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Sample records for 3d cultivation conditions

  1. 3D Cultivation Techniques for Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Moll, Matthias; Gottwald, Eric; Nies, Cordula; Zantl, Roman; Wagner, Helga; Burkhardt, Britta; Sánchez, Juan J. Martínez; Ladurner, Ruth; Thasler, Wolfgang; Damm, Georg; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in drug development is the prediction of in vivo toxicity based on in vitro data. The standard cultivation system for primary human hepatocytes is based on monolayer cultures, even if it is known that these conditions result in a loss of hepatocyte morphology and of liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. As it has been demonstrated that hepatocytes embedded between two sheets of collagen maintain their function, various hydrogels and scaffolds for the 3D cultivation of hepatocytes have been developed. To further improve or maintain hepatic functions, 3D cultivation has been combined with perfusion. In this manuscript, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different 3D microfluidic devices. For most systems that are currently available, the main issues are the requirement of large cell numbers, the low throughput, and expensive equipment, which render these devices unattractive for research and the drug-developing industry. A higher acceptance of these devices could be achieved by their simplification and their compatibility with high-throughput, as both aspects are of major importance for a user-friendly device. PMID:27600213

  2. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  3. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-Hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-04-15

    The nematodeCaenorhabditiselegansis one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however,C. elegansis found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology ofC. elegansin a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory.

  4. A modular segmented-flow platform for 3D cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Karen; Förster, Tobias; Römer, Robert; Quade, Mandy; Wiedemeier, Stefan; Grodrian, Andreas; Gastrock, Gunter

    2015-07-10

    In vitro 3D cell cultivation is promised to equate tissue in vivo more realistically than 2D cell cultivation corresponding to cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Therefore, a scalable 3D cultivation platform was developed. This platform, called pipe-based bioreactors (pbb), is based on the segmented-flow technology: aqueous droplets are embedded in a water-immiscible carrier fluid. The droplet volumes range from 60 nL to 20 μL and are used as bioreactors lined up in a tubing like pearls on a string. The modular automated platform basically consists of several modules like a fluid management for a high throughput droplet generation for self-assembly or scaffold-based 3D cell cultivation, a storage module for incubation and storage, and an analysis module for monitoring cell aggregation and proliferation basing on microscopy or photometry. In this report, the self-assembly of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to uniformly sized embryoid bodies (EBs), the cell proliferation, the cell viability as well as the influence on the cell differentiation to cardiomyocytes are described. The integration of a dosage module for medium exchange or agent addition will enable pbb as long-term 3D cell cultivation system for studying stem cell differentiation, e.g. cardiac myogenesis or for diagnostic and therapeutic testing in personalized medicine.

  5. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattari, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc.), as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc.), can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy). The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings - at the moment in bad conservation's situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  6. Polarimetric 3D integral imaging in photon-starved conditions.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Artur; Javidi, Bahram

    2015-03-09

    We develop a method for obtaining 3D polarimetric integral images from elemental images recorded in low light illumination conditions. Since photon-counting images are very sparse, calculation of the Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization should be handled carefully. In our approach, polarimetric 3D integral images are generated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and subsequently reconstructed by means of a Total Variation Denoising filter. In this way, polarimetric results are comparable to those obtained in conventional illumination conditions. We also show that polarimetric information retrieved from photon starved images can be used in 3D object recognition problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3D polarimetric photon counting integral imaging.

  7. Efficient animal-serum free 3D cultivation method for adult human neural crest-derived stem cell therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Greiner, J F W; Hauser, S; Widera, D; Müller, J; Qunneis, F; Zander, C; Martin, I; Mallah, J; Schuetzmann, D; Prante, C; Schwarze, H; Prohaska, W; Beyer, A; Rott, K; Hütten, A; Gölzhäuser, A; Sudhoff, H; Kaltschmidt, C; Kaltschmidt, B

    2011-12-17

    Due to their broad differentiation potential and their persistence into adulthood, human neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) harbour great potential for autologous cellular therapies, which include the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and replacement of complex tissues containing various cell types, as in the case of musculoskeletal injuries. The use of serum-free approaches often results in insufficient proliferation of stem cells and foetal calf serum implicates the use of xenogenic medium components. Thus, there is much need for alternative cultivation strategies. In this study we describe for the first time a novel, human blood plasma based semi-solid medium for cultivation of human NCSCs. We cultivated human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs) within a blood plasma matrix, where they revealed higher proliferation rates compared to a standard serum-free approach. Three-dimensionality of the matrix was investigated using helium ion microscopy. ITSCs grew within the matrix as revealed by laser scanning microscopy. Genetic stability and maintenance of stemness characteristics were assured in 3D cultivated ITSCs, as demonstrated by unchanged expression profile and the capability for self-renewal. ITSCs pre-cultivated in the 3D matrix differentiated efficiently into ectodermal and mesodermal cell types, particularly including osteogenic cell types. Furthermore, ITSCs cultivated as described here could be easily infected with lentiviruses directly in substrate for potential tracing or gene therapeutic approaches. Taken together, the use of human blood plasma as an additive for a completely defined medium points towards a personalisable and autologous cultivation of human neural crest-derived stem cells under clinical grade conditions.

  8. Thermoforming techniques for manufacturing porous scaffolds for application in 3D cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Justyna; Hampl, Jörg; Gebinoga, Michael; Elsarnagawy, Tarek; Elnakady, Yasser A; Fouad, Hassan; Almajhadi, Fahd; Fernekorn, Uta; Weise, Frank; Singh, Sukhdeep; Elsarnagawy, Dief; Schober, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Within the scientific community, there is an increasing demand to apply advanced cell cultivation substrates with increased physiological functionalities for studying spatially defined cellular interactions. Porous polymeric scaffolds are utilized for mimicking an organ-like structure or engineering complex tissues and have become a key element for three-dimensional (3D) cell cultivation in the meantime. As a consequence, efficient 3D scaffold fabrication methods play an important role in modern biotechnology. Here, we present a novel thermoforming procedure for manufacturing porous 3D scaffolds from permeable materials. We address the issue of precise thermoforming of porous polymer foils by using multilayer polymer thermoforming technology. This technology offers a new method for structuring porous polymer foils that are otherwise available for non-porous polymers only. We successfully manufactured 3D scaffolds from solvent casted and phase separated polylactic acid (PLA) foils and investigated their biocompatibility and basic cellular performance. The HepG2 cell culture in PLA scaffold has shown enhanced albumin secretion rate in comparison to a previously reported polycarbonate based scaffold with similar geometry.

  9. Silk scaffolds connected with different naturally occurring biomaterials for prostate cancer cell cultivation in 3D.

    PubMed

    Bäcker, Anne; Erhardt, Olga; Wietbrock, Lukas; Schel, Natalia; Göppert, Bettina; Dirschka, Marian; Abaffy, Paul; Sollich, Thomas; Cecilia, Angelica; Gruhl, Friederike J

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, different biopolymer blend scaffolds based on the silk protein fibroin from Bombyx mori (BM) were prepared via freeze-drying method. The chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the three dimensional (3D) porous silk fibroin (SF) composite scaffolds of gelatin, collagen, and chitosan as well as SF from Antheraea pernyi (AP) and the recombinant spider silk protein spidroin (SSP1) have been systematically investigated, followed by cell culture experiments with epithelial prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) up to 14 days. Compared to the pure SF scaffold of BM, the blend scaffolds differ in porous morphology, elasticity, swelling behavior, and biochemical composition. The new composite scaffold with SSP1 showed an increased swelling degree and soft tissue like elastic properties. Whereas, in vitro cultivation of LNCaP cells demonstrated an increased growth behavior and spheroid formation within chitosan blended scaffolds based on its remarkable porosity, which supports nutrient supply matrix. Results of this study suggest that silk fibroin matrices are sufficient and certain SF composite scaffolds even improve 3D cell cultivation for prostate cancer research compared to matrices based on pure biomaterials or synthetic polymers.

  10. Changes in morphology of actin filaments and expression of alkaline phosphatase at 3D cultivation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells on mineralized fibroin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Goncharenko, A V; Malyuchenko, N V; Moisenovich, A M; Kotlyarova, M S; Arkhipova, A Yu; Kon'kov, A S; Agapov, I I; Molochkov, A V; Moisenovich, M M; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-09-01

    3D cultivation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells on mineralized fibroin scaffolds leads to an increase in the expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of bone formation. Increased expression is associated with the actin cytoskeleton reorganization under the influence of 3D cultivation and osteogenic calcium phosphate component of the microcarrier.

  11. 3D information from 2D images recorded in the European Modular Cultivation System on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.

    2009-12-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) on the ISS allows long-term biological experiments, e.g. on plants. Video cameras provide near real-time 2D images from these experiments. A method to obtain 3D coordinates and stereoscopic images from these 2D images has been developed and is described in this paper. The procedure was developed to enhance the data output of the MULTIGEN-1 experiment in 2007. One of the main objectives of the experiment was to study growth movements of the Arabidopsis plants and the effect of gravity on these. 3D data were important during parts of the experiment and the paper presents the method developed to acquire 3D data, the accuracy of the data, limitations to the technique and ways to improve the accuracy. Sequences of 3D data obtained from the MULTIGEN-1 experiment are used to illustrate the potential of this newfound capability of the EMCS. In the experiment setup, a positional depth accuracy of about ±0.4 mm for relative object distances and an absolute depth accuracy of about ±1.4 mm for time dependent phenomena was reached. The ability to both view biological specimens in 3D as well as obtaining quantitative 3D data added greatly to the scientific output of the MULTIGEN-1 experiment. The uses of the technique to other researchers and their experiments are discussed.

  12. A multiparallel bioreactor for the cultivation of mammalian cells in a 3D-ceramic matrix.

    PubMed

    Goralczyk, Vicky; Driemel, Gregor; Bischof, Andreas; Peter, Andrea; Berthold, Almuth; Kroh, Lothar; Blessing, Lucienne; Schubert, Helmut; King, Rudibert

    2010-01-01

    For adherently growing cells, cultivation is limited by the provided growth surface. Excellent surface-to-volume ratios are found in highly porous matrices, which have to face the challenge of nutrient supply inside the matrices' caverns. Therefore, perfusion strategies are recommended which often have to deal with the need of developing an encompassing bioreactor periphery. We present a modular bioreactor system based on a porous ceramic matrix that enables the supply of cells with oxygen and nutrients by perfusion. The present version of the reactor system focuses on simple testing of various inoculation and operation modes. Moreover, it can be used to efficiently test different foam structures. Protocols are given to set-up the system together with handling procedures for long-time cultivation of a CHO cell line. Experimental results confirm vital growth of cells inside the matrices' caverns.

  13. Optimum conditions for high-quality 3D reconstruction in confocal scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Taejoong; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Seo, Jungwoo

    2006-02-01

    Confocal Scanning Microscopy (CSM) is very useful to reconstruct 3D image of Bio-cells and the objects that have specification shape in higher axial and lateral resolution and widely used as measurement instrument. A 3D reconstruction is used to visualize confocal images and consists of following processes. The First process is to get 3D data by collecting a series of images at regular focus intervals (Optical Sectioning). The Second process is to fit a curve to a series of 3D data points each pixel. The Third process is to search height information that has maximum value from curve-fitting. However, because of various systematic errors (NOISE) occurred when collecting the information of images through Optical Sectioning and large peak deviation occurred from curve-fitting error, high quality 3D reconstruction is not expected. Also, it takes much time to 3d Reconstruction by using many 3D data in order to acquire high quality and much cost to improve signal-to-noise (SNR) using a higher power laser. So, we are going to define SNR, peak deviation and the order of curve-fitting as important factors and simulate the relation between the factors in order to find a optimum condition for high quality 3D reconstruction in Confoal Scanning Microscopy. If we use optimum condition obtained by this simulation, using a suitable SNR and the suitable number of data and the suitable n-th order curve-fitting, small peak deviation is expected and then, 3D reconstruction of little better quality is expected. Also, it is expected to save.

