are assumed in the finer-scale analysis. The scale bridging mechanism is borrowed from the standard homogenization technique. The proposed model is implemented with the extended finite element method. The macro stress at each Gauss point in the finite element formulation is computed as the volume average of finer-scale stresses in each corresponding REV. The macro tangent operator is computed using a perturbation method. For 3D problems, six independent linear perturbation analyses are carried out for each numerical integration point. Our numerical examples capture the nucleation and coalescence of micro-cracks, which can be used to infer the potential propagation direction of the major crack.
Fatigue crack layer propagation in silicon-iron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birol, Y.; Welsch, G.; Chudnovsky, A.
1986-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation in metal is almost always accompanied by plastic deformation unless conditions strongly favor brittle fracture. The analysis of the plastic zone is crucial to the understanding of crack propagation behavior as it governs the crack growth kinetics. This research was undertaken to study the fatigue crack propagation in a silicon iron alloy. Kinetic and plasticity aspects of fatigue crack propagation in the alloy were obtained, including the characterization of damage evolution.
Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.
2016-04-01
Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.
Atomic simulation of fatigue crack propagation in Ni3Al
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Lei; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu
2015-03-01
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of Ni3Al was studied using molecular dynamics simulation at room temperature. The simulation results showed that the deformation mechanisms and the crack propagation path were significantly influenced by the orientation of initial crack. The formation process of slip bands around the crack tip was investigated in various cracks and indicated that the slip bands were able to hinder the initiation and propagation of cracks. Besides, the crack growth rate was also calculated by the Paris equation, and the results revealed that the crack growth rate increased with the increasing stress intensity factor range.
Investigation of Dynamic Crack Coalescence Using a Gypsum-Like 3D Printing Material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng; Zhu, Jianbo; Zhao, Yi-Xin; Shen, Luming
2016-10-01
Dynamic crack coalescence attracts great attention in rock mechanics. However, specimen preparation in experimental study is a time-consuming and difficult procedure. In this work, a gypsum-like material by powder bed and inkjet 3D printing technique was applied to produce specimens with preset cracks for split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. From micro X-ray CT test, it was found that the 3D printing technique could successfully prepare specimens that contain preset cracks with width of 0.2 mm. Basic mechanical properties of the 3D printing material, i.e., the elastic modulus, the Poisson's ratio, the density, the compressive strength, the indirect tensile strength, and the fracture toughness, were obtained and reported. Unlike 3D printed specimens using polylactic acid, these gypsum-like specimens can produce failure patterns much closer to those observed in classical rock mechanical tests. Finally, the dynamic crack coalescence of the 3D printed specimens with preset cracks were captured using a high-speed camera during SHPB tests. Failure patterns of these 3D printed specimens are similar to the specimens made by Portland cement concrete. Our results indicate that sample preparation by 3D printing is highly competitive due to its quickness in prototyping, precision and flexibility on the geometry, and high material homogeneity.
Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.
Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong
2013-10-01
Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.
Slow crack propagation in heterogeneous materials.
Kierfeld, J; Vinokur, V M
2006-05-01
Statistics and thermally activated dynamics of crack nucleation and propagation in a two-dimensional heterogeneous material containing quenched randomly distributed defects are studied theoretically. Using the generalized Griffith criterion we derive the equation of motion for the crack tip position accounting for dissipation, thermal noise, and the random forces arising from the defects. We find that aggregations of defects generating long-range interaction forces (e.g., clouds of dislocations) lead to anomalously slow creep of the crack tip or even to its complete arrest. We demonstrate that heterogeneous materials with frozen defects contain a large number of arrested microcracks and that their fracture toughness is enhanced to the experimentally accessible time scales.
Directional crack propagation of granular water systems.
Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nishimoto, Akihiro; Kitsunezaki, So; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Ichio
2005-05-01
Pattern dynamics of directional crack propagation phenomena observed in drying process of starch-water mixture is investigated. To visualize the three-dimensional structure of the drying-fracture process two kinds of experiments are performed, i.e., resin solidification planing method and real-time measurement of water content distribution with MR instruments. A cross section with polygonal structure is visualized in both experiments. The depth dependency of cell size is measured. The phenomenological model for water transportation is also discussed.
The fracture mechanics of fatigue crack propagation in compact bone.
Wright, T M; Hayes, W C
1976-07-01
The purpose of this investigation was to apply the techniques of fracture mechanics to a study of fatigue crack propagation in compact bone. Small cracks parallel to the long axis of the bone were initiated in standardized specimens of bovine bone. Crack growth was achieved by cyclically loading these specimens. The rate of crack growth was determined from measurements of crack length versus cycles of loading. The stress intensity factor at the tip of the crack was calculated from knowledge of the applied load, the crack length, and the specimen geometry. A strong correlation was found between the experimentally determined crack growth rate and the applied stress intensity. The relationship takes the form of a power law similar to that for other materials. Visual observation and scanning electron microscopy revealed that crack propagation occurred by initiation of subcritical cracks ahead of the main crack.
A thermographic approach for surface crack depth evaluation through 3D finite element modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basheer, Mohammed; PV, Nithin; Ravindran, Parag; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan
2015-03-01
Laser Thermography has been reported earlier by several researchers as a tool for detecting surface breaking cracks in metals. A high energy laser (pulsed Nd-YAG) was used to produce a highly localized thermal spot from which heat diffuses (predominantly) in the radial direction. The crack that is perpendicular to the surface and close to this thermal spot will perturb the lateral heat flow and this disturbance can be observed by an IR camera. The laser spot is then scanned over a region to map the crack; this allows remote imaging of crack morphology even in elevated temperatures. The present study involves a 3D finite element simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics as a tool to simulate the thermal flow from a pulsed laser source in the proximity of a crack. The modeling helped to understand the various parameters affecting the thermal images of laser heated spots. The influence of depth of the crack on temperature changes across the crack and the relationship between crack depth and temperature changes due to the crack was simulated and subsequently validated experimentally.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1993-01-01
A computer program, surf3d, that uses the 3D finite-element method to calculate the stress-intensity factors for surface, corner, and embedded cracks in finite-thickness plates with and without circular holes, was developed. The cracks are assumed to be either elliptic or part eliptic in shape. The computer program uses eight-noded hexahedral elements to model the solid. The program uses a skyline storage and solver. The stress-intensity factors are evaluated using the force method, the crack-opening displacement method, and the 3-D virtual crack closure methods. In the manual the input to and the output of the surf3d program are described. This manual also demonstrates the use of the program and describes the calculation of the stress-intensity factors. Several examples with sample data files are included with the manual. To facilitate modeling of the user's crack configuration and loading, a companion program (a preprocessor program) that generates the data for the surf3d called gensurf was also developed. The gensurf program is a three dimensional mesh generator program that requires minimal input and that builds a complete data file for surf3d. The program surf3d is operational on Unix machines such as CRAY Y-MP, CRAY-2, and Convex C-220.
Analysis of wave propagation in periodic 3D waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaal, Christoph; Bischoff, Stefan; Gaul, Lothar
2013-11-01
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a growing research field in the realm of civil engineering. SHM concepts are implemented using integrated sensors and actuators to evaluate the state of a structure. Within this work, wave-based techniques are addressed. Dispersion effects for propagating waves in waveguides of different materials are analyzed for various different cross-sections. Since analytical theory is limited, a general approach based on the Waveguide Finite Element Method is applied. Numerical results are verified experimentally.
Liquid metal embrittlement. [crack propagation in metals with liquid metal in crack space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiller, W. A.
1973-01-01
Crack propagation is discussed for metals with liquid metal in the crack space. The change in electrochemical potential of an electron in a metal due to changes in stress level along the crack surface was investigated along with the change in local chemistry, and interfacial energy due to atomic redistribution in the liquid. Coupled elastic-elastrostatic equations, stress effects on electron energy states, and crack propagation via surface roughening are discussed.
Multiple Cracks Propagate Simultaneously in Polymer Liquids in Tension.
Huang, Qian; Alvarez, Nicolas J; Shabbir, Aamir; Hassager, Ole
2016-08-19
Understanding the mechanism of fracture is essential for material and process design. While the initiation of fracture in brittle solids is generally associated with the preexistence of material imperfections, the mechanism for initiation of fracture in viscoelastic fluids, e.g., polymer melts and solutions, remains an open question. We use high speed imaging to visualize crack propagation in entangled polymer liquid filaments under tension. The images reveal the simultaneous propagation of multiple cracks. The critical stress and strain for the onset of crack propagation are found to be highly reproducible functions of the stretch rate, while the position of initiation is completely random. The reproducibility of conditions for fracture points to a mechanism for crack initiation that depends on the dynamic state of the material alone, while the crack profiles reveal the mechanism of energy dissipation during crack propagation. PMID:27588883
Initiation and propagation of small corner cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellyin, Ferdnand; Kujawski, Daniel; Craig, David F.
1994-01-01
The behaviour of small corner cracks, inclined or perpendicular to loading direction, is presented. There are two aspects to this investigation: initiation of small cracks and monitoring their subsequent growth. An initial pre-cracking procedure under cyclic compression is adopted to minimize the residual damage at the tip of the growing and self-arresting crack under cyclic compression. A final fatigue specimen, cut from the larger pre-cracked specimen, has two corner flaws. The opening load of corner flaw is monitored using a novel strain gauge approach. The behaviour of small corner cracks is described in terms of growth rate relative to the size of the crack and its shape.
Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses
Beggs, Dennis Vinton
1981-01-01
Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, ..delta..t greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, ..delta..x, decreased linearly with ..delta..t. With ..delta..t less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, ..delta..x = ..delta..x* which approached a limiting value of 1 ..mu..m. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.
Dynamic delamination crack propagation in a graphite/epoxy laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grady, J. E.; Sun, C. T.
1991-01-01
Dynamic delamination crack propagation in a (90/0) 5s Graphite/Epoxy laminate with an embedded interfacial crack was investigated experimentally using high speed photography. The dynamic motion was produced by impacting the beamlike laminate specimen with a silicon rubber ball. The threshold impact velocities required to initiate dynamic crack propagation in laminates with varying initial crack positions were determined. The crack propagation speeds were estimated from the photographs. Results show that the through the thickness position of the embedded crack can significantly affect the dominant mechanism and the threshold impact velocity for the onset of crack movement. If the initial delamination is placed near the top of bottom surface of the laminate, local buckling of the delaminated plies may cause instability of the crack. If the initial delamination lies on the midplane, local buckling does not occur and the initiation of crack propagation appears to be dominated by Mode II fracture. The crack propagation and arrest observed was seen to be affected by wave motion within the delamination region.
A thermodynamic analysis of propagating subcritical cracks with cohesive zones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, David H.
1993-01-01
The results of the so-called energetic approach to fracture with particular attention to the issue of energy dissipation due to crack propagation are applied to the case of a crack with cohesive zone. The thermodynamic admissibility of subcritical crack growth (SCG) is discussed together with some hypotheses that lead to the derivation of SCG laws. A two-phase cohesive zone model for discontinuous crack growth is presented and its thermodynamics analyzed, followed by an example of its possible application.
A review of crack propagation under unsteady loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryan, H. H.; Ahuja, K. K.
1992-01-01
The theories and research current available on crack propagation under unsteady loadings, especially those of acoustic origin, are reviewed. Since the original theories on fatigue failure did not account for random loading conditions, modified theories which provide statistical methods for evaluating the random loading have emerged. The impact of acoustic fatigue in the aerospace industry, basic principles such as fatigue crack initiation and propagation and load interactions, and testing procedures are discussed. Attention is also given to metal and metal alloy structures, fiber-reinforced composites and nonmetallic structures, short crack growth, and the effects of temperature, moisture, and corrosion on structures. Suggestions for future research in this field are presented, namely, studies on the effect of 'snap-through' response and associated crack growth patterns, studies in microcrack and 'small crack'; propagation under unsteady loading conditions, and the development of an accurate analytical model to predict acceleration and retardation effects in fatigue crack growth under random loading conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Sutton, M. A.; Wu, X. R.; Shivakumar, K. N.
1995-01-01
Stress intensity factors for quarter-elliptical corner cracks emanating from a circular hole are determined using a 3-D weight function method combined with a 3-D finite element method. The 3-D finite element method is used to analyze uncracked configuration and provide stress distribution in the region where crack is to occur. Using this stress distribution as input, the 3-D weight function method is used to determine stress intensity factors. Three different loading conditions, i.e. remote tension, remote bending and wedge loading, are considered for a wide range in geometrical parameters. The significance in using 3-D uncracked stress distribution and the difference between single and double corner cracks are studied. Typical crack opening displacements are also provided. Comparisons are made with solutions available in the literature.
Effect of Speed (Centrifugal Load) on Gear Crack Propagation Direction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.
2001-01-01
The effect of rotational speed (centrifugal force) on gear crack propagation direction was explored. Gears were analyzed using finite element analysis and linear elastic fracture mechanics. The analysis was validated with crack propagation experiments performed in a spur gear fatigue rig. The effects of speed, rim thickness, and initial crack location on gear crack propagation direction were investigated. Crack paths from the finite element method correlated well with those deduced from gear experiments. For the test gear with a backup ratio (rim thickness divided by tooth height) of nib = 0.5, cracks initiating in the tooth fillet propagated to rim fractures when run at a speed of 10,000 rpm and became tooth fractures for speeds slower than 10,000 rpm for both the experiments and anal sis. From additional analysis, speed had little effect on crack propagation direction except when initial crack locations were near the tooth/rim fracture transition point for a given backup ratio. When at that point, higher speeds tended to promote rim fracture while lower speeds (or neglecting centrifugal force) produced tooth fractures.
On Modeling Hydrogen-Induced Crack Propagation Under Sustained Load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Somerday, Brian p.; Schembri, Philip E.; Sofronis, Petros; Foulk, James W.; Nibur, Kevin A.; Balch, Dorian K.
2014-08-01
The failure of hydrogen containment components is generally associated with subcritical cracking. Understanding subcritical crack growth behavior and its dependence on material and environmental variables can lead to methods for designing structural components in a hydrogen environment and will be beneficial in developing materials resistant to hydrogen embrittlement. In order to identify the issues underlying crack propagation and arrest, we present a model for hydrogen-induced stress-controlled crack propagation under sustained loading. The model is based on the assumptions that (I) hydrogen reduces the material fracture strength and (II) crack propagation takes place when the opening stress over the characteristic distance ahead of a crack tip is greater than the local fracture strength. The model is used in a finite-element simulation of crack propagation coupled with simultaneous hydrogen diffusion in a model material through nodal release. The numerical simulations show that the same physics, i.e., diffusion-controlled crack propagation, can explain the existence of both stages I and II in the velocity versus stress intensity factor ( V- K) curve.
Experimental study of thermodynamics propagation fatigue crack in metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vshivkov, A.; Iziumova, A.; Plekhov, O.
2015-10-01
This work is devoted to the development of an experimental method for studying the energy balance during cyclic deformation and fracture. The studies were conducted on 304 stainless steel AISE samples. The investigation of the fatigue crack propagation was carried out on flat samples with stress concentrators. The stress concentrator was three central holes. The heat flux sensor was developed based on the Seebeck effect. This sensor was used for measuring the heat dissipation power in the examined samples during the fatigue tests. The measurements showed that the rate of fatigue crack growth depends on the heat flux at the crack tip and there are two propagation mode of fatigue crack with different link between the propagation mode and heat flux from crack tip.
Double noding technique for mixed mode crack propagation studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.
1984-01-01
A simple dynamic finite element algorithm for analyzing a propagating mixed mode crack tip is presented. A double noding technique, which can be easily incorporated into existing dynamic finite element codes, is used together with a corrected J integral to extract modes I and II dynamic stress intensity factors of a propagating crack. The utility of the procedure is demonstrated by analyzing test problems involving a mode I central crack propagating in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension, a mixed mode I and II stationary, slanted central crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial impact loading, and a mixed mode I and II extending, slanted single edge crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13491
Experimental study of thermodynamics propagation fatigue crack in metals
Vshivkov, A. Iziumova, A. Plekhov, O.
2015-10-27
This work is devoted to the development of an experimental method for studying the energy balance during cyclic deformation and fracture. The studies were conducted on 304 stainless steel AISE samples. The investigation of the fatigue crack propagation was carried out on flat samples with stress concentrators. The stress concentrator was three central holes. The heat flux sensor was developed based on the Seebeck effect. This sensor was used for measuring the heat dissipation power in the examined samples during the fatigue tests. The measurements showed that the rate of fatigue crack growth depends on the heat flux at the crack tip and there are two propagation mode of fatigue crack with different link between the propagation mode and heat flux from crack tip.
Characterizing the propagation of gravity waves in 3D nonlinear simulations of solar-like stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvan, L.; Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Mathis, S.; Garcia, R. A.
2015-09-01
Context. The revolution of helio- and asteroseismology provides access to the detailed properties of stellar interiors by studying the star's oscillation modes. Among them, gravity (g) modes are formed by constructive interferences between progressive internal gravity waves (IGWs), propagating in stellar radiative zones. Our new 3D nonlinear simulations of the interior of a solar-like star allows us to study the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of these waves. Aims: The aim of this article is to clarify our understanding of the behavior of IGWs in a 3D radiative zone and to provide a clear overview of their properties. Methods: We use a method of frequency filtering that reveals the path of individual gravity waves of different frequencies in the radiative zone. Results: We are able to identify the region of propagation of different waves in 2D and 3D, to compare them to the linear raytracing theory and to distinguish between propagative and standing waves (g-modes). We also show that the energy carried by waves is distributed in different planes in the sphere, depending on their azimuthal wave number. Conclusions: We are able to isolate individual IGWs from a complex spectrum and to study their propagation in space and time. In particular, we highlight in this paper the necessity of studying the propagation of waves in 3D spherical geometry, since the distribution of their energy is not equipartitioned in the sphere.
Fatigue crack propagation at polymer adhesive interfaces
Ritter, J.E.
1996-12-31
Delamination of polymer adhesive interfaces often occurs due to slow crack growth under either monotonic or cyclic loading. The author`s previous research showed that moisture-assisted crack growth at epoxy/glass and epoxy acrylate/glass interfaces under monotonic loading was directly related to the applied energy release rate and relative humidity and that cyclic loading could enhance crack growth. The purpose of the present research is to compare crack growth along epoxy acrylate/glass and epoxy/PMMA interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading.
Comparison of fatigue crack propagation in Modes I and III
Ritchie, R.O.
1985-06-01
The propagation behavior of fatigue cracks in Mode III (anti-plane shear), measured under cyclic torsion, is described and compared with more commonly encountered behavior under Mode I (tensile opening) loads. It is shown that a unique, global characterization of Mode III growth rates, akin to the Paris ''law'' in Mode I, is only possible if characterizating parameters appropriate to large-scale yielding are employed and allowance is made for crack tip shielding from sliding crack surface interference (i.e., friction and abrasion) between mating fracture surfaces. Based on the crack tip stress and deformation fields for Mode III stationary cracks, the cyclic crack tip displacement, (..delta..CTD/sub III/, and plastic strain intensity range ..delta..GAMMA/sub III/, have been proposed and are found to provide an adequate description of behavior in a range of steels, provided crack surface interference is minimized. The magnitude of this interference, which is somewhat analogous to crack closure in Mode I, is further examined in the light of the complex fractography of torsional fatigue failures and the question of a ''fatigue threshold'' for Mode III crack growth. Finally, micro-mechanical models for cyclic crack extension in anti-plane shear are briefly described, and the contrasting behavior between Mode III and Mode I cracks subjected to simple variable amplitude spectra is examined in terms of the differing role of crack tip blunting and closure in influencing shear, as opposed to tensile opening, modes of crack growth.
Fatigue crack propagation in carburized X-2M steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averbach, B. L.; Lou, Bingzhe; Pearson, P. K.; Fairchild, R. E.; Bamberger, E. N.
1985-07-01
The growth rates of fatigue cracks propagating through the case and into the core have been studied for carburized X-2M steel (0.14 C, 4.91 Cr, 1.31 Mo, 1.34 W, 0.42 V). Fatigue cracks were propagated at constant stress intensities, ΔK, and also at a constant cyclic peak load, and the crack growth rates were observed to pass through a minimum value as the crack traversed the carburized case. The reduction in the crack propagation rates is ascribed to the compressive stresses which were developed in the case, and a pinched clothespin model is used to make an approximate calculation of the effects of internal stress on the crack propagation rates. We define an effective stress intensity, Ke = Ka + Ki, where Ka is the applied stress intensity, Ki = σid{i/1/2}, σi is the internal stress, and di is a characteristic distance associated with the depth of the internal stress field. In our work, a value of di = 11 mm (0.43 inch) fits the data quite well. A good combination of resistance to fatigue crack propagation in the case and fracture toughness in the core can be achieved in carburized X-2M steel, suggesting that this material will be useful in heavy duty gears and in aircraft gas turbine mainshaft bearings operating under high hoop stresses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhavanam, Sharada
The aim of this thesis is to numerically evaluate the mixed-mode Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs) of complex 3D structural geometries with arbitrary 3D cracks using the Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method-Finite Element Method (SGBEM-FEM) Alternating Method. Various structural geometries with different loading scenarios and crack configurations were examined in this thesis to understand the behavior and trends of the mixed-mode SIFs as well as the fatigue life for these complex structural geometries. Although some 3D structures have empirical and numerical solutions that are readily available in the open literature, some do not; therefore this thesis presents the results of fracture and fatigue analyses of these 3D complex structures using the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method to serve as reference for future studies. Furthermore, there are advantages of using the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method compared to traditional FEM methods. For example, the fatigue-crack-growth and fatigue life can be better estimated for a structure because different fatigue models (i.e. Walker, Paris, and NASGRO) can be used within the same framework of the SGBEM-FEM Alternating Method. The FEM (un-cracked structure)/BEM(crack model) meshes are modeled independently, which speeds up the computation process and reduces the cost of human labor. A simple coarse mesh can be used for all fracture and fatigue analyses of complex structures. In this thesis, simple coarse meshes were used for 3D complex structures, which were below 5000 elements as compared to traditional FEM, which require meshes where the elements range on the order of ˜250,000 to ˜106 and sometimes even more than that.
Finite Element Code For 3D-Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Equations (3-layer).
1992-03-24
HYFRACP3D is a finite element program for simulation of a pseudo three-dimensional fracture geometries with a two-dimensional planar solution. The model predicts the height, width and winglength over time for a hydraulic fracture propagating in a three-layered system of rocks with variable rock mechanics properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Sutton, M. A.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Wu, X. R.
1995-01-01
Parallel with the work in Part-1, stress intensity factors for semi-elliptical surface cracks emanating from a circular hole are determined. The 3-D weight function method with the 3D finite element solutions for the uncracked stress distribution as in Part-1 is used for the analysis. Two different loading conditions, i.e. remote tension and wedge loading, are considered for a wide range in geometrical parameters. Both single and double surface cracks are studied and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Typical crack opening displacements are also provided.
User's manual for FRAC3D: Supplement to report on stress analysis for structures with surface cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, J. C.; Hopper, A. T.; Hayes, P. A.
1978-01-01
The FRAC3D computer program, designed for use in analyzing stresses in structures (including plates, bars, or blocks) which may contain part-circular surface cracks or embedded circular cracks is described. Instructions are provided for preparing input, including that for the supporting programs LATTICE and MATSOL as well as for FRAC3D. The course of a substantial illustrative calculation is shown with both input and output. The formulas underlying the calculations are summarized and related to the subroutines in which they are used. Many issues of strategy in using this program for analysing stresses around surface cracks are elucidated.
ZIP3D: An elastic and elastic-plastic finite-element analysis program for cracked bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1990-01-01
ZIP3D is an elastic and an elastic-plastic finite element program to analyze cracks in three dimensional solids. The program may also be used to analyze uncracked bodies or multi-body problems involving contacting surfaces. For crack problems, the program has several unique features including the calculation of mixed-mode strain energy release rates using the three dimensional virtual crack closure technique, the calculation of the J integral using the equivalent domain integral method, the capability to extend the crack front under monotonic or cyclic loading, and the capability to close or open the crack surfaces during cyclic loading. The theories behind the various aspects of the program are explained briefly. Line-by-line data preparation is presented. Input data and results for an elastic analysis of a surface crack in a plate and for an elastic-plastic analysis of a single-edge-crack-tension specimen are also presented.
Crack propagation in aluminum sheets reinforced with boron-epoxy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roderick, G. L.
1979-01-01
An analysis was developed to predict both the crack growth and debond growth in a reinforced system. The analysis was based on the use of complex variable Green's functions for cracked, isotropic sheets and uncracked, orthotropic sheets to calculate inplane and interlaminar stresses, stress intensities, and strain-energy-release rates. An iterative solution was developed that used the stress intensities and strain-energy-release rates to predict crack and debond growths, respectively, on a cycle-by-cycle basis. A parametric study was made of the effects of boron-epoxy composite reinforcement on crack propagation in aluminum sheets. Results show that the size of the debond area has a significant effect on the crack propagation in the aluminum. For small debond areas, the crack propagation rate is reduced significantly, but these small debonds have a strong tendency to enlarge. Debond growth is most likely to occur in reinforced systems that have a cracked metal sheet reinforced with a relatively thin composite sheet.
Consideration of Moving Tooth Load in Gear Crack Propagation Predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Spievak, Lisa E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
2001-01-01
Robust gear designs consider not only crack initiation, but crack propagation trajectories for a fail-safe design. In actual gear operation, the magnitude as well as the position of the force changes as the gear rotates through the mesh. A study to determine the effect of moving gear tooth load on crack propagation predictions was performed. Two-dimensional analysis of an involute spur gear and three-dimensional analysis of a spiral-bevel pinion gear using the finite element method and boundary element method were studied and compared to experiments. A modified theory for predicting gear crack propagation paths based on the criteria of Erdogan and Sih was investigated. Crack simulation based on calculated stress intensity factors and mixed mode crack angle prediction techniques using a simple static analysis in which the tooth load was located at the highest point of single tooth contact was validated. For three-dimensional analysis, however, the analysis was valid only as long as the crack did not approach the contact region on the tooth.
Role of the pore fluid in crack propagation in glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallet, Céline; Fortin, Jérôme; Guéguen, Yves; Bouyer, Fréric
2015-05-01
We investigate pore fluid effects due to surface energy variation or due to chemical corrosion in cracked glass. Both effects have been documented through experimental tests on cracked borosilicate glass samples. Creep tests have been performed to investigate the slow crack propagation behavior. We compared the dry case (saturated with argon gas), the nonreactive water saturated case (commercial mineralized water), and the distilled and deionized water saturated case (pure water). Chemical corrosion effects have been observed and evidenced from pH and water composition evolution of the pure water. Then, the comparison of the dry case, the mineral water saturated case, and the corrosion case allow to (i) evidence the mechanical effect of the presence of a pore fluid and (ii) show also the chemical effect of a glass dissolution. Both effects enhance subcritical crack propagation.
Modeling Crack Propagation in Polycrystalline Microstructure Using Variational Multiscale Method
Sun, S.; Sundararaghavan, V.
2016-01-01
Crack propagation in a polycrystalline microstructure is analyzed using a novel multiscale model. The model includes an explicit microstructural representation at critical regions (stress concentrators such as notches and cracks) and a reduced order model that statistically captures the microstructure at regions far away from stress concentrations. Crack propagation is modeled in these critical regions using the variational multiscale method. In this approach, a discontinuous displacement field is added to elements that exceed the critical values of normal or tangential tractions during loading. Compared to traditional cohesive zone modeling approaches, the method does not require the use of any specialmore » interface elements in the microstructure and thus can model arbitrary crack paths. The capability of the method in predicting both intergranular and transgranular failure modes in an elastoplastic polycrystal is demonstrated under tensile and three-point bending loads.« less
Fatigue crack propagation in self-assembling nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klingler, Andreas; Wetzel, Bernd
2016-05-01
Self-assembling block-copolymers allow the easy manufacturing of nanocomposites due to the thermodynamically driven in situ formation of nanosized phases in thermosetting resins during the curing process. Complex mechanical dispersion processes can be avoided. The current study investigates the effect of a block-copolymer on the fatigue crack propagation resistance of a cycloaliphatic amine cured epoxy resin. It was found that a small amount of MAM triblock-copolymer significantly increases the resistance to fatigue crack propagation of epoxy. Crack growth rate and the Paris law exponent for fatigue-crack growth were considerably reduced from m=15.5 of the neat epoxy to m=8.1 of the nanocomposite. To identify the related reinforcing and fracture mechanisms structural analyses of the fractured surfaces were performed by scanning electron microscope. Characteristic features were identified to be deformation, debonding and fracture of the nano-phases as well as crack pinning. However, the highest resistance against fatigue crack propagation was achieved in a bi-continuous microstructure that consisted of an epoxy-rich phase with embedded submicron sized MAM inclusions, and which was surrounded by a block-copolymer-rich phase that showed rupture and plastic deformation.
3-D wave propagation solution of a stable resonator, free-electron laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhowmik, A.; Cover, R. A.; Labbe, R. H.
1983-11-01
Rigorous numerical solutions of a stable resonator, free-electron laser are obtained using 3-D wave propagation algorithms in the presence of a radially and azimuthally varying gain. Assumptions of this time-independent formulation of the loaded-resonator cavity are discussed. Wave propagation in the cavity is performed by computing numerically the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction integral by the Gardner-Fresnel-Kirchoff algorithm. Results of steady-state numerical iterative solutions, in which both the gain and the optical fields achieve self-consistency throughout the resonator, are presented. These consist of: (1) mode pattern and (2) variations in gain with variations in the resonator parameters.
Improving light propagation Monte Carlo simulations with accurate 3D modeling of skin tissue
Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a 3D light propagation model to simulate multispectral reflectance images of large skin surface areas. In particular, we aim to simulate more accurately the effects of various physiological properties of the skin in the case of subcutaneous vein imaging compared to existing models. Our method combines a Monte Carlo light propagation model, a realistic three-dimensional model of the skin using parametric surfaces and a vision system for data acquisition. We describe our model in detail, present results from the Monte Carlo modeling and compare our results with those obtained with a well established Monte Carlo model and with real skin reflectance images.
Tracking of cracks in bridges using GPR: a 3D approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedetto, A.
2012-04-01
Corrosion associated with reinforcing bars is the most significant contributor to bridge deficiencies. The corrosion is usually caused by moisture and chloride ion exposure. In particular, corrosion products FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and other oxides along reinforcement bars. The reinforcing bars are attacked by corrosion and yield expansive corrosion products. These oxidation products occupy a larger volume than the original intact steel and internal expansive stresses lead to cracking and debonding. There are some conventional inspection methods for detection of reinforcing bar corrosion but they can be invasive and destructive, often laborious, lane closures is required and it is difficult or unreliable any quantification of corrosion. For these reasons, bridge engineers are always more preferring to use the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique. In this work a novel numerical approach for three dimensional tracking and mapping of cracks in the bridge is proposed. The work starts from some interesting results based on the use of the 3D imaging technique in order to improve the potentiality of GPR to detect voids, cracks or buried object. The numerical approach has been tested on data acquired on some bridges using a pulse GPR system specifically designed for bridge deck and pavement inspection that is called RIS Hi Bright. The equipment integrates two arrays of Ultra Wide Band ground coupled antennas, having a main working frequency of 2 GHz. The two arrays within the RIS Hi Bright are using antennas arranged with different polarization. One array includes sensors with parallel polarization with respect to the scanning direction (VV array), the other has sensors in orthogonal polarization (HH array). Overall the system collects 16 profiles within a single scan (8 HH + 8 VV). The cracks, associated often to moisture increasing and higher values of the dielectric constant, produce a not negligible increasing of the signal amplitude. Following this, the algorithm
Causality and matter propagation in 3D spin foam quantum gravity
Oriti, Daniele; Tlas, Tamer
2006-11-15
In this paper we tackle the issue of causality in quantum gravity, in the context of 3d spin foam models. We identify the correct procedure for implementing the causality/orientation dependence restriction that reduces the path integral for BF theory to that of quantum gravity in first order form. We construct explicitly the resulting causal spin foam model. We then add matter degrees of freedom to it and construct a causal spin foam model for 3d quantum gravity coupled to matter fields. Finally, we show that the corresponding spin foam amplitudes admit a natural approximation as the Feynman amplitudes of a noncommutative quantum field theory, with the appropriate Feynman propagators weighting the lines of propagation, and that this effective field theory reduces to the usual quantum field theory in flat space in the no-gravity limit.
Terahertz pulse propagation in 3D-printed waveguide with metal wires component.
Yudasari, Nurfina; Anthony, Jessienta; Leonhardt, Rainer
2014-10-20
We report on the characterization of 3D-printed hollow core Terahertz waveguides with metal wire inclusions over a frequency range of 0.2-1.0 THz using standard THz time-domain spectroscopy. We observe single-mode broadband THz propagation in these waveguides, and measure the loss coefficient and the mode effective phase index. Our measurement data agree well with predicted values obtained from numerical simulations. PMID:25401638
ATHENA 3D: A finite element code for ultrasonic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, C.; Rupin, F.; Fouquet, T.; Chassignole, B.
2014-04-01
The understanding of wave propagation phenomena requires use of robust numerical models. 3D finite element (FE) models are generally prohibitively time consuming. However, advances in computing processor speed and memory allow them to be more and more competitive. In this context, EDF R&D developed the 3D version of the well-validated FE code ATHENA2D. The code is dedicated to the simulation of wave propagation in all kinds of elastic media and in particular, heterogeneous and anisotropic materials like welds. It is based on solving elastodynamic equations in the calculation zone expressed in terms of stress and particle velocities. The particularity of the code relies on the fact that the discretization of the calculation domain uses a Cartesian regular 3D mesh while the defect of complex geometry can be described using a separate (2D) mesh using the fictitious domains method. This allows combining the rapidity of regular meshes computation with the capability of modelling arbitrary shaped defects. Furthermore, the calculation domain is discretized with a quasi-explicit time evolution scheme. Thereby only local linear systems of small size have to be solved. The final step to reduce the computation time relies on the fact that ATHENA3D has been parallelized and adapted to the use of HPC resources. In this paper, the validation of the 3D FE model is discussed. A cross-validation of ATHENA 3D and CIVA is proposed for several inspection configurations. The performances in terms of calculation time are also presented in the cases of both local computer and computation cluster use.
Propagation of Crack in Glasses under Creep Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallet, C.; Fortin, J.; Guéguen, Y.; Schubnel, A.
2012-04-01
The context of our study is the observation of the mechanical behaviour of glass used for the storage of radioactive wastes. This implies to measure the crack propagation characteristics in glass. Results on the investigation of the micromechanics of creep under triaxial loading conditions are presented in the framework of this study. We performed the experiments in a triaxial cell, with pore fluid pressure, on boro-silicate glass. The chemical composition of the investigated glass is very close to the composition of waste vitrified packages. The matrix of the original glass (OG) is perfectly amorphous, without porosity. A few isolated air bubbles are trapped during the glass flow. Cracks are introduced in the OG through thermal shocks. The evolution of deformation (axial and radial strain) is measured using strain gages. The elastic P and S wave velocities and the acoustic emissions (AE) are also recorded. An experiment in dry conditions was performed (the pore fluid was argon gas) with a confining pressure fixed at 15 MPa. Stress step tests were performed in order to get creep data. A similar experiment was performed in water saturated conditions. Crack-closure is first observed at very low strains. Then elastic deformation is observed up to a stress level where elastic anisotropy develops. This can be clearly detected from ɛ Thomsen parameter increase. At last, at a deviatoric stress of 175 MPa (in dry conditions), we observe dilatancy. This behaviour has never been observed in original glass. Indeed, the OG behaviour is perfectly elastic and brittle. In addition, the constant stress tests show that dilatancy develops during a time constant that depends on the stress level. It can be inferred that crack propagation takes place during the constant stress steps. This behaviour is under investigation. We are also quantifying the velocity of the crack propagation by modelling this phenomenon. Indeed, the crack density can be expressed as a volumic strain, ɛv =
Fatigue crack propagation behavior of stainless steel welds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusko, Chad S.
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steel base and weld metals has been investigated using various fatigue crack growth test procedures, ferrite measurement techniques, light optical microscopy, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical profilometry. The compliance offset method has been incorporated to measure crack closure during testing in order to determine a stress ratio at which such closure is overcome. Based on this method, an empirically determined stress ratio of 0.60 has been shown to be very successful in overcoming crack closure for all da/dN for gas metal arc and laser welds. This empirically-determined stress ratio of 0.60 has been applied to testing of stainless steel base metal and weld metal to understand the influence of microstructure. Regarding the base metal investigation, for 316L and AL6XN base metals, grain size and grain plus twin size have been shown to influence resulting crack growth behavior. The cyclic plastic zone size model has been applied to accurately model crack growth behavior for austenitic stainless steels when the average grain plus twin size is considered. Additionally, the effect of the tortuous crack paths observed for the larger grain size base metals can be explained by a literature model for crack deflection. Constant Delta K testing has been used to characterize the crack growth behavior across various regions of the gas metal arc and laser welds at the empirically determined stress ratio of 0.60. Despite an extensive range of stainless steel weld metal FN and delta-ferrite morphologies, neither delta-ferrite morphology significantly influence the room temperature crack growth behavior. However, variations in weld metal da/dN can be explained by local surface roughness resulting from large columnar grains and tortuous crack paths in the weld metal.
Dynamical instabilities of quasistatic crack propagation under thermal stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchbinder, Eran; Hentschel, H. George; Procaccia, Itamar
2003-09-01
We address the theory of quasistatic crack propagation in a strip of glass that is pulled from a hot oven towards a cold bath. This problem had been carefully studied in a number of experiments that offer a wealth of data to challenge the theory. We improve upon previous theoretical treatments in a number of ways. First, we offer a technical improvement of the discussion of the instability towards the creation of a straight crack. This improvement consists in employing Padé approximants to solve the relevant Wiener-Hopf factorization problem that is associated with this transition. Next we improve the discussion of the onset of oscillatory instability towards an undulating crack. We offer a way of considering the problem as a sum of solutions of a finite strip without a crack and an infinite medium with a crack. This allows us to present a closed form solution of the stress intensity factors in the vicinity of the oscillatory instability. Most importantly we develop a dynamical description of the actual trajectory in the regime of oscillatory crack. This theory is based on the dynamical law for crack propagation proposed by Hodgdon and Sethna. We show that this dynamical law results in a solution of the actual crack trajectory in post-critical conditions; we can compute from first principles the critical value of the control parameters, and the characteristics of the solution such as the wavelength of the oscillations. We present detailed comparison with experimental measurements without any free parameters. The comparison appears quite excellent. Finally we show that the dynamical law can be translated to an equation for the amplitude of the oscillatory crack; this equation predicts correctly the scaling exponents observed in experiments.
Mountain watershed as a 3d-crack net transportation system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergey
2016-04-01
1. New model for simulating of formation of a mountain watershed and a river-bed as an unified 3D-crack net is discussed for the first time The following questions are under study: watershed pattern, morphological structure of mountain watershed (drainage system, water-parting system), mountain watershed formation mechanism, brittle destruction as a genetically attributed property of rock, mountain litho-watershed formation stages (i.e. drainage cones and slope surfaces formation stage, branched drainage system formation stage, water-parting arc formation). 2. We focused our study on the features of establishment of the geosystems for a river basin being localized on the mountain slopes of ridges in relatively similar geological conditions. A system of river channels (drainage network) is also closely connected with the processes of crack formation and destruction. Litho-watershed basis plays a dominant role in formation and functioning of the river basin, and also in mountain relief in general. 3. Conditions that need to be taken into account in the analysis of formation of litho-watershed, are the following: physico-geographical and climatic features of the mountain country; geological-mineralogical and orographic features; age; character of the fractures formation in the rocks. Various combinations of these conditions will determine the formation of mountain watersheds, namely, their size, structure, figure of a run river system, water cut, etc. 4. In progress, the problem of universality of presented approach for the different mountain river basin with own peculiarities should be studied in details for each case on the basis of necessary data both in geographical and geological aspects.
On the steady propagation of a semi-infinite crack
Paukshto, M.V.; Sulimov, M.G.
1994-12-25
We consider the rectilinear propagation of a semi-infinite crack with constant velocity in a crystal structure. We obtain the solutions of homogeneous boundary-value problems for the corresponding difference-differential operators in spaces of one and two dimensions. We give a justification of the computational aspect of the problem.
Singh, S. S.; Williams, J. J.; Lin, M. F.; Xiao, X.; De Carlo, F.; Chawla, N.