  14. Correspondenceless 3D-2D registration based on expectation conditional maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Taylor, R. H.; Armand, M.; Otake, Y.; Yau, W. P.; Cheung, P. Y. S.; Hu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    3D-2D registration is a fundamental task in image guided interventions. Due to the physics of the X-ray imaging, however, traditional point based methods meet new challenges, where the local point features are indistinguishable, creating difficulties in establishing correspondence between 2D image feature points and 3D model points. In this paper, we propose a novel method to accomplish 3D-2D registration without known correspondences. Given a set of 3D and 2D unmatched points, this is achieved by introducing correspondence probabilities that we model as a mixture model. By casting it into the expectation conditional maximization framework, without establishing one-to-one point correspondences, we can iteratively refine the registration parameters. The method has been tested on 100 real X-ray images. The experiments showed that the proposed method accurately estimated the rotations (< 1°) and in-plane (X-Y plane) translations (< 1 mm).

  15. Monocular accommodation condition in 3D display types through geometrical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young

    2007-09-01

    Eye fatigue or strain phenomenon in 3D display environment is a significant problem for 3D display commercialization. The 3D display systems like eyeglasses type stereoscopic or auto-stereoscopic multiview, Super Multi-View (SMV), and Multi-Focus (MF) displays are considered for detail calculation about satisfaction level of monocular accommodation by geometrical optics calculation means. A lens with fixed focal length is used for experimental verification about numerical calculation of monocular defocus effect caused by accommodation at three different depths. And the simulation and experiment results consistently show relatively high level satisfaction about monocular accommodation at MF display condition. Additionally, possibility of monocular depth perception, 3D effect, at monocular MF display is discussed.

  16. Using a decellularized splenic matrix as a 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cultivation in vitro: a preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-Long; Xiang, Jun-Xi; Wu, Wan-Quan; Wang, Bo; Liu, Wen-Yan; Gao, Rui; Dong, Ding-Hui; Lv, Yi

    2015-08-18

    Using a decellularized liver matrix (DLM) to reengineer liver tissue is a promising therapy for end-stage liver disease. However, the limited supply of donor organs still hampers its potential clinical application, while a xenogenic decellularized matrix may bring a risk of zoonosis and immunological rejection. Therefore, an appropriate alternative scaffold is needed. In this research, we established a decellularized splenic matrix (DSM) in a rodent model, which preserved the 3D ultrastructure, the components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the native vascular network. The DSM and DLM had similar components of ECM, and similar mechanical properties. Hepatocytes were seeded to the DSM and DLM for dynamic culturing up to 6 d, and distributed both in decellularized sinusoidal spaces and around the vessels. The TUNEL-positive cell percentage in a dynamic culturing decellularized splenic matrix (dDSM) was 10.7%  ±  3.6% at 3d and 25.8%  ±  5.6% at 5d, although 14.2%  ±  4.5% and 24.8%  ±  2.9%, respectively, in a dynamic culturing decellularized liver matrix (dDLM) at the same time point (p  >  0.05). Primary hepatocytes in the dDSM and dDLM expressed albumin, G6pc and Ugt1a1. The gene expression of Cyp2b1, Cyp1a2 and HNF1α in the gene transcription level revealed hepatocytes had lower gene expression levels in the dDSM compared with the dDLM at 3d, but better than those in a sandwich culture. The cumulative albumin production at 6 d of culture was 80.7   ±   9.6 μg per million cells in the dDSM and 89.6   ±   4.6 μg per million cells in the dDLM (p  >  0.05). In summary, the DSM is a promising 3D scaffold for hepatocyte cultivation in vitro.

  17. Differences in morphogenesis of 3D cultured primary human osteoblasts under static and microfluidic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Brigitte; Löchner, Anne; Swain, Michael; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Gottwald, Eric; Steinberg, Thorsten; Tomakidi, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    As information on osteoblast mechanosensitivity response to biomechanical cues in three-dimensional (3D) in vitro microenvironments is sparse, the present study compared morphogenesis of primary human alveolar bone osteoblasts (PHABO) under microchip-based 3D-static conditions, and 3D-fluid flow-mediated biomechanical stimulation in perfusion bioreactors. Discrimination of the respective microenvironment by differential morphogenesis was evident from fluid flow-induced PHABO reorganization into rotund bony microtissue, comprising more densely packed multicellular 3D-aggregates, while viability of microtissues was flow rate dependent. Time-lapse microscopy and simple modeling of biomechanical conditions revealed that physiologically relevant fluid flow-mediated PHABO stimulation was associated with formation of mulberry-like PHABO aggregates within the first 24 h. Differential extracellular matrix deposition patterns and gene expression modulation in PHABO aggregates at day 7 further indicates progressive osteoblast differentiation exclusively in perfusion culture-developed bony microtissues. The results of our study strongly suggest PHABO morphogenesis as discriminator of microenvironmental growth conditions, which in case of the microfluidic 3D microchip-bioreactor are substantiated by triggering in vitro bone microtissue formation concomitant with progressive osteoblastic differentiation. Such microtissue outcomes provide unique insight for mechanobiological studies in response to biomechanical fluid flow cues, and clinically appear promising for in vitro PHABO preconditioning, enabling innovative bone augmentation procedures.

  18. Structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on Scheimpflug condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Qing; Gao, Jian; Lin, Hui; Chen, Yun; Yunbo, He; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guanjin; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    We designed a new three-dimensional (3D) measurement system for micro components: a structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on the Scheimpflug condition. This system creatively combines the telecentric imaging model and the Scheimpflug condition on the basis of structure light stereoscopic vision, having benefits of a wide measurement range, high accuracy, fast speed, and low price. The system measurement range is 20 mm×13 mm×6 mm, the lateral resolution is 20 μm, and the practical vertical resolution reaches 2.6 μm, which is close to the theoretical value of 2 μm and well satisfies the 3D measurement needs of micro components such as semiconductor devices, photoelectron elements, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this paper, we first introduce the principle and structure of the system and then present the system calibration and 3D reconstruction. We then present an experiment that was performed for the 3D reconstruction of the surface topography of a wafer, followed by a discussion. Finally, the conclusions are presented.

  19. Inflow/Outflow Boundary Conditions with Application to FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2011-01-01

    Several boundary conditions that allow subsonic and supersonic flow into and out of the computational domain are discussed. These boundary conditions are demonstrated in the FUN3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code which solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured computational meshes. The boundary conditions are enforced through determination of the flux contribution at the boundary to the solution residual. The boundary conditions are implemented in an implicit form where the Jacobian contribution of the boundary condition is included and is exact. All of the flows are governed by the calorically perfect gas thermodynamic equations. Three problems are used to assess these boundary conditions. Solution residual convergence to machine zero precision occurred for all cases. The converged solution boundary state is compared with the requested boundary state for several levels of mesh densities. The boundary values converged to the requested boundary condition with approximately second-order accuracy for all of the cases.

  20. Mesoscale 3D manufacturing: varying focusing conditions for efficient direct laser writing of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonušauskas, Linas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report a novel approach for efficient fabrication of mesoscale polymer 3D microstructures. It is implemented by direct laser writing varying exposure beam focusing conditions. By carefully optimizing the fabrication parameters (laser intensity, scanning velocity/exposure time, changing objective lens) complex 3D geometries of the microstructures can be obtained rapidly. Additionally, we demonstrate this without the use of the photoinitiator as photosensitizer doped in the pre-polymer material (SZ2080). At femtosecond pulsed irradiation ~TW/cm² intensities the localized free radical polymerization is achieved via avalanche induced bond braking. Such microstructures have unique biocompatibility and optical transparency as well as optical damage threshold value. By creating the bulk part of the structure using low-NA (0.45) objective and subsequently fabricating the fine features using oil immersion high-NA (1.4) objective the manufacturing time is reduced dramatically (30x is demonstrated). Using this two objective method a prototype of functional microdevice was produced: 80 and 85 µm diameter microfluidic tubes with the fine filter consisting of 4 µm period grating structure that has 400 nm wide threads, which corresponds to a feature precision aspect ratio of ~200. Therefore, such method has great potential as a polymer fabrication tool for mesoscale optical, photonic and biomedical applications as well as highly integrated 3D µ-systems. Furthermore, the proposed approach is not limited to lithography and can be implemented in a more general type of laser writing, such as inscription within transparent materials or substractive manufacturing by ablation.

  1. Layout consistent segmentation of 3-D meshes via conditional random fields and spatial ordering constraints.

    PubMed

    Zouhar, Alexander; Baloch, Sajjad; Tsin, Yanghai; Fang, Tong; Fuchs, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of 3-D Mesh segmentation for categories of objects with known part structure. Part labels are derived from a semantic interpretation of non-overlapping subsurfaces. Our approach models the label distribution using a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that imposes constraints on the relative spatial arrangement of neighboring labels, thereby ensuring semantic consistency. To this end, each label variable is associated with a rich shape descriptor that is intrinsic to the surface. Randomized decision trees and cross validation are employed for learning the model, which is eventually applied using graph cuts. The method is flexible enough for segmenting even geometrically less structured regions and is robust to local and global shape variations.

  2. An Interdisciplinary Conservation Module for Condition Survey on Cultural Heritages with a 3d Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelì, C.

    2013-07-01

    In order to make the most of the digital outsourced documents, based on new technologies (e.g.: 3D LASER scanners, photogrammetry, etc.), a new approach was followed and a new ad hoc information system was implemented. The obtained product allow to the final user to reuse and manage the digital documents providing graphic tools and an integrated specific database to manage the entire documentation and conservation process, starting from the condition assessment until the conservation / restoration work. The system is organised on two main modules: Archaeology and Conservation. This paper focus on the features and the advantages of the second one. In particular it is emphasized its logical organisation, the possibility to easily mapping by using a very precise 3D metric platform, to benefit of the integrated relational database which allows to well organise, compare, keep and manage different kind of information at different level. Conservation module can manage along the time the conservation process of a site, monuments, object or excavation and conservation work in progress. An alternative approach called OVO by the author of this paper, force the surveyor to observe and describe the entity decomposing it on functional components, materials and construction techniques. Some integrated tools as the "ICOMOS-ISCS Illustrated glossary … " help the user to describe pathologies with a unified approach and terminology. Also the conservation project phase is strongly supported to envision future intervention and cost. A final section is devoted to record the conservation/restoration work already done or in progress. All information areas of the conservation module are interconnected to each other to allows to the system a complete interchange of graphic and alphanumeric data. The conservation module it self is connected to the archaeological one to create an interdisciplinary daily tool.

  3. 3-D simulation of gases transport under condition of inert gas injection into goaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mao-Xi; Shi, Guo-Qing; Guo, Zhixiong; Wang, Yan-Ming; Ma, Li-Yang

    2016-12-01

    To prevent coal spontaneous combustion in mines, it is paramount to understand O2 gas distribution under condition of inert gas injection into goaf. In this study, the goaf was modeled as a 3-D porous medium based on stress distribution. The variation of O2 distribution influenced by CO2 or N2 injection was simulated based on the multi-component gases transport and the Navier-Stokes equations using Fluent. The numerical results without inert gas injection were compared with field measurements to validate the simulation model. Simulations with inert gas injection show that CO2 gas mainly accumulates at the goaf floor level; however, a notable portion of N2 gas moves upward. The evolution of the spontaneous combustion risky zone with continuous inert gas injection can be classified into three phases: slow inerting phase, rapid accelerating inerting phase, and stable inerting phase. The asphyxia zone with CO2 injection is about 1.25-2.4 times larger than that with N2 injection. The efficacy of preventing and putting out mine fires is strongly related with the inert gas injecting position. Ideal injections are located in the oxidation zone or the transitional zone between oxidation zone and heat dissipation zone.

  4. 3D-Cultivation of bone marrow stromal cells on hydroxyapatite scaffolds fabricated by dispense-plotting and negative mould technique.

    PubMed

    Detsch, R; Uhl, F; Deisinger, U; Ziegler, G

    2008-04-01

    The main principle of a bone tissue engineering (BTE) strategy is to cultivate osteogenic cells in an osteoconductive porous scaffold. Ceramic implants for osteogenesis are based mainly on hydroxyapatite (HA), since this is the inorganic component of bone. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a new technology in research for producing ceramic scaffolds. This technology is particularly suitable for the fabrication of individually and specially tailored single implants. For tissue engineering these scaffolds are seeded with osteoblast or osteoblast precursor cells. To supply the cultured osteoblastic cells efficiently with nutrition in these 3D-geometries a bioreactor system can be used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of differently fabricated HA-scaffolds on bone marrow stromal cells. For this, two RP-techniques, dispense-plotting and a negative mould method, were used to produce porous ceramics. The manufactured HA-scaffolds were then cultivated in a dynamic system (bioreactor) with an osteoblastic precursor cell line. In our study, the applied RP-techniques give the opportunity to design and process HA-scaffolds with defined porosity, interconnectivity and 3D pore distribution. A higher differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells could be detected on the negative mould fabricated scaffolds, while cell proliferation was higher on the dispense-plotted scaffolds. Nevertheless, both scaffold types can be used in tissue engineering applications.

  5. Characterization of Phenotypic and Transcriptional Differences in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells under 2D and 3D Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Ken-Ichiro; Koyama, Yoshie; Tokunaga, Yumie; Mashimo, Yasumasa; Yoshioka, Momoko; Fockenberg, Christopher; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Wells, Christine; Chen, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for applications in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Microfluidic technology is a promising approach for creating artificial microenvironments; however, although a proper 3D microenvironment is required to achieve robust control of cellular phenotypes, most current microfluidic devices provide only 2D cell culture and do not allow tuning of physical and chemical environmental cues simultaneously. Here, the authors report a 3D cellular microenvironment plate (3D-CEP), which consists of a microfluidic device filled with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-β-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel (HG), which enables systematic tuning of both chemical and physical environmental cues as well as in situ cell monitoring. The authors show that H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and 253G1 human induced pluripotent stem cells in the HG/3D-CEP system maintain their pluripotent marker expression under HG/3D-CEP self-renewing conditions. Additionally, global gene expression analyses are used to elucidate small variations among different test environments. Interestingly, the authors find that treatment of H9 hESCs under HG/3D-CEP self-renewing conditions results in initiation of entry into the neural differentiation process by induction of PAX3 and OTX1 expression. The authors believe that this HG/3D-CEP system will serve as a versatile platform for developing targeted functional cell lines and facilitate advances in drug screening and regenerative medicine.

  6. Piecewise-diffeomorphic image registration: application to the motion estimation between 3D CT lung images with sliding conditions.

    PubMed

    Risser, Laurent; Vialard, François-Xavier; Baluwala, Habib Y; Schnabel, Julia A

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for modelling sliding conditions when registering 3D images in a piecewise-diffeomorphic framework. More specifically, our main contribution is the development of a mathematical formalism to perform Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping registration with sliding conditions. We also show how to adapt this formalism to the LogDemons diffeomorphic registration framework. We finally show how to apply this strategy to estimate the respiratory motion between 3D CT pulmonary images. Quantitative tests are performed on 2D and 3D synthetic images, as well as on real 3D lung images from the MICCAI EMPIRE10 challenge. Results show that our strategy estimates accurate mappings of entire 3D thoracic image volumes that exhibit a sliding motion, as opposed to conventional registration methods which are not capable of capturing discontinuous deformations at the thoracic cage boundary. They also show that although the deformations are not smooth across the location of sliding conditions, they are almost always invertible in the whole image domain. This would be helpful for radiotherapy planning and delivery.

  7. Implementation of wall boundary conditions for transpiration in F3D thin-layer Navier-Stokes code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, M.; Martin, F. W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical boundary conditions for mass injection/suction at the wall are incorporated in the thin-layer Navier-Stokes code, F3D. The accuracy of the boundary conditions and the code is assessed by a detailed comparison of the predictions of velocity distributions and skin-friction coefficients with exact similarity solutions for laminar flow over a flat plate with variable blowing/suction, and measurements for turbulent flow past a flat plate with uniform blowing. In laminar flow, F3D predictions for friction coefficient compare well with exact similarity solution with and without suction, but produces large errors at moderate-to-large values of blowing. A slight Mach number dependence of skin-friction coefficient due to blowing in turbulent flow is computed by F3D code. Predicted surface pressures for turbulent flow past an airfoil with mass injection are in qualitative agreement with measurements for a flat plate.

  8. Error analysis and system implementation for structured light stereo vision 3D geometric detection in large scale condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Xuping; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Shun; Zhu, Fan

    2012-11-01

    Stereo vision based 3D metrology technique is an effective approach for relatively large scale object's 3D geometric detection. In this paper, we present a specified image capture system, which implements LVDS interface embedded CMOS sensor and CAN bus to ensure synchronous trigger and exposure. We made an error analysis for structured light vision measurement in large scale condition, based on which we built and tested the system prototype both indoor and outfield. The result shows that the system is very suitable for large scale metrology applications.

  9. Towards Automated Large-Scale 3D Phenotyping of Vineyards under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rose, Johann Christian; Kicherer, Anna; Wieland, Markus; Klingbeil, Lasse; Töpfer, Reinhard; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2016-12-15

    In viticulture, phenotypic data are traditionally collected directly in the field via visual and manual means by an experienced person. This approach is time consuming, subjective and prone to human errors. In recent years, research therefore has focused strongly on developing automated and non-invasive sensor-based methods to increase data acquisition speed, enhance measurement accuracy and objectivity and to reduce labor costs. While many 2D methods based on image processing have been proposed for field phenotyping, only a few 3D solutions are found in the literature. A track-driven vehicle consisting of a camera system, a real-time-kinematic GPS system for positioning, as well as hardware for vehicle control, image storage and acquisition is used to visually capture a whole vine row canopy with georeferenced RGB images. In the first post-processing step, these images were used within a multi-view-stereo software to reconstruct a textured 3D point cloud of the whole grapevine row. A classification algorithm is then used in the second step to automatically classify the raw point cloud data into the semantic plant components, grape bunches and canopy. In the third step, phenotypic data for the semantic objects is gathered using the classification results obtaining the quantity of grape bunches, berries and the berry diameter.

  10. Flexural Properties of PLA Components Under Various Test Condition Manufactured by 3D Printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components in the resent past. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as an additive layer manufacturing technology is a powerful method of RP technique that can fabricate 3 dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital data is converted into real product. In the present investigation, Polylactic Acid (PLA) was considered as a starting material. Flexural strength of PLA material was evaluated using 3-point bend test, as per ASTM D790 standard. Specimens with flat (0°) and vertical (90°) orientation were considered. Moreover, layer thicknesses of 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3 mm were considered. To fabricate these specimens, printing speed of 38 and 52 mm/s was maintained. Nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm with 40 % of infill density were used. Based on the experimental results, it was observed that 0° orientation, 38 mm/s printing speed, and 0.2 mm layer thickness resulted maximum flexural strength, as compared to all other specimens. The improved flexural strength was due to the lower layer thickness (0.2 mm) specimens, as compared with other specimens made of 0.25 and 0.30 mm layer thicknesses. It was concluded that flexural strength properties were greatly influenced by lower the layer thickness, printing speed, and orientation.

  11. Towards Automated Large-Scale 3D Phenotyping of Vineyards under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Johann Christian; Kicherer, Anna; Wieland, Markus; Klingbeil, Lasse; Töpfer, Reinhard; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In viticulture, phenotypic data are traditionally collected directly in the field via visual and manual means by an experienced person. This approach is time consuming, subjective and prone to human errors. In recent years, research therefore has focused strongly on developing automated and non-invasive sensor-based methods to increase data acquisition speed, enhance measurement accuracy and objectivity and to reduce labor costs. While many 2D methods based on image processing have been proposed for field phenotyping, only a few 3D solutions are found in the literature. A track-driven vehicle consisting of a camera system, a real-time-kinematic GPS system for positioning, as well as hardware for vehicle control, image storage and acquisition is used to visually capture a whole vine row canopy with georeferenced RGB images. In the first post-processing step, these images were used within a multi-view-stereo software to reconstruct a textured 3D point cloud of the whole grapevine row. A classification algorithm is then used in the second step to automatically classify the raw point cloud data into the semantic plant components, grape bunches and canopy. In the third step, phenotypic data for the semantic objects is gathered using the classification results obtaining the quantity of grape bunches, berries and the berry diameter. PMID:27983669

  12. Does spatial variation in environmental conditions affect recruitment? A study using a 3-D model of Peruvian anchovy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi; Rose, Kenneth A.; Chai, Fei; Chavez, Francisco P.; Ayón, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    We used a 3-dimensional individual-based model (3-D IBM) of Peruvian anchovy to examine how spatial variation in environmental conditions affects larval and juvenile growth and survival, and recruitment. Temperature, velocity, and phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations generated from a coupled hydrodynamic Nutrients-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model, mapped to a three dimensional rectangular grid, were used to simulate anchovy populations. The IBM simulated individuals as they progressed from eggs to recruitment at 10 cm. Eggs and yolk-sac larvae were followed hourly through the processes of development, mortality, and movement (advection), and larvae and juveniles were followed daily through the processes of growth, mortality, and movement (advection plus behavior). A bioenergetics model was used to grow larvae and juveniles. The NPZD model provided prey fields which influence both food consumption rate as well as behavior mediated movement with individuals going to grids cells having optimal growth conditions. We compared predicted recruitment for monthly cohorts for 1990 through 2004 between the full 3-D IBM and a point (0-D) model that used spatially-averaged environmental conditions. The 3-D and 0-D versions generated similar interannual patterns in monthly recruitment for 1991-2004, with the 3-D results yielding consistently higher survivorship. Both versions successfully captured the very poor recruitment during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. Higher recruitment in the 3-D simulations was due to higher survival during the larval stage resulting from individuals searching for more favorable temperatures that lead to faster growth rates. The strong effect of temperature was because both model versions provided saturating food conditions for larval and juvenile anchovies. We conclude with a discussion of how explicit treatment of spatial variation affected simulated recruitment, other examples of fisheries modeling analyses that have used a

  13. Bicategories for Boundary Conditions and for Surface Defects in 3-d TFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Jürgen; Schweigert, Christoph; Valentino, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    We analyze topological boundary conditions and topological surface defects in three-dimensional topological field theories of Reshetikhin-Turaev type based on arbitrary modular tensor categories. Boundary conditions are described by central functors that lift to trivializations in the Witt group of modular tensor categories. The bicategory of boundary conditions can be described through the bicategory of module categories over any such trivialization. A similar description is obtained for topological surface defects. Using string diagrams for bicategories we also establish a precise relation between special symmetric Frobenius algebras and Wilson lines involving special defects. We compare our results with previous work of Kapustin-Saulina and of Kitaev-Kong on boundary conditions and surface defects in abelian Chern-Simons theories and in Turaev-Viro type TFTs, respectively.