2014-05-14
In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was used to investigate the stress corrosion cracking behavior of under-aged Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy in moisture. The discontinuous surface cracks (crack jumps) mentioned in the literature are actually a single continuous and tortuous crack when observed in three dimension (3D). Contrary to 2D measurements made at the surface which suggest non-uniform crack growth rates, 3D measurements of the crack length led to a much more accurate measurement of crack growth rates.
Singh, S. S.; Williams, J. J.; Lin, M. F.; Xiao, X.; De Carlo, F.; Chawla, N.
2014-05-14
In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was used to investigate the stress corrosion cracking behavior of under-aged Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy in moisture. The discontinuous surface cracks (crack jumps) mentioned in the literature are actually a single continuous and tortuous crack when observed in three dimension (3D). Contrary to 2D measurements made at the surface which suggest non-uniform crack growth rates, 3D measurements of the crack length led to a much more accurate measurement of crack growth rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Himanshu; Singh, Akhilendra; Singh, Indra Vir
2016-06-01
In this work, finite element method (FEM) and element free Galerkin method (EFGM) are coupled for solving 3D crack domains subjected to cyclic thermal load of constant amplitude. Crack growth contours and fatigue life have been obtained for each of the considered numerical examples. Thermo-elastic problems are decoupled into thermal and elastic problems . Firstly, the unknown temperature field is obtained by solving heat conduction equation, then, it is used as the input load in the elastic problem to calculate the displacement and stress fields. The geometrical discontinuity across crack surface is modelled by extrinsically enriched EFGM and the remaining part of the domain is approximated by standard finite element method. At the crack interface, a ramp function based interpolation scheme has been implemented. This coupled approach combines the advantages of both EFGM and FEM. A linear successive crack increment approach is used to model crack growth. The growing crack surface is traced by level set function. Standard Paris law is used for life estimation of the three-dimensional crack models. Different cases of planar and non-planar crack problems have been solved and their results are compared with the results obtained using extended finite element method to check accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the coupled FE-EFG approach implemented in this study.
Mode III fatigue crack propagation in low alloy steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritchie, R. O.; McClintock, F. A.; Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; Ritter, M. A.
1982-01-01
To provide a basis for estimating fatigue life in large rotating generator shafts subjected to transient oscillations, a study is made of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) in torsionally-loaded spheroidized AISI4340 steel, and results compared to analogous behavior in Mode I. Torsional S/N curves, determined on smooth bars containing surface defects, showed results surprisingly close to expected unnotched Mode I data, with lifetime increasing from 104 cycles at nominal yield to 106 cycles at half yield. Fatigue crack growth rates in Mode III, measured on circumferentially-notched samples, were found to be slower than in Mode I, although still power-law related to the alternating stress intensity (△K III) for small-scale yielding. Mode III growth rates were only a small fraction (0.002 to 0.0005) of cyclic crack tip displacements (△CTD III) per cycle, in contrast to Mode I where the fraction was much larger (0.1 to 0.01). A micromechanical model for Mode III growth is proposed, where crack advance is considered to take place by a Mode II coalescence of cracks, initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front. This mechanism is consistent with the crack increment being a small fraction of △CTDIII per cycle.
THE NON-CONSTANT CTOD/CTOA IN CRACK PROPAGATION
LAM, POH-SANG
2004-07-19
Unlike the common belief that crack propagation behavior can be predicted successfully by employing fracture criteria based on a constant crack tip opening displacement or angle (CTOD/CTOA), this paper shows that the initially non-constant portion of the CTOD/CTOA plays an essential role in predicting the fracture load for a growing crack. Three- and two-dimensional finite element analyses indicate that a severe underestimate of the experimental load vs. crack extension curve would occur if a constant CTOD/CTOA criterion is used. However, the use of a simplified, bilinear CTOD/CTOA criterion including its non-constant portion will closely duplicate the test data. Furthermore, as a result of using the experimental data from J-integral test with various crack length to specimen width ratios (a/W), it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The initially higher values of the CTOD/CTOA are in fact a natural consequence of crack growth process which is refl ected by the J-resistance curve and its slope (tearing modulus).
2D noise propagation in 3D object position determination from a single-perspective projection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habets, Damiaan F.; Pollmann, Steven; Holdsworth, David W.
2002-05-01
Image guidance during endovascular intervention is predominantly provided by two-dimensional (2D) digital radiographic systems used for vessel visualization and localization of clips and coils. This paper describes the propagation of 2D noise in the determination of three-dimensional (3D) object position from a single perspective view. In our system, a view is obtained by a digital fluoroscopic x-ray system, corrected for XRII distortions (+/- 0.035mm) and mechanical C-arm shifts (+/- 0.080mm). The tracked object contains high-contrast markers with known relative spacing, allowing for identification and centroid calculation. A least-square projection-Procrustes analysis of the 2D perspective projection is used to determine the 3D position of the object. The effect of uncertainty in 2D marker position on the precision of the 3D object localization using simulations and phantoms was investigated and a nearly linear relationship was found; however, the slope of this relationship is not unity. The slope found indicates a significant amplification of error due to the least-square solution, which is not equally distributed among the 3 major axes. In order to obtain a 3D localization error of less than +/- 1mm, the 2D localization precision must be better than +/- 0.2mm for each marker.
Fatigue crack propagation behavior of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene.
Connelly, G M; Rimnac, C M; Wright, T M; Hertzberg, R W; Manson, J A
1984-01-01
The relative fatigue crack propagation resistance of plain and carbon fiber-reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was determined from cyclic loading tests performed on compact tension specimens machined from the tibial components of total knee prostheses. Both materials were characterized by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The cyclic tests used loading in laboratory air at 5 Hz using a sinusoidal wave form. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy showed that the reinforced UHMWPE had a higher elastic storage modulus than the plain UHMWPE, whereas X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the percent crystallinity and degree of order in the crystalline regions were similar for the two materials. Fatigue crack propagation in both materials proved to be very sensitive to small changes in the applied cyclic stress intensity range. A 10% increase in stress intensity resulted in approximately an order of magnitude increase in fatigue crack growth rate. The fatigue crack propagation resistance of the reinforced UHMWPE was found to be significantly worse than that of the plain UHMWPE. This result was attributed to poor bonding between the carbon fibers and the UHMWPE matrix and the ductile nature of the matrix itself.
Multiscale modeling of crack initiation and propagation at the nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiari, Behrouz; Miller, Ronald E.
2016-03-01
Fracture occurs on multiple interacting length scales; atoms separate on the atomic scale while plasticity develops on the microscale. A dynamic multiscale approach (CADD: coupled atomistics and discrete dislocations) is employed to investigate an edge-cracked specimen of single-crystal nickel, Ni, (brittle failure) and aluminum, Al, (ductile failure) subjected to mode-I loading. The dynamic model couples continuum finite elements to a fully atomistic region, with key advantages such as the ability to accommodate discrete dislocations in the continuum region and an algorithm for automatically detecting dislocations as they move from the atomistic region to the continuum region and then correctly "converting" the atomistic dislocations into discrete dislocations, or vice-versa. An ad hoc computational technique is also applied to dissipate localized waves formed during crack advance in the atomistic zone, whereby an embedded damping zone at the atomistic/continuum interface effectively eliminates the spurious reflection of high-frequency phonons, while allowing low-frequency phonons to pass into the continuum region. The simulations accurately capture the essential physics of the crack propagation in a Ni specimen at different temperatures, including the formation of nano-voids and the sudden acceleration of the crack tip to a velocity close to the material Rayleigh wave speed. The nanoscale brittle fracture happens through the crack growth in the form of nano-void nucleation, growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip, and as such resembles fracture at the microscale. When the crack tip behaves in a ductile manner, the crack does not advance rapidly after the pre-opening process but is blunted by dislocation generation from its tip. The effect of temperature on crack speed is found to be perceptible in both ductile and brittle specimens.
Energy absorption mechanisms during crack propagation in metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, D. P.; Adams, D. F.
1979-01-01
The stress distributions around individual fibers in a unidirectional boron/aluminum composite material subjected to axial and transverse loadings are being studied utilizing a generalized plane strain finite element analysis. This micromechanics analysis was modified to permit the analysis of longitudinal sections, and also to incorporate crack initiation and propagation. The analysis fully models the elastoplastic response of the aluminum matrix, as well as temperature dependent material properties and thermal stress effects. The micromechanics analysis modifications are described, and numerical results are given for both longitudinal and transverse models loaded into the inelastic range, to first failure. Included are initially cracked fiber models.
Crack propagation and fracture in silicon wafers under thermal stress
Danilewsky, Andreas; Wittge, Jochen; Kiefl, Konstantin; Allen, David; McNally, Patrick; Garagorri, Jorge; Elizalde, M. Reyes; Baumbach, Tilo; Tanner, Brian K.
2013-01-01
The behaviour of microcracks in silicon during thermal annealing has been studied using in situ X-ray diffraction imaging. Initial cracks are produced with an indenter at the edge of a conventional Si wafer, which was heated under temperature gradients to produce thermal stress. At temperatures where Si is still in the brittle regime, the strain may accumulate if a microcrack is pinned. If a critical value is exceeded either a new or a longer crack will be formed, which results with high probability in wafer breakage. The strain reduces most efficiently by forming (hhl) or (hkl) crack planes of high energy instead of the expected low-energy cleavage planes like {111}. Dangerous cracks, which become active during heat treatment and may shatter the whole wafer, can be identified from diffraction images simply by measuring the geometrical dimensions of the strain-related contrast around the crack tip. Once the plastic regime at higher temperature is reached, strain is reduced by generating dislocation loops and slip bands and no wafer breakage occurs. There is only a small temperature window within which crack propagation is possible during rapid annealing. PMID:24046487
Gear Crack Propagation Path Studies-- Guidelines Developed for Ultrasafe Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.
2002-01-01
Effective gear designs balance strength, durability, reliability, size, weight, and cost. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate gear tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question "What happens when a failure occurs?" With regard to gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. For aircraft, a crack that propagated through a rim would be catastrophic, leading to the disengagement of a rotor or propeller, the loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. However, a crack that propagated through a tooth might or might not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode might be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. An analysis was performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop design guidelines to prevent catastrophic rim fracture failure modes in the event of gear-tooth bending fatigue. The finite element method was used with principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack propagation paths were predicted for a variety of gear tooth and rim configurations. The effects of rim and web thicknesses, initial crack locations, and gear-tooth geometry factors such as diametral pitch, number of teeth, pitch radius, and tooth pressure angle were considered. Design maps of tooth and rim fracture modes, including the effects of gear geometry, applied load, crack size, and material properties were developed. The occurrence of rim fractures significantly increased as the backup ratio (rim thickness divided by tooth height) decreased. The occurrence of rim fractures also increased as the initial crack location was moved down the root of the tooth. Increased rim and web compliance increased the occurrence of rim fractures. For gears with constant-pitch radii, coarser-pitch teeth increased the occurrence of tooth fractures over rim fractures. Also, 25 degree
Fatigue crack propagation behavior of a single crystalline superalloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, B. A.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1990-01-01
Crack propagation mechanisms occurring at various temperatures in a single crystalline Ni-base alloy, Rene N4, were investigated. The rates of crack growth at 21, 704, 927, 1038, and 1093 C were measured in specimens with 001-line and 110-line directions parallel to the load axis and the machined notch, respectively, using a pulsed dc potential drop apparatus, and the fracture surfaces at each temperature were examined using SEM. Crack growth rates (CGRs) for specimens tested at or below 927 C were similar, while at two higher temperatures, the CGRs were about an order of magnitude higher than at the lower temperatures. Results of SEM observations showed that surface morphologies depended on temperature.
Mode III fatigue crack propagation in low alloy steel
Ritchie, R.O.; McClintock, F.A.; Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; Ritter, M.A.
1982-01-01
To provide a basis for estimating fatigue life in large rotating generator shafts subjected to transient oscillations, a study is made of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) in torsionally-loaded spheroidized AISI 4340 steel. Results are compared to analogous behavior in Mode I. The approach investigated the feasibility of using continuum fracture mechanics and preliminary mechanistic modeling to serve as a basis for defect-tolerant life estimation procedures. 38 refs.
Cohen, Laurent D; Deschamps, Thomas
2007-08-01
We present a new fast approach for segmentation of thin branching structures, like vascular trees, based on Fast-Marching (FM) and Level Set (LS) methods. FM allows segmentation of tubular structures by inflating a "long balloon" from a user given single point. However, when the tubular shape is rather long, the front propagation may blow up through the boundary of the desired shape close to the starting point. Our contribution is focused on a method to propagate only the useful part of the front while freezing the rest of it. We demonstrate its ability to segment quickly and accurately tubular and tree-like structures. We also develop a useful stopping criterion for the causal front propagation. We finally derive an efficient algorithm for extracting an underlying 1D skeleton of the branching objects, with minimal path techniques. Each branch being represented by its centerline, we automatically detect the bifurcations, leading to the "Minimal Tree" representation. This so-called "Minimal Tree" is very useful for visualization and quantification of the pathologies in our anatomical data sets. We illustrate our algorithms by applying it to several arteries datasets.
Cohen, Laurent D; Deschamps, Thomas
2007-08-01
We present a new fast approach for segmentation of thin branching structures, like vascular trees, based on Fast-Marching (FM) and Level Set (LS) methods. FM allows segmentation of tubular structures by inflating a "long balloon" from a user given single point. However, when the tubular shape is rather long, the front propagation may blow up through the boundary of the desired shape close to the starting point. Our contribution is focused on a method to propagate only the useful part of the front while freezing the rest of it. We demonstrate its ability to segment quickly and accurately tubular and tree-like structures. We also develop a useful stopping criterion for the causal front propagation. We finally derive an efficient algorithm for extracting an underlying 1D skeleton of the branching objects, with minimal path techniques. Each branch being represented by its centerline, we automatically detect the bifurcations, leading to the "Minimal Tree" representation. This so-called "Minimal Tree" is very useful for visualization and quantification of the pathologies in our anatomical data sets. We illustrate our algorithms by applying it to several arteries datasets. PMID:17671862
Parallel 3D Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation in the Structure of Nobi Plain, Central Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotani, A.; Furumura, T.; Hirahara, K.
2003-12-01
We performed large-scale parallel simulations of the seismic wave propagation to understand the complex wave behavior in the 3D basin structure of the Nobi Plain, which is one of the high population cities in central Japan. In this area, many large earthquakes occurred in the past, such as the 1891 Nobi earthquake (M8.0), the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (M7.9) and the 1945 Mikawa earthquake (M6.8). In order to mitigate the potential disasters for future earthquakes, 3D subsurface structure of Nobi Plain has recently been investigated by local governments. We referred to this model together with bouguer anomaly data to construct a detail 3D basin structure model for Nobi plain, and conducted computer simulations of ground motions. We first evaluated the ground motions for two small earthquakes (M4~5); one occurred just beneath the basin edge at west, and the other occurred at south. The ground motions from these earthquakes were well recorded by the strong motion networks; K-net, Kik-net, and seismic intensity instruments operated by local governments. We compare the observed seismograms with simulations to validate the 3D model. For the 3D simulation we sliced the 3D model into a number of layers to assign to many processors for concurrent computing. The equation of motions are solved using a high order (32nd) staggered-grid FDM in horizontal directions, and a conventional (4th-order) FDM in vertical direction with the MPI inter-processor communications between neighbor region. The simulation model is 128km by 128km by 43km, which is discritized at variable grid size of 62.5-125m in horizontal directions and of 31.25-62.5m in vertical direction. We assigned a minimum shear wave velocity is Vs=0.4km/s, at the top of the sedimentary basin. The seismic sources for the small events are approximated by double-couple point source and we simulate the seismic wave propagation at maximum frequency of 2Hz. We used the Earth Simulator (JAMSTEC, Yokohama Inst) to conduct such
Analysis of crack propagation as an energy absorption mechanism in metal matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, D. F.; Murphy, D. P.
1981-01-01
The crack initiation and crack propagation capability was extended to the previously developed generalized plane strain, finite element micromechanics analysis. Also, an axisymmetric analysis was developed, which contains all of the general features of the plane analysis, including elastoplastic material behavior, temperature-dependent material properties, and crack propagation. These analyses were used to generate various example problems demonstrating the inelastic response of, and crack initiation and propagation in, a boron/aluminum composite.
Damage Surrounding Dynamically Propagating Shear Cracks in Granodiorite (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faulkner, D. R.; Faulkner, R. G.; Cembrano, J. M.; Jensen, E.
2009-12-01
Quantifying the microfracture damage surrounding faults and fractures is important for predicting the fluid flow properties of rock masses. Damage surrounding faults has been attributed to fault growth, geometric irregularities, and earthquake rupture. Up to now, earthquake rupture can only be inferred when pseudotachylyte is present, indicating shear heating leading to melt production. We describe shear fractures that have developed a relatively isotropic granodioritic protolith within the Atacama fault system in northern Chile. These fractures have an alteration zone produced as a result of intense microfracture damage surrounding the fractures. These alteration zones taper out towards the fracture tips. The alteration zone also shows asymmetry either side of the fracture that can be used to infer the propagation direction of the fracture. We interpret these observations as being due to a waning fracture tip stress field of a dynamically propagating shear crack. In contrast, simple fracture mechanics models indicate a quasi-statically propagating fracture would be expected to produce an expanding zone of damage at the crack tip as displacement accumulates. Another explanation for the reduction in alteration zone width might be extension of the fracture tips by sub-critical crack growth. The width of alteration zone has a positive correlation with the shear displacement and a zero intercept. The slope of this correlation is steeper than for microfracture damage zone widths measured on larger displacement faults in the same region. We suggest that this indicates a different mode of formation; that of damage surrounding a dynamically propagating shear fracture. At higher displacements, additional processes such as those mentioned earlier contribute to the width of the microfracture damage zone, and the rate of growth with displacement is not so pronounced.
Automatic 3D segmentation of spinal cord MRI using propagated deformable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Leener, B.; Cohen-Adad, J.; Kadoury, S.
2014-03-01
Spinal cord diseases or injuries can cause dysfunction of the sensory and locomotor systems. Segmentation of the spinal cord provides measures of atrophy and allows group analysis of multi-parametric MRI via inter-subject registration to a template. All these measures were shown to improve diagnostic and surgical intervention. We developed a framework to automatically segment the spinal cord on T2-weighted MR images, based on the propagation of a deformable model. The algorithm is divided into three parts: first, an initialization step detects the spinal cord position and orientation by using the elliptical Hough transform on multiple adjacent axial slices to produce an initial tubular mesh. Second, a low-resolution deformable model is iteratively propagated along the spinal cord. To deal with highly variable contrast levels between the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid, the deformation is coupled with a contrast adaptation at each iteration. Third, a refinement process and a global deformation are applied on the low-resolution mesh to provide an accurate segmentation of the spinal cord. Our method was evaluated against a semi-automatic edge-based snake method implemented in ITK-SNAP (with heavy manual adjustment) by computing the 3D Dice coefficient, mean and maximum distance errors. Accuracy and robustness were assessed from 8 healthy subjects. Each subject had two volumes: one at the cervical and one at the thoracolumbar region. Results show a precision of 0.30 +/- 0.05 mm (mean absolute distance error) in the cervical region and 0.27 +/- 0.06 mm in the thoracolumbar region. The 3D Dice coefficient was of 0.93 for both regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, T. S.; Miller, R.; Greenfield, R.; Fisk, D.
2002-12-01
The propagation of seismic waves through regions of complex topography is not thoroughly understood. Surface waves, are of particular interest, as they are large in amplitude and can characterize the source depth, magnitude, and frequency content. The amplitude and frequency content of seismic waves that propagate in regions with large topographical variations are affected by both the scattering and blockage of the wave energy. The ability to predict the 3-d scattering due to topography will improve the understanding of both regional scale surface wave magnitudes, and refine surface wave discriminants as well as at the local scale (<2 km ) where it will aid in the development of rule of thumb guide lines for array sensor placement for real time sensing technologies. Ideally, when validating the numerical accuracy of a propagation model against field data, the input geologic parameters would be known and thus eliminates geology as a source of error in the calculation. In March of 2001, Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) performed a detailed seismic site characterization at the Smart Weapons Test Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The result of the KGS characterization study is a high-resolution 3-d model that is used in our seismic simulations. The velocities Vs, Vp are calculated by tomography and refraction, attenuation coefficients estimated from the surface wave and from p-waves and are provided in a model with attributes resolved in 3-d to 0.5 meters. In the present work, we present comparisons of synthetic data with seismic data collected at the Smart Weapons Test Range to benchmark the accuracy achieved in simulating 3-d wave propagation in the vicinity of a topographical anomaly (trench). Synthetic seismograms are generated using a 3-d 8th order staggered grid visco-elastic finite difference code that accounts for topography. The geologic model is based on the Yuma site characterization. The size of these calculations required use of the DoD High Performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viveros, U.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Luzon, F.
2001-12-01
The scattering of elastic waves by various types of cracks is an important engineering problem. From a physical point of view the question that arises is up to what degree will a local perturbation in a medium modifies the scattered wave field. For instance, in the seismic monitoring to enhance oil recovery (due to extensive presence of cracks and cavities) a crucial problem is to determine zones where there are physical property changes. Modelling such highly heterogeneous media is critical to increased production from oil and gas. In order to study scattering effects caused by arbitrary-shaped cracks a simplified indirect boundary element method (BEM) is used to compute the seismic response of a 3-D crack under incident elastic P and S waves. The method is based on the integral representation for scattered elastic waves using single layer boundary sources. This approach is called indirect BEM in the literature as the sources strengths should be obtained as an intermediate step. Scattered waves are constructed at the boundaries from which they radiate. Therefore, this method can be regarded as a numerical realization of Huygens' principle. Boundary conditions lead to a system of integral for boundary sources. A simplified discretization scheme is used. It is based on the approximate rectification of the surfaces involved using circles for the numerical and analytical integration of the exact Green's function for the unbounded elastic space. Radiation patterns for penny-shaped and croissant-shaped cracks are explored. The scattering effects of the elastic waves in a homogeneous isotropic infinite elastic medium with a 3-D crack are displayed in both frequency and time domains.
Incubation time for sub-critical crack propagation in SiC-SiC composites
El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M.
1995-04-01
The objective of this work is to investigate the time for sub-critical crack propagation is SiC-SiC composites at high temperatures. The effects of fiber thermal creep on the relaxation of crack bridging tractions in SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is considered in the present work, with the objective of studying the time-to propagation of sub-critical matrix cracks in this material at high temperatures. Under the condition of fiber stress relaxation in the bridiging zone, it is found that the crack opening and the stress intensity factor increase with time for sub-critical matrix cracks. The time elapsed before the stress intensity reaches the critical value for crack propagation is calculated as a function of the initial crack length, applied stress and temperature. Stability domains for matrix cracks are defined, which provide guidelines for conducting high-temperature crack propagation experiments.
Plastic deformation - Its role in fatigue crack propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazumdar, P. K.; Jeelani, S.
1986-01-01
Recognizing the fact that the effective driving force Delta-K(eff) determines the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate and that the shear strain, which is considered to develop due to an occurrence of crack closure, primarily contributes to the plastic deformation, an effort is made here to elucidate the role of plastic deformation in FCP by developing a correlation between the Delta-K(eff) and the applied driving force (Delta-K) with shear strain as variable. The disparity between Delta(K)eff) and Delta-K, which apparently increases with shear strain level, persists at lower values of Delta-K. This suggests a strong influence of the degree of localized deformation on the FCP rates in the near threshold level. Hence, an improvement of FCP rates in the near threshold level should follow an effort that promotes the plastic deformation near the crack tip to a greater degree. This approach could explain the effect of the grain size, microstructure, environment, R-ratio and crack size on the near-threshold FCP rates.
Avalanches and clusters in planar crack front propagation.
Laurson, Lasse; Santucci, Stephane; Zapperi, Stefano
2010-04-01
We study avalanches in a model for a planar crack propagating in a disordered medium. Due to long-range interactions, avalanches are formed by a set of spatially disconnected local clusters, the sizes of which are distributed according to a power law with an exponent tau{a}=1.5. We derive a scaling relation tau{a}=2tau-1 between the local cluster exponent tau{a} and the global avalanche exponent tau . For length scales longer than a crossover length proportional to the Larkin length, the aspect ratio of the local clusters scales with the roughness exponent of the line model. Our analysis provides an explanation for experimental results on planar crack avalanches in Plexiglas plates, but the results are applicable also to other systems with long-range interactions.
Low-pH SCC: Mechanical effects on crack propagation
Beavers, J.A.; Hagerdorn, E.L.
1996-09-06
A better definition of the role of mechanical factors on low-pH stress corrosion crack propagation is needed to aid in the prediction of crack growth rates on operating pipelines and to develop strategies to mitigate this form of cracking. The overall objective of the project was to determine the roles and synergistic effects of pressure, pressure fluctuations, and hydrotesting on low-pH stress corrosion crack growth. All testing was performed in a low-pH electrolyte (NS4 solution) under cyclic load conditions on pre-cracked specimens of one X-65 line pipe steel. The cyclic load conditions in the testing were related to field conditions using the J-integral parameter. This project consisted of the following three tasks, Task 1 - Development of Test Protocol, Task 2 - Mechanical Effects, and Task 3 - Effects of Hydrotesting. The purposes of Task 1 were to prepare the test specimens and experimental apparatus and to establish a standard test protocol for conducting the cyclic load tests and analyzing the test data. The specimen preparation procedures and environmental conditions were similar to those used in a previous project for TransCanada PipeLines (TCPL). The most significant difference between the tests performed in this project and the previous research was in the mode of loading. The previous work was performed under constant extension rate loading while this project was performed under cyclic load conditions. It is difficult to relate test conditions under constant extension rate loading with field conditions. However, the cyclic load conditions in the laboratory test can be directly related to field test conditions using the J-integral parameter. Modifications also were necessary in the data analysis procedure to account for the change in loading mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platz, R.; Stapp, C.; Hanselka, H.
2011-08-01
Fatigue cracks in light-weight shell or panel structures may lead to major failures when used for sealing or load-carrying purposes. This paper describes investigations into the potential of piezoelectric actuator patches that are applied to the surface of an already cracked thin aluminum panel to actively reduce the propagation of fatigue cracks. With active reduction of fatigue crack propagation, uncertainties in the cracked structure's strength, which always remain present even when the structure is used under damage tolerance conditions, e.g. airplane fuselages, could be lowered. The main idea is to lower the cyclic stress intensity factor near the crack tip with actively induced mechanical compression forces using thin low voltage piezoelectric actuator patches applied to the panel's surface. With lowering of the cyclic stress intensity, the rate of crack propagation in an already cracked thin aluminum panel will be reduced significantly. First, this paper discusses the proper placement and alignment of thin piezoelectric actuator patches near the crack tip to induce the mechanical compression forces necessary for reduction of crack propagation by numerical simulations. Second, the potential for crack propagation reduction will be investigated statistically by an experimental sample test examining three cases: a cracked aluminum host structure (i) without, (ii) with but passive, and (iii) with activated piezoelectric actuator patches. It will be seen that activated piezoelectric actuator patches lead to a significant reduction in crack propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jiang; Qian, Qihu
2016-09-01
This paper experimentally investigates the cracking behavior of rock-like specimens containing artificial open flaws under uniaxial compressive loads. The present experiments mainly focus on the effects of crack openings on crack propagation and coalescence behavior in rock-like materials under uniaxial compression. The real-time crack coalescence processes in the specimens with different crack openings are analyzed. The experimental results show that the crack openings significantly affect the crack initiation stresses and the crack initiation modes. The initiation stresses of wing cracks and coplanar secondary cracks decrease with increasing crack openings. However, the initiation stress of anti-wing cracks increases with increasing crack openings. Moreover, five types of crack coalescence in the specimens containing three pre-existing open flaws under uniaxial compression are observed. The effects of crack openings on the mechanical properties of rock-like materials, which include the complete axial stress-strain curves, peak stresses, peak strains and initiation stresses, are investigated in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.
1992-01-01
A computer program that generates three-dimensional (3D) finite element models for cracked 3D solids was written. This computer program, gensurf, uses minimal input data to generate 3D finite element models for isotropic solids with elliptic or part-elliptic cracks. These models can be used with a 3D finite element program called surf3d. This report documents this mesh generator. In this manual the capabilities, limitations, and organization of gensurf are described. The procedures used to develop 3D finite element models and the input for and the output of gensurf are explained. Several examples are included to illustrate the use of this program. Several input data files are included with this manual so that the users can edit these files to conform to their crack configuration and use them with gensurf.
Crack propagation in functionally graded strip under thermal shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, I. V.; Sadowski, T.; Pietras, D.
2013-09-01
The thermal shock problem in a strip made of functionally graded composite with an interpenetrating network micro-structure of Al2O3 and Al is analysed numerically. The material considered here could be used in brake disks or cylinder liners. In both applications it is subjected to thermal shock. The description of the position-dependent properties of the considered functionally graded material are based on experimental data. Continuous functions were constructed for the Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity and implemented as user-defined material properties in user-defined subroutines of the commercial finite element software ABAQUS™. The thermal stress and the residual stress of the manufacturing process distributions inside the strip are considered. The solution of the transient heat conduction problem for thermal shock is used for crack propagation simulation using the XFEM method. The crack length developed during the thermal shock is the criterion for crack resistance of the different graduation profiles as a step towards optimization of the composition gradient with respect to thermal shock sensitivity.
Azari, Z.; Pappalettere, C.
2015-01-01
The behaviour of materials is governed by the surrounding environment. The contact area between the material and the surrounding environment is the likely spot where different forms of degradation, particularly rust, may be generated. A rust prevention treatment, like bluing, inhibitors, humidity control, coatings, and galvanization, will be necessary. The galvanization process aims to protect the surface of the material by depositing a layer of metallic zinc by either hot-dip galvanizing or electroplating. In the hot-dip galvanizing process, a metallic bond between steel and metallic zinc is obtained by immersing the steel in a zinc bath at a temperature of around 460°C. Although the hot-dip galvanizing procedure is recognized to be one of the most effective techniques to combat corrosion, cracks can arise in the intermetallic δ layer. These cracks can affect the life of the coated material and decrease the lifetime service of the entire structure. In the present paper the mechanical response of hot-dip galvanized steel submitted to mechanical loading condition is investigated. Experimental tests were performed and corroborative numerical and analytical methods were then applied in order to describe both the mechanical behaviour and the processes of crack/cracks propagation in a bimaterial as zinc-coated material. PMID:27347531
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in 3D Opal-based Magnetophotonic Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardavi-Horvath, Martha; Makeeva, Galina S.; Golovanov, Oleg A.; Rinkevich, Anatolii B.
2013-03-01
Opals, a class of self-organized 3D nanostructures, are typical representatives of photonic bandgap structures. The voids inside of the opal structure of close packed SiO2 spheres can be infiltrated by a magnetic material, creating magnetically tunable magnetophotonic crystals with interesting and potentially useful properties at GHz and THz frequencies. The propagation of electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies was investigated numerically in SiO2 opal based magnetic nanostructures, using rigorous mathematical models to solve Maxwell's equations complemented by the Landau-Lifshitz equation with electrodynamic boundary conditions. The numerical approach is based on Galerkin's projection method using the decomposition algorithm on autonomous blocks with Floquet channels. The opal structure consists of SiO2 nanospheres, with inter-sphere voids infiltrated with nanoparticles of Ni-Zn ferrites. Both the opal matrix and the ferrite are assumed to be lossy. A model, taking into account the real structure of the ferrite particles in the opal's voids was developed to simulate the measured FMR lineshape of the ferrite infiltrated opal. The numerical technique shows an excellent agreement when applied to model recent experimental data on similar ferrite opals.
SRμCT study of crack propagation within laser-welded aluminum-alloy T-joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzen, J.; Beckmann, F.; Riekehr, S.; Bayraktar, F. S.; Haibel, A.; Staron, P.; Donath, T.; Utcke, S.; Kocak, M.; Schreyer, A.
2008-08-01
Using laser welding in fabrication of metallic airframes reduces the weight and hence fuel consumption. Currently only limited parts of the airframes are welded. To increase laser beam welded parts, there is the need for a better understanding of crack propagation and crack-pore interaction within the welds. Laser beam welded Al-alloys may contain isolated small process pores and their role and interaction with growing crack need to be investigated. The present paper presents the first results of a crack propagation study in laser beam welded (LBW) Al-alloy T-joints using synchrotron radiation based micro computed tomography (SRμCT). A region-of-interest technique was used, since the specimens exceeded the field of view of the X-ray detector. As imaging with high density resolution at high photon energies is very challenging, a feasibility measurement on a small laser weld, cut cylindrically from the welded region of a T-joint, was done before starting the crack-propagation study. This measurement was performed at the beamline HARWI-II at DESY to demonstrate the potential of the SRμCT as non-destructive testing method. The result has shown a high density resolution, hence, the different Al alloys used in the T-joint and the weld itself were clearly separated. The quantitative image analysis of the 3D data sets allows visualizing non-destructively and calculating the pore size distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedan, S.; Pop, O.; Valle, V.; Cottron, M.
2006-08-01
We propose in this paper, to analyse, the evolution of out-of-plane displacement fields for a crack propagation in brittle materials. As the crack propagation is a complex process that involves the deformation mechanisms, the out-of-plane displacement measurement gives pertinent information about the 3D effects. For investigation, we use the interferometric method. The optical device includes a laser source, a Michelson interferometer and an ultra high-speed CCD camera. To take into account the crack velocity, we dispose of a maximum frame rate of 1Mfps. The experimental tests have been carried out for a SEN (Single Edge Notch) specimen of PMMA material. The crack propagation is initiated by adding a dynamic energy given by the impact of a cutter on the initial crack. The obtained interferograms are analysed with a new phase extraction method entitled MPC [6]. This analysis, which has been developed specially for dynamic studies, gives the out-of-plane displacement with an accuracy of about 10 nm.
Preferred propagation patterns of axial surface cracks in thick-walled cylinders
Perez, E.H.; Kendall, D.P.
1996-12-01
Semi-elliptical axial surface cracks, growing due to cyclic pressure loading in thick-walled cylinders undergo significant shape change during the propagation process. These growing cracks change their shapes such that they approach and follow preferred propagation patterns (PPPs). These PPPs depend on the diameter ratio of the cylinder and on the fatigue crack propagation constant, ``m`` in the Paris equation. The objective of this paper is to show the crack shape variation during fatigue crack growth using linear elastic fracture mechanics. It is shown that a crack whose initial shape does not agree with this preferred propagation pattern will grow such that its shape converges to the preferred pattern. The results of this study also show the effect of autofrettage on the PPPs and the final shape of the cracks at breakthrough.
Low-pH stress corrosion crack propagation in API X-65 line pipe steel
Harle, B.A.; Beavers, J.A. )
1993-10-01
Preliminary results of ongoing crack growth studies being performed on an API X-65 line pipe steel in a low-pH cracking environment were reported. Objectives were to reproduce low-pH crack propagation in the laboratory, to identify a crack driving force parameter, and to evaluate the influence of environmental and mechanical parameters on crack growth. A J-integral test technique was used in the study. Significant crack growth was observed. The parameter J appeared to be a good driving force parameter to describe crack growth.
A time-space domain stereo finite difference method for 3D scalar wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yushu; Yang, Guangwen; Ma, Xiao; He, Conghui; Song, Guojie
2016-11-01
The time-space domain finite difference methods reduce numerical dispersion effectively by minimizing the error in the joint time-space domain. However, their interpolating coefficients are related with the Courant numbers, leading to significantly extra time costs for loading the coefficients consecutively according to velocity in heterogeneous models. In the present study, we develop a time-space domain stereo finite difference (TSSFD) method for 3D scalar wave equation. The method propagates both the displacements and their gradients simultaneously to keep more information of the wavefields, and minimizes the maximum phase velocity error directly using constant interpolation coefficients for different Courant numbers. We obtain the optimal constant coefficients by combining the truncated Taylor series approximation and the time-space domain optimization, and adjust the coefficients to improve the stability condition. Subsequent investigation shows that the TSSFD can suppress numerical dispersion effectively with high computational efficiency. The maximum phase velocity error of the TSSFD is just 3.09% even with only 2 sampling points per minimum wavelength when the Courant number is 0.4. Numerical experiments show that to generate wavefields with no visible numerical dispersion, the computational efficiency of the TSSFD is 576.9%, 193.5%, 699.0%, and 191.6% of those of the 4th-order and 8th-order Lax-Wendroff correction (LWC) method, the 4th-order staggered grid method (SG), and the 8th-order optimal finite difference method (OFD), respectively. Meanwhile, the TSSFD is compatible to the unsplit convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) boundary condition for absorbing artificial boundaries. The efficiency and capability to handle complex velocity models make it an attractive tool in imaging methods such as acoustic reverse time migration (RTM).
Yuan, Shen-fang; Jin, Xin; Qiu, Lei; Huang, Hong-mei
2015-03-01
In order to improve the security of aircraft repaired structures, a method of crack propagation monitoring in repaired structures is put forward basing on characteristics of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) reflecting spectra in this article. With the cyclic loading effecting on repaired structure, cracks propagate, while non-uniform strain field appears nearby the tip of crack which leads to the FBG sensors' reflecting spectra deformations. The crack propagating can be monitored by extracting the characteristics of FBG sensors' reflecting spectral deformations. A finite element model (FEM) of the specimen is established. Meanwhile, the distributions of strains which are under the action of cracks of different angles and lengths are obtained. The characteristics, such as main peak wavelength shift, area of reflecting spectra, second and third peak value and so on, are extracted from the FBGs' reflecting spectral which are calculated by transfer matrix algorithm. An artificial neural network is built to act as the model between the characteristics of the reflecting spectral and the propagation of crack. As a result, the crack propagation of repaired structures is monitored accurately and the error of crack length is less than 0.5 mm, the error of crack angle is less than 5 degree. The accurately monitoring problem of crack propagation of repaired structures is solved by taking use of this method. It has important significance in aircrafts safety improvement and maintenance cost reducing.
Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gear Tooth in the Presence of an Inclusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Vineet; Zagade, Pramod R.; Khan, Danish; Gautham, B. P.
2014-05-01
A computational model for studying the fatigue crack propagation characteristics in a gear tooth root in the presence of inclusions is presented. A step-by-step crack growth scheme is implemented to predict the crack path using the finite element method and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Paris law approach is used to model fatigue crack propagation. The effect of size and location of hard circular inclusion on the growth of a surface-initiated crack and service life in a gear tooth is studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leng, Kuangdai; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; van Driel, Martin
2016-09-01
We present a new, computationally efficient numerical method to simulate global seismic wave propagation in realistic 3-D Earth models. We characterize the azimuthal dependence of 3-D wavefields in terms of Fourier series, such that the 3-D equations of motion reduce to an algebraic system of coupled 2-D meridian equations, which is then solved by a 2-D spectral element method (SEM). Computational efficiency of such a hybrid method stems from lateral smoothness of 3-D Earth models and axial singularity of seismic point sources, which jointly confine the Fourier modes of wavefields to a few lower orders. We show novel benchmarks for global wave solutions in 3-D structures between our method and an independent, fully discretized 3-D SEM with remarkable agreement. Performance comparisons are carried out on three state-of-the-art tomography models, with seismic period ranging from 34s down to 11s. It turns out that our method has run up to two orders of magnitude faster than the 3-D SEM, featured by a computational advantage expanding with seismic frequency.
Time-dependent corrosion fatique crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, Mark E.
1995-01-01
The goal of this research is to characterize environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth for the susceptible short-longitudinal orientation of aluminum alloy 7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution. This work is necessary in order to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA-FLAGRO (NASGRO). This effort concentrates on determining relevant inputs to a superposition model in order to more accurately model environmental fatigue crack propagation.
A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments.