  14. The boundary conditions for simulations of a shake-table experiment on the seismic response of 3D slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Cong, Shengyi; Ling, Xianzhang; Ju, Nengpan

    2017-01-01

    Boundary conditions can significantly affect a slope's behavior under strong earthquakes. To evaluate the importance of boundary conditions for finite element (FE) simulations of a shake-table experiment on the slope response, a validated three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear FE model is presented, and the numerical and experimental results are compared. For that purpose, the robust graphical user-interface "SlopeSAR", based on the open-source computational platform OpenSees, is employed, which simplifies the effort-intensive pre- and post-processing phases. The mesh resolution effect is also addressed. A parametric study is performed to evaluate the influence of boundary conditions on the FE model involving the boundary extent and three types of boundary conditions at the end faces. Generally, variations in the boundary extent produce inconsistent slope deformations. For the two end faces, fixing the y-direction displacement is not appropriate to simulate the shake-table experiment, in which the end walls are rigid and rough. In addition, the influence of the length of the 3D slope's top face and the width of the slope play an important role in the difference between two types of boundary conditions at the end faces (fixing the y-direction displacement and fixing the ( y, z) direction displacement). Overall, this study highlights that the assessment of a comparison between a simulation and an experimental result should be performed with due consideration to the effect of the boundary conditions.

  15. Efficient cultivation conditions for human limbal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mee Kum; Lee, Jae Lim; Oh, Joo Youn; Shin, Mi Sun; Shin, Kyeong Seon; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak; Park, Ki Sook; Son, Young Sook

    2008-10-01

    To compare the stem niche in different culture conditions of limbal epithelial cells, the suspended human limbal epithelial cells (HLECs) were seeded on the 3T3-pretreated plates and the other suspended cells were plated on amniotic membranes (AMs) which were either cryo-preserved or freeze-dried. All were cultured for 10 to 12 days. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2), p63, cytokeratin 12, and connexin 43 were performed in cultivated HLECs and their expression levels were compared. The mRNA expression of all markers examined showed no statistically significant differences between the cells on cryo-preserved and on freeze-dried AM. The expression of p63 and cytokeratin 12 in cultivated cells on AMs were significantly lower than those in 3T3-cocultured cells on RT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining. Cultivated HLECs on AMs showed reduced proliferation and differentiation while maintaining stem-property regardless of the preservative method of AM.

  16. 3-D simulations to investigate initial condition effects on the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Malcolm J

    2008-01-01

    The effect of initial conditions on the growth rate of turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing has been studied using carefully formulated numerical simulations. An integrated large-eddy simulation (ILES) that uses a finite-volume technique was employed to solve the three-dimensional incompressible Euler equations with numerical dissipation. The initial conditions were chosen to test the dependence of the RT growth parameters ({alpha}{sub b}, {alpha}{sub s}) on variations in (a) the spectral bandwidth, (b) the spectral shape, and (c) discrete banded spectra. Our findings support the notion that the overall growth of the RT mixing is strongly dependent on initial conditions. Variation in spectral shapes and bandwidths are found to have a complex effect of the late time development of the RT mixing layer, and raise the question of whether we can design RT transition and turbulence based on our choice of initial conditions. In addition, our results provide a useful database for the initialization and development of closures describing RT transition and turbulence.

  17. 3D shoulder kinematics for static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions.

    PubMed

    Robert-Lachaine, Xavier; Allard, Paul; Godbout, Véronique; Begon, Mickael

    2015-09-18

    Shoulder motion analysis provides clinicians with references of normal joint rotations. Shoulder joints orientations assessment is often based on series of static positions, while clinicians perform either passive or active tests and exercises mostly in dynamic. These conditions of motion could modify joint coordination and lead to discrepancies with the established references. Hence, the objective was to evaluate the influence of static vs dynamic and passive vs active testing conditions on shoulder joints orientations. Twenty asymptomatic subjects setup with 45 markers on the upper limb and trunk were tracked by an optoelectronic system. Static positions (30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of thoracohumeral elevation) and dynamic motion both in active condition and passively mobilised by an examiner were executed. Three-dimensional sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joint angles (12 in total) representing the distal segment orientation relative to the proximal segment orientation were estimated using a shoulder kinematical chain model. Separate four-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied on the 12 joint angles with factors of static vs dynamic, passive vs active, thoracohumeral elevation angle (30°, 60°, 90° and 120°) and plane of elevation (frontal and sagittal). Scapulothoracic lateral rotation progressed more during arm elevation in static than in dynamic gaining 4.2° more, and also in passive than in active by 6.6°. Glenohumeral elevation increased more during arm elevation in active than in passive by 4.4°. Shoulder joints orientations are affected by the testing conditions, which should be taken into consideration for data acquisition, inter-study comparison or clinical applications.

  18. Novel 3-D cell culture system for in vitro evaluation of anticancer drugs under anchorage-independent conditions.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Ayako; Abe, Natsuki; Saruhashi, Koichiro; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Nishino, Taito

    2016-12-01

    Anticancer drug discovery efforts have used 2-D cell-based assay models, which fail to forecast in vivo efficacy and result in a lower success rate of clinical approval. Recent 3-D cell culture models are expected to bridge the gap between 2-D and in vivo models. However, 3-D cell culture methods that are available for practical anticancer drug screening have not yet been fully attained. In this study, we screened several polymers for their ability to suspend cells or cell spheroids homogeneously in a liquid medium without changing the viscosity behavior, and identified gellan gum (FP001), as the most potent polymer. FP001 promoted cell dispersion in the medium and improved the proliferation of a wide range of cancer cell lines under low attachment conditions by inhibiting the formation of large-sized spheroids. In addition, cancer cells cultured with FP001-containing medium were more susceptible to inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling than those cultured under attachment conditions. We also showed that ligands of the EGF receptor family clearly enhance proliferation of SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells under anchorage-independent conditions with FP001. Consistent with this result, the cells grown with FP001 showed higher EGF receptor content compared with cells cultured under attachment conditions. In conclusion, we developed a novel 3-D cell culture system that is available for high throughput screening of anticancer agents, and is suitable for evaluation of molecular-targeted anticancer drugs. Three-dimensional cell culture using FP001 will be of value in the development of useful technologies for anticancer drug discovery.

  19. 3-D geoelectrical modelling using finite-difference: a new boundary conditions improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maineult, A.; Schott, J.-J.; Ardiot, A.

    2003-04-01

    Geoelectrical prospecting is a well-known and frequently used method for quantitative and non-destructive subsurface exploration until depths of a few hundreds metres. Thus archeological objects can be efficiently detected as their resistivities often contrast with those of the surrounding media. Nevertheless using the geoelectrical prospecting method has long been restricted due to inhability to model correctly arbitrarily-shaped structures. The one-dimensional modelling and inversion have long been classical, but are of no interest for the majority of field data, since the natural distribution of resistivity is rarely homogeneous or tabular. Since the 1970's some authors developed discrete methods in order to solve the two and three-dimensional problem, using mathematical tools such as finite-element or finite-difference. The finite-difference approach is quite simple, easily understandable and programmable. Since the work of Dey and Morrison (1979), this approach has become quite popular. Nevertheless, one of its major drawbacks is the difficulty to establish satisfying boundary conditions. Recently Lowry et al. (1989) and Zhao and Yedlin (1996) suggested some refinements on the improvement of the boundary problem. We propose a new betterment, based on the splitting of the potential into two terms, the potential due to a reference tabular medium and a secondary potential caused by a disturbance of this medium. The surface response of a tabular medium has long been known (see for example Koefoed 1979). Here we developed the analytical solution for the electrical tabular potential everywhere in the medium, in order to establish more satisfying boundary conditions. The response of the perturbation, that is to say the object of interest, is then solved using volume-difference and preconditioned conjugate gradient. Finally the grid is refined one or more times in the perturbed domain in order to ameliorate the precision. This method of modelling is easy to implement

  20. Automated torso organ segmentation from 3D CT images using conditional random field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a segmentation method for torso organs using conditional random field (CRF) from medical images. A lot of methods have been proposed to enable automated extraction of organ regions from volumetric medical images. However, it is necessary to adjust empirical parameters of them to obtain precise organ regions. In this paper, we propose an organ segmentation method using structured output learning which is based on probabilistic graphical model. The proposed method utilizes CRF on three-dimensional grids as probabilistic graphical model and binary features which represent the relationship between voxel intensities and organ labels. Also we optimize the weight parameters of the CRF using stochastic gradient descent algorithm and estimate organ labels for a given image by maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. The experimental result revealed that the proposed method can extract organ regions automatically using structured output learning. The error of organ label estimation was 6.6%. The DICE coefficients of right lung, left lung, heart, liver, spleen, right kidney, and left kidney are 0.94, 0.92, 0.65, 0.67, 0.36, 0.38, and 0.37, respectively.

  1. A Dielectric-Filled Waveguide Antenna Element for 3D Imaging Radar in High Temperature and Excessive Dust Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ding; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Xianzhong; Wang, Zhengpeng; Wu, Jianhua

    2016-08-22

    Three-dimensional information of the burden surface in high temperature and excessive dust industrial conditions has been previously hard to obtain. This paper presents a novel microstrip-fed dielectric-filled waveguide antenna element which is resistant to dust and high temperatures. A novel microstrip-to-dielectric-loaded waveguide transition was developed. A cylinder and cuboid composite structure was employed at the terminal of the antenna element, which improved the return loss performance and reduced the size. The proposed antenna element was easily integrated into a T-shape multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging radar system and tested in both the laboratory environment and real blast furnace environment. The measurement results show that the proposed antenna element works very well in industrial 3D imaging radar.

  2. A Dielectric-Filled Waveguide Antenna Element for 3D Imaging Radar in High Temperature and Excessive Dust Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ding; Li, Zhiping; Chen, Xianzhong; Wang, Zhengpeng; Wu, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional information of the burden surface in high temperature and excessive dust industrial conditions has been previously hard to obtain. This paper presents a novel microstrip-fed dielectric-filled waveguide antenna element which is resistant to dust and high temperatures. A novel microstrip-to-dielectric-loaded waveguide transition was developed. A cylinder and cuboid composite structure was employed at the terminal of the antenna element, which improved the return loss performance and reduced the size. The proposed antenna element was easily integrated into a T-shape multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) imaging radar system and tested in both the laboratory environment and real blast furnace environment. The measurement results show that the proposed antenna element works very well in industrial 3D imaging radar. PMID:27556469

  3. Analysis conditions of an industrial Al-Mg-Si alloy by conventional and 3D atom probes.

    PubMed

    Danoix, F; Miller, M K; Bigot, A

    2001-10-01

    Industrial 6016 Al-Mg-Si(Cu) alloys are presently regarded as attractive candidates for heat treatable sheet materials. Their mechanical properties can be adjusted for a given application by age hardening of the alloys. The resulting microstructural evolution takes place at the nanometer scale, making the atom probe a well suited instrument to study it. Accuracy of atom probe analysis of these aluminium alloys is a key point for the understanding of the fine scale microstructural evolution. It is known to be strongly dependent on the analysis conditions (such as specimen temperature and pulse fraction) which have been widely studied for ID atom probes. The development of the 3D instruments, as well as the increase of the evaporation pulse repetition rate have led to different analysis conditions, in particular evaporation and detection rates. The influence of various experimental parameters on the accuracy of atom probe data, in particular with regard to hydride formation sensitivity, has been reinvestigated. It is shown that hydrogen contamination is strongly dependent on the electric field at the specimen surface, and that high evaporation rates are beneficial. Conversely, detection rate must be limited to smaller than 0.02 atoms/pulse in order to prevent drastic pile-up effect.

  4. Investigating the neuroglial differentiation effect of neuroblastoma conditioned medium in human endometrial stem cells cultured on 3D nanofibrous scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Hoveizi, Elham; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ai, Jafar

    2015-08-01

    Neural tissue engineering is an important area of research in the field of tissue-engineering especially for neurodegenerative disease such as spinal cord injury. The differentiation capacity of human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) into neuronal cells has yet to be elucidated. Here, the major aim of the present study was to investigate the differentiation ability of hEnSCs cultured on polylactic acid/chitosan (PLA/CS) nanofibrous scaffold into neuroglial cells in response to conditioned medium of BE(2)-C human neuroblastoma cells and growth factors. Here we investigated the use PLA/CS scaffold as a three dimensional (3D) system that increased neuro-glial cells differentiation. Human EnSCs after three passages were differentiated in neuro-glial like cells under neuroblastoma conditioned medium with FGF2/PDGF-AA on PLA/CS scaffold. By day 18, differentiated cells were analyzed for expression of neuroglial markers by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The results revealed that hEnSCs attach, grow and differentiation on the nanofibrous PLA/CS scaffold. Additionally, our study showed the expression of neural and glial lineage markers such as Nestin, NF-L, MAP2, PDGFRa, CNP, Olig2, MBP, and GFAP in the level of mRNA and MAP2, Tuj-1, and NF-L in the protein level after 18 days. Our results demonstrate that hEnSCs cultured on PLA/CS nanofibrous scaffold have the potential to differentiate in neuronal and glial cells in presence of neuroblastoma conditioned medium on PLA/CS scaffold. The result of this study may have impact in tissue engineering and cells-base therapy of neurodegenerative diseases and have a great potential for wide application.

  5. 3D analytical investigation of melting at lower mantle conditions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiei, F.; Cantoni, M.; Badro, J.; Dorfman, S. M.; Gaal, R.; Piet, H.; Gillet, P.

    2015-12-01

    The diamond anvil cell is a unique tool to study materials under static pressures up to several hundreds of GPa. It is possible to generate temperatures as high as several thousand degrees in the diamond anvil cell by laser heating. This allows us to achieve deep mantle conditions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC). The small heated volume is surrounded by thermally conductive diamond anvils results in high temperature gradients which affect phase transformation and chemical distribution in the LH-DAC. Analytical characterization of samples in three dimensions is essential to fully understand phase assemblages and equilibrium in LHDAC. In this study we used San Carlos olivine as a starting material as a simple proxy to deep mantle composition. Three samples were melted at ~3000 K and at ~45 GPa for three different durations ranging from 1 to 6 minutes; two other samples were melted at 30 GPa and 70 GPa. All samples were then sliced by focused ion beam (FIB). From each slice, an electron image and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) map were acquired by scanning electron microscope (SEM) in the dual beam FIB instrument. These slices were collected on one half of the heated area in each sample, from which we obtained 3D elemental and phase distribution. The other half of the heated area was used to extract a 100 nm thick section for subsequent analysis by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain diffraction patterns and high resolution EDX maps. 3D reconstruction of SEM EDX results shows at least four differentiated regions in the heated area for all samples. The exact Fe and Mg compositions mentioned below are an example of the sample melted at 45 GPa for 6 minutes. The bulk of the heated are is surrounded by ferropericlase (Mg0.92, Fe0.08)O shell (Fp). Inside this shell we find a thick region of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite-structured bridgmanite (Brg) coexisting with Fp. In the center lies a Fe-rich core which is surrounded by magnesiow

  6. 3-D laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of NdFeB magnets in atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meakin, J. P.; Speight, J. D.; Sheridan, R. S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I. R.; Williams, A. J.; Walton, A.

    2016-08-01

    Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.- computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of NdFeB magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of 3-D laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered NdFeB magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd2O3 and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10-13 cm2/sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth observations at elevated temperatures in the literature. This indicates that the growth of the room temperature oxidation products are likely defect enhanced processes at the NdFeB triple junctions.

  7. A 3D Explicit Finite-Difference Scheme for Particulate Flows with Boundary Conditions based on Stokes Flow Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Hu, H.

    2006-11-01

    We have extended previous work on an 2D explicit finite-difference code for direct simulation of the motion of solid particles in a fluid to 3D. It is challenging to enforce the no-slip condition on the surface of spherical particles in a uniform Cartesian grid. We have implemented a treatment of the boundary condition similar to that in the PHYSALIS method of Takagi et. al. (2003), which is based on matching the Stokes flow solutions next to the particle surface with a numerical solution away from it. The original PHYSALIS method was developed for implicit flow solvers, and required an iterative process to match the Stokes flow solutions with the numerical solution. However, it was easily adapted to work with the present explicit scheme, and found to be more efficient since no iterative process is required in the matching. The method proceeds by approximating the flow next to the particle surface as a Stokes flow in the particle’s local coordinates, which is then matched to the numerically computed external flow on a ``cage'' of grid points near the particle surface. Advantages of the method include superior accuracy of the scheme on a relatively coarse grid for intermediate Reynolds numbers, ease of implementation, and the elimination of the need to track the particle surface. Several examples are presented, including flow over a stationary sphere in a square tube, sedimentation of a particle, and dropping, kissing, and tumbling of two particles. This research is supported by a GAANN fellowship from the U.S. Dept. of Education.

  8. Mechanism for generating stagnant slabs in 3-D spherical mantle convection models at Earth-like conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Takatoshi; Yamagishi, Yasuko; Hamano, Yozo; Stegman, Dave R.; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig; Inoue, Toru; Wiens, Douglas; Jellinek, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Seismic tomography reveals the natural mode of convection in the Earth is whole mantle with subducted slabs clearly seen as continuous features into the lower mantle. However, simultaneously existing alongside these deep slabs are stagnant slabs which are, if only temporarily, trapped in the upper mantle. Previous numerical models of mantle convection have observed a range of behavior for slabs in the transition zone depending on viscosity stratification and mineral phase transitions, but typically only exhibit flat-lying slabs when mantle convection is layered or trench migration is imposed. We use 3-D spherical models of mantle convection which range up to Earth-like conditions in Rayleigh number to systematically investigate three effects on mantle dynamics: (1) the mineral phase transitions, (2) a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity with plastic yielding at shallow depth, and (3) a viscosity increase in the lower mantle. First a regime diagram is constructed for isoviscous models over a wide range of Rayleigh number and Clapeyron slope for which the convective mode is determined. It agrees very well with previous results from 2-D simulations by Christensen and Yuen (1985), suggesting present-day Earth is in the intermittent convection mode rather than layered or strictly whole mantle. Two calculations at Earth-like conditions (Ra and RaH = 2 í 107 and 5 í 108, respectively) which include effects (2) and (3) are produced with and without the effect of the mineral phase transitions. The first calculation (without the phase transition) successfully produces plate-like behavior with a long wavelength structure and surface heat flow similar to Earth's value. While the observed convective flow pattern in the lower mantle is broader compared to isoviscous models, it basically shows the behavior of whole mantle convection, and does not exhibit any slab flattening at the viscosity increase at 660 km depth. The second calculation which includes the phase

  9. Polycaprolactone fiber meshes provide a 3D environment suitable for cultivation and differentiation of melanocytes from the outer root sheath of hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Savkovic, Vuk; Flämig, Franziska; Schneider, Marie; Sülflow, Katharina; Loth, Tina; Lohrenz, Andrea; Hacker, Michael Christian; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Simon, Jan-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Melanocytes differentiated from the stem cells of human hair follicle outer root sheath (ORS) have the potential for developing non-invasive treatments for skin disorders out of a minimal sample: of hair root. With a robust procedure for melanocyte cultivation from the ORS of human hair follicle at hand, this study focused on the identification of a suitable biocompatible, biodegradable carrier as the next step toward their clinical implementation. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a known biocompatible material used for a number of medical devices. In this study, we have populated electrospun PCL fiber meshes with normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) as well as with hair-follicle-derived human melanocytes from the outer root sheath (HUMORS) and tested their functionality in vitro. PCL fiber meshes evidently provided a niche for melanocytes and supported their melanotic properties. The cells were tested for gene expression of PAX3, PMEL, TYR and MITF, as well as for proliferation, expression of melanocyte marker proteins tyrosinase and glycoprotein 100 (gp100), L-DOPA-tautomerase enzymatic activity and melanin content. Reduced mitochondrial activity and PAX-3 gene expression indicated that the three-dimensional PCL scaffold supported differentiation rather than proliferation of melanocytes. The monitored melanotic features of both the NHEM and HUMORS cultivated on PCL scaffolds significantly exceeded those of two-dimensional adherent cultures.

  10. Cultivation Conditions for Phytase Production from Recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α

    PubMed Central

    Ariff, Rafidah Mohd; Fitrianto, Anwar; Abd. Manap, Mohd Yazid; Ideris, Aini; Kassim, Azhar; Suhairin, Afinah; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of phytase by recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α. The optimum predicted cultivation conditions for phytase production were at 3 hours seed age, a 2.5% inoculum level, an L-arabinose concentration of 0.20%, a cell concentration of 0.3 (as measured at 600 nm) and 17 hours post-induction time with a predicted phytase activity of 4194.45 U/mL. The model was validated and the results showed no significant difference between the experimental and the predicted phytase activity (P = 0.305). Under optimum cultivation conditions, the phytase activity of the recombinant E. coli DH5α was 364 times higher compared to the phytase activity of the wild-type producer, Enterobacter sakazakii ASUIA279. Hence, optimization of the cultivation conditions using RSM positively increased phytase production from recombinant E. coli DH5α. PMID:24826071

  11. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli.

  12. Audio-Visual Perception of 3D Cinematography: An fMRI Study Using Condition-Based and Computation-Based Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard “condition-based” designs, as well as “computational” methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli

  13. A dynamic multi-organ-chip for long-term cultivation and substance testing proven by 3D human liver and skin tissue co-culture.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ilka; Materne, Eva-Maria; Brincker, Sven; Süssbier, Ute; Frädrich, Caroline; Busek, Mathias; Sonntag, Frank; Sakharov, Dmitry A; Trushkin, Evgeny V; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2013-09-21

    Current in vitro and animal tests for drug development are failing to emulate the systemic organ complexity of the human body and, therefore, to accurately predict drug toxicity. In this study, we present a multi-organ-chip capable of maintaining 3D tissues derived from cell lines, primary cells and biopsies of various human organs. We designed a multi-organ-chip with co-cultures of human artificial liver microtissues and skin biopsies, each a (1)/100,000 of the biomass of their original human organ counterparts, and have successfully proven its long-term performance. The system supports two different culture modes: i) tissue exposed to the fluid flow, or ii) tissue shielded from the underlying fluid flow by standard Transwell® cultures. Crosstalk between the two tissues was observed in 14-day co-cultures exposed to fluid flow. Applying the same culture mode, liver microtissues showed sensitivity at different molecular levels to the toxic substance troglitazone during a 6-day exposure. Finally, an astonishingly stable long-term performance of the Transwell®-based co-cultures could be observed over a 28-day period. This mode facilitates exposure of skin at the air-liquid interface. Thus, we provide here a potential new tool for systemic substance testing.