Ahmed, Abrar; Nawaz, Syed Junaid; Gulfam, Sardar Muhammad
2015-01-01
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 10(7) scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate
A 3-D Propagation Model for Emerging Land Mobile Radio Cellular Environments
Ahmed, Abrar; Nawaz, Syed Junaid; Gulfam, Sardar Muhammad
2015-01-01
A tunable stochastic geometry based Three-Dimensional (3-D) scattering model for emerging land mobile radio cellular systems is proposed. Uniformly distributed scattering objects are assumed around the Mobile Station (MS) bounded within an ellipsoidal shaped Scattering Region (SR) hollowed with an elliptically-cylindric scattering free region in immediate vicinity of MS. To ensure the degree of expected accuracy, the proposed model is designed to be tunable (as required) with nine degrees of freedom, unlike its counterparts in the existing literature. The outer and inner boundaries of SR are designed as independently scalable along all the axes and rotatable in horizontal plane around their origin centered at MS. The elevated Base Station (BS) is considered outside the SR at a certain adjustable distance and height w.r.t. position of MS. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of Angle-of-Arrival (AoA) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) are derived for both up- and down-links. The obtained analytical results for angular and temporal statistics of the channel are presented along with a thorough analysis. The impact of various physical model parameters on angular and temporal characteristics of the channel is presented, which reveals the comprehensive insight on the proposed results. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed analytical model, a comparison with experimental datasets and simulation results is also presented. The obtained analytical results for PDF of AoA observed at BS are seen to fit a vast range of empirical datasets in the literature taken for various outdoor propagation environments. In order to establish the validity of the obtained analytical results for spatial and temporal characteristics of the channel, a comparison of the proposed analytical results with the simulation results is shown, which illustrates a good fit for 107 scattering points. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to degenerate to
Effects of gear crack propagation paths on vibration responses of the perforated gear system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Hui; Pang, Xu; Zeng, Jin; Wang, Qibin; Wen, Bangchun
2015-10-01
This paper investigates the dynamic behaviors of a perforated gear system considering effects of the gear crack propagation paths and this study focuses on the effects of a crack propagating through the rim on the time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) and vibration responses. Considering the effects of the extended tooth contact, a finite element (FE) model of a gear pair is established based on ANSYS software. TVMS of the perforated gear with crack propagating through tooth and rim are calculated by using the FE model. Furthermore, a lumped mass model is adopted to investigate the vibration responses of the perforated gear system. The results show that there exist three periods related to slots of the gear body in a rotating period of the perforated gear. Gear cracks propagating through tooth and rim both reduce the gear body stiffness and lead to reduction of TVMS besides the crack tooth contact moment, and the TVMS weakening for the former is less than that for the latter. Moreover, the results also show that the gear crack propagating through the rim (CPR) has a greater effect on vibration responses than the gear crack propagating through the tooth (CPT) under the same crack level. Vibration level increases with the increasing crack depth, especially for the gear with CPR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orme, Haydn; Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher
2016-04-01
The shallow parts of subduction megathrust faults are typically thought to be aseismic and incapable of propagating seismic rupture. The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, however, ruptured all the way to the trench, proving that in some locations rupture can propagate through the accretionary wedge. An improved understanding of the structural character and physical properties of accretionary wedges is therefore crucial to begin to assess why such anomalously shallow seismic rupture occurs. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust network development in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images of entire networks. Thus our current understanding is largely underpinned by observations from analogue and numerical modelling, with limited observational data from natural examples. In this contribution we use PSDM, 3D seismic reflection data from the Nankai margin (3D Muroto dataset, available from the UTIG Academic Seismic Portal, Marine Geoscience Data System) to examine how imbricate thrust fault networks evolve during accretionary wedge growth. We unravel the evolution of faults within the protothrust and imbricate thrust zones by interpreting multiple horizons across faults and measuring fault displacement and fold amplitude along-strike; by doing this, we are able to investigate the three dimensional accrual of strain. We document a number of local displacement minima along-strike of faults, suggesting that, the protothrust and imbricate thrusts developed from the linkage of smaller, previously isolated fault segments. Although we often assume imbricate faults are likely to have propagated upwards from the décollement we show strong evidence for fault nucleation at shallow depths and downward propagation to intersect the décollement. The complex fault interactions documented here have implications for hydraulic compartmentalisation and pore
Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions
Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright
2013-10-01
The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650
Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.
Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie
2016-12-01
To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials. PMID:27479896
Semiconductor laser asymmetry cutting glass with laser induced thermal-crack propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yang
2014-12-01
Laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) makes the material to produce an uneven temperature field, maximum temperature can't soften or melt the material, induces the thermal stress, then the crack separates along the cutting path. One of the problems in laser asymmetry cutting glass with LITP is the cutting deviation along scanning trajectory. This study lays great emphasis on considering the dynamic extension of crack to explain the reason of the cutting deviation in laser asymmetry cutting glass, includes asymmetric linear cutting and a quarter of a circular curve cutting. This paper indicates the experiments of semiconductor laser asymmetry cutting glass with LITP. Optical microscope photographs of the glass sheet are obtained to examine the cutting deviation. The extended finite element method (XFEM) is used to simulate the dynamic propagation of crack; the crack path does not have to be specified a priori. The cutting deviation mechanism and the crack propagation process are studied by the stress fields using finite element software ABAQUS. This work provides a theoretical basis to investigate the cutting deviation in laser asymmetry cutting glass. In semiconductor laser asymmetry cutting glass, the tensile stress is the basis of crack propagation, then the compressive stress not only makes the crack to extend stably, but also controls the direction of crack propagation.
Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.
Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie
2016-12-01
To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials.
Near-neutral pH SCC in pipelines: Effects of pressure fluctuations on crack propagation
Beavers, J.A.; Jaake, C.E.
1998-12-31
Currently, there is a poor understanding of the effects of pressure related parameters (operating pressure, pressure fluctuations, and hydrostatic testings) on external stress corrosion crack propagation in pipelines in near-neutral-pH environments. A better definition of the role of these parameters on crack propagation is needed to aid in the prediction of crack growth rates on operating pipelines and to develop strategies to mitigate this form of cracking. The objective of the research described in this paper was to determine the roles and synergistic effects of operating pressure, pressure fluctuations, and hydrostatic testing on crack growth in line pipe steels in a near-neutral-pH SCC environment. All testing was performed on one X-65 line pipe steel in a near-neutral-pH cracking environment, designated NS4. Fatigue precracked compact-type specimens of the line pipe steel were cyclically loaded while immersed in the cracking environment. The desired loading regime was applied using a servo-hydraulic tensile testing machine. Crack growth was monitored using the electric potential drop technique. The loading conditions applied to the specimen were related to field conditions using the J-integral parameter. It was found that the prior load history applied to the specimens had a significant effect on crack growth behavior. Overloading inhibited crack growth while unloading stimulated crack growth. Hydrostatic testing, which combines overloading and unloading, caused some crack extension but reduced the crack velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Shinichi; Homma, Hiroomi; Kusaka, Riichiro
A METHOD OF pulsed holographic microscopy is applied to take instantaneous microscopic photographs of the neighborhoods of crack tips propagating through PMMA or through AISI 4340 steel specimens at a speed of several hundred meters per second. The cracks are in the opening mode. A fast propagating crack is recorded as a hologram at an instant during its propagation. A microscopic photograph of the crack is taken with a conventional microscope to magnify the reconstructed image from the hologram. From the microscopic photograph, crack opening displacement (COD) is measured along the crack in the vicinity of the crack tip. The COD is of the order often to one hundred microns, and in proportion to the square root of the distance from the crack tip. The dynamic fracture toughness KID is obtained using the formula for COD in the singular stress field of a fast propagating crack. Simultaneous KID measurement both through pulsed holographic microscopy and through the caustic method is furthermore carried out with PMMA specimens. The values of KID obtained through pulsed holographic microscopy are in agreement with those through the caustic method. Microcracks accompanied by a main crack are also photographed with the method of pulsed holographic microscopy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.; Kousiounelos, P. N.
1981-01-01
An orthotropic double cantilever beam (DCB) model is used to study dynamic crack propagation and arrest in 90 deg unidirectional Hercules AS/3501-6 graphite fiber epoxy composites. The dynamic fracture toughness of the composite is determined from tests performed on the long-strip specimen and DCB crack arrest experiments are conducted. By using the dynamic fracture toughness in a finite-difference solution of the DCB governing partial differential equations, a numerical solution of the crack propagation and arrest events is computed. Excellent agreement between the experimental and numerical crack arrest results are obtained.
Extreme stress gradient effects on microstructural fatigue crack propagation rates in Ni microbeams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi-Tohidi, F.; Pierron, O. N.
2015-05-01
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of microstructurally small cracks growing under extreme stress gradients was investigated in Ni microbeams under fully reversed cyclic loading. A technique to calculate the crack growth rates in microbeams with two different normalized stress gradients (17% and 50% μm-1) is developed and validated. Decreasing crack propagation rates are observed over the first 2 μm, and the rates are more than 1 order of magnitude slower for the devices with 50% μm-1 stress gradients. This fundamental knowledge is critical to predict the fatigue reliability of advanced metallic microcomponents under bending such as in microelectromechanical systems or flexible/stretchable electronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Y.; Ebert-Uphoff, I.; Chen, J.
2015-12-01
Causal discovery seeks to discover potential cause-effect relationships from observational data. Here we adopt the idea of interpreting large-scale atmospheric dynamical processes, particularly those tied to propagation of large-scale waves, as information flow around the globe, which can then be calculated using causal discovery methods. We apply a well-established causal discovery algorithm - based on constraint-based structure learning of probabilistic graphical models - toward 51 years of 6-hourly, atmospheric isobaric-level geopotential height data to construct the first-ever graphs of 3D information flow in the atmosphere. These graphs are created globally for different seasons and their connection to phase/energy propagation of atmospheric waves are investigated. Specifically, we examine the information flows 1) in the topical region that represent horizontal and vertical propagations of Kelvin and Rossby-gravity waves whose associated momentum transfer are known to play a key role in the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), and 2) in the northern extratropics that represent propagations of planetary-scale waves whose heat/momentum fluxes are responsible for vacillations in the polar stratospheric vortex and occurrences of extreme events such as the stratospheric sudden warming. The sensitivity of the constructed graphs of 3D information flow to data resolution and pre-processing methods (e.g., spatial and temporal filtering) will be discussed.
Mackert, B M; Burghoff, M; Hiss, L H; Nordahn, M; Trahms, L; Curio, G
2000-07-28
Compound action current (CAC) propagation along nerve fibers running deep in the human brachial plexus was 3D-visualized based on non-invasive 49-channel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoneurography. Spatio-temporal mappings over the upper thoracal quadrant of magnetic fields (<100 fT) evoked upon alternating median and ulnar nerve stimulation in seven healthy volunteers showed consistently smoothly propagating dipolar patterns for both the CAC depolarization and repolarization phases. Multipolar current source reconstructions (i) distinguished spatially CAC propagation pathways along either median or ulnar plexus fibers, allowed (ii) to calculate local conduction velocities ( approximately 56 m/s) and (iii) even to estimate the CAC extension along the nerve fibers (depolarization phase: approximately 11 cm). Thus, for deep proximal nerve segments magnetoneurography can provide a detailed tracing of neural activity which is a prerequisite to localize non-invasively focal nerve malfunctions.
Kallinderis, Yannis; Vitsas, Panagiotis A.; Menounou, Penelope
2012-07-15
A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.
Fatigue-crack propagation in advanced aerospace materials: Aluminum-lithium alloys
Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.
1988-10-01
Characteristics of fatigue-crack propagation behavior are reviewed for recently developed commercial aluminum-lithium alloys, with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms associated with crack advance and their implications to damage-tolerant design. Specifically, crack-growth kinetics in Alcoa 2090-T8E41, Alcan 8090 and 8091, and Pechiney 2091 alloys, and in certain powder-metallurgy alloys, are examined as a function of microstructure, plate orientation, temperature, crack size, load ratio and loading sequence. In general, it is found that growth rates for long (> 10 mm) cracks are nearly 2--3 orders of magnitude slower than in traditional 2000 and 7000 series alloys at comparable stress-intensity levels. In additions, Al-Li alloys shown enhanced crack-growth retardations following the application of tensile overloads and retain superior fatigue properties even after prolonged exposure at overaging temperatures; however, they are less impressive in the presence of compression overloads and further show accelerated crack-growth behavior for microstructurally-small (2--1000 {mu}m) cracks (some three orders of magnitude faster than long cracks). These contrasting observations are attributed to a very prominent role of crack-tip shielding during fatigue-crack growth in Al-Li alloys, promoted largely by the tortuous and zig-zag nature of the crack-path morphologies. Such crack paths result in locally reduced crack-tip stress intensities, due to crack deflection and consequent crack wedging from fracture-surface asperities (roughness-induced crack closure); however, such mechanisms are far less potent in the presence of compressive loads, which act to crush the asperities, and for small cracks, where the limited crack wake severely restricts the shielding effect. 50 refs., 21 figs.
Monitoring of solidification crack propagation mechanism in pulsed laser welding of 6082 aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Witzendorff, P.; Kaierle, S.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.
2016-03-01
Pulsed laser sources with pulse durations in the millisecond regime can be used for spot welding and seam welding of aluminum. Seam welds are generally produced with several overlapping spot welds. Hot cracking has its origin in the solidification process of individual spot welds which determines the cracking morphology along the seam welding. This study used a monitoring unit to capture the crack geometry within individual spot welds during seam welding to investigate the conditions for initiation, propagation and healing (re-melting) of solidification cracking within overlapping pulsed laser welds. The results suggest that small crack radii and high crack angles with respect to welding direction are favorable conditions for crack healing which leads to crack-free seam welds. Optimized pulse shapes were used to produce butt welds of 0.5 mm thick 6082 aluminum alloys. Tensile tests were performed to investigate the mechanical strength in the as-welded condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Jason J.; Yazzie, Kyle E.; Connor Phillips, N.; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Xiao, Xinghui; de Carlo, Francesco; Iyyer, Nagaraja; Kittur, Maddan
2011-12-01
In situ three-dimensional (3-D) X-ray synchrotron tomography of fatigue crack growth was conducted in a 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. Local measurements of da/ dN were possible with the 3-D data sets obtained from tomography. A comparison with fatigue striation spacings obtained from scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces yielded excellent correlation with da/ dN obtained from tomography. The X-ray tomography technique can be used to obtain a highly accurate and representative measurements of crack growth locally in the microstructure of the material.
Elbert, K E; Wright, T M; Rimnac, C M; Klein, R W; Ingraffea, A R; Gunsallus, K; Bartel, D L
1994-02-01
Analytical studies of the stresses on and within ultra high molecular weight polyethylene joint components suggest that damage modes associated with polyethylene fatigue failure are caused by a combination of surface and subsurface crack propagation. Fatigue crack propagation tests under mixed mode loading conditions were conducted on center-cracked tension specimens machined from extruded blocks of sterilized polyethylene in an attempt to determine how fatigue cracks change direction in this material. Cyclic testing was performed using a sinusoidal wave form at a frequency of 5 Hz and an R-ratio (minimum load/maximum load) of 0.15. Specimens had the notch oriented perpendicular to the direction of applied load and at angles of 60 degrees and 45 degrees to the loading direction. Numerical analyses were used to interpret the experimental test and to predict the fatigue behavior of polyethylene under mixed mode conditions. It was found that all cracks eventually propagated horizontally, regardless of the initial angle of inclination of the notch to the direction of applied cyclic load. In fact, the extent of the curvilinear crack growth was quite limited. An effective range of cyclic stress intensity factor was calculated for correlation with the rate of crack growth. The results followed a Paris relation, with crack growth rate linearly related to a power of the range of stress intensity, for all three crack orientations. The numerical analyses adequately modeled the experimental fatigue crack growth results.
Capturing atmospheric effects on 3D millimeter wave radar propagation patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Richard D.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Keefer, Kevin J.; Stringer, Jeremy
2016-05-01
Traditional radar propagation modeling is done using a path transmittance with little to no input for weather and atmospheric conditions. As radar advances into the millimeter wave (MMW) regime, atmospheric effects such as attenuation and refraction become more pronounced than at traditional radar wavelengths. The DoD High Energy Laser Joint Technology Offices High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) in combination with the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) code have shown great promise simulating atmospheric effects on laser propagation. Indeed, the LEEDR radiative transfer code has been validated in the UV through RF. Our research attempts to apply these models to characterize the far field radar pattern in three dimensions as a signal propagates from an antenna towards a point in space. Furthermore, we do so using realistic three dimensional atmospheric profiles. The results from these simulations are compared to those from traditional radar propagation software packages. In summary, a fast running method has been investigated which can be incorporated into computational models to enhance understanding and prediction of MMW propagation through various atmospheric and weather conditions.
Study on subsurface-inclined crack propagation during machining of brittle crystal materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Jiawen; Chen, Jianbin; Li, Jia; Fang, Qihong; Liu, Youwen
2016-05-01
There is an immense need to obtain high-quality surface and subsurface on brittle material owing to the advantage of its improved performance. Thus, in this paper, we proposed a mechanical and numerical study of fracture mechanics from the perspective of external loading and indentation geometry in brittle machining. Stress intensity factors are computed to analyze various impacts of external loading and indentation configuration on subsurface crack propagation. Results indicate that the main fracture mode for inclined crack is shear rather than opening and the apex angle of the indentation plays an important role in fracture behavior. As a certain external loading is exerted to the surface of the silicon, a large apex angle of indentation may lead to strong shielding effect on mode II crack propagation. A relationship between critical value of external loading to the crack propagation and the apex angle of the indentation is given in this paper that shows quantitative indication for suppression of crack growth.
Computer simulation of crack propagation in ductile materials under biaxial dynamic loads
Chen, Y.M.
1980-07-29
The finite-difference computer program HEMP is used to simulate the crack-propagation phenomenon in two-dimensional ductile materials under truly dynamic biaxial loads. A comulative strain-damage criterion for the initiation of ductile fracture is used. To simulate crack propagation numerically, the method of equivalent free-surface boundary conditions and the method of artifical velocity are used in the computation. Centrally cracked rectangular aluminum bars subjected to constant-velocity biaxial loads at the edges are considered. Tensile and compressive loads in the direction of crack length are found, respectively, to increase and decrease directional instability in crack propagation, where the directional instability is characterized by branching or bifurcation.
Effect of Chamber Pressurization Rate on Combustion and Propagation of Solid Propellant Cracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Wei-Lan; Wei, Shen; Yuan, Shu-Shen
2002-01-01
area of the propellant grain satisfies the designed value. But cracks in propellant grain can be generated during manufacture, storage, handing and so on. The cracks can provide additional surface area for combustion. The additional combustion may significantly deviate the performance of the rocket motor from the designed conditions, even lead to explosive catastrophe. Therefore a thorough study on the combustion, propagation and fracture of solid propellant cracks must be conducted. This paper takes an isolated propellant crack as the object and studies the effect of chamber pressurization rate on the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack by experiment and theoretical calculation. deformable, the burning inside a solid propellant crack is a coupling of solid mechanics and combustion dynamics. In this paper, a theoretical model describing the combustion, propagation and fracture of the crack was formulated and solved numerically. The interaction of structural deformation and combustion process was included in the theoretical model. The conservation equations for compressible fluid flow, the equation of state for perfect gas, the heat conducting equation for the solid-phase, constitutive equation for propellant, J-integral fracture criterion and so on are used in the model. The convective burning inside the crack and the propagation and fracture of the crack were numerically studied by solving the set of nonlinear, inhomogeneous gas-phase governing equations and solid-phase equations. On the other hand, the combustion experiments for propellant specimens with a precut crack were conducted by RTR system. Predicted results are in good agreement with experimental data, which validates the reasonableness of the theoretical model. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the chamber pressurization rate has strong effects on the convective burning in the crack, crack fracture initiation and fracture pattern.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvadori, A.; Fantoni, F.
2016-10-01
The present work frames the problem of three-dimensional quasi-static crack propagation in brittle materials into the theory of standard dissipative processes. Variational formulations are stated. They characterize the three dimensional crack front "quasi-static velocity" as minimizer of constrained quadratic functionals. An implicit in time crack tracking algorithm that computationally handles the constraint via the penalty method algorithm is introduced and proof of concept is provided.
Ma, Longzhou
2012-11-30
The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Haihong; Jiang, Shilin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng
2014-09-01
Influenced by the geomagnetic field, crack can induce spontaneous magnetic signals in ferromagnetic steels. The normal component of surface spontaneous magnetic signals of the center-cracked sheet specimens, Hp(y), was measured throughout the tension-tension fatigue tests. The variation of Hp(y) and its maximum gradient Kmax in the crack propagation stage were studied. It shows that Hp(y) began to change its polarity, just right on the crack position, in the intermediate stage of crack propagation. The cause for this phenomenon was also discussed. The peak-to-peak value, ΔHp(y), of the magnetic signal when Hp(y) changing its polarity was collected, and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was further used to acquire high frequency components of the Hp(y) signal. The results show that the Kmax increased exponentially with the increase of loading cycles; an approximate linear relationship was found between Kmax and crack length 2a in the intermediate stage of crack propagation; and the high-frequency component of Hp(y) can be used to identify the late stage of crack propagation.
First order error propagation of the procrustes method for 3D attitude estimation.
Dorst, Leo
2005-02-01
The well-known Procrustes method determines the optimal rigid body motion that registers two point clouds by minimizing the square distances of the residuals. In this paper, we perform the first order error analysis of this method for the 3D case, fully specifying how directional noise in the point clouds affects the estimated parameters of the rigid body motion. These results are much more specific than the error bounds which have been established in numerical analysis. We provide an intuitive understanding of the outcome to facilitate direct use in applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, John T.; Pineda, Evan J.; Ranatunga, Vipul; Smeltzer, Stanley S.
2015-01-01
A simple continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based 3D progressive damage analysis (PDA) tool for laminated composites was developed and implemented as a user defined material subroutine to link with a commercially available explicit finite element code. This PDA tool uses linear lamina properties from standard tests, predicts damage initiation with an easy-to-implement Hashin-Rotem failure criteria, and in the damage evolution phase, evaluates the degradation of material properties based on the crack band theory and traction-separation cohesive laws. It follows Matzenmiller et al.'s formulation to incorporate the degrading material properties into the damaged stiffness matrix. Since nonlinear shear and matrix stress-strain relations are not implemented, correction factors are used for slowing the reduction of the damaged shear stiffness terms to reflect the effect of these nonlinearities on the laminate strength predictions. This CDM based PDA tool is implemented as a user defined material (VUMAT) to link with the Abaqus/Explicit code. Strength predictions obtained, using this VUMAT, are correlated with test data for a set of notched specimens under tension and compression loads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-01
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-28
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
Depth propagation for semi-automatic 2D to 3D conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolstaya, Ekaterina; Pohl, Petr; Rychagov, Michael
2015-03-01
In this paper, we present a method for temporal propagation of depth data that is available for so called key-frames through video sequence. Our method requires that full frame depth information is assigned. Our method utilizes nearest preceding and nearest following key-frames with known depth information. The propagation of depth information from two sides is essential as it allows to solve most occlusion problems correctly. Image matching is based on the coherency sensitive hashing (CSH) method and is done using image pyramids. Disclosed results are compared with temporal interpolation based on motion vectors from optical flow algorithm. The proposed algorithm keeps sharp depth edges of objects even in situations with fast motion or occlusions. It also handles well many situations, when the depth edges don't perfectly correspond with true edges of objects.
An investigation of fatigue crack propagation under mode 1 and mixed mode 1/2 loadings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Tapan Kumar
An investigation on fatigue crack propagation under mode 1 and mixed mode (1 and 2) loadings has been performed. Fatigue crack growth data in the case of plane strain mode 1 have been obtained by performing experiments on compact tension specimens of 4340 steel for increasing Delta-K(sub 1), decreasing Delta-K(sub 1), and constant Delta-K(sub 1) loading conditions. Under mixed mode plane stress condition, the fatigue crack growth trajectory has been determined by performing experiments on the center cracked thin disk specimen of aluminum 2024. With two mixed mode loading ratios, the subsequent propagation of the main crack has been performed by producing a series of kinks and forks. For practical applications such as the case of a flaw or a crack in aircraft or ship structure in which the loading axis (with respect to the crack) frequently changes, a zig-zag or complicated crack trajectory is very important in both experimental and theoretical studies. In order to apply any specific crack growth criterion for the analysis of the experimental results, a detailed analysis for the stresses near the crack front and the extent of yielding is necessary. A full field solution, based on small deformation, three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the centrally cracked thin disk under mode 1 loading has been performed. The solution for the stresses under small-scale yielding and locally fully plastic state has been compared with the HRR plane stress solution. At the outside of the three dimensional zone, within a distance of r sigma(sub 0)/J = 18, HRR dominance is maintained in the presence of a significant amount of compressive stress along the crack flanks. Ahead of this region, the HRR field overestimate the stresses. These results demonstrate a completely reversed state of stress in the near crack front compared to that in the plane strain case. The combined effect of geometry and finite thickness of the specimen on elastic-plastic crack tip stress
Peak Stress Intensity Factor Governs Crack Propagation Velocity In Crosslinked UHMWPE
Sirimamilla, P. Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare
2013-01-01
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax-Kmin, MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax, during cyclic loading, rather than by ΔK. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasi-static manner. The current study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax. The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components. PMID:23165898
Sirimamilla, Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare
2013-04-01
Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax - Kmin , MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax ), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax , during cyclic loading. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform, and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasistatic manner. This study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax . The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components.
Threshold intensity factors as lower boundaries for crack propagation in ceramics
Marx, Rudolf; Jungwirth, Franz; Walter, Per-Ole
2004-01-01
Background Slow crack growth can be described in a v (crack velocity) versus KI (stress intensity factor) diagram. Slow crack growth in ceramics is attributed to corrosion assisted stress at the crack tip or at any pre-existing defect in the ceramic. The combined effect of high stresses at the crack tip and the presence of water or body fluid molecules (reducing surface energy at the crack tip) induces crack propagation, which eventually may result in fatigue. The presence of a threshold in the stress intensity factor, below which no crack propagation occurs, has been the subject of important research in the last years. The higher this threshold, the higher the reliability of the ceramic, and consequently the longer its lifetime. Methods We utilize the Irwin K-field displacement relation to deduce crack tip stress intensity factors from the near crack tip profile. Cracks are initiated by indentation impressions. The threshold stress intensity factor is determined as the time limit of the tip stress intensity when the residual stresses have (nearly) disappeared. Results We determined the threshold stress intensity factors for most of the all ceramic materials presently important for dental restorations in Europe. Of special significance is the finding that alumina ceramic has a threshold limit nearly identical with that of zirconia. Conclusion The intention of the present paper is to stress the point that the threshold stress intensity factor represents a more intrinsic property for a given ceramic material than the widely used toughness (bend strength or fracture toughness), which refers only to fast crack growth. Considering two ceramics with identical threshold limits, although with different critical stress intensity limits, means that both ceramics have identical starting points for slow crack growth. Fast catastrophic crack growth leading to spontaneous fatigue, however, is different. This growth starts later in those ceramic materials that have larger
Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in 3D tooth model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Yongji; Jacques, Steven L.
2011-03-01
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was implemented in a three dimensional tooth model to simulate the light propagation in the tooth for antibiotic photodynamic therapy and other laser therapy. The goal of this research is to estimate the light energy deposition in the target region of tooth with given light source information, tooth optical properties and tooth structure. Two use cases were presented to demonstrate the practical application of this model. One case was comparing the isotropic point source and narrow beam dosage distribution and the other case was comparing different incident points for the same light source. This model will help the doctor for PDT design in the tooth.
Matrix Cracking in 3D Orthogonal Melt-Infiltrated SiC/SiC Composites with Various Z-Fiber Types
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee Mann; DiCarlo, James A.
2003-01-01
The occurrence of matrix cracks in melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites with a 3D orthogonal architecture was determined at room temperature for specimens tested in tension oriented in the X-direction (parallel to Z-bundle weave direction) and Y-direction (perpendicular to Z-bundle weave direction) and Y-direction (perpendicular to Z-bundle weave direction). The fiber-types were Sylramic and Sylramic-IBN in the X and Y-directions and lower modulus ZMI, T300, and rayon in the Z-direction. Acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the matrix cracking activity. For Y-direction composites, the AE data was used to determine the exact (+/- 0.25 mm) location where matrix cracks occurred in the 3D orthogonal architecture. This enabled the determination of the stress-dependent matrix crack distributions for small but repeatable matrix rich 'unidirectional' and the matrix poor 'cross-ply' regions within the architecture. It was found that matrix cracking initiated at very low stresses (approx. 40 MPa) in the 'unidirectional' regions for the largest z-direction fiber tow composites. Decreasing the size of the z-fiber bundle, increased the stress for matrix cracking in the 'unidirectional' regions. Matrix cracking in the 'cross-ply' regions always occurred at higher stresses than in 'unidirectional' regions, and the stress-dependent matrix crack distribution of the 'cross-ply' regions was always over a wider stress-range than the 'unidirectional' regions. For composites tested in the X-direction, a lower elastic modulus and a narrower and lower stress-range for matrix cracking were observed compared to composites tested in the Y-direction.
Effect of Microstructural Parameters on Fatigue Crack Propagation in an API X65 Pipeline Steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Eskandari, M.; Ghaednia, H.; Das, S.
2016-09-01
In the current research, we investigate fatigue crack growth in an API X65 pipeline steel by using an Instron fatigue testing machine. To this, first the microstructure of steel was accurately investigated using scanning electron microscope. Since nonmetallic inclusions play a key role during crack propagation, the type and distribution of such inclusions were studied through the thickness of as-received X65 steel using energy-dispersive spectroscopy technique. It was found that the accumulation of such defects at the center of thickness of the pipe body was higher than in other regions. Our results showed that there were very fine oxide inclusions (1-2 µm in length) appeared throughout the cross section of X65 steel. Such inclusions were observed not at the fatigue crack path nor on both sides of the fatigue crack. However, we found that large manganese sulfide inclusions (around 20 µm in length) were associated with fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue experiments on CT specimens showed that the crack nucleated when the number of fatigue cycles was higher than 340 × 103. On fracture surfaces, crack propagation also occurred by joining the microcracks at tip of the main crack.
Propagation of 3D nonlinear waves over complex bathymetry using a High-Order Spectral method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre
2016-04-01
Scattering of regular and irregular surface gravity waves propagating over a region of arbitrary three-dimensional varying bathymetry is considered here. The three-dimensional High-Order Spectral method (HOS) with an extension to account for a variable bathymetry is used. The efficiency of the model has been proved to be conserved even with this extension. The method is first applied to a bathymetry consisting of an elliptical lens, as used in the Vincent and Briggs (1989) experiment. Incident waves passing across the lens are transformed and a strong convergence region is observed after the elliptical mound. The wave amplification depends on the incident wave. Numerical results for regular and irregular waves are analysed and compared with other methods and experimental data demonstrating the efficiency and practical applicability of the present approach. Then the method is used to model waves propagating over a real bathymetry: the canyons of Scripps/La Jolla in California. The implementation of this complex bathymetry in the model is presented, as well as the first results achieved. They will be compared to the ones obtained with another numerical model.
Effect of Microstructure on the Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of TC4-DT Titanium Alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ping; Zhao, Yongqing; Zeng, Weidong; Liu, Jianglin
2015-05-01
This paper focused on the fatigue crack growth behavior of TC4-DT titanium alloy with different microstructures. Heat treatments were performed to produce different microstructures, which varied in α lamella width and cluster size. The fatigue crack propagation route was observed for different microstructures. The deformation characteristic of the crack tip plastic zone was analyzed. The results demonstrated that, for adequate mechanical properties of the alloy, the microstructure formed after performing two treatments (first, air cooling from the β-phase field, and then annealing at 550 °C for 4 h) exhibited a better fatigue anti-crack propagation ability. This result was related to the existing higher plastic deformation field in the crack tip. Wide α lamellae and coarse α colonies were found to contribute to the improvement of the fracture toughness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, J.; Gutiérrez-Solana, F.; Varona, J. M.
1996-02-01
The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of 4135 steel in a simulated sea water solution has been analyzed in an attempt to understand the effect that microstructural changes associated with the corresponding changes in strength level have on both intergranular (IG) and transgranular (TG) crack propagation modes. After a selection of heat treatments, the following different microstructural variables were studied: the effect of grain size on IG fracture processes; the influence of the grade of tempering on the SCC resistance and crack propagation mode; and the effect of type and content of bainite and the effect of ferrite in mixed microstructures. A global analysis shows that the typical SCC resistance-strength level inverse relationship can only be applied when the microstructure re-mains invariable. An important microstructural control of SCC behavior was found for TG processes at moderate and low strength levels. The data analysis showed the following: a beneficial effect of increasing the grain size when crack propagates at grain boundaries without precipitates; the existence of a critical tempering temperature so that a sudden IG-TG change happens without any apparent relation to microstructural changes; the beneficial effect of bainite presence as a substitute for mar-tensite and high SCC resistance of structures containing over 50 pct ferrite, associated with their low strength levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
Realistic shallow seismic wave propagation simulation is an important tool for studying induced seismicity (e.g., during geothermal energy development). However over a long time, there is a significant problem which constrains computational seismologists from performing a successful simulation conveniently: pre-processing. Conventional pre-processing has often turned out to be inefficient and unrobust because of the miscellaneous operations, considerable complexity and insufficiency of available tools. An integrated web-based platform for shallow seismic wave propagation simulation has been built. It is aiming at providing a user-friendly pre-processing solution, and cloud-based simulation abilities. The main features of the platform for the user include: revised digital elevation model (DEM) retrieving and processing mechanism; generation of multi-layered 3D shallow Earth model geometry (the computational domain) with user specified surface topography based on the DEM; visualization of the geometry before the simulation; a pipeline from geometry to fully customizable hexahedral element mesh generation; customization and running the simulation on our HPC; post-processing and retrieval of the results over cloud. Regarding the computational aspect, currently the widely accepted specfem3D is chosen as the computational package; packages using different types of elements can be integrated as well in the future. According to our trial simulation experiments, this web-based platform has produced accurate waveforms while significantly simplifying and enhancing the pre-processing and improving the simulation success rate.
A Continuum-Atomistic Analysis of Transgranular Crack Propagation in Aluminum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E.
2009-01-01
A concurrent multiscale modeling methodology that embeds a molecular dynamics (MD) region within a finite element (FEM) domain is used to study plastic processes at a crack tip in a single crystal of aluminum. The case of mode I loading is studied. A transition from deformation twinning to full dislocation emission from the crack tip is found when the crack plane is rotated around the [111] crystallographic axis. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [112] twinning direction, the crack propagates through a twinning mechanism. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [011] slip direction, the crack propagates through the emission of full dislocations. In intermediate orientations, a transition from full dislocation emission to twinning is found to occur with an increase in the stress intensity at the crack tip. This finding confirms the suggestion that the very high strain rates, inherently present in MD simulations, which produce higher stress intensities at the crack tip, over-predict the tendency for deformation twinning compared to experiments. The present study, therefore, aims to develop a more realistic and accurate predictive modeling of fracture processes.
Observation of crack propagation in saline ice and freshwater ice with fluid inclusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, M.; Petrenko, V. F.
2003-01-01
A key process of crack propagation in saline ice is the interaction between the crack and fluid inclusions. We observed their interaction in freshwater ice using very high-speed photography (VHSP) and found that the low-density fluids (air and inert liquid, Fluorinert, 1.78 g/cm(3)) could not impede the crack effectively, interrupting the propagation for less than 10 mus. The high-density liquid mercury, (13.8 g/cm(3)) impeded the crack more effectively, stalling the development of the crack for more than 20 mus. The crack velocity in saline ice was measured using two different methods: electrical resistance method (ERM) and VHSP. These two methods returned very different mean velocities, 15 m/s for the ERM and 250 m/s for the VHSP. We found that in ice with conductive liquid inclusions, the ERM measured the time it took to break liquid bridges stretched across a crack rather than the crack velocity. Results from the VHSP show that the maximum crack velocity in saline ice was 500 m/s, which is one-half of that found in freshwater ice. From our results using freshwater ice with inclusions, we conclude that liquid inclusions in saline ice may play a role in this retardation.
Numerical simulation of acoustic holography with propagator adaptation. Application to a 3D disc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Vincent; Le Bourdon, Thibault; Pasqual, Alexander Mattioli
2011-08-01
Acoustical holography can be used to identify the vibration velocity of an extended vibrating body. Such an inverse problem relies on the radiated acoustic pressure measured by a microphone array and on an a priori knowledge of the way the body radiates sound. Any perturbation on the radiation model leads to a perturbation on the velocity identified by the inversion process. Thus, to obtain the source vibration velocity with a good precision, it is useful to identify also an appropriate propagation model. Here, this identification, or adaptation, procedure rests on a geometrical interpretation of the acoustic holography in the objective space (here the radiated pressure space equipped with the L2-norm) and on a genetic algorithm. The propagator adaptation adds information to the holographic process, so it is not a regularisation method, which approximates the inverse of the model but does not affect the model. Moreover regularisations act in the variables space, here the velocities space. It is shown that an adapted model significantly decreases the quantity of regularisation needed to obtain a good reconstructed velocity, and that model adaptation improves significantly the acoustical holography results. In the presence of perturbations on the radiated pressure, some indications will be given on the interest or not to adapt the model, again thanks to the geometrical interpretation of holography in the objective space. As a numerical example, a disc whose vibration velocity on one of its sides is identified by acoustic holography is presented. On an industrial scale, this problem occurs due to the noise radiated by car wheels. The assessment of the holographic results has not yet been rigorously performed in such situations due to the complexity of the wheel environment made up of the car body, road and rolling conditions.
Cao, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Yin, Xianzheng; Lu, Hongbin; Hu, Jianzhong; Duan, Chunyue
2016-01-01
Lumbar facet joint (LFJ) degeneration is believed to be an important cause of low back pain (LBP). Identifying the morphological changes of the LFJ in the degeneration process at a high-resolution level could be meaningful for our better understanding of the possible mechanisms underlying this process. In the present study, we determined the 3D morphology of the LFJ using propagation phase contrast micro-tomography (PPCT) in rats to assess the subtle changes that occur during the degeneration process. PPCT provides vivid 3D images of micromorphological changes in the LFJ during its degeneration process, and the changes in the subchondral bone occurred earlier than in the cartilage during the early stage of degeneration of the LFJ. The delineation of this alteration was similar to that with the histological method. Our findings demonstrated that PPCT could serve as a valuable tool for 3D visualization of the morphology of the LFJ by providing comprehensive information about the cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone and their changes during degeneration processes. It might also have great potential for providing effective diagnostic tools to track changes in the cartilage and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions for LFJ degeneration in preclinical studies. PMID:26907889
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikishkov, G. P.; Park, J. H.; Atluri, S. N.
2001-01-01
The highly accurate and efficient Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method (SGBEM), a Finite Element Method (FEM)-based alternating method, is proposed for analyzing three-dimensional non-planar cracks and their growth. The cracks are modeled using the symmetric Galerkin boundary element method as a distribution of displacement discontinuities, simulating an infinite medium. The finite element method only analyzes the stress for the uncracked body. The solution for the cracked structural component is determined by an iteration procedure. This process alternates between an FEM solution for the uncracked body and the SGBEM solution for a crack in an infinite body. Numerical analysis, and the Java code used, evaluate stress intensity factors and model fatigue crack growth. Examples of non-planar cracks in infinite media and planar cracks in finite bodies, as well as growth under fatigue, show the accuracy of the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, J. L.; Zhou, L.; Rowshandel, H.; Nicholson, G. L.; Davis, C. L.
2015-11-01
Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) probes are used to detect and size cracks in a range of engineering components. Crack sizing for this, and other electromagnetic (EM) based NDT systems, relies on relating the signal obtained to the actual crack length. For cracks that do not propagate vertically, such as rolling contact fatigue cracks in rails, predicting the crack depth, which determines the rail depth to be removed by grinding, requires an assumed propagation angle into the material as no method to determine crack vertical angle from the EM signals has been reported. This paper discusses the relationship between ACFM signals and propagation angles for surface-breaking cracks using a COMSOL model. The Bx signal accurately predicts the crack pocket length when the vertical angle is 30-90° but underestimates pocket length for shallower angles, e.g. a 50% underestimate is seen for a 3.2 mm pocket length crack propagating at a vertical angle of 10°. A new measure, the Bz trough-peak ratio, is proposed to determine the crack vertical angle. These are verified by experimental measurements using a commercial ACFM pencil probe for cracks with a range of vertical angles between 10° and 90°.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butt, Ali
Crack propagation in a solid rocket motor environment is difficult to measure directly. This experimental and analytical study evaluated the viability of real-time radiography for detecting bore regression and propellant crack propagation speed. The scope included the quantitative interpretation of crack tip velocity from simulated radiographic images of a burning, center-perforated grain and actual real-time radiographs taken on a rapid-prototyped model that dynamically produced the surface movements modeled in the simulation. The simplified motor simulation portrayed a bore crack that propagated radially at a speed that was 10 times the burning rate of the bore. Comparing the experimental image interpretation with the calibrated surface inputs, measurement accuracies were quantified. The average measurements of the bore radius were within 3% of the calibrated values with a maximum error of 7%. The crack tip speed could be characterized with image processing algorithms, but not with the dynamic calibration data. The laboratory data revealed that noise in the transmitted X-Ray intensity makes sensing the crack tip propagation using changes in the centerline transmitted intensity level impractical using the algorithms employed.