  14. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-03-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  15. Capturing 3D resistivity of semi-arid karstic subsurface in varying moisture conditions using a wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K.; Oden, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    The dissolution of soluble bedrock results in surface and subterranean karst channels, which comprise 7-10% of the dry earth's surface. Karst serves as a preferential conduit to focus surface and subsurface water but it is difficult to exploit as a water resource or protect from pollution because of irregular structure and nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior. Geophysical characterization of karst commonly employs resistivity and seismic methods, but difficulties arise due to low resistivity contrast in arid environments and insufficient resolution of complex heterogeneous structures. To help reduce these difficulties, we employ a state-of-the-art wireless geophysical sensor array, which combines low-power radio telemetry and solar energy harvesting to enable long-term in-situ monitoring. The wireless aspect removes topological constraints common with standard wired resistivity equipment, which facilitates better coverage and/or sensor density to help improve aspect ratio and resolution. Continuous in-situ deployment allows data to be recorded according to nature's time scale; measurements are made during infrequent precipitation events which can increase resistivity contrast. The array is coordinated by a smart wireless bridge that continuously monitors local soil moisture content to detect when precipitation occurs, schedules resistivity surveys, and periodically relays data to the cloud via 3G cellular service. Traditional 2/3D gravity and seismic reflection surveys have also been conducted to clarify and corroborate results.

  16. Runaway electron distributions obtained with the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code under tokamak disruption conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.W.; Chan, V.S.

    1996-12-31

    Runaway of electrons to high energy during plasma disruptions occurs due to large induced toroidal electric fields which tend to maintain the toroidal plasma current, in accord with Lenz law. This has been observed in many tokamaks. Within the closed flux surfaces, the bounce-averaged CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is well suited to obtain the resulting electron distributions, nonthermal contributions to electrical conductivity, and runaway rates. The time-dependent 2D in momentum-space (p{sub {parallel}} and p{sub {perpendicular}}) distributions axe calculated on a radial array of noncircular flux surfaces, including bounce-averaging of the Fokker-Planck equation to account for toroidal trapping effects. In the steady state, the resulting distributions represent a balance between applied toroidal electric field, relativistic Coulomb collisions, and synchrotron radiation. The code can be run in a mode where the electrons are sourced at low velocity and run off the high velocity edge of the computational mesh, giving runaway rates at steady state. At small minor radius, the results closely match previous results reported by Kulsrud et al. It is found that the runaway rate has a strong dependence on inverse aspect ratio e, decreasing by a factor {approx} 5 as e increases from 0.0 to 0.3. The code can also be run with a radial diffusion and pinching term, simulating radial transport with plasma pinching to maintain a given density profile. Results show a transport reduction of runaways in the plasma center, and an enhancement towards the edge due to the electrons from the plasma center. Avalanching of runaways due to a knock-on electron source is being included.

  17. Bioreactor aeration conditions modulate growth and antigen expression during Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae cultivation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Adilson José; de Baptista-Neto, Alvaro; do Carmo Cilento, Maria; de Campos Giordano, Roberto; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of swine erysipelas, was cultivated in a 5-L stirred and aerated bioreactor under different dissolved oxygen tensions (0%, 5%, and 30% of saturation) for evaluation of the influence of oxygen on cell growth as well as on the production of the main antigenic component of the vaccine against erysipelas, a 64-69 kDa protein (SpaA). The microorganism presented different growth profiles for different aeration conditions. However, at the end of the batch cultivations, similar cell concentrations were obtained under the studied conditions. In order to maximize biomass titers and antigen production, the microorganism was cultivated in fed-batch operation mode under aerobic conditions. Under this condition, there was a fivefold increase in biomass production in comparison to the results attained in batch cultivations. To follow up antigen expression, samples collected during batch cultivations were concentrated and treated with choline for antigen extraction. Antigen expression was then assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by murine immunization tests. It was observed a direct influence of oxygen availability upon antigen expression, which is favored in the presence of oxygen. Analysis of the samples collected throughout the fed-batch process also revealed that antigen production is growth associated.

  18. Use of a twisted 3D Cauchy condition surface to reconstruct the last closed magnetic surface in a non-axisymmetric fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Okubo, Gaku; Akazawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Seki, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method code, ‘CCS3D’, is now under development to reconstruct the 3D magnetic field profile outside a non-axisymmetric fusion plasma using only magnetic sensor signals. A new ‘twisted CCS’ is introduced, whose elliptic cross-section rotates with the variation in plasma geometry in the toroidal direction of a helical-type device. Independent of the toroidal angle, this CCS can be placed at a certain distance from the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS). With this new CCS, it is found through test calculations for the Large Helical Device that the numerical accuracy in the reconstructed field is improved. Furthermore, the magnetic field line tracing indicates the LCMS more precisely than with the use of the axisymmetric CCS. A new idea to determine the LCMS numerically is also proposed.

  19. Tracer diffusion in a polymer gel: simulations of static and dynamic 3D networks using spherical boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamerlin, Natasha; Elvingson, Christer

    2016-11-30

    We have investigated an alternative to the standard periodic boundary conditions for simulating the diffusion of tracer particles in a polymer gel by performing Brownian dynamics simulations using spherical boundary conditions. The gel network is constructed by randomly distributing tetravalent cross-linking nodes and connecting nearest pairs. The final gel structure is characterised by the radial distribution functions, chain lengths and end-to-end distances, and the pore size distribution. We have looked at the diffusion of tracer particles with a wide range of sizes, diffusing in both static and dynamic networks of two different volume fractions. It is quantitatively shown that the dynamical effect of the network becomes more important in facilitating the diffusional transport for larger particle sizes, and that one obtains a finite diffusion also for particle sizes well above the maximum in the pore size distribution.

  20. Cultivation of Isochrysis galbana in Phototrophic, Heterotrophic, and Mixotrophic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian G.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the growth and biomass production of Isochrysis galbana under hetero-, mixo-, and phototrophic conditions using different organic carbon sources. The growth of I. galbana was inhibited in heterotrophy but was enhanced in mixotrophy compared to that in phototrophy. Subsequently, the influences of organic carbon and environmental factors (light and salinity) on the growth of I. galbana were further investigated. Algal dry weight increased as glycerol concentrations increased from 0 to 200 mmol and the highest algal production occurred at 50 mmol glycerol. At a range of light intensities of 25–200 μmol photons m−2 s−2, the highest algal growth rate occurred at 100 photons μmol m−2 s−2. The growth of I. galbana was significantly affected by photoperiod, and the maximal dry weight was obtained at 12 h light and 12 h dark. In the salinity test, I. galbana could grow in a wide range of salinities from 10 to 65‰, but the 35‰  salinity was optimal. This study suggests that the growth and production of I. galbana can be improved using mixotrophic culture at 50 mmol glycerol in 35‰  salinity. PMID:24386642

  1. 3-D Time-Accurate CFD Simulations of a Multi-Megawatt Slender Bladed HAWT under Yawed Inflow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, M.; Lutz, Th.; Krämer, E.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study numerical investigations of a generic Multi-Megawatt slender bladed Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) under yawed inflow conditions were conducted. A three-dimensional URANS flow solver based on structured overlapping meshes was used. The simulations were conducted at wind speeds of 7m/sec, 11 m/sec and 15 m/sec for different yaw angles ranging from +60° to -60°. It was concluded that, for below rated wind speeds, under small yaw angles (below ±15°) the magnitudes of the blade forces are slightly increased, while under high yaw angles (above ±15°) there is a significant decrease. Moreover, the load fluctuations, for the different yaw angles, have the same frequency but different amplitude and oscillation shape. It was concluded that at the above rated wind speed of 15 m/sec, the blade aerodynamic loads are significantly affected by the yaw inflow conditions and the magnitude values of the loads are decreased with increasing yaw angle. It can be concluded that the angle of attack and the tower interference are the utmost variables affecting the yawed turbines.

  2. Combining Experimental Petrology and 3D Imaging to Gain Insight into Syn-eruptive Conditions of the Bishop Tuff, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattin, Archer; Pamukcu, Ayla; Gardner, James; Gualda, Guilherme

    2015-04-01

    The Bishop tuff is a rhyolitic ignimbrite deposited by a supereruption 0.76 million years ago that formed the Long Valley Caldera in California, USA. Pamukcu et. al (2012) identifies two distinct crystal populations present in the Bishop Tuff, the first being a long-lived, large phenocryst population that records storage conditions, and the second a rapidly nucleated, quickly staunched microlite population thought to result from eruptive decompression. Laboratory experiments to reproduce this quickly grown population may help constrain the conditions and rates under which decompression took place. Rapid nucleation of microlites is accompanied by just as rapid bubble nucleation when volatiles exsolve during decompression; the size distribution of vesicles in eruptive products may thus provide important information on syn-eruptive processes. In this study we combine information from vesicle size distributions on natural pumice with data on experimentally produced microlite crystals with the goal of better understanding the syn-eruptive evolution of a supereruption-forming magma body. Decompression experiments are run using a natural Bishop tuff pumice clast ground and melted in the presence of water to obtain a melt representative of late-erupted Bishop Tuff (LBT) magmas. Experimental charges were subjected to decompression at varying rates and initial temperatures. At this time five experiments have been completed. All decompression experiments start at 130MPa, consistent with water concentration in LBT glass inclusions, and end at 10 MPa. Initial temperatures are either 710°C or 785°C, while decompression rates are 20 MPa/hr, 5.5MPa/hr, or 1.7MPa/hr Experimental products were compared to natural products using Scanning Electron Microscopy to document eventual crystal rims and microlites. We have been successful in causing limited feldspar crystallization, but have yet to generate quartz microlites. Bubble size distributions are obtained by analyzing x

  3. Stress distribution in cylindrical and conical implants under rotational micromovement with different boundary conditions and bone properties: 3-D FEA.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes; Meloto, Gabriel de Oliveira; Bacchi, Ataís; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2017-03-28

    Factors related to micromovements at bone-implant interface have been studied because they are considered adverse to osseointegration. Simplifications are commonly observed in these FEA evaluations. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of FEA parameters (boundary conditions and bone properties) on the stress distribution in peri-implant bone tissue when micromovements are simulated in implants with different geometries. Three-dimensional models of an anterior section of the jaw with cylindrical or conical titanium implants (4.1 mm in width and 11 mm in length) were created. Micromovement (50, 150, or 250 μm) was applied to the implant. The FEA parameters studied were linear vs. non-linear analyses, isotropic vs. orthogonal anisotropic bone, friction coefficient (0.3) vs. frictionless bone-implant contact. Data from von Mises, shear, maximum, and minimum principal stresses in the peri-implant bone tissue were compared. Linear analyses presented a relevant increase of the stress values, regardless of the bone properties. Frictionless contact reduced the stress values in non-linear analysis. Isotropic bone presented lower stress than orthogonal anisotropic. Conical implants behave better, in regard to compressive stresses (minimum principal), than cylindrical ones, except for nonlinear analyses when micromovement of 150 and 250 μm were simulated. The stress values raised as the micromovement amplitude increased. Non-linear analysis, presence of frictional contact and orthogonal anisotropic bone, evaluated through maximum and minimum principal stress should be used as FEA parameters for implant-micromovement studies.

  4. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  5. Self-Supported Cedarlike Semimetallic Cu3P Nanoarrays as a 3D High-Performance Janus Electrode for Both Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution under Basic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chun-Chao; Chen, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Liang, Fei; Lin, Zheshuai; Fu, Wen-Fu; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-07

    There has been strong and growing interest in the development of cost-effective and highly active oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts for alternative fuels utilization and conversion devices. We report herein that semimetallic Cu3P nanoarrays directly grown on 3D copper foam (CF) substrate can function as effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation. Specifically, the surface oxidation-activated Cu3P only required a relatively low overpotential of 412 mV to achieve a current density of 50 mA cm(-2) and displayed a small Tafel slope of 63 mV dec(-1) in 0.1 M KOH solution, on account of the collaborative effect of large roughness factor (RF) and semimetallic character. Following that, investigations into the mechanism revealed the formation of a unique active phase during the water oxidation process in which conductive Cu3P was the core covered with a thin copper oxide/hydroxide layer. Moreover, this Cu3P 3D electrode was also applied to the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and showed good catalytic performance and stability under the same basic conditions.

  6. Predictions of the cycle-to-cycle aerodynamic loads on a yawed wind turbine blade under stalled conditions using a 3D empirical stochastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ELGAMMI, MOUTAZ; SANT, TONIO

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates a new approach to model the stochastic variations in the aerodynamic loads on yawed wind turbines experienced at high angles of attack. The method applies the one-dimensional Langevin equation in conjunction with known mean and standard deviation values for the lift and drag data. The method is validated using the experimental data from the NREL Phase VI rotor in which the mean and standard deviation values for the lift and drag are derived through the combined use of blade pressure measurements and a free-wake vortex model. Given that direct blade pressure measurements are used, 3D flow effects arising from the co-existence of dynamic stall and stall delay are taken into account. The model is an important step towards verification of several assumptions characterized as the estimated standard deviation, Gaussian white noise of the data and the estimated drift and diffusion coefficients of the Langevin equation. The results using the proposed assumptions lead to a good agreement with measurements over a wide range of operating conditions. This provides motivation to implement a general fully independent theoretical stochastic model within a rotor aerodynamics model, such as the free-wake vortex or blade-element momentum code, whereby the mean lift and drag coefficients can be estimated using 2D aerofoil data with correction models for 3D dynamic stall and stall delay phenomena, while the corresponding standard derivations are estimated through CFD.

  7. Optimization of medium and cultivation conditions for enhanced exopolysaccharide yield by marine Cyanothece sp. 113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuandong; Chi, Zhenming; Lu, Weidong

    2007-10-01

    Cyanothece sp. 113 is a unicellular, aerobic, diazotrophic and photosynthetic marine cyanobacterium. The optimal medium for exopolysaccharide yield by the strain was 70.0 g/L of NaCl, and 0.9 g/L of MgSO4 based on the modified F/2 medium for cultivation of marine algae. The optimal cultivation condition for exopolysaccharide yield by this cyanobacterial strain was 29°C, aeration, and continuous illumination at 86.0 μE/M2/S. Under the optimal conditions, over 18.4 g/L of exopolysaccharide was produced within 12 days. This was so far the highest exopolysaccharide yield produced with strains of Cyanothece sp. obtained.

  8. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  9. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Chan, Michael; Clément, Céline; Kreuzer, Michael; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights on the effects of color type, cultivation history, and growing site on the composition alterations of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) hypocotyls, NMR profiling combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the metabolite variability in different maca accessions. Maca hypocotyls with different colors (yellow, pink, violet, and lead-colored) cultivated at different geographic sites and different areas were examined for differences in metabolite expression. Differentiations of the maca accessions grown under the different cultivation conditions were determined by principle component analyses (PCAs) which were performed on the datasets derived from their ¹H NMR spectra. A total of 16 metabolites were identified by NMR analysis, and the changes in metabolite levels in relation to the color types and growing conditions of maca hypocotyls were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis. In addition, the changes of the correlation pattern among the metabolites identified in the maca accessions planted at the two different sites were examined. The results from both multivariate and univariate analysis indicated that the planting site was the major determining factor with regards to metabolite variations in maca hypocotyls, while the color of maca accession seems to be of minor importance in this respect.

  10. [Studies on hyperspectral characteristics of Microcystis aeruginosa under the cultivation conditions with different phosphorus concentrations].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao-Yang; Liu, Xue-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Bo

    2013-02-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common species in the algae-bloom events of domestic lakes. Illumination incubator was used to cultivate M. aeruginosa under conditions of different phosphorus concentrations in the laboratory. Spectroscopic data of culture solutions were collected by GER1500 spectrometer under the sunlight. The study focused on the growth rhythm of M. aeruginosa and the characteristics of spectral variation in the culture solutions. The results showed that low phosphorus concentration (< or =10 microg x L(-1)) is a restricting factor for the growth and reproduction of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, the reflections of spectrum from culture solutions of M. aeruginosa showed significant changes along with cultivation period, such as at the wavelengths of 550, 610, 660, 700-710 and 760 nm.

  11. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  12. Interactions between Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Adipocytes, and Osteoblasts in a 3D Tri-Culture Model of Hyperglycemic Conditions in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Torri E.; Hammoudi, Taymour M.; Kemp, Melissa L.; Lu, Hang; Temenoff, Johnna S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have found that uncontrolled diabetes and consequential hyperglycemic conditions can lead to increased incidence of osteoporosis. Osteoblasts, adipocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all components of the bone marrow microenvironment and thus may have an effect on diabetes-related osteoporosis. However, few studies have investigated the influence of these three cell types on each other, especially in the context of hyperglycemia. Thus, we developed a hydrogel-based 3D culture platform engineered to allow live-cell retrieval in order to investigate the interactions between MSCs, osteoblasts, and adipocytes in mono-, co-, and tri-culture configurations under hyperglycemic conditions for 7 days of culture. Gene expression, histochemical analysis of differentiation markers, and cell viability were measured for all cell types, and MSC-laden hydrogels were degraded to retrieve cells to assess colony-forming capacity. Multivariate models of gene expression data indicated that primary discrimination was dependent on neighboring cell type, validating the need for co-culture configurations to study conditions modeling this disease state. MSC viability and clonogenicity were reduced when mono- and co-cultured with osteoblasts in high glucose levels. In contrast, MSCs had no reduction of viability or clonogenicity when cultured with adipocytes in high glucose conditions and adipogenic gene expression indicated that cross-talk between MSCs and adipocytes may occur. Thus, our unique culture platform combined with post-culture multivariate analysis provided novel insight into cellular interactions within the MSC microenvironment and highlights the necessity of multi-cellular culture systems for further investigation of complex pathologies such as diabetes and osteoporosis. PMID:24463781

  13. Crossing Methods and Cultivation Conditions for Rapid Production of Segregating Populations in Three Grain Amaranth Species

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Markus G.; Zeitler, Leo; Steinhaus, Adrian; Kroener, Karoline; Biljecki, Michelle; Schmid, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop. Grain amaranth was domesticated in the Americas and is highly self-fertilizing with a large inflorescence consisting of thousands of very small flowers. We evaluated three different crossing methods (open pollination, hot water emasculation and hand emasculation) for their efficiency in amaranth and validated them with genetic markers. We identified cultivation conditions that allow an easy control of flowering time by day length manipulation and achieved flowering times of 4 weeks and generation times of 2 months. All three different crossing methods successfully produced hybrid F1 offspring, but with different success rates. Open pollination had the lowest (10%) and hand emasculation the highest success rate (74%). Hot water emasculation showed an intermediate success rate (26%) with a maximum of 94% success. It is simple to perform and suitable for a more large-scale production of hybrids. We further evaluated 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and found that they were sufficient to validate all crosses of the genotypes used in this study for intra- and interspecific hybridizations. Despite its very small flowers, crosses in amaranth can be carried out efficiently and evaluated with inexpensive SNP markers. Suitable growth conditions strongly reduce the generation time and allow the control of plant height, flowering time, and seed production. In combination, this enables the rapid production of segregating

  14. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  15. A novel 3D covalent organic framework membrane grown on a porous α-Al2O3 substrate under solvothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Chang; Chen, Juanjuan; Ge, Rile; Leng, Wenguang; Dong, Bin; Huang, Jun; Gao, Yanan

    2015-11-04

    A novel approach to grow a 3D COF-320 membrane on a surface-modified porous α-Al2O3 substrate is developed. A compact and uniform COF-320 membrane with a layer thickness of ∼4 μm is obtained. This is the first reported 3D COF functional membrane fabricated successfully on a common porous α-Al2O3 ceramic support. The gas permeation results indicate that the gas transport behavior is mainly governed by the predicted Knudsen diffusion process due to the large nanopores of 3D COF-320.

  16. Software sensor design considering oscillating conditions as present in industrial scale fed-batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Lyubenova, V; Junne, S; Ignatova, M; Neubauer, P

    2013-07-01

    Investigations of inhomogeneous dynamics in industrial-scale bioreactors can be realized in laboratory simulators. Such studies will be improved by on line observation of the growth of microorganisms and their product synthesis at oscillating substrate availability which represents the conditions in industrial-scale fed-batch cultivations. A method for the kinetic monitoring of such processes, supported by on line measurements accessible in industrial practice, is proposed. It consists of a software sensor (SS) system composed of a cascade structure. Process kinetics are simulated in models with a structure including time-varying yield coefficients. SSs for measured variable kinetics have classical structures. The SS design of unmeasured variables is realized after a linear transformation using a logarithmic function. For these software sensors, a tuning procedure is proposed, at which an arbitrary choice of one tuning parameter value that guarantees stability of the monitoring system allows the calculation of the optimal values of six parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed monitoring approach is demonstrated with experimental data from a glucose-limited fed-batch process of Bacillus subtilis in a laboratory two-compartment scale down reactor which tries to mimic the conditions present in industrial scale nutrient-limited fed-batch cultivations.