Visualization of non-propagating Lamb wave modes for fatigue crack evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Yun-Kyu; Sohn, Hoon
2015-03-01
This article develops a non-propagating Lamb wave mode (NPL) imaging technique for fatigue crack visualization. NPL has a great potential for crack evaluation in that it significantly contributes local mode amplitudes in the vicinity of a crack without spatial propagation. Such unique physical phenomenon is theoretically proven and experimentally measured through laser scanning. Although its measurement is a quite challenging work due to the fact that it is quite localized and coexists with complex propagating Lamb wave modes, a NPL filter proposed in this article overcomes the technical challenge by eliminating all propagating Lamb modes from laser scanned full Lamb wavefields. Through the NPL filtering process, only fatigue crack-induced NPLs can be measured and retained. To verify such physical observation and the corresponding NPL filter, a real micro fatigue crack is created by applying repeated tensile loading, and its detectability is tested using a surface-mounted piezoelectric transducer for generating Lamb waves and a laser Doppler vibrometer for measuring the corresponding responses. The experimental results confirm that even an invisible fatigue crack can be instantaneously visualized and effectively evaluated through the proposed NPL measurement and filtering processes.
Laser cutting silicon-glass double layer wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yecheng; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yang
2016-07-01
This study was aimed at introducing the laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) technology to solve the silicon-glass double layer wafer dicing problems in the packaging procedure of silicon-glass device packaged by WLCSP technology, investigating the feasibility of this idea, and studying the crack propagation process of LITP cutting double layer wafer. In this paper, the physical process of the 1064 nm laser beam interact with the double layer wafer during the cutting process was studied theoretically. A mathematical model consists the volumetric heating source and the surface heating source has been established. The temperature and stress distribution was simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The extended finite element method (XFEM) was added to the simulation as the supplementary features to simulate the crack propagation process and the crack propagation profile. The silicon-glass double layer wafer cutting verification experiment under typical parameters was conducted by using the 1064 nm semiconductor laser. The crack propagation profile on the fracture surface was examined by optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and XFEM status. It was concluded that the quality of the finished fracture surface has been greatly improved, and the experiment results were well supported by the numerical simulation results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangloff, Richard P.; Kim, Sang-Shik
1993-01-01
This report is a critical review of both environment-enhanced fatigue crack propagation data and the predictive capabilities of crack growth rate models. This information provides the necessary foundation for incorporating environmental effects in NASA FLAGRO and will better enable predictions of aerospace component fatigue lives. The review presents extensive literature data on 'stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue.' The linear elastic fracture mechanics approach, based on stress intensity range (Delta(K)) similitude with microscopic crack propagation threshold and growth rates, provides a basis for these data. Results are presented showing enhanced growth rates for gases (viz., H2 and H2O) and electrolytes (e.g. NaCl and H2O) in aerospace alloys including: C-Mn and heat treated alloy steels, aluminum alloys, nickel-based superalloys, and titanium alloys. Environment causes purely time-dependent accelerated fatigue crack growth above the monotonic load cracking threshold (KIEAC) and promotes cycle-time dependent cracking below (KIEAC). These phenomenon are discussed in terms of hydrogen embrittlement, dissolution, and film rupture crack tip damage mechanisms.
Tsunami Generation and Propagation by 3D deformable Landslides and Application to Scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.
2014-05-01
Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse account for some of the most catastrophic natural disasters recorded and can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naoe, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Futakawa, Masatoshi
2012-12-01
Liquid metals are expected to be used as nuclear materials, such as coolant for nuclear reactors and spallation targets for neutron sources, because of their good thermal conductivity and neutron production. However, in specific combinations, liquid metals have the potential to degrade structural integrity of solid metals because of Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME). In this study, the effect of mercury immersion on fatigue crack propagation rate in SUS316 was investigated through fatigue tests with a notched specimen under mercury immersion. FRActure Surface Topography Analysis (FRASTA) with the measurement of the notch opening distance was performed to estimate the fatigue crack growth rate in mercury. The results showed that the fatigue crack growth rate was slightly higher in mercury than that in the air in the low cycle fatigue region. This suggests that the crack propagation is accelerated by mercury immersion in high stress imposition regions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaske, C. E.; Feddersen, C. E.; Davies, K. B.; Rice, R. C.
1973-01-01
Analytical methods have been developed for consolidation of fatigue, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture data for use in design of metallic aerospace structural components. To evaluate these methods, a comprehensive file of data on 2024 and 7075 aluminums, Ti-6A1-4V, and 300M and D6Ac steels was established. Data were obtained from both published literature and unpublished reports furnished by aerospace companies. Fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation analyses were restricted to information obtained from constant-amplitude load or strain cycling of specimens in air at room temperature. Fracture toughness data were from tests of center-cracked tension panels, part-through crack specimens, and compact-tension specimens.
Extreme stress gradient effects on microstructural fatigue crack propagation rates in Ni microbeams
Sadeghi-Tohidi, F.; Pierron, O. N.
2015-05-18
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of microstructurally small cracks growing under extreme stress gradients was investigated in Ni microbeams under fully reversed cyclic loading. A technique to calculate the crack growth rates in microbeams with two different normalized stress gradients (17% and 50% μm{sup −1}) is developed and validated. Decreasing crack propagation rates are observed over the first 2 μm, and the rates are more than 1 order of magnitude slower for the devices with 50% μm{sup −1} stress gradients. This fundamental knowledge is critical to predict the fatigue reliability of advanced metallic microcomponents under bending such as in microelectromechanical systems or flexible/stretchable electronics.
Wire, G. L.; Mills, W. J.
2002-08-01
Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates for 304 stainless steel (304SS) were determined in 24 degree C and 288 degree C air and 288 degree C water using double-edged notch (DEN) specimens of 304 stainless steel (304 SS). Test performed at matched loading conditions in air and water at 288 degree C with 20-6- cc h[sub]2/kg h[sub]2O provided a direct comparison of the relative crack growth rates in air and water over a wide range of crack growth rates. The DEN crack extension ranged from short cracks (0.03-0.25 mm) to long cracks up to 4.06 mm, which are consistent with conventional deep crack tests. Crack growth rates of 304 SS in water were about 12 times the air rate. This 12X environmental enhancement persisted to crack extensions up to 4.06 mm, far outside the range associated with short crack effects. The large environmental degradation for 304 SS crack growth is consistent with the strong reduction of fatigue life in high hydrogen water. Further, very similar environmental effects w ere reported in fatigue crack growth tests in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Most literature data in high hydrogen water show only a mild environmental effect for 304 SS, of order 2.5 times air or less, but the tests were predominantly performed at high cyclic stress intensity or equivalently, high air rates. The environmental effect in low oxygen environments at low stress intensity depends strongly on both the stress ratio, R, and the load rise time, T[sub]r, as recently reported for austenitic stainless steel in BWR water. Fractography was performed for both tests in air and water. At 288 degree C in water, the fracture surfaces were crisply faceted with a crystallographic appearance, and showed striations under high magnification. The cleavage-like facets on the fracture surfaces suggest that hydrogen embrittlement is the primary cause of accelerated cracking.
Lewicki, D.G.
1996-05-01
Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear tooth crack propagation. The goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. Gear tooth crack propagation was simulated using a finite element based computer program. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics were used. Quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. Crack tip stress intensity factors were estimated and used to determine crack propagation direction and fatigue crack growth rate. The computer program used had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically using an automated re-meshing scheme. In addition, experimental studies were performed in the NASA Lewis Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack path predictions. Also, specialized crack propagation gages were installed on the test gears to measure gear tooth crack growth rate. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios (film thickness divided by tooth height) of 3.3 and 1.0 produced tooth fractures while a backup ratio of 0.3 produced rim fractures. For a backup ratio of 0.5, the experiments produced rim fractures and the predictions produced both rim and tooth fractures, depending on the initial crack conditions. Good correlation between the predicted number of crack propagation cycles and measured number of cycles was achieved using both the Paris fatigue crack growth method and the Collipfiest crack growth equation when fatigue crack closure was considered.
Simulation of Crack Propagation in Engine Rotating Components under Variable Amplitude Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, P. J.; Ghosn, L. J.; Telesman, J.; Calomino, A. M.; Kantzos, P.
1998-01-01
The crack propagation life of tested specimens has been repeatedly shown to strongly depend on the loading history. Overloads and extended stress holds at temperature can either retard or accelerate the crack growth rate. Therefore, to accurately predict the crack propagation life of an actual component, it is essential to approximate the true loading history. In military rotorcraft engine applications, the loading profile (stress amplitudes, temperature, and number of excursions) can vary significantly depending on the type of mission flown. To accurately assess the durability of a fleet of engines, the crack propagation life distribution of a specific component should account for the variability in the missions performed (proportion of missions flown and sequence). In this report, analytical and experimental studies are described that calibrate/validate the crack propagation prediction capability ]or a disk alloy under variable amplitude loading. A crack closure based model was adopted to analytically predict the load interaction effects. Furthermore, a methodology has been developed to realistically simulate the actual mission mix loading on a fleet of engines over their lifetime. A sequence of missions is randomly selected and the number of repeats of each mission in the sequence is determined assuming a Poisson distributed random variable with a given mean occurrence rate. Multiple realizations of random mission histories are generated in this manner and are used to produce stress, temperature, and time points for fracture mechanics calculations. The result is a cumulative distribution of crack propagation lives for a given, life limiting, component location. This information can be used to determine a safe retirement life or inspection interval for the given location.
Simulation of Crack Propagation in Engine Rotating Components Under Variable Amplitude Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, P. J.; Ghosn, L. J.; Telesman, J.; Calomino, A. M.; Kantzos, P.
1999-01-01
The crack propagation life of tested specimens has been repeatedly shown to strongly depend on the loading history. Overloads and extended stress holds at temperature can either retard or accelerate the crack growth rate. Therefore, to accurately predict the crack propagation life of an actual component, it is essential to approximate the true loading history. In military rotorcraft engine applications, the loading profile (stress amplitudes, temperature, and number of excursions) can vary significantly depending on the type of mission flown. To accurately assess the durability of a fleet of engines, the crack propagation life distribution of a specific component should account for the variability in the missions performed (proportion of missions flown and sequence). In this report, analytical and experimental studies are described that calibrate/validate the crack propagation prediction capability for a disk alloy under variable amplitude loading. A crack closure based model was adopted to analytically predict the load interaction effects. Furthermore, a methodology has been developed to realistically simulate the actual mission mix loading on a fleet of engines over their lifetime. A sequence of missions is randomly selected and the number of repeats of each mission in the sequence is determined assuming a Poisson distributed random variable with a given mean occurrence rate. Multiple realizations of random mission histories are generated in this manner and are used to produce stress, temperature, and time points for fracture mechanics calculations. The result is a cumulative distribution of crack propagation lives for a given, life limiting, component location. This information can be used to determine a safe retirement life or inspection interval for the given location.
Effect of BaSO4 on the fatigue crack propagation rate of PMMA bone cement.
Molino, L N; Topoleski, L D
1996-05-01
To determine the effect of BaSO4 on the fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN = C(delta K)n, of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, radiopaque bone cement, radiolucent bone cement, and commercial PMMA (Plexiglas) were tested using a methodology based on ASTM E647. The crack growth rate of radiopaque bone cement was one order of magnitude less than that of radiolucent. Fractographic analysis showed that the regions of rapid catastrophic fracture were smooth for all materials tested. The radiopaque fatigue surface was rough and characterized by ragged-edged stacked plateaus, a morphology consistent with the model of crack propagation through the interbead matrix. Voids were visible in the interbead matrix on the order of the size of BaSO4 particles. The fatigue surface of radiolucent bone cement was relatively smooth, a morphology consistent with crack propagation through both the PMMA beads and interbead matrix. Fatigue striations were visible, and their spacing correlated well with crack propagation rates. The striations indicated an increased crack growth rate through the PMMA beads.
Crack propagation testing using a YCOB acoustic emission sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Joseph A.; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning
2014-03-01
Piezoelectric crystals are popular for passive sensors, such as accelerometers and acoustic emission sensors, due to their robustness and high sensitivity. These sensors are widespread in structural health monitoring among civil and industrial structures, but there is little application in high temperature environments (e.g. > 1000°C) due to the few materials that are capable of operating at elevated temperatures. Most piezoelectric materials suffer from a loss of electric properties above temperatures in the 500-700°C range, but rare earth oxyborate crystals, such as Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB), retain their piezoelectric properties above 1000 °C. Our previous research demonstrated that YCOB can be used to detect transient lamb waves via Hsu-Nielsen tests, which replicate acoustic emission waves, up to 1000°C. In this paper, YCOB piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors were tested for their ability to detect crack progression at elevated temperatures. The sensor was fabricated using a YCOB single crystal and Inconel electrodes and wires. The sensor was mounted onto a stainless steel bar substrate, which was machined to include a pre-crack notch. A dynamic load was induced on the bar with a shaker in order to force the crack to advance along the thickness of the substrate. The obtained raw data was processed and analyzed in the frequency domain and compared to the Lamb wave modes that were evaluated in previous Hsu-Nielsen testing for the substrate.
Tracking and Motion Analysis of Crack Propagations in Crystals for Molecular Dynamics
Tsap, L V; Duchaineau, M; Goldgof, D B
2001-05-14
This paper presents a quantitative analysis for a discovery in molecular dynamics. Recent simulations have shown that velocities of crack propagations in crystals under certain conditions can become supersonic, which is contrary to classical physics. In this research, they present a framework for tracking and motion analysis of crack propagations in crystals. It includes line segment extraction based on Canny edge maps, feature selection based on physical properties, and subsequent tracking of primary and secondary wavefronts. This tracking is completely automated; it runs in real time on three 834-image sequences using forty 250 MHZ processors. Results supporting physical observations are presented in terms of both feature tracking and velocity analysis.
Fatigue of Self-Healing Nanofiber-based Composites: Static Test and Subcritical Crack Propagation.
Lee, Min Wook; Sett, Soumyadip; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L
2016-07-20
Here, we studied the self-healing of composite materials filled with epoxy-containing nanofibers. An initial incision in the middle of a composite sample stretched in a static fatigue test can result in either crack propagation or healing. In this study, crack evolution was observed in real time. A binary epoxy, which acted as a self-healing agent, was encapsulated in two separate types of interwoven nano/microfibers formed by dual-solution blowing, with the core containing either epoxy or hardener and the shell being formed from poly(vinylidene fluoride)/ poly(ethylene oxide) mixture. The core-shell fibers were encased in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix. When the fibers were damaged by a growing crack in this fiber-reinforced composite material because of static stretching in the fatigue test, they broke and released the healing agent into the crack area. The epoxy used in this study was cured and solidified for approximately an hour at room temperature, which then conglutinated and healed the damaged location. The observations were made for at least several hours and in some cases up to several days. It was revealed that the presence of the healing agent (the epoxy) in the fibers successfully prevented the propagation of cracks in stretched samples subjected to the fatigue test. A theoretical analysis of subcritical cracks was performed, and it revealed a jumplike growth of subcritical cracks, which was in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. PMID:27332924
The influence of edge effects on crack propagation in snow stability tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bair, E. H.; Simenhois, R.; van Herwijnen, A.; Birkeland, K.
2014-08-01
The Extended Column Test (ECT) and the Propagation Saw Test (PST) are two commonly used tests to assess the likelihood of crack propagation in a snowpack. Guidelines suggest beams with lengths of around 1 m, yet little is known about how test length affects propagation. Thus, we performed 163 ECTs and PSTs 1.0-10.0 m long. On days with full crack propagation in 1.0-1.5 m tests, we then made videos of tests 2.0-10.0 m long. We inserted markers for particle tracking to measure collapse amplitude, propagation speed, and wavelength. We also used a finite element (FE) model to simulate the strain energy release rate at fixed crack lengths. We find that (1) the proportion of tests with full propagation decreased with test length; (2) collapse was greater at the ends of the beams than in the centers; (3) collapse amplitude was independent of beam length and did not reach a constant value; (4) collapse wavelengths in the longer tests were around 3 m, two times greater than what is predicted by the anticrack model. We also confirmed the prediction that centered PSTs had double the critical length of edge PSTs. Based on our results, we conclude that cracks propagated more frequently in the shorter tests because of increased stress concentration from the far edge. The FE model suggests this edge effect occurs for PSTs of up to 2 m long or a crack to beam length ratio ≥ 0.20. Our results suggest that ECT and PST length guidelines may need to be revisited.
Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in Mode III
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F. A.; Ritchie, R. O.
1982-12-01
Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (RB88, 590 MN/m2 tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) IIIcan be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ΔKIII for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (˜10-6 to 10-2 mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) III and ΔKIII is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity Γ III, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces. The latter effect is found to be dependent upon the mode of applied loading (i.e., the presence of superimposed axial loads) and the crack length and torque level. Mechanistically, high-torque surfaces were transverse, macroscopically flat, and smeared. Lower torques showed additional axial cracks (longitudinal shear cracking) perpendicular to the main transverse surface. A micro-mechanical model for the main radi l Mode III growth, based on the premise that crack advance results from Mode II coalescence of microcracks initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front, is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (ΔΓIII if local Mode II growth rates are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haney, M. M.; Aldridge, D. F.; Symons, N. P.
2005-12-01
Numerical solution of partial differential equations by explicit, time-domain, finite-difference (FD) methods entails approximating temporal and spatial derivatives by discrete function differences. Thus, the solution of the difference equation will not be identical to the solution of the underlying differential equation. Solution accuracy degrades if temporal and spatial gridding intervals are too large. Overly coarse spatial gridding leads to spurious artifacts in the calculated results referred to as numerical dispersion, whereas coarse temporal sampling may produce numerical instability (manifest as unbounded growth in the calculations as FD timestepping proceeds). Quantitative conditions for minimizing dispersion and avoiding instability are developed by deriving the dispersion relation appropriate for the discrete difference equation (or coupled system of difference equations) under examination. A dispersion relation appropriate for FD solution of the 3D velocity-stress system of isotropic elastodynamics, on staggered temporal and spatial grids, is developed. The relation applies to either compressional or shear wave propagation, and reduces to the proper form for acoustic propagation in the limit of vanishing shear modulus. A stability condition and a plane-wave phase-speed formula follow as consequences of the dispersion relation. The mathematical procedure utilized for the derivation is a modern variant of classical von Neumann analysis, and involves a 4D discrete space/time Fourier transform of the nine, coupled, FD updating formulae for particle velocity vector and stress tensor components. The method is generalized to seismic wave propagation within anelastic and poroelastic media, as well as sound wave propagation within a uniformly-moving atmosphere. A significant extension of the approach yields a stability condition for wave propagation across an interface between dissimilar media with strong material contrast (e.g., the earth's surface, the seabed
Cyclic fatigue-crack propagation in ceramics: Long and small crack behavior
Steffen, A.A.; Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)
1989-12-01
Stress/life (S/N) and cyclic fatigue-crack growth properties are studied in a Mg-PSZ, with particular reference to the role of crack size. S/N data from unnotched specimens show markedly lower lives under tension-compression compared to tension-tension loading; fatigue limits'' (at 10{sup 8} cycles) for the former case approach 50% of the tensile strength. Under tension-tension loading, cyclic crack-growth rates of long'' (> 3 mm) cracks are found to be power-law dependent on the stress-intensity range {Delta}K with a fatigue threshold, {Delta}K{sub TH}, of order 50% K{sub c}. Conversely, naturally-occurring small'' (1 to 100 {mu}m) surface cracks were observed to grow at {Delta}K levels some 2 to 3 times smaller than {Delta}K{sub TH}. The implications of such data for structural design with ceramics is briefly discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Effect of micromorphology of cortical bone tissue on crack propagation under dynamic loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mayao; Gao, Xing; Abdel-Wahab, Adel; Li, Simin; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Riedel, Christoph; Busse, Björn; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.
2015-09-01
Structural integrity of bone tissue plays an important role in daily activities of humans. However, traumatic incidents such as sports injuries, collisions and falls can cause bone fracture, servere pain and mobility loss. In addition, ageing and degenerative bone diseases such as osteoporosis can increase the risk of fracture [1]. As a composite-like material, a cortical bone tissue is capable of tolerating moderate fracture/cracks without complete failure. The key to this is its heterogeneously distributed microstructural constituents providing both intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms. At micro-scale level, cortical bone can be considered as a four-phase composite material consisting of osteons, Haversian canals, cement lines and interstitial matrix. These microstructural constituents can directly affect local distributions of stresses and strains, and, hence, crack initiation and propagation. Therefore, understanding the effect of micromorphology of cortical bone on crack initiation and propagation, especially under dynamic loading regimes is of great importance for fracture risk evaluation. In this study, random microstructures of a cortical bone tissue were modelled with finite elements for four groups: healthy (control), young age, osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated, based on osteonal morphometric parameters measured from microscopic images for these groups. The developed models were loaded under the same dynamic loading conditions, representing a direct impact incident, resulting in progressive crack propagation. An extended finite-element method (X-FEM) was implemented to realize solution-dependent crack propagation within the microstructured cortical bone tissues. The obtained simulation results demonstrate significant differences due to micromorphology of cortical bone, in terms of crack propagation characteristics for different groups, with the young group showing highest fracture resistance and the senior group the lowest.
The influence of edge effects on crack propagation in snow stability tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bair, E. H.; Simenhois, R.; van Herwijnen, A.; Birkeland, K.
2014-01-01
Propagation tests are used to assess the likelihood of crack propagation in a snowpack, yet little is known about how test length affects propagation. Guidelines suggest beams with lengths around 1 m for Extended Column Tests (ECTs) and Propagation Saw Tests (PSTs). To examine how test length affects propagation, we performed 163 ECTs and PSTs 1 to 10 m long. On days with full crack propagation in 1.0 to 1.5 m tests, we then made videos of tests 2 to 10 m long. We inserted markers for particle tracking to measure collapse amplitude, collapse wave speed, and wavelength. We also used a finite element model to simulate the strain energy release rate at fixed crack lengths. We find that: (1) the proportion of tests with full propagation decreased with test length; (2) collapse was greater at the ends of the beams than in the centers; (3) collapse amplitudes in the longer tests were consistent with the shorter tests and did not reach a constant value; (4) collapse wavelengths in the longer tests were around 3 m, 2 × greater than what is predicted by the anticrack model. Based on our field tests and FE models, we conclude that the shorter tests fully propagated more frequently because of increased stress concentration from the far edge. The FE model suggests this edge effect occurs for PSTs up to 2 m long or a crack to beam length ratio ≥ 0.20. Our results suggest that ECT and PST length guidelines may need to be revisited.
Consolidation of fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation data for design use
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, R. C.; Davies, K. B.; Jaske, C. E.; Feddersen, C. E.
1975-01-01
Analytical methods developed for consolidation of fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation data for use in design of metallic aerospace structural components are evaluated. A comprehensive file of data on 2024 and 7075 aluminums, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and 300M steel was established by obtaining information from both published literature and reports furnished by aerospace companies. Analyses are restricted to information obtained from constant-amplitude load or strain cycling of specimens in air at room temperature. Both fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation data are analyzed on a statistical basis using a least-squares regression approach. For fatigue, an equivalent strain parameter is used to account for mean stress or stress ratio effects and is treated as the independent variable; cyclic fatigue life is considered to be the dependent variable. An effective stress-intensity factor is used to account for the effect of load ratio on fatigue-crack-propagation and treated as the independent variable. In this latter case, crack-growth rate is considered to be the dependent variable. A two term power function is used to relate equivalent strain to fatigue life, and an arc-hyperbolic-tangent function is used to relate effective stress intensity to crack-growth rate.
Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient
Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl
2015-04-01
A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.
Paul, S.C.; Pirskawetz, S.; Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Schmidt, W.
2015-03-15
This paper presents the analysis of crack propagation in strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC) under tensile and flexural load by using acoustic emission (AE). AE is a non-destructive technique to monitor the development of structural damage due to external forces. The main objective of this research was to characterise the cracking behaviour in SHCC in direct tensile and flexural tests by using AE. A better understanding of the development of microcracks in SHCC will lead to a better understanding of pseudo strain-hardening behaviour of SHCC and its general performance. ARAMIS optical deformation analysis was also used in direct tensile tests to observe crack propagation in SHCC materials. For the direct tensile tests, SHCC specimens were prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibre with three different volume percentages (1%, 1.85% and 2.5%). For the flexural test beam specimens, only a fibre dosage of 1.85% was applied. It was found that the application of AE in SHCC can be a good option to analyse the crack growth in the specimens under increasing load, the location of the cracks and most importantly the identification of matrix cracking and fibre rupture or slippage.
Small fatigue crack propagation in Y2O3 strengthened steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutař, P.; Kuběna, I.; Ševčík, M.; Šmíd, M.; Kruml, T.; Náhlík, L.
2014-09-01
This paper is focused on two type of Y2O3 strengthened steels (Fe-14Cr ODS and ODS-EUROFER). Small fatigue crack propagation was experimentally measured using special small cylindrical specimens (diameter 2 and 2.6 mm) with shallow notch grinded in the gauge length. In the middle of this notch, a pre-crack of length of 50 μm was fabricated using a focused ion beam technique. Fatigue crack growth rate was measured for different applied total strain amplitudes and described using plastic part of the J-integral. Obtained results were compared with published data of EUROFER 97. The effect of the oxide dispersion on small fatigue crack propagation was found rather insignificant. Ferritic Fe-14Cr ODS steel shows more brittle behaviour, i.e. for the same cyclic plasticity, characterised by the plastic part of the J-integral, the small cracks grow faster. A new methodology for residual lifetime prediction of structures containing physically small cracks, based on plastic part of the J-integral, is presented.
Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method.
Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo
2016-03-03
Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method.
Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method.
Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo
2016-01-01
Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:26950130
Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method
Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo
2016-01-01
Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack length and uses a particle filter to deal with the crack evolution and monitoring uncertainties. The piezoelectric transducers (PZTs)-based active Lamb wave method is adopted for on-line crack monitoring. The state space model relating to crack propagation is established by the data-driven and finite element methods. Fatigue experiments performed on hole-edge crack specimens have validated the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:26950130
Mode I Cohesive Law Characterization of Through-Crack Propagation in a Multidirectional Laminate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergan, Andrew C.; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min
2014-01-01
A method is proposed and assessed for the experimental characterization of through-the-thickness crack propagation in multidirectional composite laminates with a cohesive law. The fracture toughness and crack opening displacement are measured and used to determine a cohesive law. Two methods of computing fracture toughness are assessed and compared. While previously proposed cohesive characterizations based on the R-curve exhibit size effects, the proposed approach results in a cohesive law that is a material property. The compact tension specimen configuration is used to propagate damage while load and full-field displacements are recorded. These measurements are used to compute the fracture toughness and crack opening displacement from which the cohesive law is characterized. The experimental results show that a steady-state fracture toughness is not reached. However, the proposed method extrapolates to steady-state and is demonstrated capable of predicting the structural behavior of geometrically-scaled specimens.
Investigation of Crack Propagation in Rock using Discrete Sphero-Polyhedral Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behraftar, S.; Galindo-torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.; Williams, D.
2014-12-01
In this study a micro-mechanical model is developed to study the fracture propagation process in rocks. The model is represented by an array of bonded particles simulated by the Discrete Sphero-Polyhedral Element Model (DSEM), which was introduced by the authors previously and has been shown to be a suitable technique to model rock [1]. It allows the modelling of particles of general shape, with no internal porosity. The motivation behind using this technique is the desire to microscopically investigate the fracture propagation process and study the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic behaviour of rock. The DSEM method is used to model the Crack Chevron Notch Brazilian Disc (CCNBD) test suggested by the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) for determining the fracture toughness of rock specimens. CCNBD samples with different crack inclination angles, are modelled to investigate their fracture mode. The Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD) is simulated and the results are validated using experimental results obtained from a previous study [2]. Fig. 1 shows the simulated and experimental results of crack propagation for different inclination angles of CCNBD specimens. The DSEM method can be used to predict crack trajectory and quantify crack propagation during loading. References: 1. Galindo-Torres, S. A., et al. "Breaking processes in three-dimensional bonded granular materials with general shapes." Computer Physics Communications 183.2 (2012): 266-277. 2. Erarslan, N., and D. J. Williams. "Mixed-mode fracturing of rocks under static and cyclic loading." Rock mechanics and rock engineering 46.5 (2013): 1035-1052.
Propagation Behavior of a Fatigue Crack of High Strength Al Alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Hideki; Kariya, Kohji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Nu, Yan; Goto, Masahiro
In order to investigate the effect of humidity change on growth behavior of a fatigue crack of an extruded and age-hardened Al alloy 7075-T6, rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out using plain specimens in relative humidity of 25% and 85%. In constant humidity, a crack propagated in a tensile mode macroscopically in low humidity and in a shear mode in high humidity. The crack growth rate was accelerated by high humidity. By changing humidity, the growth rate and the growth mode of a crack were changed to those corresponding to the changed humidity. That is, cumulative fatigue life in humidity change may be estimated by the fatigue life in constant humidity.
The Evolution of Stress Intensity Factors and the Propagation of Cracks in Elastic Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Avner; Hu, Bei; Velazquez, Juan J. L.
When a crack Γs propagates in an elastic medium the stress intensity factors evolve with the tip x(s) of Γs. In this paper we derive formulae which describe the evolution of these stress intensity factors for a homogeneous isotropic elastic medium under plane strain conditions. Denoting by ψ=ψ(x,s) the stress potential (ψ is biharmonic and has zero traction along the crack Γs) and by κ(s) the curvature of the crack at the tip x(s), we prove that the stress intensity factors A1(s), A2(s), as functions of s, satisfy:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitousek, S.; Fletcher, C. H.; Storlazzi, C. D.
2006-12-01
Nearshore currents are driven by a number of components including tides, waves winds and even internal tides. To adequately simulate transport of sand and other constituents, the realistic behavior of the dominant current-generating phenomena should be resolved. This often requires sufficient observations and calibration/validation efforts to achieve realistic modeling results. The work explores the capabilities of modeling the currents along West Maui. The West Maui coast has a propagating tide where the observed peak tidal currents, which are directed parallel to the coast, occur very closely to the peak tidal water levels. In 2003, the USGS collected an extensive set of current observations along West Maui, Hawaii, with the goal of better understanding transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. The observations included vessel mounted ADCP surveys and an array seafloor instruments at the 10m isobath along the coast. A simple 2DH model of West Maui using Delft3D shows good comparison of the modeled and observed currents. Nearshore currents driven by waves and winds are also considered. During the data collection period a significant erosion event occurred within the study domain at Kaanapali Beach. This event undermined several trees on the shoreline and threatened resort infrastructure. In modeling the nearshore currents of this region we hope to determine the potential for sand transport and shoreline change to hindcast this event.
Gear Crack Propagation Path Studies: Guidelines for Ultra-Safe Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.
2001-01-01
Design guidelines have been established to prevent catastrophic rim fracture failure modes when considering gear tooth bending fatigue. Analysis was performed using the finite element method with principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack propagation paths were predicted for a variety of gear tooth and rim configurations. The effects of rim and web thicknesses, initial crack locations, and gear tooth geometry factors such as diametral pitch, number of teeth, pitch radius, and tooth pressure angle were considered. Design maps of tooth/rim fracture modes including effects of gear geometry, applied load, crack size, and material properties were developed. The occurrence of rim fractures significantly increased as the backup ratio (rim thickness divided by tooth height) decreased. The occurrence of rim fractures also increased as the initial crack location was moved down the root of the tooth. Increased rim and web compliance increased the occurrence of rim fractures. For gears with constant pitch radii, coarser-pitch teeth increased the occurrence of tooth fractures over rim fractures. Also, 25 deg pressure angle teeth had an increased occurrence of tooth fractures over rim fractures when compared to 20 deg pressure angle teeth. For gears with constant number of teeth or gears with constant diametral pitch, varying size had little or no effect on crack propagation paths.
Three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element analysis of fatigue crack propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goglia, G. L.; Chermahini, R. G.
1985-01-01
Fatigue cracks are a major problem in designing structures subjected to cyclic loading. Cracks frequently occur in structures such as aircraft and spacecraft. The inspection intervals of many aircraft structures are based on crack-propagation lives. Therefore, improved prediction of propagation lives under flight-load conditions (variable-amplitude loading) are needed to provide more realistic design criteria for these structures. The main thrust was to develop a three-dimensional, nonlinear, elastic-plastic, finite element program capable of extending a crack and changing boundary conditions for the model under consideration. The finite-element model is composed of 8-noded (linear-strain) isoparametric elements. In the analysis, the material is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. The cycle stress-strain curve for the material is shown Zienkiewicz's initial-stress method, von Mises's yield criterion, and Drucker's normality condition under small-strain assumptions are used to account for plasticity. The three-dimensional analysis is capable of extending the crack and changing boundary conditions under cyclic loading.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.
2003-01-01
Acoustic emission techniques combined with microstructural observations were used to determine the dependence of through thickness matrix cracking (TTMC) on in-plane tensile stress for melt infiltrated Sylramic fiber-based SIC/SiC composite panels with various 3D-woven orthogonal fiber architectures. Results were compared with prior TTMC results from similar panels with 2D woven orthogonal architectures.Both data sets were analysed on the basis that the source for TTMC originated in the 90 degree or Z-fiber tows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garlea, Elena; Choo, Hahn; Wang, Gongyao Y.; Liaw, Peter K.; Clausen, Bjørn; Brown, Donald W.; Park, Jungwon; Rack, Philip D.; Kenik, Edward A.
2010-11-01
The hydride-phase formation and its influence on the fatigue behavior of a Zircaloy-4 alloy charged with hydrogen gas are investigated. First, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation rate of the alloy in the as-received condition are studied. Second, the formation and homogeneous distribution of the delta zirconium hydride in the bulk and its effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate are presented. The results show that in the presence of hydrides, the zirconium alloy exhibits reduced toughness and enhanced crack growth rates. Finally, the influence of a preexisting fatigue crack in the specimen and the subsequent hydride formation are examined. The residual lattice strain profile around the fatigue crack tip is measured using neutron diffraction. It is observed that the combined effects of residual strains and hydride precipitation on the fatigue behavior are more severe leading to propagation of the crack under near threshold loading.
Crack Propagation in Bi-Material System via Pseudo-Spring Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Sukanta; Shaw, Amit
2014-05-01
A Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) based framework with material constitutive model is developed to simulate crack initiation and propagation in a bi-material system. An efficient immediate neighbor interaction is formulated by connecting neighbors through pseudo-springs. A damage evolution law defines degradation of the inter-neighbor spring forces and corresponding reduced interaction is introduced in mass, momentum, and energy-conserving particle collocation. The proposed technique is validated through a simple test on a pre-notched bi-material system producing a conformal crack path.
Brittle creep and subcritical crack propagation in glass submitted to triaxial conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallet, Céline; Fortin, Jérôme; Guéguen, Yves; Bouyer, Frédéric
2015-02-01
An experimental work is presented that aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanical evolution of cracks under brittle creep conditions. Brittle creep may be an important slow deformation process in the Earth's crust. Synthetic glass samples have been used to observe and document brittle creep due to slow crack-propagation. A crack density of 0.05 was introduced in intact synthetic glass samples by thermal shock. Creep tests were performed at constant confining pressure (15 MPa) for water saturated conditions. Data were obtained by maintaining the differential-stress constant in steps of 24 h duration. A set of sensors allowed us to record strains and acoustic emissions during creep. The effect of temperature on creep was investigated from ambient temperature to 70°C. The activation energy for crack growth was found to be 32 kJ/mol. In secondary creep, a large dilatancy was observed that did not occur in constant strain rate tests. This is correlated to acoustic emission activity associated with crack growth. As a consequence, slow crack growth has been evidenced in glass. Beyond secondary creep, failure in tertiary creep was found to be a progressive process. The data are interpreted through a previously developed micromechanical damage model that describes crack propagation. This model allows one to predict the secondary brittle creep phase and also to give an analytical expression for the time to rupture. Comparison between glass and crystalline rock indicates that the brittle creep behavior is probably controlled by the same process even if stress sensitivity for glass is lower than for rocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunning, J. D.; Huf, W. L.
1983-08-01
The role of surface active aqueous environments in chemomechanical weakening of geologic materials is examined in light of the results of hydraulic fracture tests in sandstone, calorimetric studies, and crack propagation tests in synthetic quartz. In hydraulic fracture tests mploying Crab Orchard Sandstone it was found that the effective hydraulic fracture pressure was reduced, over that attained with distilled water, when 5×10-4 M aqueous solutions of dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) were used as the hydraulic fracture medium. The degree of branching of the fractures was also increased in the presence of the DTAB solution. Previously reported crack propagation stress values in quartz exposed to distilled water and various DTAB solutions displayed the same trend. When examined in this study, the cracks propagated in the presence of DTAB solutions also displayed a greater degree of branching than those propagated in the presence of distilled water or the ambient atmosphere. These results and results from calorimetric measurements of the heats of adsorption and desorption from quartz of distilled water and DTAB are synthesized in a model relating the weakening and morphological effects to a reduction in the surface free energy of quartz due to adsorption of species from the chemical environment onto the surfaces of the quartz and sandstone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.
2010-12-01
-Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.
Fatigue-crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys processed by power and ingot metallurgy
Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O. ); Kim, N.J. ); Pizzo, P.P. )
1990-04-01
Fatigue-crack propagation behavior in powder-metallurgy (P/M) aluminum-lithium alloys, namely, mechanically-alloyed (MA) Al-4.0Mg-1.5Li-1.1C-0.80{sub 2} (Inco 905-XL) and rapid-solidification-processed (RSP) Al-2.6Li-1.0Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Zr (Allied 644-B) extrusions, has been studied, and results compared with data on an equivalent ingot-metallurgy (I/M) Al-Li alloy, 2090-T81 plate. Fatigue-crack growth resistance of the RSP Al-Li alloy is found to be comparable to the I/M Al-Li alloy; in contrast, crack velocities in MA 905-XL extrusions are nearly three orders of magnitude faster. Growth-rate response in both P/M Al-Li alloys, however, is high anisotropic. Results are interpreted in terms of the microstructural influence of strengthening mechanism, slip mode, grain morphology and texture on the development of crack-tip shielding from crack-path deflection and crack closure. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Modeling time-dependent corrosion fatigue crack propagation in 7000 series aluminum alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, Mark E.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1994-01-01
Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted with the susceptible S-L orientation of AA7075-T651, immersed in acidified and inhibited NaCl solution, to provide a basis for incorporating environmental effects into fatigue crack propagation life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO. This environment enhances da/dN by five to ten-fold compared to fatigue in moist air. Time-based crack growth rates from quasi-static load experiments are an order of magnitude too small for accurate linear superposition prediction of da/dN for loading frequencies above 0.001 Hz. Alternate methods of establishing da/dt, based on rising-load or ripple-load-enhanced crack tip strain rate, do not increase da/dt and do not improve linear superposition. Corrosion fatigue is characterized by two regimes of frequency dependence; da/dN is proportional to f(exp -1) below 0.001 Hz and to F(exp 0) to F(exp -0.1) for higher frequencies. Da/dN increases mildly both with increasing hold-time at K(sub max) and with increasing rise-time for a range of loading waveforms. The mild time-dependence is due to cycle-time-dependent corrosion fatigue growth. This behavior is identical for S-L nd L-T crack orientations. The frequency response of environmental fatigue in several 7000 series alloys is variable and depends on undefined compositional or microstructural variables. Speculative explanations are based on the effect of Mg on occluded crack chemistry and embritting hydrogen uptake, or on variable hydrogen diffusion in the crack tip process zone. Cracking in the 7075/NaCl system is adequately described for life prediction by linear superposition for prolonged load-cycle periods, and by a time-dependent upper bound relationship between da/dN and delta K for moderate loading times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alam, Mohammad Shah
2005-11-01
Structural integrity is the science and technology of the margin between safety and disaster. Proper evaluation of the structural integrity and fatigue life of any structure (aircraft, ship, railways, bridges, gas and oil transmission pipelines, etc.) is important to ensure the public safety, environmental protection, and economical consideration. Catastrophic failure of any structure can be avoided if structural integrity is assessed and necessary precaution is taken appropriately. Structural integrity includes tasks in many areas, such as structural analysis, failure analysis, nondestructive testing, corrosion, fatigue and creep analysis, metallurgy and materials, fracture mechanics, fatigue life assessment, welding metallurgy, development of repairing technologies, structural monitoring and instrumentation etc. In this research fatigue life assessment of welded and weld-repaired joints is studied both in numerically and experimentally. A new approach for the simulation of fatigue crack growth in two elastic materials has been developed and specifically, the concept has been applied to butt-welded joint in a straight plate and in tubular joints. In the proposed method, the formation of new surface is represented by an interface element based on the interface potential energy. This method overcomes the limitation of crack growth at an artificial rate of one element length per cycle. In this method the crack propagates only when the applied load reaches the critical bonding strength. The predicted results compares well with experimental results. The Gas Metal Arc welding processes has been simulated to predict post-weld distortion, residual stresses and development of restraining forces in a butt-welded joint. The effect of welding defects and bi-axial interaction of a circular porosity and a solidification crack on fatigue crack propagation life of butt-welded joints has also been investigated. After a weld has been repaired, the specimen was tested in a universal
Study of Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Propagation in Pipeline Steels in High Pressure Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, M.
1981-01-01
Near threshold fatigue crack propagation in pipeline steels in high pressure environments was studied. The objective was to determine the level of threshold stress intensity for fatigue crack growth rate behavior in a high strength low alloy X60 pipeline-type steel. Complete results have been generated for gaseous hydrogen at ambient pressure, laboratory air at ambient pressure and approximately 60% relative humidity as well as vacuum of 0.000067 Pa ( 0.0000005 torr) at R-ratios = K(min)/K(max) of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.8. Fatigue crack growth rate behavior in gaseous hydrogen, methane, and methane plus 10 percent hydrogen at 6.89 MPa (100 psi) was determined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Vipul; Hochhalter, Jacob; Yamakov, Vesselin; Scott, Willard; Spear, Ashley; Smith, Stephen; Glaessgen, Edward
2013-01-01
A systematic study of crack tip interaction with grain boundaries is critical for improvement of multiscale modeling of microstructurally-sensitive fatigue crack propagation and for the computationally-assisted design of more durable materials. In this study, single, bi- and large-grain multi-crystal specimens of an aluminum-copper alloy are fabricated, characterized using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and deformed under tensile loading and nano-indentation. 2D image correlation (IC) in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is used to measure displacements near crack tips, grain boundaries and within grain interiors. The role of grain boundaries on slip transfer is examined using nano-indentation in combination with high-resolution EBSD. The use of detailed IC and EBSD-based experiments are discussed as they relate to crystal-plasticity finite element (CPFE) model calibration and validation.
An Atomistic Simulation of Crack Propagation in a Nickel Single Crystal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karimi, Majid
2002-01-01
The main objective of this paper is to determine mechanisms of crack propagation in a nickel single crystal. Motivation for selecting nickel as a case study is because we believe that its physical properties are very close to that of nickel-base super alloy. We are directed in identifying some generic trends that would lead a single crystalline material to failure. We believe that the results obtained here would be of interest to the experimentalists in guiding them to a more optimized experimental strategy. The dynamic crack propagation experiments are very difficult to do. We are partially motivated to fill the gap by generating the simulation results in lieu of the experimental ones for the cases where experiment can not be done or when the data is not available.
Dunning, J.D.; Huf, W.L.
1983-08-10
The role of surface active aqueous environments in chemomechanical weakening of geologic materials is examined using the results of hydraulic fracture tests in sandstone, calorimetric studies, and crack propagation tests in synthetic quartz. In hydraulic fracture tests it was found that the effective hydraulic fracture pressure was reduced, over that attained with distilled water, when 5 X 10/sup -4/ M aqueous solutions of dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) were used as the hydraulic fracture medium. The degree of branching of the fractures also was increased in the presence of the DTAB solution. Previously reported crack propagation stress values in quartz exposed to distilled water and various DTAB solutions displayed the same trend. These results and results from calorimetric measurements of the heats of adsorption and desorption from quartz of distilled water and DTAB are synthesized in a model relating effects to a reduction in the surface free energy due to adsorption from the chemical environment. 24 references.
Cyclic deformation, fatigue and fatigue crack propagation in Ni-base alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antolovich, Stephen D.; Lerch, Brad
1989-01-01
Ni-base superalloys' cumulative glide behavior, damage accumulation, low-cycle fatigue, and crack propagation characteristics are directly dependent on deformation behavior which is in turn a strong function of microstructural characteristics. Microstructural instabilities and environmental interactions become additional factors at elevated temperatures. An account is presently given of microstructural, chemical, and processing techniques that may be used to obtain the properties that appear most critical or desirable in specific applications.
Temperature fields generated by the elastodynamic propagation of shear cracks in the Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fialko, Yuri
2004-01-01
Thermal perturbations associated with seismic slip on faults may significantly affect the dynamic friction and the mechanical energy release during earthquakes. This paper investigates details of the coseismic temperature increases associated with the elastodynamic propagation of shear cracks and effects of fault heating on the dynamic fault strength. Self-similar solutions are presented for the temperature evolution on a surface of a mode II shear crack and a self-healing pulse rupturing at a constant velocity. The along-crack temperature distribution is controlled by a single parameter, the ratio of the crack thickness to the width of the conductive thermal boundary layer, ?. For "thick" cracks, or at early stages of rupture (? > 1), the local temperature on the crack surface is directly proportional to the amount of slip. For "thin" cracks, or at later times (? < 1), the temperature maximum shifts toward the crack tip. For faults having slip zone thickness of the order of centimeters or less, the onset of thermally induced phenomena (e.g., frictional melting, thermal pressurization, etc.) may occur at any point along the rupture, depending on the degree of slip localization and rupture duration. In the absence of significant increases in the pore fluid pressure, localized fault slip may raise temperature by several hundred degrees, sufficient to cause melting. The onset of frictional melting may give rise to substantial increases in the effective fault strength due to an increase in the effective fault contact area, and high viscosity of silicate melts near solidus. The inferred transient increases in the dynamic friction ("viscous braking") are consistent with results of high-speed rock sliding experiments and might explain field observations of the fault wall rip-out structures associated with pseudotachylites. Possible effects of viscous braking on the earthquake rupture dynamics include (1) delocalization of slip and increases in the effective fracture
Tanaka, Keisuke; Tanaka, Hiroshi
1997-12-31
The effect of the stress ratio on the propagation behavior of Mode II interlaminar fatigue cracks was studied with unidirectional graphite/epoxy laminates, Toray T800H/{number_sign}3631. End-notched flexure (ENF) specimens were used for fatigue tests under the stress ratios of R = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.6; and end-loaded split (ELS) specimens were used for tests under R = {minus}1.0, {minus}0.5, and 0.2. For each stress ratio, the crack propagation rate was given by a power function of the stress intensity range, {Delta}K{sub 11}, in the region of rates above 10{sup {minus}9} m/cycle. Below this region, there exists the threshold for fatigue crack propagation. The threshold condition is given by a constant value of the stress intensity range, {Delta}K{sub 11th} = 1.8 MPa{radical}m. The crack propagation rate is determined by {Delta}K{sub 11} near the threshold, while by the maximum stress identity factor, K{sub 11max}, at high rates. A fracture mechanics equation is proposed for predicting the propagation rate of Mode II fatigue cracks under various stress ratios. The effect of the stress ratio on the micromechanism of Mode II fatigue crack propagation was discussed on the basis of the microscopic observations of fracture surfaces and near-crack-tip regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieske, Mike; Schlurmann, Torsten
2016-04-01
INTRODUCTION & MOTIVATION The design of structures in coastal and offshore areas and their maintenance are key components of coastal protection. Usually, assessments of processes and loads on coastal structures are derived from experiments with flow and wave parameters in separate physical models. However, Peregrin (1976) already points out that processes in natural shallow coastal waters flow and sea state processes do not occur separately, but influence each other nonlinearly. Kemp & Simons (1982) perform 2D laboratory tests and study the interactions between a turbulent flow and following waves. They highlight the significance of wave-induced changes in the current properties, especially in the mean flow profiles, and draw attention to turbulent fluctuations and bottom shear stresses. Kemp & Simons (1983) also study these processes and features with opposing waves. Studies on the wave-current interaction in three-dimensional space for a certain wave height, wave period and water depth were conducted by MacIver et al. (2006). The research focus is set on the investigation of long-crested waves on obliquely opposing and following currents in the new 3D wave-current basin. METHODOLOGY In a first step the flow analysis without waves is carried out and includes measurements of flow profiles in the sweet spot of the basin at predefined measurement positions. Five measuring points in the water column have been delineated in different water depths in order to obtain vertical flow profiles. For the characterization of the undisturbed flow properties in the basin, an uniformly distributed flow was generated in the wave basin. In the second step wave analysis without current, the unidirectional wave propagation and wave height were investigated for long-crested waves in intermediate wave conditions. In the sweet spot of the wave basin waves with three different wave directions, three wave periods and uniform wave steepness were examined. For evaluation, we applied a common
Assessment of damage localization based on spatial filters using numerical crack propagation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deraemaeker, Arnaud
2011-07-01
This paper is concerned with vibration based structural health monitoring with a focus on non-model based damage localization. The type of damage investigated is cracking of concrete structures due to the loss of prestress. In previous works, an automated method based on spatial filtering techniques applied to large dynamic strain sensor networks has been proposed and tested using data from numerical simulations. In the simulations, simplified representations of cracks (such as a reduced Young's modulus) have been used. While this gives the general trend for global properties such as eigen frequencies, the change of more local features, such as strains, is not adequately represented. Instead, crack propagation models should be used. In this study, a first attempt is made in this direction for concrete structures (quasi brittle material with softening laws) using crack-band models implemented in the commercial software DIANA. The strategy consists in performing a non-linear computation which leads to cracking of the concrete, followed by a dynamic analysis. The dynamic response is then used as the input to the previously designed damage localization system in order to assess its performances. The approach is illustrated on a simply supported beam modeled with 2D plane stress elements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardrath, H. F.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Elber, W.; Poe, C. C., Jr.
1978-01-01
The limitations of linear elastic fracture mechanics in aircraft design and in the study of fatigue crack propagation in aircraft structures are discussed. NASA-Langley research to extend the capabilities of fracture mechanics to predict the maximum load that can be carried by a cracked part and to deal with aircraft design problems are reported. Achievements include: (1) improved stress intensity solutions for laboratory specimens; (2) fracture criterion for practical materials; (3) crack propagation predictions that account for mean stress and high maximum stress effects; (4) crack propagation predictions for variable amplitude loading; and (5) the prediction of crack growth and residual stress in built-up structural assemblies. These capabilities are incorporated into a first generation computerized analysis that allows for damage tolerance and tradeoffs with other disciplines to produce efficient designs that meet current airworthiness requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroon, Martin
2012-01-01
In the present study, a computational framework for studying high-speed crack growth in rubber-like solids under conditions of plane stress and steady-state is proposed. Effects of inertia, viscoelasticity and finite strains are included. The main purpose of the study is to examine the contribution of viscoelastic dissipation to the total work of fracture required to propagate a crack in a rubber-like solid. The computational framework builds upon a previous work by the present author (Kroon in Int J Fract 169:49-60, 2011). The model was fully able to predict experimental results in terms of the local surface energy at the crack tip and the total energy release rate at different crack speeds. The predicted distributions of stress and dissipation around the propagating crack tip are presented. The predicted crack tip profiles also agree qualitatively with experimental findings.
The role of crack tip plasticity on the propagation of fracture in rocks and other brittle solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borja, R. I.; Rahmani, H.; Liu, F.; Aydin, A.
2009-12-01
Small-scale plastic yielding around a crack tip plays a key role in the propagation of fractures in brittle materials such as rocks. Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) quantifies the asymptotic strain field around a crack tip under the assumptions of linear elasticity and infinitesimal deformation. However, no material can withstand an infinite stress, and plastic yielding is expected to take place near and around a crack tip. Plastic yielding governs the extension of an existing crack, as well as determines the direction of propagation of splay cracks. Unlike in LEFM, however, no closed-form solution is available for the asymptotic strain field near and around a crack tip in the presence of inelastic deformation. In this work, we resort to finite element modeling for capturing plastic yielding and asymptotic strain field near and around a crack tip. Novel features of the modeling include an enhanced finite element around the crack tip that captures the expected asymptotic strain field, and an elastoplastic constitutive law for near-tip yielding. Through numerical simulations, we infer the likely orientation of splay cracks from the prevailing crystal orientation and overall stress field around the crack tip. We also compare the angular variation of the crack-tip enrichment function in the presence of plastic yielding with the closed-form solution derived from LEFM for different loading conditions and elastoplastic bulk constitutive laws.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkateswara Rao, K. T.; Ritchie, R. O.
1991-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation and cryogenic fracture toughness properties of powder metallurgy (P/M) aluminum-lithium alloys have been examined by studying the behavior in mechanically alloyed (MA) Al-4.0Mg-1.5Li-1.1C-0.8O2 (IN-905XL) and rapid solidification processed (RSP) Al-2.6Li-1.0Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Zr (Allied 644-B) extrusions. Results are presented as a function of microstructure, mean stress, and specimen orientation and are compared with previous data on equivalent high-strength aluminum alloys fabricated by both ingot metallurgy (I/M) and P/M methods. It is found that the fatigue crack propagation resistance of the RSP Al-Li alloy is superior to traditional RSP aluminum alloys without lithium and even comparable to I/M Al-Li alloys, particularly at near-threshold and intermediate stress intensity levels. In contrast, crack growth rates in MA 905XL P/M extrusions are nearly three orders of magnitude faster and do not show benefits of alloying with lithium. Growth rate behavior in both alloys, however, is anisotropic; for example, crack growth rates in RSP 644-B alloy are up to three orders of magnitude faster in the T-L, compared to L-T, orientation. However, when characterized in terms of a closure-corrected near-tip "driving force," Δ K ff such differences are reduced. With respect to toughness, plane strain K Ic values ( L-T orientation) in the RSP alloy are observed to increase with decrease in temperature from 298 to 77 K; conversely, the MA alloy shows a small decrease in K Ic at 77 K. Such results are interpreted in terms of the micromechanisms influencing fatigue and fracture behavior in Al-Li alloys, specifically involving the microstructural role of hardening mechanism, slip mode, grain structure, and texture on the development of crack tip shielding (crack path deflection and crack closure) and short-transverse delamination cracking.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Si; Wang, He-Ling; Liu, Bin; Hwang, Keh-Chih
2015-11-01
The J-integral based criterion is widely used in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. However, it is not rigorously applicable when plastic unloading appears during crack propagation. One difficulty is that the energy density with plastic unloading in the J-integral cannot be defined unambiguously. In this paper, we alternatively start from the analysis on the power balance, and propose a surface-forming energy release rate (ERR), which represents the energy available for separating the crack surfaces during the crack propagation and excludes the loading-mode-dependent plastic dissipation. Therefore the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion has wider applicability, including elastic-plastic crack propagation problems. Several formulae are derived for calculating the surface-forming ERR. From the most concise formula, it is interesting to note that the surface-forming ERR can be computed using only the stress and deformation of the current moment, and the definition of the energy density or work density is avoided. When an infinitesimal contour is chosen, the expression can be further simplified. For any fracture behaviors, the surface-forming ERR is proven to be path-independent, and the path-independence of its constituent term, so-called Js-integral, is also investigated. The physical meanings and applicability of the proposed surface-forming ERR, traditional ERR, Js-integral and J-integral are compared and discussed. Besides, we give an interpretation of Rice paradox by comparing the cohesive fracture model and the surface-forming ERR based fracture criterion.
James, L.A.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.
1996-01-01
The effect of elevated temperature aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels is discussed in terms of the several parameters which influence such behavior. These parameters include water chemistry, impurities within the steels themselves, as well as factors such as the water flow rate, loading waveform and loading rates. Some of these parameters have similar effects upon both crack initiation and propagation, while others exhibit different effects in the two stages of cracking. In the case of environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth, the most important impurities within the steel are metallurgical sulfide inclusions which dissolve upon contact with the water. A ``critical`` concentration of sulfide ions at the crack tip can then induce environmentally-assisted cracking which proceeds at significantly increased crack growth rates over those observed in air. The occurrence, or non-occurrence, of EAC is governed by the mass-transport of sulfide ions to and from the crack-tip region, and the mass-transport is discussed in terms of diffusion, ion migration, and convection induced within the crack enclave. Examples are given of convective mass-transport within the crack enclave resulting from external free stream flow. The initiation of fatigue cracks in elevated temperature aqueous environments, as measured by the S-N fatigue lifetimes, is also strongly influenced by the parameters identified above. The influence of sulfide inclusions does not appear to be as strong on the crack initiation process as it is on crack propagation. The oxygen content of the environment appears to be the dominant factor, although loading frequency (strain rate) and temperature are also important factors.
Jeong, Dae-Ho; Choi, Myung-Je; Goto, Masahiro; Lee, Hong-Chul; Kim, Sangshik
2014-09-15
In this study, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 turbine disc with different service times from 0 to 4229 h was investigated at 738 and 823 K. No notable change in microstructural features, other than the increase in grain size, was observed with increasing service time. With increasing service time from 0 to 4229 h, the fatigue crack propagation rates tended to increase, while the ΔK{sub th} value decreased, in low ΔK regime and lower Paris' regime at both testing temperatures. The fractographic observation using a scanning electron microscope suggested that the elevated temperature fatigue crack propagation mechanism of Inconel 718 changed from crystallographic cleavage mechanism to striation mechanism in the low ΔK regime, depending on the grain size. The fatigue crack propagation mechanism is proposed for the crack propagating through small and large grains in the low ΔK regime, and the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 with different service times at elevated temperatures is discussed. - Highlights: • The specimens were prepared from the Inconel 718 turbine disc used for 0 to 4229 h. • FCP rates were measured at 738 and 823 K. • The ΔK{sub th} values decreased with increasing service time. • The FCP behavior showed a strong correlation with the grain size of used turbine disc.
Fatigue crack propagation of nickel-base superalloys at 650 deg C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V.
1988-01-01
The 650 C fatigue crack propagation behavior of two nickel-base superalloys, Rene 95 and Waspaloy, is studied with particular emphasis placed on understanding the roles of creep, environment, and two key grain boundary alloying additions, boron and zirconium. Comparison of air and vacuum data shows the air environment to be detrimental over a wide range of frequencies for both alloys. More in-depth analysis on Rene 95 shows at lower frequencies, such as 0.02 Hz, failure in air occurs by intergranular, environmentally-assisted creep crack growth, while at higher frequencies, up to 5.0 Hz, environmental interaction are still evident but creep effects are minimized. The effect of B and Zr in Waspaloy is found to be important where environmental and/or creep interactions are presented. In those instances, removal of B and Zr dramatically increases crack growth and it is therefore plausible that effective dilution of these elements may explain a previously observed trend in which crack growth rates increase with decreasing grain size.
Fatigue crack propagation of nickel-base superalloys at 650 deg C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V.
1985-01-01
The 650 C fatigue crack propagation behavior of two nickel-base superalloys, Rene 95 and Waspaloy, is studied with particular emphasis placed on understanding the roles of creep, environment, and two key grain boundary alloying additions, boron and zirconium. Comparison of air and vacuum data shows the air environment to be detrimental over a wide range of frequencies for both alloys. More in-depth analysis on Rene 95 shows at lower frequencies, such as 0.02 Hz, failure in air occurs by intergranular, environmentally-assisted creep crack growth, while at higher frequencies, up to 5.0 Hz, environmental interactions are still evident but creep effects are minimized. The effect of B and Zr in Waspaloy is found to be important where environmental and/or creep interactions are presented. In those instances, removal of B and Zr dramatically increases crack growth and it is therefore plausible that effective dilution of these elements may explain a previously observed trend in which crack growth rates increase with decreasing grain size.
The effect of thickness on fatigue crack propagation in 7475-T731 aluminum alloy sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daiuto, R. A.; Hillberry, B. M.
1984-01-01
Tests were conducted on three thicknesses of 7475-T731 aluminum alloy sheet to investigate the effect of thickness on fatigue crack propagation under constant amplitude loading conditions and on retardation following a single peak overload. Constant amplitude loading tests were performed at stress ratios of 0.05 and 0.75 to obtain data for conditions with crack closure and without crack closure, respectively. At both stress ratios a thickness effect was clearly evident, with thicker specimens exhibiting higher growth rates in the transition from plane strain to plane stress region. The effect of thickness for a stress ratio of 0.05 corresponded well with the fracturing mode transitions observed on the specimens. A model based on the strain energy release rate which accounted for the fracture mode transition was found to correlate the thickness effects well. The specimens tested at the stress ratio of 0.75 did not make the transition from tensile mode to shear mode, indicating that another mechanism besides crack closure or fracture mode transition was active.
George, M. , E-Mail: matthieu.george@bnfl.com; Coupeau, C.; Colin, J.; Grilhe, J.
2005-01-10
The mechanisms of crack propagation in metallic films on polymeric substrates have been studied through in situ atomic force microscopy observations of thin films under tensile stresses and finite element stress calculations. Two series of films - ones deposited with ion beam assistance, the others without - have been investigated. The observations and stress calculations show that ion beam assistance can change drastically the propagation of cracks in coated materials: by improving the adhesion film/substrate, it slows down the delamination process, but in the same time enhances the cracks growth in the thickness of the material.
Effect of tangential traction and roughness on crack initiation/propagation during rolling contact
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soda, N.; Yamamoto, T.
1980-01-01
Rolling fatigue tests of 0.45 percent carbon steel rollers were carried out using a four roller type rolling contact fatigue tester. Tangential traction and surface roughness of the harder mating rollers were varied and their effect was studied. The results indicate that the fatigue life decreases when fraction is applied in the same direction as that of rolling. When the direction of fraction is reversed, the life increases over that obtained with zero traction. The roughness of harder mating roller also has a marked influence on life. The smoother the mating roller, the longer the life. Microscopic observation of specimens revealed that the initiation of cracks during the early stages of life is more strongly influenced by the surface roughness, while the propagation of these cracks in the latter stages is affected mainly by the tangential traction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, David; Steeb, Holger
2016-04-01
The use of imaged based methods to determine properties of geological materials is becoming an alternative to laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the combination of laboratory experiments and image based methods using micro computer tomography have advanced the understanding of geophysical and geochemical processes. Within the scope of the "Shynergie" project, two special topics have been studied using such combination: a) the generation and propagation of cracks in rocks (specially wing cracks) and b) the time dependence of transport properties of rocks due to chemical weathering. In this publication, we describe the design considerations of our micro CT scanner to manipulate rock samples that have been subjected to the experiments to determine the above mentioned phenomena. Additionally, we discuss the preliminary experimental results and the initial interpretations we have gathered from the observations of the digitized rock samples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudraraju, Siva Shankar; Garikipati, Krishna; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.
2013-01-01
The phenomenon of crack propagation is among the predominant modes of failure in many natural and engineering structures, often leading to severe loss of structural integrity and catastrophic failure. Thus, the ability to understand and a priori simulate the evolution of this failure mode has been one of the cornerstones of applied mechanics and structural engineering and is broadly referred to as "fracture mechanics." The work reported herein focuses on extending this understanding, in the context of through-thickness crack propagation in cohesive materials, through the development of a continuum-level multiscale numerical framework, which represents cracks as displacement discontinuities across a surface of zero measure. This report presents the relevant theory, mathematical framework, numerical modeling, and experimental investigations of through-thickness crack propagation in fiber-reinforced composites using the Variational Multiscale Cohesive Method (VMCM) developed by the authors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosn, L. J.
1988-01-01
Crack propagation in a rotating inner raceway of a high-speed roller bearing is analyzed using the boundary integral method. The model consists of an edge plate under plane strain condition upon which varying Hertzian stress fields are superimposed. A multidomain boundary integral equation using quadratic elements was written to determine the stress intensity factors KI and KII at the crack tip for various roller positions. The multidomain formulation allows the two faces of the crack to be modeled in two different subregions, making it possible to analyze crack closure when the roller is positioned on or close to the crack line. KI and KII stress intensity factors along any direction were computed. These calculations permit determination of crack growth direction along which the average KI times the alternating KI is maximum.
FEM simulation of oxidation induced stresses with a coupled crack propagation in a TBC model system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiler, P.; Bäker, M.; Rösier, J.
2010-06-01
Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating systems are used on top of highly stressed components, e.g. on gas turbine blades, to protect the underlying substrate from the high surrounding temperatures. A typical coating system consists of the bond-coat (BC), the thermal barrier coating (TBC), and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) between the BC and the TBC. This study examines the failure mechanisms which are caused by the diffusion of oxygen through the TBC and the resulting growth of the TGO. To study the behaviour of the complex failure mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings, a simplified model system is used to reduce the number of system parameters. The model system consists of a bond-coat material (fast creeping Fecralloy or slow creeping MA956) as the substrate with a Y2O3 partially stabilised plasma sprayed zircon oxide TBC on top and a TGO between the two layers. Alongside the experimental studies a FEM simulation was developed to calculate the stress distribution inside the simplified coating system [1]. The simulation permits the identification of compression and tension areas which are established by the growth of the oxide layer. Furthermore a 2-dimensional finite element model of crack propagation was developed in which the crack direction is calculated by using short trial cracks in different directions. The direction of the crack in the model system is defined as the crack direction with the maximum energy release rate [2,3]. The simulated stress distributions and the obtained crack path provide an insight into the possible failure mechanisms in the coating and allow to draw conclusions for optimising real thermal barrier coating systems. The simulated growth stresses of the TGO show that a slow creeping BC may reduce lifetime. This is caused by stress concentration and cracks under the TGO. A slow creeping BC on the other hand reduces the stresses in the TBC. The different failure mechanisms emphasise the existence of a lifetime optimum which depends on
Inhibition of environmental fatigue crack propagation in age-hardenable aluminum alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warner, Jenifer S.
Age-hardenable aluminum alloys, such as C47A-T86 (Al-Cu-Li) and 7075-T651 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu), used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environment assisted fatigue crack propagation (EFCP) by hydrogen environment embrittlement. This research demonstrates effective inhibition of EFCP in C47A-T86 and 7075-T651 under both full immersion in aqueous chloride solution and atmospheric exposure which more accurately describes aircraft service conditions. Inhibition is attributed to the presence of a crack tip passive film reducing H production and uptake, as explained by the film rupture-hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, and can be accomplished through both addition of a passivating ion (ion-assisted inhibition) and localized-alloy corrosion creating passivating conditions (self inhibition). Addition of molybdate to both bulk chloride solution and surface chloride droplets eliminates the effect of environment on fatigue crack propagation in C47A-T86 and 7075-1651 at sufficiently low loading frequencies and high stress ratio by yielding crack growth rates equivalent to those for fatigue in ultra high vacuum. The preeminent corrosion inhibitor, chromate, has not been reported to produce such complete inhibition. Inhibition is promoted by reduced loading frequency, increased crack tip molybdate concentration, and potential at or anodic to free corrosion; each of which favors passivity. The inhibiting effect of molybdate parallels chromate, establishing molybdate as a viable chromate replacement inhibitor. The ability of molybdate to inhibit EFCP is enhanced by atmospheric exposures producing surface electrolyte droplets; crack growth rates are reduced by an order of magnitude under loading frequencies as high as 30 Hz, a frequency at which inhibition was not possible under full immersion. Al-Cu-Mg/Li alloys, including 2024-T351, are capable of self inhibition of EFCP. This behavior is attributed to localized corrosion through dealloying of anodic Al2CuMg or Al2Cu
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masaki, Kiyotaka; Ochi, Yasuo; Matsumura, Takashi; Ikarashi, Takaaki; Sano, Yuji
Laser peening without protective coating (LPwC) treatment is one of surface enhancement techniques using an impact wave of high pressure plasma induced by laser pulse irradiation. High compressive residual stress was induced by the LPwC treatment on the surface of low-carbon type austenitic stainless steel SUS316L. The affected depth reached about 1mm from the surface. High cycle fatigue tests with four-points rotating bending loading were carried out to confirm the effects of the LPwC treatment on fatigue strength and surface fatigue crack propagation behaviors. The fatigue strength was remarkably improved by the LPwC treatment over the whole regime of fatigue life up to 108 cycles. Specimens with a pre-crack from a small artificial hole due to fatigue loading were used for the quantitative study on the effect of the LPwC treatment. The fracture mechanics investigation on the pre-cracked specimens showed that the LPwC treatment restrained the further propagation of the pre-crack if the stress intensity factor range ΔK on the crack tip was less than 7.6 MPa√m. Surface cracks preferentially propagated into the depth direction as predicted through ΔK analysis on the crack by taking account of the compressive residual stresses due to the LPwC treatment.
Bannikov, Mikhail E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Oborin, Vladimir E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Naimark, Oleg E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru
2014-11-14
Fatigue (high- and gigacycle) crack initiation and its propagation in titanium alloys with coarse and fine grain structure are studied by fractography analysis of fracture surface. Fractured specimens were analyzed by interferometer microscope and SEM to improve methods of monitoring of damage accumulation during fatigue test and to verify the models for fatigue crack kinetics. Fatigue strength was estimated for high cycle fatigue regime using the Luong method [1] by “in-situ” infrared scanning of the sample surface for the step-wise loading history for different grain size metals. Fine grain alloys demonstrated higher fatigue resistance for both high cycle fatigue and gigacycle fatigue regimes. Fracture surface analysis for plane and cylindrical samples was carried out using optical and electronic microscopy method. High resolution profilometry (interferometer-profiler New View 5010) data of fracture surface roughness allowed us to estimate scale invariance (the Hurst exponent) and to establish the existence of two characteristic areas of damage localization (different values of the Hurst exponent). Area 1 with diameter ∼300 μm has the pronounced roughness and is associated with damage localization hotspot. Area 2 shows less amplitude roughness, occupies the rest fracture surface and considered as the trace of the fatigue crack path corresponding to the Paris kinetics.
Mechanisms of decrease in fatigue crack propagation resistance in irradiated and melted UHMWPE#
Oral, Ebru; Malhi, Arnaz S.; Muratoglu, Orhun K.
2005-01-01
Adhesive/abrasive wear in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been minimized by radiation cross-linking. Irradiation is typically followed by melting to eliminate residual free radicals that cause oxidative embrittlement. Irradiation and subsequent melting reduce the strength and fatigue resistance of the polymer. We determined the radiation dose dependence and decoupled the effects of post-irradiation melting on the crystallinity, mechanical properties and fatigue crack propagation resistance of room temperature irradiated UHMWPE from those of irradiation alone. Stiffness and yield strength, were largely not affected by increasing radiation dose but were affected by changes in crystallinity, whereas plastic properties, ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break, were dominated at different radiation dose ranges by changes in radiation dose or crystallinity. Fatigue crack propagation resistance was shown to decrease with increase in radiation dose and with decrease in crystalline content. Morphology of fracture surfaces revealed loss of ductility with increase in radiation dose and more detrimental effects on ductility at lower radiation doses after post-irradiation melting. PMID:16105682
Dao, Tien Tuan; Pouletaut, Philippe; Charleux, Fabrice; Tho, Marie-Christine Ho Ba; Bensamoun, Sabine
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a subject specific finite element model derived from MRI images to numerically analyze the MRE (magnetic resonance elastography) shear wave propagation within skeletal thigh muscles. A sagittal T2 CUBE MRI sequence was performed on the 20-cm thigh segment of a healthy male subject. Skin, adipose tissue, femoral bone and 11 muscles were manually segmented in order to have 3D smoothed solid and meshed models. These tissues were modeled with different constitutive laws. A transient modal dynamics analysis was applied to simulate the shear wave propagation within the thigh tissues. The effects of MRE experimental parameters (frequency, force) and the muscle material properties (shear modulus: C10) were analyzed through the simulated shear wave displacement within the vastus medialis muscle. The results showed a plausible range of frequencies (from 90Hz to 120 Hz), which could be used for MRE muscle protocol. The wave amplitude increased with the level of the force, revealing the importance of the boundary condition. Moreover, different shear displacement patterns were obtained as a function of the muscle mechanical properties. The present study is the first to analyze the shear wave propagation in skeletal muscles using a 3D subject specific finite element model. This study could be of great value to assist the experimenters in the set-up of MRE protocols. PMID:25570875
Fatigue crack propagation rates in PMMA bone cement cannot be reduced to a single power law.
Race, Amos; Mann, Kenneth A
2008-07-01
Cement mantles around metallic implants have pre-existing flaws (shrinkage induced cracks, laminations, and endosteal surface features) and their fatigue failure is related to the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate of bone cement. We estimated the relevant in vivo range of cyclic stress intensity factor (DeltaK) around a generic femoral stem (0-1 MPa square root(m)) and determined that previous FCP data did not adequately cover this range of DeltaK. Vacuum-mixed standard bone cement was machined into ASTM E647 standard compact notched tension specimens. These were subject to sinusoidal loading (R = 0.1) at 5 Hz in 37 degrees C DI water, covering a DeltaK range of 0.25-1.5 MPa square root(m) (including a decreasing DeltaK protocol). FCP-rate data is normally reduced to a power-law fit relating crack growth rate (da/dn) to DeltaK. However, a substantial discontinuity was observed in our data at around DeltaK = 1, so two power-law fits were used. Over the physiologically plausible range of DeltaK, cracks grew at a rate of 2.9 E -8 x DeltaK(2.6) m/cycle. Our data indicated that FCP-rates for 0.5 > DeltaK > 0.3 MPa square root(m) are between 10 E -8 and 10 E -8 m/cycle, 1 or 2 orders of magnitude greater than predicted by extrapolating from previous models based on higher DeltaK data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.
1972-01-01
Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.
3D numerical simulation of laser-generated Lamb waves propagation in 2D acoustic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Shiling; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Shen, Zhonghua; Han, Bing
2015-05-01
Acoustic black holes have been widely used in damping structural vibration. In this work, the Lamb waves are utilized to evaluate the specified structure. The three-dimensional numerical model of acoustic black holes with parabolic profile was established. The propagation of laser-generated Lamb wave in two-dimensional acoustic black holes was numerically simulated using the finite element method. The results indicated that the incident wave was trapped by the structure obviously.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles
2014-05-01
The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taisne, B.; Tait, S.
2009-06-01
When a volume of magma is released from a source at depth, one key question is whether or not this will culminate in an eruption or in the emplacement of a shallow intrusion. We address some of the physics behind this question by describing and interpreting laboratory experiments on the propagation of cracks filled with fixed volumes of buoyant liquid in a brittle, elastic host. Experiments were isothermal, and the liquid was incompressible. The cracks propagated vertically because of liquid buoyancy but were then found to come to a halt at a configuration of static mechanical equilibrium, a result that is inconsistent with the prediction of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics in two dimensions. We interpret this result as due to a three-dimensional effect. At the curved crack front, horizontal cracking is necessary in order for vertical propagation to take place. As the crack elongates and thins, the former becomes progressively harder and, in the end, impossible to fracture. We present a scaling law for the final length and breadth of cracks as a function of a governing dimensionless parameter, constructed from the liquid volume, the buoyancy, and host fracture toughness. An important implication of this result is that a minimum volume of magma is required for a volcanic eruption to occur for a given depth of magma reservoir.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing
2012-04-01
An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing
2011-11-01
An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristensen, Martin V.; Lindballe, Thue B.; Kylling, Anton P.; Palima, Darwin Z.; Glückstad, Jesper; Keiding, Soren R.; Stapelfeldt, Henrik
2010-08-01
An experimental characterization of the 3D forces, acting on a trapped polystyrene bead in a counter-propagating beam geometry, is reported. Using a single optical trap with a large working distance (in the BioPhotonics Workstation), we simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal trapping force constants. Two different methods were used: The Drag force method and the Equipartition method. We show that the counterpropagating beams traps are simple harmonic for small displacements. The force constants reveal a transverse asymmetry as κ- = 9.7 pN/μm and κ+ = 11.3 pN/μm (at a total laser power of 2x35 mW) for displacements in opposite directions. The Equipartition method is limited by mechanical noise and is shown to be applicable only when the total laser power in a single 10 μm counter-propagating trap is below 2x20 mW.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza
2016-09-01
This article examines the application of nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theory to wave dispersion behavior of a size-dependent functionally graded (FG) nanobeam in thermal environment. The theory contains two scale parameters corresponding to both nonlocal and strain gradient effects. A quasi-3D sinusoidal beam theory considering shear and normal deformations is employed to present the formulation. Mori-Tanaka micromechanical model is used to describe functionally graded material properties. Hamilton's principle is employed to obtain the governing equations of nanobeam accounting for thickness stretching effect. These equations are solved analytically to find the wave frequencies and phase velocities of the FG nanobeam. It is indicated that wave dispersion behavior of FG nanobeams is significantly affected by temperature rise, nonlocality, length scale parameter and material composition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riesch, J.; Höschen, T.; Linsmeier, Ch; Wurster, S.; You, J.-H.
2014-04-01
Tungsten is a promising candidate for the plasma-facing components of a future fusion reactor, but its use is strongly restricted by its inherent brittleness. An innovative concept to overcome this problem is tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composite. In this paper we present the first mechanical test of such a composite material using a sample containing multiple fibres. The in situ fracture experiment was performed in a scanning electron microscope for close observation of the propagating crack. Stable crack propagation accompanied with rising load bearing capacity is observed. The fracture toughness is estimated using the test results and the surface observation.
The role of alpha and beta phases in fatigue crack propagation of Ti-Mn alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jong Soo; Margolin, Harold
1984-01-01
Crack propagation studies, with compact tension specimens, have been carried out on a series of equiaxed α-β Ti-Mn alloys, containing 0.4, 2.0, 5.6, 8.0, and 10.0 pct Mn, with volume fraction of β, varying from 0.019 to 0.759 for both LT and TL directions. Textures of both phases were determined and interior plastic zone sizes were measured from the extent, in β, of deformation bands which emanated from the fracture surface. Relative crack propagation rates were rationalized on the basis of the slip systems which had the highest total resolved shear stress and the orientation of these slip systems with respect to the nominal crack propagation direction. The yield strength of the alloys increased considerably as the volume fraction of β increased, because the yield strength of α is one-third that of β.7 When Δa/Δ N was plotted against Δ K/ YS, the data separated out according to yield stress, and Δa/ΔN for Stages II and III was highest for the 10.0 Mn alloy. Threshold Δ K values were also found to increase with the volume fraction of β and were considered to be determined primarily by slip in α. In Stage II a plot of log Δa/ΔN varied linearly with log √rp, where rp is the size of the reversed plastic zone. The deformation bands which define rp were found at considerably lower values of Δ K than were the striations. It was proposed that this was due to the need for a sufficiently large plastic zone which would generate sufficient unloading back stress to cause the necessary back flow to produce striations. This back flow was considered to be influenced by Bauschinger behavior. An equation has been proposed to relate the constant C in the theoretical equation for rp to volume fraction of α, equiaxed a particle size, and the average Bauschinger strain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jiandong; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang
2016-08-01
It is generally believed that cracks in metal matrix composites (MMC) parts manufacturing are crucial to the reliable material properties, especially for the reinforcement particles with high volume fraction. In this paper, WC particles (WCp) reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composites (WCp/Fe) were manufactured by laser melting deposition (LMD) technology to investigate the characteristics of cracks formation. The section morphology of composites were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), and microstructure of WCp, matrix and interface were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to study the crack initiation and propagation behavior under different laser process conditions. The temperature of materials during the laser melting deposition was detected by the infrared thermometer. The results showed that the cracks often appeared after five layers laser deposition in this experiment. The cracks crossed through WC particles rather than the interface, so the strength of interface obtained by the LMD was relatively large. When the thermal stress induced by high temperature gradient during LMD and the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between WC and matrix was larger than yield strength of WC, the cracks would initiate inside WC particle. Cracks mostly propagated along the eutectic phases whose brittleness was very large. The obtained thin interface was beneficial to transmitting the stress from particle to matrix. The influence of volume fraction of particles, laser power and scanning speed on cracks were investigated. This paper investigated the influence of WC particles size on cracks systematically, and the smallest size of cracked WC in different laser processing parameters was also researched.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, C.; Dunham, E. M.; OReilly, O. J.; Karlstrom, L.
2015-12-01
Both the oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits and resonance of fluid-filled cracks (dikes and sills) are appealing explanations for very long period signals recorded at many active volcanoes. While these processes have been studied in isolation, real volcanic systems involve interconnected networks of conduits and cracks. The overall objective of our work is to develop a model of wave propagation and ultimately eruptive fluid dynamics through this coupled system. Here, we present a linearized model for wave propagation through a conduit with multiple cracks branching off of it. The fluid is compressible and viscous, and is comprised of a mixture of liquid melt and gas bubbles. Nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption (BGR) is quantified by introducing a time scale for mass exchange between phases, following the treatment in Karlstrom and Dunham (2015). We start by deriving the dispersion relation for crack waves travelling along the multiphase-magma-filled crack embedded in an elastic solid. Dissipation arises from magma viscosity, nonequilibrium BGR, and radiation of seismic waves into the solid. We next introduce coupling conditions between the conduit and crack, expressing conservation of mass and the balance of forces across the junction. Waves in the conduit, like those in the crack, are influenced by nonequilibrium BGR, but the deformability of the surrounding solid is far less important than for cracks. Solution of the coupled system of equations provides the evolution of pressure and fluid velocity within the conduit-crack system. The system has various resonant modes that are sensitive to fluid properties and to the geometry of the conduit and cracks. Numerical modeling of seismic waves in the solid allows us to generate synthetic seismograms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, Takashi S.; Nakamura, Takuji; Murphy, Damian; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy; Zhao, Yucheng; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Taylor, Michael
2016-07-01
ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Imaging/Instrument Network) is an international airglow imager/instrument network in the Antarctic, which commenced observations in 2011. It seeks to reveal characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves, and to study sources, propagation, breaking of the gravity waves over the Antarctic and the effects on general circulation and upper atmosphere. In this study, we compared distributions of horizontal phase velocity of the gravity waves at around 90 km altitude observed in the mesospheric airglow imaging over different locations using our new statistical analysis method of 3-D Fourier transform, developed by Matsuda et al. (2014). Results from the airglow imagers at four stations at Syowa (69S, 40E), Halley (76S, 27W), Davis (69S, 78E) and McMurdo (78S, 156E) out of the ANGWIN imagers have been compared, for the observation period between April 6 and May 21 in 2013. In addition to the horizontal distribution of propagation and phase speed, gravity wave energies have been quantitatively compared, indicating a smaller GW activity in higher latitude stations. We further investigated frequency dependence of gravity wave propagation direction, as well as nightly variation of the gravity wave direction and correlation with the background wind variations. We found that variation of propagation direction is partly due to the effect of background wind in the middle atmosphere, but variation of wave sources could play important role as well. Secondary wave generation is also needed to explain the observed results.
Shiota, Tadashi Sato, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Kouichi
2014-03-10
Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of photon emission (PE) and fast crack propagation upon bending fracture were conducted in silica glass and soda lime glass. Observation of fracture surfaces revealed that macroscopic crack propagation behavior was similar between the silica glass and soda lime glass when fracture loads for these specimens were comparable and cracks propagated without branching. However, a large difference in the PE characteristics was found between the two glasses. In silica glass, PE (645–655 nm) was observed during the entire crack propagation process, whereas intense PE (430–490 nm and 500–600 nm) was observed during the initial stages of propagation. In contrast, only weak PE was detected in soda lime glass. These results show that there is a large difference in the atomic processes involved in fast crack propagation between these glasses, and that PE can be used to study brittle fracture on the atomic scale.
Mechanical crack propagation drives millisecond daughter cell separation in Staphylococcus aureus
Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K.; Rojas, Enrique R.; Koslover, Elena F.; Lee, Timothy K.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Theriot, Julie A.
2016-01-01
When Staphylococcus aureus undergoes cytokinesis, it builds a septum generating two hemispherical daughters whose cell walls are only connected via a narrow peripheral ring. We found that resolution of this ring occurred within milliseconds (“popping”), without detectable changes in cell volume. The likelihood of popping depended on cell wall stress, and the separating cells split open asymmetrically leaving the daughters connected by a hinge. An elastostatic model of the wall indicated high circumferential stress in the peripheral ring before popping. Finally, we observed small perforations in the peripheral ring that are likely initial points of mechanical failure. Thus, the ultrafast daughter cell separation in S. aureus appears to be driven by accumulation of stress in the peripheral ring, and exhibits hallmarks of mechanical crack propagation. PMID:25931560
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richey, Edward, III
1995-01-01
This research aims to develop the methods and understanding needed to incorporate time and loading variable dependent environmental effects on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) into computerized fatigue life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO (NASGRO). In particular, the effect of loading frequency on FCP rates in alpha + beta titanium alloys exposed to an aqueous chloride solution is investigated. The approach couples empirical modeling of environmental FCP with corrosion fatigue experiments. Three different computer models have been developed and incorporated in the DOS executable program. UVAFAS. A multiple power law model is available, and can fit a set of fatigue data to a multiple power law equation. A model has also been developed which implements the Wei and Landes linear superposition model, as well as an interpolative model which can be utilized to interpolate trends in fatigue behavior based on changes in loading characteristics (stress ratio, frequency, and hold times).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, W. A.; Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.
2014-02-01
We analyse the time-stepping stability for the 3-D acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two types of methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method. Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog time-stepping scheme, which is second-order accurate and conditionally stable, leads to a fully explicit scheme. We provide estimates of its stability limit for simple cases, namely, the reference element with Neumann boundary conditions, its distorted version of arbitrary shape, the unit cube that can be partitioned into six tetrahedra with periodic boundary conditions and its distortions. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability limit contains an element diameter for which we considered different options. The one based on the sum of the eigenvalues of the spatial operator for the first-degree mass-lumped element gives the best results. It resembles the diameter of the inscribed sphere but is slightly easier to compute. The stability estimates show that the mass-lumped continuous and the discontinuous Galerkin finite elements of degree 2 have comparable stability conditions, whereas the mass-lumped elements of degree one and three allow for larger time steps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Youichi; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro
2016-04-01
Initiation, propagation, and termination of internal cracks in a continuously cast austenitic stainless steel has been investigated with emphasis on stress loading of the solidified shell during casting. Cracks were formed at the center of the slab, parallel to the width of the cast, and were observed near the narrow faces. Optimized two-dimensional X-ray diffraction method was employed to measure residual stress tensor distributions around the cracks in the as-cast slab with coarse and strongly preferentially oriented grains. The tensor distributions had a sharp peak, as high as 430 MPa, at the crack end neighboring the columnar grains. On the other hand, lower values were measured at the crack end neighboring the equiaxed grains, where the local temperatures were higher during solidification. The true residual stress distributions were determined by evaluating the longitudinal elastic constant for each measured position, resulting in more accurate stress values than before. Electron probe micro-analysis at the terminal crack position showed that Ni, Ti, and Si were concentrated at the boundaries of the equiaxed grains, where the tensile strength was estimated to be lower than at the primary grains. A model of the crack formation and engineering recommendations to reduce crack formation are proposed.
Transient cracks and triple junctions induced by Cocos-Nazca propagating rift
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schouten, H.; Smith, D. K.; Zhu, W.; Montesi, L. G.; Mitchell, G. A.; Cann, J. R.
2009-12-01
The Galapagos triple junction is a ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction where the Cocos, Nazca, and Pacific plates meet around the Galapagos microplate (GMP). On the Cocos plate, north of the large gore that marks the propagating Cocos-Nazca (C-N) Rift, a 250-km-long and 50-km-wide band of NW-SE-trending cracks crosscuts the N-S-trending abyssal hills of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These appear as a succession of minor rifts, accommodating some NE-SW extension of EPR-generated seafloor. The rifts successively intersected the EPR in triple junctions at distances of 50-100 km north of the tip of the C-N Rift. We proposed a simple crack interaction model to explain the location of the transient rifts and their junction with the EPR. The model predicts that crack locations are controlled by the stress perturbation along the EPR, induced by the dominant C-N Rift, and scaled by the distance of its tip to the EPR (Schouten et al., 2008). The model also predicts that tensile stresses are symmetric about the C-N Rift and thus, similar cracks should have occurred south of the C-N Rift prior to formation of the GMP about 1 Ma. There were no data at the time to test this prediction. In early 2009 (AT 15-41), we mapped an area on the Nazca plate south of the C-N rift out to 4 Ma. The new bathymetric data confirm the existence of a distinctive pattern of cracks south of the southern C-N gore that mirrors the pattern on the Cocos plate until about 1 Ma, and lends support to the crack interaction model. The envelope of the symmetric cracking pattern indicates that the distance between the C-N Rift tip and the EPR varied between 40 and 65 km during this time (1-4 Ma). The breakdown of the symmetry at 1 Ma accurately dates the onset of a southern plate boundary of the GMP, now Dietz Deep Rift. At present, the southern rift boundary of the GMP joins the EPR with a steep-sided, 80 km long ridge. This ridge releases the stress perturbation otherwise induced along the EPR by elastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trifonova, Tatiana; Tulenev, Nikita; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Arakelian, Sergei
2014-05-01
stimulating a trigger mechanism for releasing of groundwater; (ii) the crackness/fracturing structure as a characteristic property for all rocks, being dissecting by totality of cracks/fissures and along which (in the case when a good development crack becomes a fault) a vertical and/or lateral movement (of both groundwater and surface water mass) occurs as a result of excessive strain; (iii) areas of formation and modification in time of groundwater transit system, and especially the modalities for it exit on surface by different factors including tectonic processes under adjustable conditions for both localization of earthquake epicenters/volcanos activity areas and occurring floods in respect of propagating of seismic waves and dislocation of border for lithospheric plates/magma objects in the river basin region; (iv) the way of distribution over surface for water flows/fronts in the further, which can be described by nonlinear hydrodynamic approach, e.g. by different classes of solutions for Korteweg-de Vries equation, associated with observable natural phenomena. 4. Monitoring in dynamics of state of hydrostatic/hydrodynamic pressures in underground aquifers (e.g. by artesian wells in comparison with two databases: before and after the events) is an important factor in assessing of acceptable risk for the events. Combining it with monitoring of seismic activity should allow to make a more detailed forecasting and zoning of potentially dangerous areas for such natural disasters.
Mode I and mixed I/III crack initiation and propagation behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy at 25{degrees}C
Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.
1997-04-01
The mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture behavior of the production-scale heat (No. 832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti has been investigated at 25{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens for a mode I crack and modified CT specimens for a mixed-mode I/III crack. The mode III to mode I load ratio was 0.47. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h after final machining. Both mode I and mixed-mode I/III specimens were fatigue cracked prior to J-integral testing. It was noticed that the mixed-mode I/III crack angle decreased from an initial 25 degrees to approximately 23 degrees due to crack plane rotation during fatigue cracking. No crack plane rotation occurred in the mode I specimen. The crack initiation and propagation behavior was evaluated by generating J-R curves. Due to the high ductility of this alloy and the limited specimen thickness (6.35 mm), plane strain requirements were not met so valid critical J-integral values were not obtained. However, it was found that the crack initiation and propagation behavior was significantly different between the mode I and the mixed-mode I/III specimens. In the mode I specimen crack initiation did not occur, only extensive crack tip blunting due to plastic deformation. During J-integral testing the mixed-mode crack rotated to an increased crack angle (in contrast to fatigue precracking) by crack blunting. When the crack initiated, the crack angle was about 30 degrees. After crack initiation the crack plane remained at 30 degrees until the test was completed. Mixed-mode crack initiation was difficult, but propagation was easy. The fracture surface of the mixed-mode specimen was characterized by microvoid coalescence.
3-D inversion of borehole-to-surface electrical data using a back-propagation neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Trong Long
2009-08-01
The "fluid-flow tomography", an advanced technique for geoelectrical survey based on the conventional mise-à-la-masse measurement, has been developed by Exploration Geophysics Laboratory at the Kyushu University. This technique is proposed to monitor fluid-flow behavior during water injection and production in a geothermal field. However data processing of this technique is very costly. In this light, this paper will discuss the solution to cost reduction by applying a neural network in the data processing. A case study in the Takigami geothermal field in Japan will be used to illustrate this. The achieved neural network in this case study is three-layered and feed-forward. The most successful learning algorithm in this network is the Resilient Propagation (RPROP). Consequently, the study advances the pragmatism of the "fluid-flow tomography" technique which can be widely used for geothermal fields. Accuracy of the solution is then verified by using root mean square (RMS) misfit error as an indicator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hai-Yang, Song; Yu-Long, Li
2016-02-01
The effects of amorphous lamella on the crack propagation behavior in crystalline/amorphous (C/A) Mg/Mg-Al nanocomposites under tensile loading are investigated using the molecular dynamics simulation method. The sample with an initial crack of orientation [0001] is considered here. For the nano-monocrystal Mg, the crack growth exhibits brittle cleavage. However, for the C/A Mg/Mg-Al nanocomposites, the ‘double hump’ behavior can be observed in all the stress-strain curves regardless of the amorphous lamella thickness. The results indicate that the amorphous lamella plays a critical role in the crack deformation, and it can effectively resist the crack propagation. The above mentioned crack deformation behaviors are also disclosed and analyzed in the present work. The results here provide a strategy for designing the high-performance hexagonal-close-packed metal and alloy materials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11372256 and 11572259), the 111 Project (Grant No. B07050), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-12-1046), and the Program for New Scientific and Technological Star of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2012KJXX-39).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calomino, Anthony Martin
1994-01-01
The subcritical growth of cracks from pre-existing flaws in ceramics can severely affect the structural reliability of a material. The ability to directly observe subcritical crack growth and rigorously analyze its influence on fracture behavior is important for an accurate assessment of material performance. A Mode I fracture specimen and loading method has been developed which permits the observation of stable, subcritical crack extension in monolithic and toughened ceramics. The test specimen and procedure has demonstrated its ability to generate and stably propagate sharp, through-thickness cracks in brittle high modulus materials. Crack growth for an aluminum oxide ceramic was observed to be continuously stable throughout testing. Conversely, the fracture behavior of a silicon nitride ceramic exhibited crack growth as a series of subcritical extensions which are interrupted by dynamic propagation. Dynamic initiation and arrest fracture resistance measurements for the silicon nitride averaged 67 and 48 J/sq m, respectively. The dynamic initiation event was observed to be sudden and explosive. Increments of subcritical crack growth contributed to a 40 percent increase in fracture resistance before dynamic initiation. Subcritical crack growth visibly marked the fracture surface with an increase in surface roughness. Increments of subcritical crack growth loosen ceramic material near the fracture surface and the fracture debris is easily removed by a replication technique. Fracture debris is viewed as evidence that both crack bridging and subsurface microcracking may be some of the mechanisms contributing to the increase in fracture resistance. A Statistical Fracture Mechanics model specifically developed to address subcritical crack growth and fracture reliability is used together with a damaged zone of material at the crack tip to model experimental results. A Monte Carlo simulation of the actual experiments was used to establish a set of modeling input
Cohesive Laws for Analyzing Through-Crack Propagation in Cross Ply Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergan, Andrew C.; Davila, Carlos G.
2015-01-01
The laminate cohesive approach (LCA) is a methodology for the experimental characterization of cohesive through-the-thickness damage propagation in fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites. LCA has several advantages over other existing approaches for cohesive law characterization, including: visual measurements of crack length are not required, structural effects are accounted for, and LCA can be applied when the specimen is too small to achieve steady-state fracture. In this work, the applicability of this method is investigated for two material systems: IM7/8552, a conventional prepreg, and AS4/VRM34, a non-crimp fabric cured using an out-of-autoclave process. The compact tension specimen configuration is used to propagate stable Mode I damage. Trilinear cohesive laws are characterized using the fracture toughness and the notch tip opening displacement. Test results are compared for the IM7/8552 specimens with notches machined by waterjet and by wire slurry saw. It is shown that the test results are nearly identical for both notch tip preparations methods, indicating that significant specimen preparation time and cost savings can be realized by using the waterjet to notch the specimen instead of the wire slurry saw. The accuracy of the cohesive laws characterized herein are assessed by reproducing the structural response of the test specimens using computational methods. The applicability of the characterization procedure for inferring lamina fracture toughness is also discussed.
Williford, R.E.
1989-09-01
Transverse cracking of polymeric matrix materials is an important fatigue damage mechanism in continuous-fiber composite laminates. The propagation of an array of these cracks is a stochastic problem usually treated by Monte Carlo methods. However, this exploratory work proposes an alternative approach wherein the Monte Carlo method is replaced by a more closed-form recursion relation based on fractional Brownian motion.'' A fractal scaling equation is also proposed as a substitute for the more empirical Paris equation describing individual crack growth in this approach. Preliminary calculations indicate that the new recursion relation is capable of reproducing the primary features of transverse matrix fatigue cracking behavior. Although not yet fully tested or verified, this cursion relation may eventually be useful for real-time applications such as monitoring damage in aircraft structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stormo, Arne; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Hansen, Alex
2016-05-01
We compare experimental observations of a slow interfacial crack propagation along an heterogeneous interface to numerical simulations using a soft-clamped fiber bundle model. The model consists of a planar set of brittle fibers between a deformable elastic half-space and a rigid plate with a square root shape that imposes a non linear displacement around the process zone. The non-linear square-root rigid shape combined with the long range elastic interactions is shown to provide more realistic displacement and stress fields around the crack tip in the process zone and thereby significantly improving the predictions of the model. Experiments and model are shown to share a similar self-affine roughening of the crack front both at small and large scales and a similar distribution of the local crack front velocity. Numerical predictions of the Family-Viscek scaling for both regimes are discussed together with the local velocity distribution of the fracture front.
May, R Alan; Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D
2012-02-01
Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is utilized to determine the length distribution of cracks formed through amorphous solid water (ASW) during crystallization. This distribution is determined by monitoring how the thickness of an ASW overlayer alters desorption of an underlayer of O2. As deposited, ASW prevents desorption of O2. During crystallization, cracks form through the ASW and open a path to vacuum, which allows O2 to escape in a rapid episodic release known as the "molecular volcano". Sufficiently thick ASW overlayers further trap O2 resulting in a second, higher temperature, O2 desorption peak. The evolution of this trapping peak with overlayer thickness is the basis for determining the length distribution of crystallization-induced cracks spanning the ASW. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and TPD of multicomponent parfait structures of ASW, O2, and Kr indicate that a preponderance of these cracks propagate down from the outer surface of the ASW. PMID:26285846
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longchamp, Céline; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Manzella, Irene
2016-09-01
Rock avalanches are extremely destructive and uncontrollable events that involve a great volume of material (> 106 m3) and several complex processes, and they are difficult to witness. For this reason the study of these phenomena using analog modeling and the accurate analysis of deposit structures and features of laboratory data and historic events become of great importance in the understanding of their behavior.The main objective of this research is to analyze rock avalanche dynamics and deformation process by means of a detailed structural analysis of the deposits coming from data of 3-D measurements of mass movements of different magnitudes, from decimeter level scale laboratory experiments to well-studied rock avalanches of several square kilometers' magnitude.Laboratory experiments were performed on a tilting plane on which a certain amount of a well-defined granular material is released, propagates and finally stops on a horizontal surface. The 3-D geometrical model of the deposit is then obtained using either a scan made with a 3-D digitizer (Konica Minolta VIVID 9i) or a photogrammetric method called structure from motion (SfM), which requires taking several pictures from different point of view of the object to be modeled.In order to emphasize and better detect the fault structures present in the deposits, we applied a median filter with different moving window sizes (from 3 × 3 to 9 × 9 nearest neighbors) to the 3-D datasets and a gradient operator along the direction of propagation.The application of these filters on the datasets results in (1) a precise mapping of the longitudinal and transversal displacement features observed at the surface of the deposits and (2) a more accurate interpretation of the relative movements along the deposit (i.e., normal, strike-slip, inverse faults) by using cross sections. Results show how the use of filtering techniques reveals disguised features in the original point cloud and that similar displacement patterns
... sound the drug makes as it heats up. Short-Term Effects Crack is a stimulant that is absorbed through ... quickly, after about 5 or 10 minutes. Other short-term effects include: higher heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure , ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salam, I.; Malik, M. A.; Abid, M.; Farooque, M.
2014-06-01
In present work, after finding the anisotropy resulting in dissimilar properties in different orientations of a thick-walled cylinder, experimental and numerical study was performed to reveal the fatigue crack growth behavior of the cylinder under cyclic hoop stress. Fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted on middle tension M(T) samples prepared in an orientation to simulate the hoop stress on the cylinder. The tests were conducted under constant amplitude loading at R ratio 0.1. The fatigue crack growth data was compiled and applied to simulate and predict the crack growth process using two dimensional parametric finite element technique. The fatigue crack propagation was simulated, based on linear elastic fracture mechanics and stress intensity factor determination. Both the experimental and numerical results of crack growth data, at stress levels of 10 to 40 per cent of the yield stress of the material, were found in close agreement. The disparity observed was concluded in the range of statistical scatter in the experimental data. The crack growth rate and the fatigue life of the samples obtained from the experiments and the simulation were also in good agreement at all the stress levels analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahalathantri, Buddhi L.; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Fawzia, Sabrina
2015-05-01
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) schemes are useful for proper management of the performance of structures and for preventing their catastrophic failures. Vibration based SHM schemes has gained popularity during the past two decades resulting in significant research. It is hence evitable that future SHM schemes will include robust and automated vibration based damage assessment techniques (VBDAT) to detect, localize and quantify damage. In this context, the Damage Index (DI) method which is classified as non-model or output based VBDAT, has the ability to automate the damage assessment process without using a computer or numerical model along with actual measurements. Although damage assessment using DI methods have been able to achieve reasonable success for structures made of homogeneous materials such as steel, the same success level has not been reported with respect to Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. The complexity of flexural cracks is claimed to be the main reason to hinder the applicability of existing DI methods in RC structures. Past research also indicates that use of a constant baseline throughout the damage assessment process undermines the potential of the Modal Strain Energy based Damage Index (MSEDI). To address this situation, this paper presents a novel method that has been developed as part of a comprehensive research project carried out at Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. This novel process, referred to as the baseline updating method, continuously updates the baseline and systematically tracks both crack formation and propagation with the ability to automate the damage assessment process using output only data. The proposed method is illustrated through examples and the results demonstrate the capability of the method to achieve the desired outcomes.
Toughened epoxy polymers: Fatigue crack propagation mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis
Azimi, H.R.
1994-01-01
This study examines several mechanisms by which the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) resistance of shear-yielding thermoset polymers can be improved. Specifically, this research has four objectives as follows: first, to develop a mechanistic understanding of the FCP behavior of rubber-modified thermoset polymers; second, to understand the effect of strength and shape of the inorganic fillers on the FCP resistance and micromechanisms in filled epoxy polymers; third, to elucidate the nature of the interactions among the crack-tip shielding mechanisms in thermoset polymers subjected to cyclic loading and synergistically toughened with both rubber and inorganic particles (i.e., hybrid composites); fourth, to study the role of interfaces on the synergistic interactions in FCP behavior of hybrid composites. The model - matrix material consists of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) based type epoxy cured with piperidine. Parallel to the first objective, the epoxy matrix was modified with rubber while changing volume fraction, type, and size of the rubber particles. To accomplish the second goal, the epoxy polymers were modified by a total 10 volume percent of either one of the following three types of inorganic modifiers: hollow glass spheres (HGS); solid glass spheres (SGS); and short glass fibers (SGF). The third goal was met by processing three different systems of hybrid epoxy composites modified by (1) CTBN rubber and HGS, (2) CTBN rubber and SGS, and (3) CTBN rubber and SGF. The total volume fraction of the two modifiers in each hybrid system was kept constant at 10 percent while systematically changing their ratio. To meet the fourth objective, the surface properties of the SGS particles in the hybrid system were altered using adhesion promoter. A mechanistic understanding of the FCP behavior of rubber-modified epoxies was achieved by relating fractographs to observed FCP behavior.
Glushko, O; Meisels, R; Kuchar, F
2010-03-29
The plane-wave expansion method (PWEM), the multiple-scattering method (MSM) and the 3D finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) are applied for simulations of propagation of electromagnetic waves through 3D colloidal photonic crystals. The system investigated is not a "usual" artificial opal with close-packed fcc lattice but a dilute bcc structure which occurs due to long-range repulsive interaction between electrically charged colloidal particles during the growth process. The basic optical properties of non-close-packed colloidal PhCs are explored by examining the band structure and reflection spectra for a bcc lattice of silica spheres in an aqueous medium. Finite size effects and correspondence between the Bragg model, band structure and reflection spectra are discussed. The effects of size, positional and missing-spheres disorder are investigated. In addition, by analyzing the results of experimental work we show that the fabricated structures have reduced plane-to-plane distance probably due to the effect of gravity during growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashir, S.; Thomas, M. C.
1993-08-01
Alloy 720 is a high-strength cast and wrought turbine disc alloy currently in use for temperatures up to about 650 °C in Allison’s T800, T406, GMA 2100, and GMA 3007 engines. In the original composition in-tended for use as turbine blades, large carbide and boride stringers formed and acted as preferred crack initiators. Stringering was attributed to relatively higher boron and carbon levels. These interstitials are known to affect creep and ductility of superalloys, but the effects on low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation have not been studied. Recent emphasis on the total life approach in the design of turbine discs necessitates better understanding of the interactive fatigue crack propagation and low-cycle fatigue behavior at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to improve the damage tolerance of Alloy 720 by systematically modifying boron and carbon levels in the master melt, without altering the low-cy-cle fatigue and strength characteristics of the original composition. Improvement in strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue life was achieved by fragmenting the continuous stringers via composition modifica-tion. The fatigue crack propagation rate was reduced by a concurrent reduction of both carbon and bo-ron levels to optimally low levels at which the frequency of brittle second phases was minimal. The changes in composition have been incorporated for production disc forgings.
Elevated temperature creep-fatigue crack propagation in nickel-base alloys and 1 Cr-Mo-V steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazmy, M.; Hoffelner, W.; Wüthrich, C.
1988-04-01
The crack growth behavior of several high temperature nickel-base alloys, under cyclic and static loading, is studied and reviewed. In the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) MA 6000 and MA 754 alloys, the high temperature crack propagation exhibited orientation dependence under cyclic as well as under static loading. The creep crack growth (CCG) behavior of cast nickel-base IN-738 and IN-939* superalloys at 850 °C could be characterized by the stress intensity factor, K 1. In the case of the alloy IN-901 at 500 °C and 600 °C, K 1 was found to be the relevant parameter to characterize the creep crack growth behavior. The energy rate line integral, C*, may be the appropriate loading parameter to describe the creep crack growth behavior of the nickel-iron base IN-800H alloy at 800 °C. The creep crack growth data of 1 Cr-Mo-V steel, with bainitic microstructure, at 550 °C could be correlated better by C * than by K 1.
Asymmetric crack propagation near waterfall cliff and its influence on the waterfall lip shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vastola, G.
2011-11-01
By means of Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations and fatigue fracture mechanics analysis, we show that crack propagation in bedrocks close to the waterfall cliff is preferential towards the cliff face rather than upstream the river. Based on this effect, we derive the corresponding expression for the velocity of recession vr of the waterfall lip, and find that vr has a quadratic dependence on the hydrostatic pressure. Quantitatively, this erosion mechanism generates recession rates of the order of ~cm-dm/y, consistent with the recession rates of well-known waterfalls. We enclose our expression for vr into a growth model to investigate the time evolution of a waterfall lip subject to this erosional mechanism. Because of the dependence on hydrostatic pressure, the shape of the waterfall is influenced by the transverse profile of the river that generates the waterfall. If the river has a transverse concavity, the waterfall evolves a curved shape. Evolution for the case of meanders with asymmetric transverse profile is also given.
Crack propagation analysis of welded thin-walled joints using boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashiri, F. R.; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Grundy, P.
Tube-to-plate nodal joints under cyclic bending are widely used in the road transport and agricultural industry. The square hollow sections (SHS) used in these constructions are thin-walled and cold formed, and they have thicknesses of less than 4mm. Some fatigue failures have been observed. The weld undercut may affect the fatigue life of welded tubular joints especially for thin-walled sections. The undercut dimensions were measured using the silicon imprint technique. Modelling of thin-walled cruciform joints, as a simplification of welded tubular joints, is described in this paper to determine the effect of weld undercut on fatigue propagation life. The Boundary Element Analysis System Software (BEASY) is used. The results of the effect of weld toe undercut from this analysis are compared with results from previous research to determine the comparative reduction in fatigue life between thin-walled joints (T=3mm) and those made of thicker sections (T=20mm). The loss in fatigue strength of the thin-walled joints is found to be relatively more than that for thicker walled joints. A 3D model of a tube to plate T-joint is also modelled using the boundary element software, BEASY. The nodal joint consists of a square hollow section, 50×50×3 SHS, fillet welded to a 10-mm thick plate, and subjected to cyclic bending stress. Fatigue analyses are carried out and the results are compared with the only available S-N design curve.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burns, James T.
The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (<500 microm) propagation kinetics (da/dN), and the effect of cold loading environment provide the means to validate mechanism-based modeling. Both pristine and corroded (L-S surface) 7075-T651 specimens were fatigued at 23°C, -50°C and -90°C under various applied stresses. Microscopy of programmed loading-induced crack surface marks produced an unparalleled Ni and small crack da/dN database. Results show that fatigue crack formation involves a complex interaction of elastic stress concentration, due to a 3-dimensional macro-pit, coupled with local micro-feature (and constituent) induced plastic strain concentration. Such interactions cause high Ni variability, but, from an engineering perspective, a broadly corroded surface should contain an extreme group of features driving Ni to ˜0. At low-applied stresses, Ni consumes a significant portion of total life, which is well predicted by coupling elastic-plastic FEA with empirical low-cycle fatigue life models. All pristine and corroded da/dN were uniquely correlated using complex continuum stress intensity (K) and crack opening solutions which account for the stress concentrating formation feature. Multiple crack growth regimes were observed, typical of environment enhanced fatigue in Al alloys. Such behavior is not captured by prominent mechanics-based small crack models. Furthermore, neither local closure nor slip-based models captured the order of magnitude variability in da/dN attributed to microstructure. Low temperature loading produces an order of magnitude increase in Ni, and even larger reduction in da/dN, due to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Mei, Hanfei; Ren, Yuanqiang
2016-05-01
For aerospace application of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology, the problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions must be addressed and the SHM technology has to be fully validated on real aircraft structures under realistic load conditions on ground before it can reach the status of flight test. In this paper, the guided wave (GW) based SHM method is applied to a full-scale aircraft fatigue test which is one of the most similar test status to the flight test. To deal with the time-varying problem, a GW-Gaussian mixture model (GW-GMM) is proposed. The probability characteristic of GW features, which is introduced by time-varying conditions is modeled by GW-GMM. The weak cumulative variation trend of the crack propagation, which is mixed in time-varying influence can be tracked by the GW-GMM migration during on-line damage monitoring process. A best match based Kullback-Leibler divergence is proposed to measure the GW-GMM migration degree to reveal the crack propagation. The method is validated in the full-scale aircraft fatigue test. The validation results indicate that the reliable crack propagation monitoring of the left landing gear spar and the right wing panel under realistic load conditions are achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, X.; Y Luo, Y.; Wang, Z. W.
2014-03-01
As an important component of the blade-control system in Kaplan turbines, piston rods are subjected to fluctuating forces transferred by the turbines blades from hydraulic pressure oscillations. Damage due to unsteady hydraulic loads might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. In one running hydropower plant, the fracture failure of the piston rod was found twice at the same location. With the transient dynamic analysis, the retainer ring structure of the piston rod existed a relative high stress concentration. This predicted position of the stress concentration agreed well with the actual fracture position in the plant. However, the local strain approach was not able to explain why this position broke frequently. Since traditional structural fatigue analyses use a local stress strain approach to assess structural integrity, do not consider the effect of flaws which can significantly degrade structural life. Using linear elastic fracture mechanism (LEFM) approaches that include the effect of flaws is becoming common practice in many industries. In this research, a case involving a small semi-ellipse crack was taken into account at the stress concentration area, crack growth progress was calculated by FEM. The relationship between crack length and remaining life was obtained. The crack propagation path approximately agreed with the actual fracture section. The results showed that presence of the crack had significantly changed the local stress and strain distributions of the piston rod compared with non-flaw assumption.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1991-01-01
Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness by aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl, and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1991-01-01
Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness of aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl; and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.
Gencur, Sara J; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M
2006-03-01
To prolong the life of total joint replacements, highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) have been introduced to improve the wear resistance of the articulating surfaces. However, there are concerns regarding the loss of ductility and potential loss in fatigue crack propagation (FCP) resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation-induced crosslinking with two different post-irradiation thermal treatments on the FCP resistance of UHMWPE. Two highly crosslinked and one virgin UHMWPE treatment groups (ram-extruded, orthopedic grade, GUR 1050) were examined. For the two highly crosslinked treatment groups, UHMWPE rods were exposed to 100 kGy and then underwent post-irradiation thermal processing either above the melt temperature or below the melt temperature (2 h-150 degrees C, 110 degrees C). Compact tension specimens were cyclically loaded to failure and the fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, vs. cyclic stress intensity factor, DeltaK, behavior was determined and compared between groups. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine fracture surface characteristics. Crosslinking was found to decrease the ability of UHMWPE to resist crack inception and propagation under cyclic loading. The findings also suggested that annealing as a post-irradiation treatment may be somewhat less detrimental to FCP resistance of UHMWPE than remelting. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the fracture surfaces demonstrated that the virgin treatment group failed in a more ductile manner than the two highly crosslinked treatment groups.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hueckel, T.; Hu, M.
2015-12-01
Crack propagation in a subcritically stressed rock subject to chemically aggressive environment is analyzed and numerically simulated. Chemically induced weakening is often encountered in hydraulic fracturing of low-permeability oil/gas reservoirs and heat reservoirs, during storage of CO2 and nuclear waste corroding canisters, and other circumstances when rock matrix acidizing is involved. Upon acidizing, mineral mass dissolution is substantially enhanced weakening the rock and causing crack propagation and eventually permeability changes in the medium. The crack process zone is modeled mathematically via a chemo-plastic coupling and chemo-elastic coupling model. In plasticity a two-way coupling is postulated between mineral dissolution and a yield limit of rock matrix. The rate of dissolution is described by a rate law, but the mineral mass removal per unit volume is also a function of a variable internal specific surface area, which is in turn affected by the micro-cracking (treated as a plastic strain). The behavior of the rock matrix is modeled as rigid-plastic adding a chemical softening capacity to Cam-Clay model. Adopting the Extended Johnson's approximation of processes around the crack tip, the evolution of the stress field and deformation as a function of the chemically enhanced rock damage is modeled in a simplified way. In addition, chemical reactive transport is made dependent on plastic strain representing micro-cracking. Depending on mechanical and chemical boundary conditions, the area of enhanced chemical softening is near or somewhat away from the crack tip.In elasticity, chemo-mechanical effect is postulated via a chemical volumetric shrinkage strain proportional to mass removal variable, conceived analogously to thermal expansion. Two versions are considered: of constant coefficient of shrinkage and a variable one, coupled to deviatoric strain. Airy Potential approach used for linear elasticity is extended considering an extra term, which is
A numerical analysis of crack propagation in microcracking ceramic and ceramic composites
Biner, S.B.
1993-10-01
A set of numerical analyses of crack growth was performed to elucidate the mechanism of microcracking on the observed fracture behavior of ceramics and ceramic composites. The random nucleation, orientation and size effects of discrete microcracks and resulting interactions are fully accounted for in a hybrid finite element model. The results indicate that the energy expenditure due the microcrack nucleation seems not to contribute significantly to the resistance to crack growth. The main controlling parameter appears to be elastic interaction of the microcracks with the main crack in the absence of a reinforcing phase; therefore, the microcrack density plays an important role. In the case of the composites, the interaction of the main crack with the stress fields of the reinforcing phase, rather than interaction of microcracks, is the controlling parameter for the resistance to the crack growth even in the presence of a large population of microcracks. It will be also shown that the crack branching and crack kinking can readily develop as a result of microcracking.
Experimental simulation of frost wedging-induced crack propagation in alpine rockwall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Hailiang; Leith, Kerry; Krautblatter, Michael
2016-04-01
Frost wedging is widely presumed to be the principal mechanism responsible for shattering jointed low-porosity rocks in high alpine rockwalls. The interaction of ice and rock physics regulates the efficacy of frost wedging. In order to better understand temporal aspects of this interaction, we present results of a series of laboratory experiments monitoring crack widening as a result of ice formation in an artificial crack (4mm wide, 80mm deep) cut 20 mm from the end of a rectangular granite block. Our results indicate that i) freezing direction plays a key role in determining the magnitude of crack widening; in short-term (1 day) experiments, maximum crack widening during top-down freezing (associated with 'autumn' conditions) was around 0.11mm, while inside-out freezing (resulting from 'spring' conditions) produced only 0.02 mm of deformation; ii) neither ice, nor water pressure (direct tension and hydraulic fracturing respectively) caused measurable irreversible crack widening during short-term tests, as the calculated maximum stress intensity at the crack tip was less than the fracture toughness of our granite sample; iii) development of ice pressure is closely related to the mechanical properties of the fracture in which it forms, and as such, the interaction of ice and rock is intrinsically dynamic; iv) irreversible crack widening (about 0.03mm) was only observed following a long-term (53 day) experiment representing a simplified transition from autumn to winter conditions. We suggest this is the result of stress corrosion aided by strong opening during freezing, and to a lesser degree by ice segregation up to one week after the initial freezing period, and downward migration of liquid water during the remainder of the test. Our results suggest the fundamental assumption of frost wedging, that rapid freezing from open ends of cracks can seal water inside the crack and thus cause damage through excessive stresses induced by volumetric expansion seems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubeljak, N.; Predan, J.; Senčič, B.; Chapetti, M. D.
2016-03-01
An integrated fracture mechanics approach is proposed to account for the estimation of the fatigue resistance of component. Applications, estimations and results showed very good agreements with experimental results. The model is simple to apply, accounts for the main geometrical, mechanical and material parameters that define the fatigue resistance, and allows accurate predictions. It offers a change in design philosophy: It could be used for design, while simultaneously dealing with crack propagation thresholds. Furthermore, it allows quantification of the material defect sensitivity. In the case of the set of fatigue tests carried out by rotational bending of specimens without residual stresses, the estimated results showed good agreement and that an initial crack length of 0.5 mm can conservatively explain experimental data. In the case of fatigue tests carried out on the springs at their final condition with bending at R = 0.1 our data shows the influence of compressive residual stresses on fatigue strength. Results also showed that the procedures allow us to analyze the different combinations of initial crack length and residual stress levels, and how much the fatigue resistance can change by changing that configuration. For this set of tests, the fatigue resistance estimated for an initial crack length equal to 0.35 mm, can explain all testing data observed for the springs.
May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.
2012-02-02
Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is utilized to determine the length distribution of cracks formed through amorphous solid water (ASW) during crystallization. This distribution is determined by monitoring how the thickness of an ASW overlayer alters desorption of an underlayer of O2. As deposited the ASW overlayer prevents desorption of O2. During crystallization, cracks form through the ASW overlayer and open a path to vacuum which allows O2 to escape in a rapid episodic release known as the 'molecular volcano'. Sufficiently thick ASW overlayers further trap O2 resulting in a second O2 desorption peak commensurate with desorption of the last of the ASW overlayer. The evolution of this trapping peak with overlayer thickness is the basis for determining the distribution of crystallization induced cracks through the ASW. Reflection adsorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and TPD of multicomponent parfait structures of ASW, O2 and Kr indicate that a preponderance of these cracks propagate down from the outer surface of the ASW.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Longzhou; Chang, Keh-Minn; Mannan, Sarwan K.; Patel, Shailesh J.
2002-11-01
The effect of isothermal exposure on the elevated-temperature, time-dependent fatigue-crack propagation (FCP) in INCONEL Alloy 783 is investigated. Commercially produced Alloy 783 was annealed and aged following the standard heat-treatment procedure. One set of specimens was then isothermally exposed at 500 °C for 3000 hours. All specimens were subjected to FCP tests with various hold-time periods and sustained-loading crack-growth tests at 538 °C and 650 °C in a laboratory-air environment. Without a hold time, the as-produced and isothermally exposed materials had comparable FCP rates at both test temperatures. With hold times of 100 and 300 seconds, the as-produced and isothermally exposed specimens had comparable FCP rates at 538 °C. Hold-time testing of the as-produced material at 650 °C showed abnormal time-dependent FCP and sustained-loading crack-growth retardation. However, hold-time testing of isothermally exposed material at 650 °C showed the steady sustained-loading crack growth and fully time-dependent FCP typically observed in many superalloys. Comparison with Alloy 718 data from the literature shows that FCP rates of as-produced Alloy 718 and isothermally exposed Alloy 783 are comparable at 650 °C. A fully time-dependent FCP model based on the damage-zone concept and a thermal-activation equation is proposed to characterize the FCP behaviors.
May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.
2013-03-14
In this (Paper I) and the companion paper (Paper II) we investigate the mechanisms for the release of trapped gases from underneath of amorphous solid water (ASW) films. In prior work, we reported the episodic release of trapped gases in concert with the crystallization ASW, a phenomenon that we termed the "molecular volcano". The observed abrupt desorption is due to the formation of cracks that span the film to form a connected pathway for release. In this paper we utilize the "molecular volcano" desorption peak to characterize the formation of crystallization-induced cracks. We find that the crack length and distribution are independent of the trapped gas (Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, N2, O2 or CO). Selective placement of the inert gas layer is used to show that cracks form near the top of the film and propagate downward into the film. Isothermal experiments reveal that, after some induction time, cracks propagate linearly in time with an Arrhenius dependent velocity corresponding to an activation energy of 54 kJ/mol. This value is consistent with the crystallization growth rate reported by others and establishes a direct connection between crystallization growth rate and the crack propagation rate. A two-step model in which nucleation and crystallization occurs in an induction zone near the top of the film followed by the propagation of a crystallization/crack front into the film is in good agreement with the temperature programmed desorption results.
May, R Alan; Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D
2013-03-14
In this (Paper I) and the companion paper (Paper II; R. May, R. Smith, and B. Kay, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 104502 (2013)), we investigate the mechanisms for the release of trapped gases from underneath amorphous solid water (ASW) films. In prior work, we reported the episodic release of trapped gases in concert with the crystallization of ASW, a phenomenon that we termed the "molecular volcano." The observed abrupt desorption is due to the formation of cracks that span the film to form a connected pathway for release. In this paper, we utilize the "molecular volcano" desorption peak to characterize the formation of crystallization-induced cracks. We find that the crack length distribution is independent of the trapped gas (Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, N2, O2, or CO). Selective placement of the inert gas layer is used to show that cracks form near the top of the film and propagate downward into the film. Isothermal experiments reveal that, after some induction time, cracks propagate linearly in time with an Arrhenius dependent velocity corresponding to an activation energy of 54 kJ∕mol. This value is consistent with the crystallization growth rates reported by others and establishes a direct connection between crystallization growth rate and the crack propagation rate. A two-step model in which nucleation and crystallization occurs in an induction zone near the top of the film followed by the propagation of a crystallization∕crack front into the film is in good agreement with the temperature programmed desorption results.
Initiation and propagation of stress-corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature water. [PWR
Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.
1983-01-01
Results of stress-corrosion cracking data are presented for Inconel 600 steam-generator tubing. U-bend, constant-load, and slow extension-rate tests are included. Arrhenius plots are presented for failure times vs inverse temperature for crack initiation and propagation. Effect of applied load is expressed in terms of log-log curves for failure times vs stress, and variations in environment and cold work are included. Microstructure and composition of oxide films on Inconel 600 surfaces were examined after exposure to pure water at 365/sup 0/C, and stripping with the bromine-methanol method. Results are discussed in terms of transient creep, film rupture and a mass-transport-limited anodic process.
Wave propagation analysis of edge cracked circular beams under impact force.
Akbaş, Şeref Doğuşcan
2014-01-01
This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an impact force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin-Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected waves are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected waves. PMID:24972050
Wave Propagation Analysis of Edge Cracked Circular Beams under Impact Force
Akbaş, Şeref Doğuşcan
2014-01-01
This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an impact force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin–Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected waves are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected waves. PMID:24972050
Numerical Modeling of the Surface Fatigue Crack Propagation Including the Closure Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guchinsky, Ruslan; Petinov, Sergei
2016-01-01
Presently modeling of surface fatigue crack growth for residual life assessment of structural elements is almost entirely based on application of the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Generally, it is assumed that the crack front does not essentially change its shape, although it is not always confirmed by experiment. Furthermore, LEFM approach cannot be applied when the stress singularity vanishes due to material plasticity, one of the leading factors associated with the material degradation and fracture. Also, evaluation of stress intensity factors meets difficulties associated with changes in the stress state along the crack front circumference. An approach proposed for simulation the evolution of surface cracks based on application of the Strain-life criterion for fatigue failure and of the finite element modeling of damage accumulation. It takes into account the crack closure effect, the nonlinear behavior of damage accumulation and material compliance increasing due to the damage advance. The damage accumulation technique was applied to model the semi-elliptical crack growth from the initial defect in the steel compact specimen. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the published experimental data.
Aqueous environmental crack propagation in high-strength beta titanium alloys
Young, L.M.; Young, G.A. Jr.; Scully, J.R.; Gangloff, R.P.
1995-05-01
The aqueous environment-assisted cracking (EAC) behavior of two peak-aged beta-titanium was characterized with a fracture mechanics method. Beta-21S is susceptible to EAC under rising load in neutral 3.5 pct NaCi at 25 C and {minus}600 mV{sub SCE}, as indicated by a reduced threshold for subcritical crack growth (K{sub TH}), an average crack growth rate of up to 10 {mu}m s, and intergranular fracture compared to microvoid rupture in air. In contrast, the initiation fracture toughness (K{sub ICi}) of Ti-15-3 in moist air is lower than that of Beta-21S at similar high {sigma}{sub YS} (1,300 MPa) but is not degraded by chloride, and cracking is by transgranular microvoid formation. The intergranular EAC susceptibility of Beta-21S correlates with both {alpha}-colonies precipitated at {beta} grain boundaries and intense slip localization; however, the causal factor is not defined. Data suggest that both features, and EAC, are promoted by prolonged solution treatment at high temperature. In a hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) scenario, crack-tip H could be transported by planar slip bands to strongly binding trap sites and stress/strain concentrations at {alpha} colony or {beta} grain boundaries. The EAC in Beta-21S is eliminated by cathodic polarization (to {minus}1,000 mV{sub SCE}), as well as by static loading for times that otherwise produce rising-load EAC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozevin, Didem; Fazel, Hossein; Cox, Justin; Hardman, William; Kessler, Seth S.; Timmons, Alan
2014-04-01
Gearbox components of aerospace structures are typically made of brittle materials with high fracture toughness, but susceptible to fatigue failure due to continuous cyclic loading. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) methods are used to monitor the crack growth in gearbox components. Damage detection methodologies developed in laboratory-scale experiments may not represent the actual gearbox structural configuration, and are usually not applicable to real application as the vibration and wave properties depend on the material, structural layers and thicknesses. Also, the sensor types and locations are key factors for frequency content of ultrasonic waves, which are essential features for pattern recognition algorithm development in noisy environments. Therefore, a deterministic damage detection methodology that considers all the variables influencing the waveform signature should be considered in the preliminary computation before any experimental test matrix. In order to achieve this goal, we developed two dimensional finite element models of a gearbox cross section from front view and shaft section. The cross section model consists of steel revolving teeth, a thin layer of oil, and retention plate. An ultrasonic wave up to 1 MHz frequency is generated, and waveform histories along the gearbox are recorded. The received waveforms under pristine and cracked conditions are compared in order to analyze the crack influence on the wave propagation in gearbox, which can be utilized by both active and passive SHM methods.
Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems
Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James
2013-01-01
Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN).more » Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems.« less
Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems
Horn, Walter; Steck, James
2013-01-01
Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536
Crack propagation analysis using acoustic emission sensors for structural health monitoring systems.
Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James
2013-01-01
Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536
A model for turbulent hydraulic fracture and application to crack propagation at glacier beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Victor C.; Rice, James R.
2010-09-01
Glaciological observations of under-flooding suggest that fluid-induced hydraulic fracture of an ice sheet from its bed sometimes occurs quickly, possibly driven by turbulently flowing water in a broad sheet flow. Taking the approximation of a fully turbulent flow into an elastic ice medium with small fracture toughness, we derive an approximate expression for the crack-tip speed, opening displacement and pressure profile. We accomplish this by first showing that a Manning-Strickler channel model for resistance to turbulent flow leads to a mathematical structure somewhat similar to that for resistance to laminar flow of a power law viscous fluid. We then adapt the plane-strain asymptotic crack solution of Desroches et al. (1994) and the power law self-similar solution of Adachi and Detournay (2002) for that case to calculate the desired quantities. The speed of crack growth is shown to scale as the overpressure (in excess of ice overburden) to the power 7/6, inversely as ice elastic modulus to the power 2/3, and as the ratio of crack length to wall roughness scale to the power 1/6. We tentatively apply our model by choosing parameter values thought appropriate for a basal crack driven by the rapid drainage of a surface meltwater lake near the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Making various approximations perhaps relevant to this setting, we estimate fluid inflow rate to the basal fracture and vertical and horizontal surface displacements and find order-of-magnitude agreement with observations by Das et al. (2008) associated with lake drainage. Finally, we discuss how these preliminary estimates could be improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amrani, Salah; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Bhattacharyay, Dipankar; Bouazara, Mohamed; Morais, Brigitte
2016-10-01
The objective of this work is to understand the different mechanisms of crack formation in dense anodes used in the aluminum industry. The first approach used is based on the qualitative characterization of the surface cracks and the depth of these cracks. The second approach, which constitutes a quantitative characterization, is carried out by determining the distribution of the crack width along its length as well as the percentage of the surface containing cracks. A qualitative analysis of crack formation was also carried out using 3D tomography. It was observed that mixing and forming conditions have a significant effect on crack formation in green anodes. The devolatilization of pitch during baking causes the formation and propagation of cracks in baked anodes in which large particles control the direction of crack propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amrani, Salah; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Bhattacharyay, Dipankar; Bouazara, Mohamed; Morais, Brigitte
2016-08-01
The objective of this work is to understand the different mechanisms of crack formation in dense anodes used in the aluminum industry. The first approach used is based on the qualitative characterization of the surface cracks and the depth of these cracks. The second approach, which constitutes a quantitative characterization, is carried out by determining the distribution of the crack width along its length as well as the percentage of the surface containing cracks. A qualitative analysis of crack formation was also carried out using 3D tomography. It was observed that mixing and forming conditions have a significant effect on crack formation in green anodes. The devolatilization of pitch during baking causes the formation and propagation of cracks in baked anodes in which large particles control the direction of crack propagation.
FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony
1994-01-01
FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.
A model for fatigue crack propagation and remodelling in compact bone.
Taylor, D; Prendergast, P J
1997-01-01
The process of fatigue in bone is of interest for a number of reasons. Fatigue damage in vivo can eventually lead to stress fracture, and may also act as a stimulus for bone remodelling and adaptation. The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical model which describes the growth of fatigue cracks, especially of microcracks. The growth behaviour of microcracks is complicated by their interactions with the surrounding microstructure. This problem has been identified by researchers working on fatigue in engineering materials. Their work can be adapted to develop an equation in which the growth rate of cracks is related to applied stress conditions and also to a microstructural parameter, d, which is defined as the spacing of barriers to crack growth. The model can be used to generate stress/life data for comparison with in vitro fatigue experiments. It can also be used to investigate two hypotheses: that microcracking stimulates repair and that the level of fatigue damage can act as a signal to initiate adaptation processes of deposition or resorption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elshabasy, Mohamed Mostafa Yousef Bassyouny
In this research, life extending control logic is proposed to reduce the cost of treating the aging problem of military aircraft structures and to avoid catastrophic failures and fatal accidents due to undetected cracks in the airframe components. The life extending control logic is based on load tailoring to facilitate a desired stress sequence that prolongs the structural life of the cracked airframe components by exploiting certain nonlinear crack retardation phenomena. The load is tailored to include infrequent injections of a single-cycle overload or a single-cycle overload and underload. These irregular loadings have an anti-intuitive but beneficial effect, which has been experimentally validated, on the extension of the operational structural life of the aircraft. A rigid six-degree-of freedom dynamic model of a highly maneuverable air vehicle coupled with an elastic dynamic wing model is used to generate the stress history at the lower skin of the wing. A three-dimensional equivalent plate finite element model is used to calculate the stress in the cracked skin. The plate is chosen to be of uniform chord-wise and span-wise thickness where the mechanical properties are assigned using an ad-hoc approach to mimic the full scale wing model. An in-extensional 3-node triangular element is used as the gridding finite element while the aerodynamic load is calculated using the vortex-lattice method where each lattice is laid upon two triangular finite elements with common hypotenuse. The aerodynamic loads, along with the base-excitation which is due to the motion of the rigid aircraft model, are the driving forces acting on the wing finite element model. An aerodynamic control surface is modulated based on the proposed life extending control logic within an existing flight control system without requiring major modification. One of the main goals of life extending control logic is to enhance the aircraft's service life, without incurring significant loss of vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, R. Alan; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.
2013-03-01
In this (Paper I) and the companion paper (Paper II; R. May, R. Smith, and B. Kay, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 104502 (2013), 10.1063/1.4793312), we investigate the mechanisms for the release of trapped gases from underneath amorphous solid water (ASW) films. In prior work, we reported the episodic release of trapped gases in concert with the crystallization of ASW, a phenomenon that we termed the "molecular volcano." The observed abrupt desorption is due to the formation of cracks that span the film to form a connected pathway for release. In this paper, we utilize the "molecular volcano" desorption peak to characterize the formation of crystallization-induced cracks. We find that the crack length distribution is independent of the trapped gas (Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, N2, O2, or CO). Selective placement of the inert gas layer is used to show that cracks form near the top of the film and propagate downward into the film. Isothermal experiments reveal that, after some induction time, cracks propagate linearly in time with an Arrhenius dependent velocity corresponding to an activation energy of 54 kJ/mol. This value is consistent with the crystallization growth rates reported by others and establishes a direct connection between crystallization growth rate and the crack propagation rate. A two-step model in which nucleation and crystallization occurs in an induction zone near the top of the film followed by the propagation of a crystallization/crack front into the film is in good agreement with the temperature programmed desorption results.
May, R Alan; Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D
2013-03-14
In this (Paper I) and the companion paper (Paper II; R. May, R. Smith, and B. Kay, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 104502 (2013)), we investigate the mechanisms for the release of trapped gases from underneath amorphous solid water (ASW) films. In prior work, we reported the episodic release of trapped gases in concert with the crystallization of ASW, a phenomenon that we termed the "molecular volcano." The observed abrupt desorption is due to the formation of cracks that span the film to form a connected pathway for release. In this paper, we utilize the "molecular volcano" desorption peak to characterize the formation of crystallization-induced cracks. We find that the crack length distribution is independent of the trapped gas (Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, N2, O2, or CO). Selective placement of the inert gas layer is used to show that cracks form near the top of the film and propagate downward into the film. Isothermal experiments reveal that, after some induction time, cracks propagate linearly in time with an Arrhenius dependent velocity corresponding to an activation energy of 54 kJ∕mol. This value is consistent with the crystallization growth rates reported by others and establishes a direct connection between crystallization growth rate and the crack propagation rate. A two-step model in which nucleation and crystallization occurs in an induction zone near the top of the film followed by the propagation of a crystallization∕crack front into the film is in good agreement with the temperature programmed desorption results. PMID:23514503
Fatigue crack propagation in Al-Li 8090 alloy at room (300 K) and cryogenic (77 K) temperatures
Park, K.J.; Lee, C.S.
1996-01-15
It has been reported that Al-Li alloys display enhanced ductility and fracture toughness at lower temperatures than room temperature. Therefore, Al-Li alloys have been considered as an attractive material for cryogenic fuel tanks as well as for aircraft structure parts. While many investigations have been carried out on the tensile and fracture behavior of Al-Li alloys at cryogenic temperatures, cryogenic fatigue properties have been investigated only recently. Previous study indicates that the fatigue strength increases as the test temperature decreases. The improved fatigue strength at cryogenic temperatures has been attributed to the increased tendency for more homogeneous plastic deformation and delamination toughening. The objectives of the present work are to examine the fatigue crack propagation behavior of an Al-Li 8090 alloy at room (298 K) and cryogenic (77 K) temperatures and also to study the microstructural effect on the cryogenic fatigue properties.
Richey, E. III
1995-10-01
This research aims to develop the methods and understanding needed to incorporate time and loading variable dependent environmental effects on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) into computerized fatigue life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO (NASGRO). In particular, the effect of loading frequency on FCP rates in alpha + beta titanium alloys exposed to an aqueous chloride solution is investigated. The approach couples empirical modeling of environmental FCP with corrosion fatigue experiments. Three different computer models have been developed and incorporated in the DOS executable program. UVAFAS. A multiple power law model is available, and can fit a set of fatigue data to a multiple power law equation. A model has also been developed which implements the Wei and Landes linear superposition model, as well as an interpolative model which can be utilized to interpolate trends in fatigue behavior based on changes in loading characteristics (stress ratio, frequency, and hold times).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husseini, Naji Sami
Single-crystal nickel-base superalloys are ubiquitous in demanding turbine-blade applications, and they owe their remarkable resilience to their dendritic, hierarchical microstructure and complex composition. During normal operations, they endure rapid low-stress vibrations that may initiate fatigue cracks. This failure mode in the very high-cycle regime is poorly understood, in part due to inadequate testing and diagnostic equipment. Phase-contrast imaging with coherent synchrotron x rays, however, is an emergent technique ideally suited for dynamic processes such as crack initiation and propagation. A specially designed portable ultrasonic-fatigue apparatus, coupled with x-ray radiography, allows real-time,
Ritchie, R.O.; Suresh, S.; Toplosky, J.
1980-01-01
The influence of gaseous environment is examined on fatigue crack propagation behavior in steels. Specifically, a fully martensitic 300-M ultrahigh strength steel and a fully bainitic 2-1/4Cr-1Mo lower strength steel are investigated in environments of ambient temperature moist air and low pressure dehumidified hydrogen and argon gases over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, with particular emphasis given to behavior near the crack propagation threshold ..delta..K/sub 0/. It is found that two distinct growth rate regimes exist where hydrogen can markedly accelerate crack propagation rates compared to air, (1) at near-threshold levels below (5 x 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle) and (2) at higher growth rates, typically around 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle above a critical maximum stress intensity K/sub max//sup T/. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at higher growth rates is attributed to a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, with K/sub max//sup T/ nominally equal to K/sub Iscc/ (the sustained load stress corrosion threshold) in high strength steels, and far below K/sub Iscc/ in the strain-rate sensitive lower strength steels. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at near-threshold levels is attributed to a new mechanism involving fretting-oxide-induced crack closure generated in moist (or oxygenated) environments. The absence of hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms at near-threshold levels is supported by tests showing that ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in dry gaseous argon are similar to ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in hydrogen. The potential ramifications of these results are examined in detail.
New Developments in the Embedded Statistical Coupling Method: Atomistic/Continuum Crack Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saether, E.; Yamakov, V.; Glaessgen, E.
2008-01-01
A concurrent multiscale modeling methodology that embeds a molecular dynamics (MD) region within a finite element (FEM) domain has been enhanced. The concurrent MD-FEM coupling methodology uses statistical averaging of the deformation of the atomistic MD domain to provide interface displacement boundary conditions to the surrounding continuum FEM region, which, in turn, generates interface reaction forces that are applied as piecewise constant traction boundary conditions to the MD domain. The enhancement is based on the addition of molecular dynamics-based cohesive zone model (CZM) elements near the MD-FEM interface. The CZM elements are a continuum interpretation of the traction-displacement relationships taken from MD simulations using Cohesive Zone Volume Elements (CZVE). The addition of CZM elements to the concurrent MD-FEM analysis provides a consistent set of atomistically-based cohesive properties within the finite element region near the growing crack. Another set of CZVEs are then used to extract revised CZM relationships from the enhanced embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM) simulation of an edge crack under uniaxial loading.
Crack Detection with Lamb Wave Wavenumber Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Rogge, Matt; Yu, Lingyu
2013-01-01
In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave crack detection using wavenumber analysis. The aim is to demonstrate the application of wavenumber analysis to 3D Lamb wave data to enable damage detection. The 3D wavefields (including vx, vy and vz components) in time-space domain contain a wealth of information regarding the propagating waves in a damaged plate. For crack detection, three wavenumber analysis techniques are used: (i) two dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) which can transform the time-space wavefield into frequency-wavenumber representation while losing the spatial information; (ii) short space 2D-FT which can obtain the frequency-wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space-frequency-wavenumber representation; (iii) local wavenumber analysis which can provide the distribution of the effective wavenumbers at different locations. All of these concepts are demonstrated through a numerical simulation example of an aluminum plate with a crack. The 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) was used to obtain the 3D wavefields, of which the vz (out-of-plane) wave component is compared with the experimental measurement obtained from a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for verification purposes. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The application of wavenumber analysis on 3D EFIT simulation data shows the effectiveness of the analysis for crack detection. Keywords: : Lamb wave, crack detection, wavenumber analysis, EFIT modeling
Fluid-mechanical models of crack propagation and their application to magma transport in dykes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lister, John R.; Kerr, Ross C.
1991-06-01
The ubiquity of dykes in the Earth's crust is evidence that the transport of magma by fluid-induced fracture of the lithosphere is an important phenomenon. Magma fracture transports melt vertically from regions of production in the mantle to surface eruptions or near-surface magma chambers and then laterally from the magma chambers in dykes and sills. In order to investigate the mechanics of magma fracture, the driving and resisting pressures in a propagating dyke are estimated and the dominant physical balances between these pressures are described. It is shown that the transport of magma in feeder dykes is characterized by a local balance between buoyancy forces and viscous pressure drop, that elastic forces play a secondary role except near the dyke tip and that the influence of the fracture resistance of crustal rocks on dyke propagation is negligible. The local nature of the force balance implies that the local density difference controls the height of magma ascent rather than the total hydrostatic head and hence that magma is emplaced at its level of neutral buoyancy (LNB) in the crust. There is a small overshoot beyond this level which is calculated to be typically a few kilometres. Magma accumulating at the LNB will be intruded in lateral dykes and sills which are directed along the LNB by buoyancy forces since the magma is in gravitational equilibrium at this level. Laboratory analogue experiments demonstrate the physical principle of buoyancy-controlled propagation to and along the LNB. The equations governing the dynamics of magma fracture are solved for the cases of lithospheric ascent and of lateral intrusion. Volatiles are predicted to be exsolved from the melt at the tips of extending fractures due to the generation of low pressures by viscous flow into the tip. Chilling of magma at the edges of a dyke inhibits cross-stream propagation and concentrates the downstream flow into a wider dyke. The family of theoretical solutions in different geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Longzhou; Roy, Shawoon K.; Hasan, Muhammad H.; Pal, Joydeep; Chatterjee, Sudin
2012-02-01
The fatigue crack propagation (FCP) as well as the sustained loading crack growth (SLCG) behavior of two solid-solution-strengthened Ni-based superalloys, INCONEL 617 (Special Metals Corporation Family of Companies) and HAYNES 230 (Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN), were studied at increased temperatures in laboratory air under a constant stress-intensity-factor ( K) condition. The crack propagation tests were conducted using a baseline cyclic triangular waveform with a frequency of 1/3 Hz. Various hold times were imposed at the maximum load of a fatigue cycle to study the hold time effect. The results show that a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter, stress intensity factor ( K), is sufficient to describe the FCP and SLCG behavior at the testing temperatures ranging from 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C). As observed in the precipitation-strengthened superalloys, both INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230 exhibited the time-dependent FCP, steady SLCG behavior, and existence of a damage zone ahead of crack tip. A thermodynamic equation was adapted to correlate the SLCG rates to determine thermal activation energy. The fracture modes associated with crack propagation behavior were discussed, and the mechanism of time-dependent FCP as well as SLCG was identified. Compared with INCONEL 617, the lower crack propagation rates of HAYNES 230 under the time-dependent condition were ascribed to the different fracture mode and the presence of numerous W-rich M6C-type and Cr-rich M23C6-type carbides. Toward the end, a phenomenological model was employed to correlate the FCP rates at cycle/time-dependent FCP domain. All the results suggest that an environmental factor, the stress assisted grain boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) mechanism, is mainly responsible for the accelerated time-dependent FCP rates of INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noda, H.; Dunham, E. M.; Rice, J. R.
2006-12-01
We have conducted rupture propagation simulations allowing for the combined effects of thermal pressurization of pore fluid and flash heating of microscopic contact asperities. Rapid, large slip as in earthquakes produces a large amount of frictional heat, and probably activates such thermal weakening mechanisms. They act until macroscopic fault temperature T nears the melting point, and are coupled through T and macroscopic fault surface pore pressure p. Because we consider two mechanisms, the characteristic slip for each of them is physically important; a compromise on one of them can eventually nullify its effect compared to the other. We use a range of realistic hydraulic properties for thermal pressurization (hydro-thermal diffusivity factor 20-450 mm2/s; factor corresponds to f2VL_*/4=(ρ c/Λ)2(√{αth}+√{αhy})2 [Rice, JGR, 2006] where f is the friction coefficient, V is slip rate, L_* is a characteristic slip defined in the thermal pressurization analysis, ρ c is specific heat, Λ is pore pressure rise per unit temperature rise in undrained conditions, and αth and αhy are thermal and hydraulic diffusivities), and microns of contact evolution distance L for flash heating with a slip law formulation and the direct effect. We use the spectral implementation of the BIE method for elastodynamic calculations, and set a 1d FD grid normal to the fault plane at each node to calculate local heat and fluid transport assuming an infinitesimally thin slipping plane. We also use a multi-step time increment procedure by setting longer steps for slip history storage and shorter steps for integration of state variable, T, and p. Elasticity and the constitutive relation are solved simultaneously at every shorter time step with linearly interpolated stress transfer. This method reduces the amount of memory but produces numerical stability. We nucleated rupture by adding a sudden perturbation to the shear stress, which is initially uniform and much lower than the static
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardrath, H. F.
1974-01-01
Fracture mechanics is a rapidly emerging discipline for assessing the residual strength of structures containing flaws due to fatigue, corrosion or accidental damage and for anticipating the rate of which such flaws will propagate if not repaired. The discipline is also applicable in the design of structures with improved resistance to such flaws. The present state of the design art is reviewed using this technology to choose materials, to configure safe and efficient structures, to specify inspection procedures, to predict lives of flawed structures and to develop reliability of current and future airframes.
Glass, S.J.; Michael, J.R.; Readey, M.J.; Wright, S.I.; Field, D.P.
1996-12-01
TEM, while capable of determining misorientation of adjacent grains, can practicably provide information only for a small number of grain boundaries. A more complete description of the structure of a polycrystal can be obtained using a new technique OIM, which uses crystallographic orientation data obtained from Backscattered Electron Kikuchi patterns (BEKP), collected using SEM. This paper describes general OIM results for 99.7 and 99.99% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples with grain sizes 4-27 {mu}m. The results include image quality maps, grain boundary maps, pole figures, and lattice misorientations depicted on MacKenzie plots and in Rodrigues space. High quality BEKPs were obtained from all specimens. Images and data readily reveal the grain morphology, texture, and grain boundary structure. Subtle differences in texture and grain boundary structure (crystallite lattice misorientations) are observed for the different alumina specimens. Distributions of misorientations for cracked boundaries in alumina are compared to the bulk distribution of boundaries and generally larger misorientations are observed.
Cherepanov, Genady P
2015-03-28
By way of introduction, the general invariant integral (GI) based on the energy conservation law is presented, with mention of cosmic, gravitational, mass, elastic, thermal and electromagnetic energy of matter application to demonstrate the approach, including Coulomb's Law generalized for moving electric charges, Newton's Law generalized for coupled gravitational/cosmic field, the new Archimedes' Law accounting for gravitational and surface energy, and others. Then using this approach the temperature track behind a moving crack is found, and the coupling of elastic and thermal energies is set up in fracturing. For porous materials saturated with a fluid or gas, the notion of binary continuum is used to introduce the corresponding GIs. As applied to the horizontal drilling and fracturing of boreholes, the field of pressure and flow rate as well as the fluid output from both a horizontal borehole and a fracture are derived in the fluid extraction regime. The theory of fracking in shale gas reservoirs is suggested for three basic regimes of the drill mud permeation, with calculating the shape and volume of the local region of the multiply fractured rock in terms of the pressures of rock, drill mud and shale gas. PMID:25713454
Cherepanov, Genady P
2015-03-28
By way of introduction, the general invariant integral (GI) based on the energy conservation law is presented, with mention of cosmic, gravitational, mass, elastic, thermal and electromagnetic energy of matter application to demonstrate the approach, including Coulomb's Law generalized for moving electric charges, Newton's Law generalized for coupled gravitational/cosmic field, the new Archimedes' Law accounting for gravitational and surface energy, and others. Then using this approach the temperature track behind a moving crack is found, and the coupling of elastic and thermal energies is set up in fracturing. For porous materials saturated with a fluid or gas, the notion of binary continuum is used to introduce the corresponding GIs. As applied to the horizontal drilling and fracturing of boreholes, the field of pressure and flow rate as well as the fluid output from both a horizontal borehole and a fracture are derived in the fluid extraction regime. The theory of fracking in shale gas reservoirs is suggested for three basic regimes of the drill mud permeation, with calculating the shape and volume of the local region of the multiply fractured rock in terms of the pressures of rock, drill mud and shale gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrnstein, William H., III; McEvily, Arthur J., Jr.
1961-01-01
Tests were conducted in order to determine the effect of surface decarburization on the notch sensitivity and rate of fatigue crack propagation in 12 MoV stainless-steel sheet at room temperature. Three specimen configurations were utilized in the course of the investigation: standard tensile specimen, 9-inch-wide specimens containing fatigue cracks or thread-cut notches of 0.005-inch radius, and 2-inch-wide specimens containing fatigue cracks. The 12 MoV stainless-steel sheet in the normal condition was found to have an ultimate tensile strength of 251 ksi and to be extremely notch sensitive. The material in the decarburized condition was found to have an ultimate tensile strength of 210 ksi and to be considerably stronger than the normal material in the presence of fatigue cracks. Decarburization did not appear to have any significant influence on the rate of fatigue crack propagation in the 2-inch-wide specimens at the stress levels considered. In addition to the tests, two methods for predicting residual static strength and their application to the material are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei
2016-08-01
Small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2-polymer coating insulation (thickness of ˜20 μm versus ˜100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in a background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A mm-2 in a background field of 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagating slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in strong contrast to a coil we have previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ˜80 K to ˜140 K while increasing the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high-temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and the improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. This work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as the insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.
Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei
2016-07-01
For this study, small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2– polymer coating insulation (thickness in ~20 μm versus ~100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A/mm-2 in a background field 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normalmore » zones propagate slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in a strong contrast to a coil we previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with the mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ~80 K to ~140 K while increasing from the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. Finally, this work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei
2016-08-01
Small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO2–polymer coating insulation (thickness of ∼20 μm versus ∼100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in a background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A mm‑2 in a background field of 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagating slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in strong contrast to a coil we have previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ∼80 K to ∼140 K while increasing the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high-temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and the improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. This work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as the insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design.
3D Observation and Evaluation of Induced Damaged Zones in Anisotropic Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasseri, M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Young, R.
2009-05-01
Rift zones, sites for dyke intrusion and supporting roof of a mine under tension, production enhancement and stimulation of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs are good examples to study the nature of interaction of propagating tensile fractures with pre-existing preferably oriented sets of geological structures. Such interactions cause anisotropy in transport and mechanical properties in rocks, eventually affecting the post strength, post-frictional and hydro-geological properties of resultant rock masses. In present study 3D micro CT images are used to understand the relationship between the test crack path propagation and structure of caused damage zones, with microstructural fabric orientation in a granite tested for fracture toughness under mode I along specific directions. X-ray CT scanning images were obtained on a volume of Barre granite when the test cracks were forced to propagate parallel (case 1) and perpendicular (case 2) to the preferably oriented microstructural fabric. These images were binarized to mineral grains and induced cracks by means of a neighborhood-based standard deviation thresholding algorithm. 3D objects counter algorithm was applied on these images to identify and compare the physical properties such as crack induced porosity, induced crack density, generated total surface area and contribution of individual mineral grains within the damaged zones in case 1 and 2 scenarios. Results showed that measured induced crack porosity for case 1 is more than ten times than that of case 2 which further justifies the reason for the fracture toughness in case 1 being almost twice of that of case 2. The type and structure of damage zones in these cases were found geometrically different. This study, linked with observations in field scale helps in better understanding of fracture propagation and its application to stability of underground openings, control of rock fragmentation, prediction of transport properties with divers flow regimes and
Fracture and fatigue in a 3-D woven carbon fiber/epoxy composite
Wigent, D.E.; Mohamed, M.H.; Fahmy, A.A.
1996-12-31
To further understand fracture and fatigue in 3-D textile composites, plates of carbon fiber/epoxy composite were consolidated using 3-D woven preforms woven at the Mars Mission Research Center. Subsequent compact tension specimens were prepared and tested by methods based in part on ASTM test method E 647-78T. Stress intensities required to propagate a crack were determined with crack planes at 0, 90, and 45 degrees with respect to the production direction. Failure modes were related to 3-D preform structure and orientation. Fatigue testing was conducted at incremental stress intensity levels. Sequential radiographs were made in conjunction with compliance measurements on both fatigue and static specimens to monitor progressive damage. Results show that the stress intensity, K, required to propagate under static load ranged from 19.8MPa m{sup .5} to 29MPa m{sup .5} and a fatigue threshold yielding lifetimes above 10{sup 7} cycles was observed at roughly 65% of the static stress intensities. The failure modes observed in the 3-D woven composites were significantly different from those common in laminated structures. Fatigue did not result in fiber failure or delamination. High toughness, lack of delamination, and resistance to edge induced failures implies that the 3-D reinforcement yields advantages in durability, machinability, repair, and safety over laminated structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczepanski, C. J.; Jha, S. K.; Larsen, J. M.; Jones, J. W.
2012-11-01
Microstructural origins of the variability in fatigue lifetime observed in the high- and very-high-cycle fatigue regimes in titanium alloys were explored by examining the role of microstructural heterogeneity (neighborhoods of grains with similar crystallographic orientations or microtexture) on the initiation and early growth of fatigue cracks in Ti-6246. Ultrasonic fatigue of focused ion beam (FIB) micronotched samples was used to investigate long lifetime (107 to 109) behavior for two microstructural conditions: one with microtexture and one without microtexture. For specimens containing notches of nominally 20 μm in length, fatigue crack initiation in the microtextured material was most likely to occur from notches placed in neighborhoods with a microtexture favorably oriented for easy basal slip. Initiation lifetimes in the untextured material with similar sized notches were, on average, slightly greater than those for the microtextured condition. In both materials, the crack-initiation lifetime from micronotches of length 2c > 20 μm was a very small fraction (<1 pct) of the measured fatigue lifetime for unnotched specimens. Furthermore, in the microtextured condition, small fatigue crack propagation rates did not correlate with the microtextured regions and did not statistically differ from average small crack growth rates in the untextured material. As the micronotch size was reduced below 20 μm, fatigue crack initiation was controlled by microstructure rather than by FIB-machined defects. Finally, predictions of the fraction of life consumed in small and long fatigue crack growth from preexisting cracks nominally equivalent in size to the micronotches was compared with the measured fatigue life of unnotched specimens. The predicted range of lifetimes when factoring in the experimentally observed variability in small fatigue crack growth, only accounted for 0.1 pct of the observed fatigue lifetime variability. These findings indicate that in the high
Damage Accumulation in SiC/SiC Composites with 3D Architectures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee-Mann; DiCarlo, James A.
2003-01-01
The formation and propagation of multiple matrix cracks in relatively dense ceramic matrix composites when subjected to increasing tensile stress is necessary for high strength and tough composites. However, the occurrence of matrix cracks at low stresses may limit the usefulness of some non-oxide composite systems when subjected to oxidizing environments for long times at stresses sufficient to cause matrix cracking. For SiC fiber-reinforced composites with two-dimensional woven architectures and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix and melt-infiltrated (MI) Si/SiC matrix composites, the matrix cracking behavior has been fairly well characterized for different fiber-types and woven architectures. It was found that the occurrence, degree, and growth of matrix cracks depends on the material properties of the composite constituents as well as other physical properties of the composite or architecture, e.g., matrix porosity and size of the fiber bundle. In this study, matrix cracking in SiC fiber reinforced, melt-infiltrated SiC composites with a 3D orthogonal architecture was determined for specimens tested in tension at room temperature. Acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the matrix cracking activity, which was later confirmed by microscopic examination of specimens that had failed. The determination of the exact location of AE demonstrated that initial cracking occurred in the matrix rich regions when a large z-direction fiber bundle was used. For specimens with large z-direction fiber tows, the earliest matrix cracking could occur at half the stress for standard 2D woven composites with similar constituents. Damage accumulation in 3D architecture composites will be compared to damage accumulation in 2D architecture composites and discussed with respect to modeling composite stress-strain behavior and use of these composites at elevated temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaul, D. J.; Duquette, D. J.
1980-09-01
Fretting fatigue studies were performed on quenched and tempered 4130 steel in laboratory air and in argon as functions of relative slip displacement, normal pressure and applied cyclic stress. Significant reductions in fatigue resistance were observed at all stress levels and increased with increasing normal pressures. However, a minimum in resistance was observed for relative slip magnitudes of 20 to 30 μm. Inert environments improve fatigue resistance under fretting conditions. Metallographic observations indicated that subsurface cracking was generally observed and that stress concentrations associated with this cracking resulted in deviations to and away from the faying surfaces. Fretting cracks which deviated into the alloy become initiated fatigue cracks. A mechanical model is proposed for fretting induced fatigue crack initiation which suggests that this phenomenon is a simple extension of the basic fretting process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pletinckx, D.
2011-09-01
The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudson, C. M.; Lewis, P. E.
1979-01-01
A round-robin study was conducted which evaluated and compared different methods currently in practice for predicting crack growth in surface-cracked specimens. This report describes the prediction methods used by the Fracture Mechanics Engineering Section, at NASA-Langley Research Center, and presents a comparison between predicted crack growth and crack growth observed in laboratory experiments. For tests at higher stress levels, the correlation between predicted and experimentally determined crack growth was generally quite good. For tests at lower stress levels, the predicted number of cycles to reach a given crack length was consistently higher than the experimentally determined number of cycles. This consistent overestimation of the number of cycles could have resulted from a lack of definition of crack-growth data at low values of the stress intensity range. Generally, the predicted critical flaw sizes were smaller than the experimentally determined critical flaw sizes. This underestimation probably resulted from using plane-strain fracture toughness values to predict failure rather than the more appropriate values based on maximum load.
Progress in Complex 2D and 3D Cohesive Fracture Modelling Considering Random Heterogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhenjun; Su, Xiangting; Chen, Jianfei; Liu, Guohua
2010-05-01
This paper summarises our recent efforts on finite element modelling of complex 2D and 3D fracture in quasi-brittle materials considering random heterogeneous fracture properties, using a simple yet effective method developed in associated with Abaqus. In this method, potential cracks are represented by pre-inserted cohesive elements with traction-separation softening constitutive laws modelled by spatially-varying Weibull random fields. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of small-sized concrete specimens under uni-axial tension were carried out. It is found that the developed method is able to predict realistic 2D and 3D crack propagation processes and excellent load-displacement curves with little mesh-dependence. It provides a potentially powerful tool to assess reliability of existing structures against external loadings.
Investigation of Helicopter Longeron Cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; Baughman, James; Wallace, Terryl A.
2009-01-01
Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurgical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.
2016-08-01
An analytical-numerical method, based on the use of wavelet spectral finite elements (WSFE), is presented for studying the nonlinear interaction of flexural waves with a breathing crack present in a slender beam. The cracked beam is discretized using wavelet spectral finite elements which use compactly supported Daubechies scaling functions for approximating the temporal dependence of the transverse displacement. Rotational spring is used to model the open crack condition, and behavior of the beam in closed-crack condition is assumed to be similar to that of an intact beam. An intermittent switching between the open- and closed-crack conditions simulates crack-breathing, leading to a set of nonlinear equations which is solved using an iterative method. Results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained using the Fourier spectral finite element (FSFE) and 1D finite element (FE) methods, which show a close agreement. Existence of the higher-order harmonic components, indicative of the crack-induced bilinearity, is confirmed in the frequency domain response. Moreover, the time domain analysis reveals separation of harmonics resulting from the dispersive nature of the waveguide, which is further used for localizing the damage. A parametric study is presented to bring out the influence of crack-severity and -location on the extent of harmonic separation and on the relative strength of higher order harmonic. In addition to elaborating the use of WSFE in addressing the nonlinear wave-damage interaction, results of the present investigation can be potentially useful in devising strategies for an inverse analysis.
MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model
Moss, W C; Levatin, J L
2006-08-14
Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.
3d-3d correspondence revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-01
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
3d-3d correspondence revisited
Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-21
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin-Rojas, I.; Alfaro, P.; Estévez, A.
2015-07-01
This work presents a 3D geometric model of growth strata cropping out in a fault-propagation fold associated with the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector) from the Bajo Segura Basin (eastern Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). The analysis of this 3D model enables us to unravel the along-strike and along-section variations of the growth strata, providing constraints to assess the fold development, and hence, the fault kinematic evolution in space and time. We postulate that the observed along-strike dip variations are related to lateral variation in fault displacement. Along-section variations of the progressive unconformity opening angles indicate greater fault slip in the upper Tortonian-Messinian time span; from the Messinian on, quantitative analysis of the unconformity indicate a constant or lower tectonic activity of the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector); the minor abundance of striated pebbles in the Pliocene-Quaternary units could be interpreted as a decrease in the stress magnitude and consequently in the tectonic activity of the fault. At a regional scale, comparison of the growth successions cropping out in the northern and southern limits of the Bajo Segura Basin points to a southward migration of deformation in the basin. This means that the Bajo Segura Fault became active after the Crevillente Fault (Abanilla-Alicante sector), for which activity on the latter was probably decreasing according to our data. Consequently, we propose that the seismic hazard at the northern limit of the Bajo Segura Basin should be lower than at the southern limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meulien Ohlmann, Odile
2013-02-01
Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.
2012-01-01
We describe our 3-D, time ]dependent, MHD solar wind model that we recently modified to include the physics of pickup protons from interstellar neutral hydrogen. The model has a time-dependent lower boundary condition, at 0.1 AU, that is driven by source surface map files through an empirical interface module. We describe the empirical interface and its parameter tuning to maximize model agreement with background (quiet) solar wind observations at ACE. We then give results of a simulation study of the famous Halloween 2003 series of solar events. We began with shock inputs from the Fearless Forecast real ]time shock arrival prediction study, and then we iteratively adjusted input shock speeds to obtain agreement between observed and simulated shock arrival times at ACE. We then extended the model grid to 5.5 AU and compared those simulation results with Ulysses observations at 5.2 AU. Next we undertook the more difficult tuning of shock speeds and locations to get matching shock arrival times at both ACE and Ulysses. Then we ran this last case again with neutral hydrogen density set to zero, to identify the effect of pickup ions. We show that the speed of interplanetary shocks propagating from the Sun to Ulysses is reduced by the effects of pickup protons. We plan to make further improvements to the model as we continue our benchmarking process to 10 AU, comparing our results with Cassini observations, and eventually on to 100 AU, comparing our results with Voyager 1 and 2 observations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hastings, S. K.
2002-01-01
Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wei
The behaviors of short fatigue crack (SFC) propagation through grain boundaries (GBs) were monitored during high cycle fatigue in an Al-Li alloy AA8090. The growth behaviors of SFCs were found to be mainly controlled by the twist components (alpha) of crack plane deflection across each of up to first 20 GBs along the crack path. The crack plane twist at the GB can result in a resistance against SFC growth; therefore SFC propagation preferred to follow a path with minimum alpha at each GB. In addition to the grain orientation, the tilting of GB could also affect alpha. An experiment focusing on quantifying GB-resistance was conducted on an Al-Cu alloy AA2024-T351. With a focused ion beam (FIB) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the micro-notches were made in front of the selected GBs which had a wide range of alpha, followed by monitoring the interaction of crack propagation from the notches with the GBs during fatigue. The crack growth rate was observed to decrease at each GB it had passed; and such growth-rate decrease was proportional to alpha. The resistance of the GB was determined to vary as a Weibull-type function of alpha. Based on these discoveries, a microstructure-based 3-D model was developed to quantify the SFC growth in high-strength Al alloys, allowing the prediction of crack front advancement in 3-D and the quantification of growth rate along the crack front. The simulation results yielded a good agreement with the experimental results about the SFC growth rate on the surface of the AA8090 Al alloy. The model was also used to predict the life of SFC growth statistically in different textures, showing potential application to texture design of alloys. Fatigue crack initiation at constituent particles (beta-phase) was preliminarily studied in the AA2024-T351 Al alloy. Cross-sectioning with the FIB revealed that the 3-D geometry, especially the thickness, of fractured constituent particles (beta-phase) was the key factor controlling the
3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly
Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman
2014-09-01
This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.
3D acoustic atmospheric tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony
2014-10-01
This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chudnovsky, A.
1984-01-01
A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldham, Mark
2015-01-01
Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Gregory F.
2009-05-01
This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-17
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamukcu, A.; Gualda, G. A.; Anderson, A. T.
2012-12-01
Compositions of glass inclusions have long been studied for the information they provide on the evolution of magma bodies. Textures - sizes, shapes, positions - of glass inclusions have received less attention, but they can also provide important insight into magmatic processes, including the timescales over which magma bodies develop and erupt. At magmatic temperatures, initially round glass inclusions will become faceted (attain a negative crystal shape) through the process of dissolution and re-precipitation, such that the extent to which glass inclusions are faceted can be used to estimate timescales. The size and position of the inclusion within a crystal will influence how much faceting occurs: a larger inclusion will facet more slowly; an inclusion closer to the rim will have less time to facet. As a result, it is critical to properly document the size, shape, and position of glass inclusions to assess faceting timescales. Quartz is an ideal mineral to study glass inclusion faceting, as Si is the only diffusing species of concern, and Si diffusion rates are relatively well-constrained. Faceting time calculations to date (Gualda et al., 2012) relied on optical microscopy to document glass inclusions. Here we use 3D propagation phase-contrast x-ray tomography to image glass inclusions in quartz. This technique enhances inclusion edges such that images can be processed more successfully than with conventional tomography. We have developed a set of image processing tools to isolate inclusions and more accurately obtain information on the size, shape, and position of glass inclusions than with optical microscopy. We are studying glass inclusions from two giant tuffs. The Bishop Tuff is ~1000 km3 of high-silica rhyolite ash fall, ignimbrite, and intracaldera deposits erupted ~760 ka in eastern California (USA). Glass inclusions in early-erupted Bishop Tuff range from non-faceted to faceted, and faceting times determined using both optical microscopy and x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plaut, J. J.
1993-08-01
Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.
Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )
1991-11-01
This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828
Investigation of Cracks Found in Helicopter Longerons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Wallace, Terryl A.
2009-01-01
Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurigical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif
2008-04-01
In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.
3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-01-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.
2002-12-01
, even if one data object lies behind another. Stereoscopic viewing is another powerful tool to investigate 3-D relationships between objects. This form of immersion is constructed through viewing two separate images that are interleaved--typically 48 frames per second, per eye--and synced through an emitter and a set of specialized polarizing eyeglasses. The polarizing lenses flicker at an equivalent rate, blanking the eye for which a particular image was not drawn, producing the desired stereo effect. Volumetric visualization of the ARAD 3-D seismic dataset will be presented. The effective use of transparency reveals detailed structure of the melt-lens beneath the 9°03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) along the East Pacific Rise, including melt-filled fractures within the propagating rift-tip. In addition, range-gated images of seismic reflectivity will be co-registered to investigate the physical properties (melt versus mush) of the magma chamber at this locale. Surface visualization of a dense, 2-D grid of MCS seismic data beneath Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge) will also be highlighted, including relationships between the summit caldera and rift zones, and the underlying (and humongous) magma chamber. A selection of Quicktime movies will be shown. Popcorn will be served, really!
Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-07-01
We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.
3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.
Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu
2016-04-01
Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajpai, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur; Pradhan, Siddhartha Kumar; Mandal, Tapendu; Balani, Kantesh
2014-09-01
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used bioceramic known for its chemical similarity with that of bone and teeth (Ca/P ratio of 1.67). But, owing to its extreme brittleness, α-Al2O3 is reinforced with HA and processed as a coating via pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Reinforcement of α-Al2O3 (50 wt.%) in HA via PLD on 316L steel substrate has shown modulus increase by 4% and hardness increase by 78%, and an improved adhesion strength of 14.2 N (improvement by 118%). Micro-scratching has shown an increase in the coefficient-of-friction from 0.05 (pure HA) to 0.17 (with 50 wt.% Al2O3) with enhancement in the crack propagation resistance (CPR) up to 4.5 times. Strong adherence of PLD HA-Al2O3 coatings (~4.5 times than that of HA coating) is attributed to efficient release of stored tensile strain energy (~17 × 10-3 J/m2) in HA-Al2O3 composites, making it a potential damage-tolerant bone-replacement surface coating.
Jung, J; Do, B C; Yang, Q D
2016-07-13
In this paper, a thermal-mechanical augmented finite-element method (TM-AFEM) has been proposed, implemented and validated for steady-state and transient, coupled thermal-mechanical analyses of complex materials with explicit consideration of arbitrary evolving cracks. The method permits the derivation of explicit, fully condensed thermal-mechanical equilibrium equations which are of mathematical exactness in the piece-wise linear sense. The method has been implemented with a 4-node quadrilateral two-dimensional (2D) element and a 4-node tetrahedron three-dimensional (3D) element. It has been demonstrated, through several numerical examples that the new TM-AFEM can provide significantly improved numerical accuracy and efficiency when dealing with crack propagation problems in 2D and 3D solids under coupled thermal-mechanical loading conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242303
Out-of-plane deviation of a mode I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Ponson, Laurent
2016-07-01
One possible explanation of out-of-plane deviations of cracks loaded in mode I+III was suggested by Gao and Rice in 1986. These authors noted that small in-plane undulations of the crack front, arising from fluctuations of the fracture toughness, should generate a small local mode-II component, causing the crack to depart from planarity. Their analysis is completed here by explicitly calculating the evolution in time of the out-of-plane deviation of a mode-I+III crack encountering a tougher obstacle. The calculation is based on (i) first-order formulae for the stress intensity factors of a crack slightly perturbed within and out of its plane; and (ii) a "double" propagation criterion combining a Griffith condition on the local energy-release rate and a Goldstein-Salganik condition on the local stress intensity factor of mode II. It is predicted that the crack must evolve toward a stationary state, wherein the orthogonal distance from the average fracture plane to the perturbed crack front is constant outside the obstacle and varies linearly across it. We hope that this theoretical prediction will encourage comparison with experiments, and propose a fracture test involving propagation of a mode-I+III crack through a 3D-printed specimen containing some designed obstacle. xml:lang="fr"
Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation
Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey
2011-01-01
We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less
Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine
Wagner, J.S.
1987-04-01
A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.
Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.
On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.
The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.
The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.
2010-12-01
Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal
Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package
2009-01-29
This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less
Pirgazi, Hadi; Ghodrat, Sepideh; Kestens, Leo A.I.
2014-04-01
In cylinder heads made of compacted graphitic iron (CGI), heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). To meticulously characterize the complex crack path morphology of CGI under TMF condition, in relation to microstructural features and to find out how and by which mechanisms the cracks predominantly develop, three-dimensional electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) was employed. Based on the precise quantitative microstructural analysis, it is found that graphite particles not only play a crucial role in the crack initiation, but also are of primary significance for crack propagation, i.e. crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles. Furthermore, the density of graphite particles on the fracture plane is more than double as high as in any other arbitrary plane of the structure. The obtained results did not indicate a particular crystallographic preference of fracture plane, i.e. the crystal plane parallel to the fracture plane was nearly of random orientation. - Highlights: • Crystallographic features of a thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) crack were studied. • Wide-field 3D EBSD is used to characterize the TMF crack morphology. • Data processing was applied on a large length scale of the order of millimeters. • Graphite density in the fracture plane is much higher than any other random plane. • It is revealed that crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles.
3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.
2011-01-01
Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.
Parallel CARLOS-3D code development
Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.
1996-02-01
CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-04-14
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
X-ray microscopy for in situ characterization of 3D nanostructural evolution in the laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hornberger, Benjamin; Bale, Hrishikesh; Merkle, Arno; Feser, Michael; Harris, William; Etchin, Sergey; Leibowitz, Marty; Qiu, Wei; Tkachuk, Andrei; Gu, Allen; Bradley, Robert S.; Lu, Xuekun; Withers, Philip J.; Clarke, Amy; Henderson, Kevin; Cordes, Nikolaus; Patterson, Brian M.
2015-09-01
X-ray microscopy (XRM) has emerged as a powerful technique that reveals 3D images and quantitative information of interior structures. XRM executed both in the laboratory and at the synchrotron have demonstrated critical analysis and materials characterization on meso-, micro-, and nanoscales, with spatial resolution down to 50 nm in laboratory systems. The non-destructive nature of X-rays has made the technique widely appealing, with potential for "4D" characterization, delivering 3D micro- and nanostructural information on the same sample as a function of sequential processing or experimental conditions. Understanding volumetric and nanostructural changes, such as solid deformation, pore evolution, and crack propagation are fundamental to understanding how materials form, deform, and perform. We will present recent instrumentation developments in laboratory based XRM including a novel in situ nanomechanical testing stage. These developments bridge the gap between existing in situ stages for micro scale XRM, and SEM/TEM techniques that offer nanometer resolution but are limited to analysis of surfaces or extremely thin samples whose behavior is strongly influenced by surface effects. Several applications will be presented including 3D-characterization and in situ mechanical testing of polymers, metal alloys, composites and biomaterials. They span multiple length scales from the micro- to the nanoscale and different mechanical testing modes such as compression, indentation and tension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, K.; Ito, K.; Shoji, T.; Seo, D. W.; Tezuka, H.; Kato, H.
2006-12-01
In thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems, thermally grown oxide (TGO) forms at the interface between the top coat and the bond coat (BC) during service. Delamination or spallation at the interface occurs by the TGO formation and growth. Therefore, modifications of the BC materials are one means to inhibit the TGO formation and to improve the crack resistance of TBCs. In this study, morphologies of TGO were controlled by using Ce and Si additions to conventional CoNiCrAlY BC material. The evaluation of the crack resistance was carried out using acoustic emission methods under pure bending conditions. As a result, when the BCs of TBCs with Ce added were aged at 1373 K over 10 h, the morphologies of the TGO were changed drastically. The BC materials of TBCs coated with Ce added indicated an improved crack resistance with high-temperature exposure. It is expected that the morphologies can improve the crack resistance of TBCs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.
None
2016-07-12
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
2013-10-30
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
2013-10-01
Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.
[3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].
Zoller, W G; Liess, H
1994-06-01
Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, J. R.
2004-02-01
The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.
1990-01-01
PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.
DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems
Zywicz, E
2006-09-28
Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.
Formation and interpretation of dilatant echelon cracks.
Pollard, D.D.; Segall, P.; Delaney, P.T.
1982-01-01
The relative displacements of the walls of many veins, joints, and dikes demonstrate that these structures are dilatant cracks. We infer that dilatant cracks propagate in a principal stress plane, normal to the maximum tensile or least compressive stress. Arrays of echelon crack segments appear to emerge from the peripheries of some dilatant cracks. Breakdown of a parent crack into an echelon array may be initiated by a spatial or temporal rotation of the remote principal stresses about an axis parallel to the crack propagation direction. Near the parent-crack tip, a rotation of the local principal stresses is induced in the same sense, but not necessarily through the same angle. Incipient echelon cracks form at the parent-crack tip normal to the local maximum tensile stress. Further longitudinal growth along surfaces that twist about axes parallel to the propagation direction realigns each echelon crack into a remote principal stress plane. The walls of these twisted cracks may be idealized as helicoidal surfaces. An array of helicoidal cracks sweeps out less surface area than one parent crack twisting through the same angle. Thus, many echelon cracks grow from a single parent because the work done in creating the array, as measured by its surface area decreases as the number of cracks increases. -from Authors
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walkden, N. R.; Easy, L.; Militello, F.; Omotani, J. T.
2016-11-01
Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the pressure perturbation within the filament is supported primarily through a temperature increase as opposed to density: they lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.
Crack Formation in Cement-Based Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprince, A.; Pakrastinsh, L.; Vatin, N.
2016-04-01
The cracking properties in cement-based composites widely influences mechanical behavior of construction structures. The challenge of present investigation is to evaluate the crack propagation near the crack tip. During experiments the tension strength and crack mouth opening displacement of several types of concrete compositions was determined. For each composition the Compact Tension (CT) specimens were prepared with dimensions 150×150×12 mm. Specimens were subjected to a tensile load. Deformations and crack mouth opening displacement were measured with extensometers. Cracks initiation and propagation were analyzed using a digital image analysis technique. The formation and propagation of the tensile cracks was traced on the surface of the specimens using a high resolution digital camera with 60 mm focal length. Images were captured during testing with a time interval of one second. The obtained experimental curve shows the stages of crack development.
Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geng, Jason
2011-01-01
Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous
Unassisted 3D camera calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.
2012-03-01
With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.
Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels
Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott
2014-01-09
Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear
The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, R. S.
2001-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (less than 35 microns) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500X) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% NaCl environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.
The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.
2015-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.
2016-05-01
When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee-Elkin, Forest
2008-04-01
Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.
Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.
1994-10-01
In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.
Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin
2015-03-01
We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.
Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore
2016-01-01
Introduction Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to ‘endodontic triad’. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. Aim To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Materials and Methods Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each – a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL –1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by ‘Phi’ and ‘Cramers’ test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Stainless steel hand file group showed most cracks followed by ProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed
Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore
2016-01-01
Introduction Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to ‘endodontic triad’. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. Aim To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Materials and Methods Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each – a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL –1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by ‘Phi’ and ‘Cramers’ test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Stainless steel hand file group showed most cracks followed by ProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed
Sudden bending of cracked laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sih, G. C.; Chen, E. P.
1980-01-01
A dynamic approximate laminated plate theory is developed with emphasis placed on obtaining effective solution for the crack configuration where the 1/square root of r stress singularity and the condition of plane strain are preserved. The radial distance r is measured from the crack edge. The results obtained show that the crack moment intensity tends to decrease as the crack length to laminate plate thickness is increased. Hence, a laminated plate has the desirable feature of stabilizing a through crack as it increases its length at constant load. Also, the level of the average load intensity transmitted to a through crack can be reduced by making the inner layers to be stiffer than the outer layers. The present theory, although approximate, is useful for analyzing laminate failure to crack propagation under dynamic load conditions.
S3D: An interactive surface grid generation tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David
1992-01-01
S3D, an interactive software tool for surface grid generation, is described. S3D provides the means with which a geometry definition based either on a discretized curve set or a rectangular set can be quickly processed towards the generation of a surface grid for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. This is made possible as a result of implementing commonly encountered surface gridding tasks in an environment with a highly efficient and user friendly graphical interface. Some of the more advanced features of S3D include surface-surface intersections, optimized surface domain decomposition and recomposition, and automated propagation of edge distributions to surrounding grids.
LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2004-01-01
Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.
2014-08-01
In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers
YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic
2012-03-01
Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.
Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.
1997-12-01
This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation
Remote 3D Medical Consultation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.
Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.
Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert
2016-03-14
The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.
3D Computations and Experiments
Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D
2004-04-05
This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, R. C.; Reynolds, J. L.
1976-01-01
Fatigue, fatigue-crack-propagation, and fracture data compiled and stored on magnetic tape are documented. Data for 202 and 7075 aluminum alloys, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, and 300M steel are included in the compilation. Approximately 4,500 fatigue, 6,500 fatigue-crack-propagation, and 1,500 fracture data points are stored on magnetic tape. Descriptions of the data, an index to the data on the magnetic tape, information on data storage format on the tape, a listing of all data source references, and abstracts of other pertinent test information from each data source reference are included.
3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature
John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi
2001-09-14
T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.
Crack velocity jumps engendered by a transformational process zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulbitch, A.; Korzhenevskii, A. L.
2016-06-01
We study a concerted propagation of a fast crack with the process zone where a rearrangement of the solid structure takes place. The latter is treated as a second-order local phase transformation. We demonstrate that the propagation of such a zone gives rise to a nonlinear frictionlike force exerted on the crack tip, resisting its propagation. Depending on the temperature, it produces three regimes of crack motion, which differ in the behavior of the crack tip process zone: (i) always existing, (ii) only emerging at a high crack speed, and (iii) flickering. We show that the latter regime exhibits crack velocity jumps.
SAFE-3D analysis of a piezoelectric transducer to excite guided waves in a rail web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramatlo, Dineo A.; Long, Craig S.; Loveday, Philip W.; Wilke, Daniel N.
2016-02-01
Our existing Ultrasonic Broken Rail Detection system detects complete breaks and primarily uses a propagating mode with energy concentrated in the head of the rail. Previous experimental studies have demonstrated that a mode with energy concentrated in the head of the rail, is capable of detecting weld reflections at long distances. Exploiting a mode with energy concentrated in the web of the rail would allow us to effectively detect defects in the web of the rail and could also help to distinguish between reflections from welds and cracks. In this paper, we will demonstrate the analysis of a piezoelectric transducer attached to the rail web. The forced response at different frequencies is computed by the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method and compared to a full three-dimensional finite element method using ABAQUS. The SAFE method only requires the rail track cross-section to be meshed using two-dimensional elements. The ABAQUS model in turn requires a full three-dimensional discretisation of the rail track. The SAFE approach can yield poor predictions at cut-on frequencies associated with other modes in the rail. Problematic frequencies are identified and a suitable frequency range identified for transducer design. The forced response results of the two methods were found to be in good agreement with each other. We then use a previously developed SAFE-3D method to analyse a practical transducer over the selected frequency range. The results obtained from the SAFE-3D method are in good agreement with experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proudhon, Henry; Moffat, A.; Sinclair, Ian; Buffiere, Jean-Yves
2012-04-01
The growth of fatigue cracks at small length scales is known to be influenced by a variety of factors, including local microstructure, varying stress states and crack shape. High resolution computed tomography allows for sub-micron resolution imaging of failure processes in small test coupons undergoing in situ cyclic loading, providing detailed three-dimensional (3D) assessment of propagation processes across the entire crack front (surface and depth). In this work fatigue crack growth has been examined in an advanced Direct Chill (DC) cast aluminium alloy, along with a fine grained powder-metallurgy alloy. The latter is identified as a model material, offering considerably simpler microscopic crack paths than the DC cast alloy, and hence a means of separating bulk mechanical effects (such as stress state variations across a crack front and plasticity induced closure) from microstructural effects (such as crystallographic deflection and roughness induced crack closure). Crack growth has been studied in both materials under both constant amplitude (CA) and single peak overload (OL) conditions. Experimental results are presented in the present paper, particularly in relation to micromechanical understanding of failure. A modelling approach based on those results, and some typical results, is also presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less
Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.
3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim
2015-01-01
As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…
Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong
2016-07-01
Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials.
Zhao, Hewei; Yue, Yonghai; Guo, Lin; Wu, Juntao; Zhang, Youwei; Li, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Han, Xiaodong
2016-07-01
Ceramic/polymer composite equipped with 3D interlocking skeleton (3D IL) is developed through a simple freeze-casting method, exhibiting exceptionally light weight, high strength, toughness, and shock resistance. Long-range crack energy dissipation enabled by 3D interlocking structure is considered as the primary reinforcing mechanism for such superior properties. The smart composite design strategy should hold a place in developing future structural engineering materials. PMID:27135462
TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code
Mason, W.E.
1992-03-04
TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuvashova, Irina; Sun, Yi-min
2016-04-01
mantle beneath the northern Songliao basin and that admixture of the common sub-lithospheric component was locally introduced into the melted region by mechanism of propagating crack. This study is based on analytical data obtained for volcanic rocks in the Chinese-Russian Wudalianchi-Baikal Research Center on recent volcanism and environment. Major oxides were determined by "wet chemistry" at the Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS, Irkutsk. Trace-elements were measured by ICP-MS technique using mass-spectrometer Agilent 7500ce of the Center for collective use "Microanalysis" (Limnological Institute of SB RAS, Irkutsk) and Nd, Pb, and Sr isotopes by TIMS technique using mass-spectrometer Finnigan MAT 262 of the Center for collective use "Geodynamics and geochronology" (Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS). The work was supported by the RFBR grant № 16-05-00774. References Chuvashova, I.S., Rasskazov, S.V., Liu, J., Meng, F., Yasnygina, T.A., Fefelov, N.N., Saranina, E.V., 2009. Isotopically-enriched components in evolution of Late Cenozoic potassic magmatism in Heilongjiang province, northeast China, Proceedings of the Irkutsk State University. Series of Earth Sciences, 2 (2), pp. 181-198. Guide book for field mission to Wudalianchi National Park, China, 2010. Prepared by Wudalianchi National Park and Nature Management Committee Heilongjiang province, 50 p. Foulger, G.R., 2010. Plates vs. plumes: a geological controversy. Wiley-Blackwell, 328 p. Rasskazov, S.V., Yasnygina, T.A., Chuvashova, I.S. Mantle sources of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks of East Asia: Derivatives of slabs, the sub-lithospheric convection, and the lithosphere. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology. 2014. V. 8 (5), 355-371. Wang, Y., Chen, H., 2005. Tectonic controls on the Pleistocene-Holocene Wudalianchi volcanic field (northeastern China), Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24, pp. 419-431.
3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel
2015-11-01
Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.
Forensic 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.
2000-05-01
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
3D Printable Graphene Composite.
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-08
In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction
LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.
1999-10-12
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.
2013-01-01
Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.
3D light scanning macrography.
Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D
2001-08-01
The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078
[Real time 3D echocardiography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.
[Real time 3D echocardiography].
Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D
2001-07-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )
1993-11-30
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)
2013-10-01
The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less
Fast iterative image reconstruction of 3D PET data
Kinahan, P.E.; Townsend, D.W.; Michel, C.
1996-12-31
For count-limited PET imaging protocols, two different approaches to reducing statistical noise are volume, or 3D, imaging to increase sensitivity, and statistical reconstruction methods to reduce noise propagation. These two approaches have largely been developed independently, likely due to the perception of the large computational demands of iterative 3D reconstruction methods. We present results of combining the sensitivity of 3D PET imaging with the noise reduction and reconstruction speed of 2D iterative image reconstruction methods. This combination is made possible by using the recently-developed Fourier rebinning technique (FORE), which accurately and noiselessly rebins 3D PET data into a 2D data set. The resulting 2D sinograms are then reconstructed independently by the ordered-subset EM (OSEM) iterative reconstruction method, although any other 2D reconstruction algorithm could be used. We demonstrate significant improvements in image quality for whole-body 3D PET scans by using the FORE+OSEM approach compared with the standard 3D Reprojection (3DRP) algorithm. In addition, the FORE+OSEM approach involves only 2D reconstruction and it therefore requires considerably less reconstruction time than the 3DRP algorithm, or any fully 3D statistical reconstruction algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustafsson, M.; Ravkilde, T.; Kristensen, L. E.; Cabrit, S.; Field, D.; Pineau Des Forêts, G.
2010-04-01
Context. Shocks produced by outflows from young stars are often observed as bow-shaped structures in which the H2 line strength and morphology are characteristic of the physical and chemical environments and the velocity of the impact. Aims: We present a 3D model of interstellar bow shocks propagating in a homogeneous molecular medium with a uniform magnetic field. The model enables us to estimate the shock conditions in observed flows. As an example, we show how the model can reproduce rovibrational H2 observations of a bow shock in OMC1. Methods: The 3D model is constructed by associating a planar shock with every point on a 3D bow skeleton. The planar shocks are modelled with a highly sophisticated chemical reaction network that is essential for predicting accurate shock widths and line emissions. The shock conditions vary along the bow surface and determine the shock type, the local thickness, and brightness of the bow shell. The motion of the cooling gas parallel to the bow surface is also considered. The bow shock can move at an arbitrary inclination to the magnetic field and to the observer, and we model the projected morphology and radial velocity distribution in the plane-of-sky. Results: The morphology of a bow shock is highly dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field and the inclination of the flow. Bow shocks can appear in many different guises and do not necessarily show a characteristic bow shape. The ratio of the H2 v = 2-1 S(1) line to the v = 1-0 S(1) line is variable across the flow and the spatial offset between the peaks of the lines may be used to estimate the inclination of the flow. The radial velocity comes to a maximum behind the apparent apex of the bow shock when the flow is seen at an inclination different from face-on. Under certain circumstances the radial velocity of an expanding bow shock can show the same signatures as a rotating flow. In this case a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow direction is a projection
Interactive 3D Mars Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Mark W.
2012-01-01
The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
Love, Lonnie
2015-01-09
ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.
Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise
2012-01-01
The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi
2009-05-01
3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.
3D medical thermography device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghadam, Peyman
2015-05-01
In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
3D Printable Graphene Composite
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-01-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673
3D Printable Graphene Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller
2004-09-01
The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data
Statistical distribution of time to crack initiation and initial crack size using service data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heller, R. A.; Yang, J. N.
1977-01-01
Crack growth inspection data gathered during the service life of the C-130 Hercules airplane were used in conjunction with a crack propagation rule to estimate the distribution of crack initiation times and of initial crack sizes. A Bayesian statistical approach was used to calculate the fraction of undetected initiation times as a function of the inspection time and the reliability of the inspection procedure used.
Crack growth resistance in nuclear graphites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouagne, Pierre; Neighbour, Gareth B.; McEnaney, Brian
2002-05-01
Crack growth resistance curves for the non-linear fracture parameters KR, JR and R were measured for unirradiated PGA and IM1-24 graphites that are used as moderators in British Magnox and AGR nuclear reactors respectively. All the curves show an initial rising part, followed by a plateau region where the measured parameter is independent of crack length. JR and R decreased at large crack lengths. The initial rising curves were attributed to development of crack bridges in the wake of the crack front, while, in the plateau region, the crack bridging zone and the frontal process zone, ahead of the crack tip, reached steady state values. The decreases at large crack lengths were attributed to interaction of the frontal zone with the specimen end face. Microscopical evidence for graphite fragments acting as crack bridges showed that they were much smaller than filler particles, indicating that the graphite fragments are broken down during crack propagation. There was also evidence for friction points in the crack wake zone and shear cracking of some larger fragments. Inspection of KR curves showed that crack bridging contributed ~0.4 MPa m0.5 to the fracture toughness of the graphites. An analysis of JR and R curves showed that the development of the crack bridging zone in the rising part of the curves contributed ~20% to the total work of fracture. Energies absorbed during development of crack bridges and steady state crack propagation were greater for PGA than for IM1-24 graphite. These differences reflect the greater extent of irreversible processes occurring during cracking in the coarser microtexture of PGA graphite.
MECHANICS OF CRACK BRIDGING UNDER DYNAMIC LOADS
N. SRIDHAR; ET AL
2001-02-01
A bridging law for fiber reinforced composites under dynamic crack propagation conditions has been derived. Inertial effects in the mechanism of fiber pullout during dynamic propagation of a bridged crack are critically examined for the first time. By reposing simple shear lag models of pullout as problems of dynamic wave propagation, the effect of the frictional coupling between the fibers and the matrix is accounted for in a fairly straightforward way. The solutions yield the time-dependent relationship between the crack opening displacement and the bridging traction. Engineering criteria and the role of material and geometrical parameters for significant inertial effects are identified.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680
Restoration of strength along the parth of a healed crack
Finkel`, V.M.; Sergeeva, O.G.; Ruvinskii, M.A.
1994-09-01
The authors study the properties of healed cracks in crystals of CaCO{sub 3} and NaCl. The application of pressure has been shown to heal a major portion of the cracks, but the strength of the crystal is still deteriorated along the crack boundary. The authors anneal the healed specimens, which results in the motion of dislocations, and the formation of an array of pores along the crack boundary. They then study the rate of crack velociy propagation using high-speed photography, to learn how the pores and relocated dislocations affect the crack propagation speed.
Sinclair, Michael B
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.
Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes
Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.
2010-01-01
Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wei; Zhai, Tongguang
2012-08-01
Based on the previous three-dimensional (3-D) crystallographic model for short-fatigue crack propagation through grain boundaries, the resistance of a grain boundary to the crack growth was quantified as a Weibull-type function of the twist component of crack plane deflection across the boundary. The effective driving force for the crack at a grain boundary was quantified as the applied driving force minus the resistance. This allowed the quantification of variation in growth rate at different grain boundaries along the crack front. The model could simulate satisfactorily that the crack front at the grain boundaries with high twist angle indeed was lagged behind those with low twist angle and that the crack growth rate on the surface varied significantly. The model was also used to predict short-fatigue crack growth statistically in different textures, showing potential application to texture design of alloys. Subsequent work still needs to be done to incorporate other factors, such as the tilt angle and Schmidt factor, into the model to render a more accurate simulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.
2016-08-01
A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-21
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third
NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design
Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D
2008-11-05
We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.
S-duality in 3D gravity with torsion
Mielke, Eckehard W. . E-mail: ekke@xanum.uam.mx; Maggiolo, Ali A. Rincon
2007-02-15
The deformation of the connection in three spacetime dimensions by the kinematically equivalent coframe is shown to induce a duality between the (Lorentz-) rotational and translational field momenta, for which the coupling to the deformation parameter is inverted. This new kind of strong/weak duality, pertinent to 3D, is instrumental for studying exact solutions of the 3D Poincare gauge field equations and the particle content of propagating modes on a background of constant curvature. For a topological Chern-Simons model of gravity, the propagating modes 'living' on an Anti-de Sitter (AdS) background correspond to real massive particles. Yang-Mills type generalizations and new cubic Lagrangians are found and completely classified in 3D. AdS or black hole type solutions with constant axial torsion emerge, also for these higher-order Lagrangians with new 'exotic' torsion-curvature couplings. Their pattern complies with our S-duality, with new repercussions for the field redefinition of the metric in 3D quantum gravity and the cosmological constant problem.
3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu
2013-01-01
Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.
3-D Numerical Modeling of a Complex Salt Structure
House, L.; Larsen, S.; Bednar, J.B.
2000-02-17
Reliably processing, imaging, and interpreting seismic data from areas with complicated structures, such as sub-salt, requires a thorough understanding of elastic as well as acoustic wave propagation. Elastic numerical modeling is an essential tool to develop that understanding. While 2-D elastic modeling is in common use, 3-D elastic modeling has been too computationally intensive to be used routinely. Recent advances in computing hardware, including commodity-based hardware, have substantially reduced computing costs. These advances are making 3-D elastic numerical modeling more feasible. A series of example 3-D elastic calculations were performed using a complicated structure, the SEG/EAGE salt structure. The synthetic traces show that the effects of shear wave propagation can be important for imaging and interpretation of images, and also for AVO and other applications that rely on trace amplitudes. Additional calculations are needed to better identify and understand the complex wave propagation effects produced in complicated structures, such as the SEG/EAGE salt structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermanns, Maria
The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.
Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle
2010-08-01
In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.
2013-03-01
Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
Crack tip field and fatigue crack growth in general yielding and low cycle fatigue
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.
1984-01-01
Fatigue life consists of crack nucleation and crack propagation periods. Fatigue crack nucleation period is shorter relative to the propagation period at higher stresses. Crack nucleation period of low cycle fatigue might even be shortened by material and fabrication defects and by environmental attack. In these cases, fatigue life is largely crack propagation period. The characteristic crack tip field was studied by the finite element method, and the crack tip field is related to the far field parameters: the deformation work density, and the product of applied stress and applied strain. The cyclic carck growth rates in specimens in general yielding as measured by Solomon are analyzed in terms of J-integral. A generalized crack behavior in terms of delta is developed. The relations between J and the far field parameters and the relation for the general cyclic crack growth behavior are used to analyze fatigue lives of specimens under general-yielding cyclic-load. Fatigue life is related to the applied stress and strain ranges, the deformation work density, crack nucleus size, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth threshold, Young's modulus, and the cyclic yield stress and strain. The fatigue lives of two aluminum alloys correlate well with the deformation work density as depicted by the derived theory. The general relation is reduced to Coffin-Manson low cycle fatigue law in the high strain region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.
The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.
The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.
2009-04-01
Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.
... older obese people. Question: Can cracking knuckles / joints lead to arthritis? Answer: There is no evidence of ... or damaged joints due to arthritis could potentially lead more easily to ligament injury or acute trauma ...
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997
Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.
2012-07-01
It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engle, Rob
2008-02-01
This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.
Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.
2006-01-01
Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…
Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi
2016-01-01
With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…
3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.
3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2004-01-01
Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.
Computing Radiative Transfer in a 3D Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Allmen, Paul; Lee, Seungwon
2012-01-01
A package of software computes the time-dependent propagation of a narrow laser beam in an arbitrary three- dimensional (3D) medium with absorption and scattering, using the transient-discrete-ordinates method and a direct integration method. Unlike prior software that utilizes a Monte Carlo method, this software enables simulation at very small signal-to-noise ratios. The ability to simulate propagation of a narrow laser beam in a 3D medium is an improvement over other discrete-ordinate software. Unlike other direct-integration software, this software is not limited to simulation of propagation of thermal radiation with broad angular spread in three dimensions or of a laser pulse with narrow angular spread in two dimensions. Uses for this software include (1) computing scattering of a pulsed laser beam on a material having given elastic scattering and absorption profiles, and (2) evaluating concepts for laser-based instruments for sensing oceanic turbulence and related measurements of oceanic mixed-layer depths. With suitable augmentation, this software could be used to compute radiative transfer in ultrasound imaging in biological tissues, radiative transfer in the upper Earth crust for oil exploration, and propagation of laser pulses in telecommunication applications.
Junction formation during desiccation cracking.
Toga, K B; Alaca, B Erdem
2006-08-01
In order to provide a sound physical basis for the understanding of the formation of desiccation crack networks, an experimental study is presented addressing junction formation. Focusing on junctions, basic features of the network determining the final pattern, provides an elemental approach and imparts conceptual clarity to the rather complicated problem of the evolution of crack patterns. Using coffee-water mixtures a clear distinction between junction formation during nucleation and propagation is achieved. It is shown that for the same drying suspension, one can switch from the well-known symmetric triple junctions that are unique to the nucleation phase to propagation junctions that are purely dictated by the variations of the stress state. In the latter case, one can even manipulate the path of a propagating crack in a deterministic fashion by changing the stress state within the suspension. Clear microscopic evidence is provided for the formation of propagation junctions, and material inhomogeneity is observed to be reflected by a broad distribution of angles, in stark contrast to shrinkage cracks in homogeneous solid films.
3-D Perspective Pasadena, California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency
McCandless, Kathleen; Petersson, Anders; Nilsson, Stefan; Sjogreen, Bjorn
2007-01-08
WPP is a massively parallel, 3D, C++, finite-difference elastodynamic wave propagation code. Typical applications for wave propagation with WPP include: evaluation of seismic event scenarios and damage from earthquakes, non-destructive evaluation of materials, underground facility detection, oil and gas exploration, predicting the electro-magnetic fields in accelerators, and acoustic noise generation. For more information, see Users Manual [1].
Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handy Turner, Tara
2010-02-01
From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.
Riemke, Richard Allan
2002-09-01
The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.
3D laptop for defense applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David
2012-06-01
Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.
The transition from subsonic to supersonic cracks
Behn, Chris; Marder, M.
2015-01-01
We present the full analytical solution for steady-state in-plane crack motion in a brittle triangular lattice. This allows quick numerical evaluation of solutions for very large systems, facilitating comparisons with continuum fracture theory. Cracks that propagate faster than the Rayleigh wave speed have been thought to be forbidden in the continuum theory, but clearly exist in lattice systems. Using our analytical methods, we examine in detail the motion of atoms around a crack tip as crack speed changes from subsonic to supersonic. Subsonic cracks feature displacement fields consistent with a stress intensity factor. For supersonic cracks, the stress intensity factor disappears. Subsonic cracks are characterized by small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations in the vertical displacement of an atom along the crack line, while supersonic cracks have large-amplitude, low-frequency oscillations. Thus, while supersonic cracks are no less physical than subsonic cracks, the connection between microscopic and macroscopic behaviour must be made in a different way. This is one reason supersonic cracks in tension had been thought not to exist. PMID:25713443
Evolution of Rock Cracks Under Unloading Condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, R. Q.; Huang, D.
2014-03-01
Underground excavation normally causes instability of the mother rock due to the release and redistribution of stress within the affected zone. For gaining deep insight into the characteristics and mechanism of rock crack evolution during underground excavation, laboratory tests are carried out on 36 man-made rock specimens with single or double cracks under two different unloading conditions. The results show that the strength of rock and the evolution of cracks are clearly influenced by both the inclination angle of individual cracks with reference to the unloading direction and the combination geometry of cracks. The peak strength of rock with a single crack becomes smaller with the inclination angle. Crack propagation progresses intermittently, as evidenced by a sudden increase in deformation and repeated fluctuation of measured stress. The rock with a single crack is found to fail in three modes, i.e., shear, tension-shear, and splitting, while the rock bridge between two cracks is normally failed in shear, tension-shear, and tension. The failure mode in which a crack rock or rock bridge behaves is found to be determined by the inclination angle of the original crack, initial stress state, and unloading condition. Another observation is that the secondary cracks are relatively easily created under high initial stress and quick unloading.
3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team
Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a