  17. Phytoextraction of weathered p,p'-DDE by zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under different cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; White, Jason C; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under field conditions are good and poor accumulators, respectively, of persistent organic pollutants from soil. Here, each species was grown under three cultivation regimes: dense (five plants in 5 kg soil): nondense (one plant in 80 kg soil): and field conditions (two to three plants in approximately 789 kg soil). p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were determined. In addition. rhizosphere, near-root, and unvegetated soil fractions were analyzed for concentrations of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) and 14 water-extractable inorganic elements. Under field conditions, zucchini phytoextracted 1.3% of the weathered p,p'-DDE with 98% of the contaminant in the aerial tissues. Conversely, cucumber removed 0.09% of the p,p'-DDE under field conditions with 83% in the aerial tissues. Under dense cultivation, cucumber produced a fine and fibrous root system not observed in our previous experiments and phytoextracted 0.78% of the contaminant, whereas zucchini removed only 0.59% under similar conditions. However. cucumber roots translocated only 5.7% of the pollutant to the shoot system, while in zucchini 48% of the p,p'-DDE in the plant was present in the aerial tissue. For each species, the concentrations of LMWOA in soil increased with increasing impact by the root system both within a given cultivation regime (i.e., rhizosphere > near-root > unvegetated) and across cultivation regimes (i.e., dense > nondense > field conditions). Under dense cultivation, the rhizosphere concentrations of LMWOAs were significantly greater for cucumber than for zucchini; no species differences were evident in the other two cultivation regimes. To enable direct comparison across cultivation regimes, total in planta p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements were mass normalized or multiplied by the ratio of plant mass to soil mass. For cucumber, differences in

  18. Experiments performed with bubbly flow in vertical pipes at different flow conditions covering the transition region: simulation by coupling Eulerian, Lagrangian and 3D random walks models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Cobo, José; Chiva, Sergio; El Aziz Essa, Mohamed; Mendes, Santos

    2012-08-01

    Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the

  19. A study of the variation of physical conditions in the cometary coma based on a 3D multi-fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Tenishev, V.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.; Huang, Z.; Jia, X.; Bieler, A. M.; Hansen, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    Physics-based numerical coma models are desirable whether to interpret the spacecraft observations of the inner coma or to compare with the ground-based observations of the outer coma. One example is Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has been successfully adopted to simulate the coma under various complex conditions. However, for bright comets with large production rates, the time step in DSMC model has to be tiny to accommodate the small mean free path and the high collision frequency. In addition a truly time-variable 3D DSMC model would still be computationally difficult or even impossible under most circumstances. In this work, we develop a multi-neutral-fluid model based on BATS-R-US in the University of Michigan's SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework), which can serve as a useful alternative to DSMC methods to compute both the inner and the outer coma and to treat time-variable phenomena. This model treats H2O, OH, H2, O, H and CO2 as separate fluids and each fluid has its own velocity and temperature. But collisional interactions can also couple all fluids together. Collisional interactions tend to decrease the velocity differences and are also able to re-distribute the excess energy deposited by chemical reactions among all species. To compute the momentum and energy transfer caused by such interactions self-consistently, collisions between fluids, whose efficiency is proportional to the densities, are included as well as heating from various chemical reactions. By applying the model to comets with different production rates (i.e. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 1P/Halley, etc.), we are able to study how the heating efficiency varies with cometocentric distances and production rates. The preliminary results and comparison are presented and discussed. This work has been partially supported by grant NNX14AG84G from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, and US Rosetta contracts JPL #1266313, JPL #1266314 and JPL #1286489.

  20. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions.

  1. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  2. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  3. [Comparative analysis of 3D data visibility of the prepared tooth finishing line on a synthetic jaw model, captured by international scanners in a laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Ryakhovsky, A N; Kostyukova, V V

    The aim of the study was to compare accuracy of digital impression's finishing line and the zone under it taken by different intraoral scanning systems. Parameters of comparison were: different level of the finishing line to the gingiva and width of sulcus after retraction. For this purpose two synthetic jaw models with prepared teeth were scanned using intraoral scanning systems: 3D Progress (MHT S.P.A., IT - MHT Optic Research AG, CH); True Definition (3M ESPE, USA); Trios (3Shape A/S, DNK); CEREC AC Bluecam, CEREC Omnicam (Sirona Dental System GmbH, DE); Planscan (Planmeca, FIN) (each n=10). Reference-scanning was done by ATOS Core (GOM mbH, DE). The resulting digital impressions were superimposed with the master-scan. The lowest measured deviations (trueness) for intraoral scanners, where the finishing line was 0.5 mm above gingiva were with scanner True Definition - 18.8±6.63 (on the finishing line) and 51.0±14.33 µm (0.3 mm under the finishing line). In conditions where finishing line was on the same level with gingiva, scanner Trios showed the best results: 17.0±3.96 and 52.7±6.52 µm. When the finishing line was 0.5 mm under gingiva, none of the testing scanners could visualize the zone 0.3 mm lower the finishing line. The best results for accuracy o the finishing line in that circumstances showed Trios: 15.1±5.05 µm. The optimum visualization of the finishing line and the zone under it was reached when the sulcus was 0.3 mm after retraction. Thus, the best accuracy was obtained with Trios: 10.3±2.69 (on the finishing line) and 57.2±13.58 µm (0.3 mm under finishing line). The results show that intraoral scanners also provide enough accuracy for indicating finishing line and the zone under it in different conditions of preparation and gingiva retraction. However, not all of the testing scanners can properly indicate finishing line and the zone under it when shoulder is below gingiva and the width of sulcus is less than 0.2 mm.

  4. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  5. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  6. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  7. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  8. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  9. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  10. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  11. Optimization of cultivation conditions in spin tubes for Chinese hamster ovary cells producing erythropoietin and the comparison of glycosylation patterns in different cultivation vessels.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Jure; Brinc, Matjaz; Spudić, Vatroslav; Jelnikar, Nadja; Mirnik, Lidija; Carman, Barbara; Kravanja, Zdravko

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the optimization of cultivation factor settings, that is the shaking rate and working volume in 50 mL spin tubes for a Chinese hamster ovary cell line expressing recombinant human alpha-erythropoietin, using a response D-optimal surface method. The main objectives of the research were, firstly, to determine a setting in which the product titer and product quality attributes in spin tubes are equivalent to those in 250 mL shake flasks in a seven day batch and, secondly, to find a setting in which the product titer is maximal. The model for product titer prediction as a function of shaking rate and working volume in the defined design space was successfully applied to the optimization of cultivation conditions in spin tubes for the tested cell line. Subsequently, validation experiments were carried out simultaneously in spin tubes, shake flasks and bench scale bioreactors to compare cell culture performance parameters such as growth, productivity and product quality attributes in the form of isoform profiles and glycan antennarity structures. The results of the experiments showed that similar cell culture performance and product quality could be achieved in spin tubes when compared to shake flasks. Additionally, bioreactor titers could be reproduced in spin tubes at high shaking rates and low working volumes, but with differing product quality. Cultivation at lower shaking rates in spin tubes and shake flasks produced a glycoprotein with a product quality slightly comparable to that from bioreactors, but with titers being only two thirds.

  12. Dissipation and runoff transport of metazachlor herbicide in rapeseed cultivated and uncultivated plots in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Mantzos, Nikolaos; Hela, Dimitra; Karakitsou, Anastasia; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    The environmental fate of metazachlor herbicide was investigated under field conditions in rapeseed cultivated and uncultivated plots, over a period of 225 days. The cultivation was carried out in silty clay soil plots with two surface slopes, 1 and 5 %. The herbicide was detectable in soil up to 170 days after application (DAA), while the dissipation rate was best described by first-order kinetics and its half-life ranged between 10.92 and 12.68 days. The herbicide was detected in the soil layer of 10-20 cm from 5 to 48 DAA, and its vertical movement can be described by the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in series model. Relatively low amounts of metazachlor (less than 0.31 % of the initial applied active ingredient) were transferred by runoff water. More than 80 % of the total losses were transferred at the first runoff event (12 DAA), with herbicide concentrations in runoff water ranging between 70.14 and 79.67 μg L(-1). Minor amounts of the herbicide (less than 0.07 % of the initial applied active ingredient) were transferred by the sediment, with a maximum concentration of 0.57 μg g(-1) (12 DAA), in plots with 5 % inclination. Finally, in rapeseed plants, metazachlor was detected only in the first sampling (28 DAA) at concentrations slightly higher than the limit of quantification; when in seeds, no residues of the herbicide were detected.

  13. An Assessment of the Meteorological Conditions Leading to the NOAA WP-3D Engine Compressor Stalls of February 9, 2007, Due to Sea Salt Aerosol Particle Fouling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-25

    As discussed in Section 4.1, COAMPS -OS® simulations of the F8 and F9 storms placed the boundary layer at ~1800–2000 m and 1500–1800 m, respectively...of well-mixed return at 1 to 1.2 km. This is not surprising, as F8 was a more powerful storm . Indeed, the COAMPS ® boundary layer height for this...as this airborne research did. In this particular case, the WP- 3D flight track took it through the dry slot of an occluding storm system which had

  14. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  16. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  17. Cultivation of green alga Botryococcus braunii in raceway, circular ponds under outdoor conditions and its growth, hydrocarbon production.

    PubMed

    Ranga Rao, A; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2012-11-01

    The present study focused on cultivation, seasonal variation in growth, hydrocarbon production, fatty acids profiles of Botryococcus braunii (LB-572 and N-836) in raceway & circular ponds under outdoor conditions. After 18days of cultivation the biomass yield and hydrocarbon contents were increased in both raceway and circular ponds. The fat content was found to be around 24% (w/w) with palmitic and oleic acids as prominent fatty acids. Hydrocarbons of C(20)-C(30) carbon chain length were higher in raceway and circular ponds. Maximum biomass yield (2gL(-1)) and hydrocarbon content (28%) were observed in Nov-Dec. In case of B. braunii (N-836) after 25days of cultivation the biomass yield was 1gL(-1) and hydrocarbon content was 27%. Supplementation of 0.1% NaHCO(3) in the medium resulted in biomass yield of 1.5gL(-1) and hydrocarbon content of 30% compared to control.

  18. 3-D finite element analysis of the influence of synovial condition in sacroiliac joint on the load transmission in human pelvic system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dufang; Wang, Fang; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Qiugen

    2014-06-01

    The anterior part of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a synovial joint, with little gliding and rotary movement between the contact surfaces of SIJ during locomotion. Due to its complex structure, especially when considering the surrounding ligaments, it is difficult to construct an accurate three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model for the human pelvis. Most of the pelvic models in the previous studies were simplified with either SIJ fusing together or without the sacral bone. However, the influence of those simplifications on the load transmission in human pelvis has not been studied, so the reliability of those studies remains unclear. In this study, two 3-D pelvic models were constructed: an SIJ fusing model and an SIJ contacting model. In the SIJ fusing model, the SIJ interfaces were fused together. In the SIJ contacting model, the SIJ interfaces were just in contact with each other without fusion. Compared with the SIJ contacting model, the SIJ fusing model have smaller movements in the SIJ. The stress distribution area in the SIJ fusing model on sacroiliac cartilages was also different. Those differences contributed to the decline of tensile force in the SIJ surrounding ligaments and the re-distribution of stress in the pelvic bones. In addition, the SIJ fusing model was far less sensitive to the increase in modulus of the sacroiliac cartilages, and decrease in stiffness of the ligaments surrounding the SIJ. The presence of synovia in the SIJ had greater influence on the load transmission in the human pelvic system. Therefore, the effect of the presence of synovia should not be neglected when the biomechanical behavior of human pelvis is being studied, especially for those studies related to clinical applications.

  19. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  20. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  2. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  3. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  4. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part II. Mimicking environmental conditions during cultivation in retentostats.

    PubMed

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2014-06-01

    The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate limitation in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural conditions. Growth rates below 0.003h(-1) were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002h(-1)) and high (0.06h(-1)) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth conditions (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon limitation significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural conditions by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses.

  6. The Educational Value of Visual Cues and 3D-Representational Format in a Computer Animation under Restricted and Realistic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huk, Thomas; Steinke, Mattias; Floto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of cognitive learning theories, instructional design manipulations have primarily been investigated under tightly controlled laboratory conditions. We carried out two experiments, where the first experiment was conducted in a restricted system-paced setting and is therefore in line with the majority of empirical studies in the…

  7. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  8. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. With the introduction of a Fourier expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields, a coupled two dimensional system is generated and solved via the finite element method. An exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh and the fast fourier transformation is used to evaluate the boundary integrals for low O(n) memory demand when an iterative solution algorithm is used. Second, the diffraction by a material discontinuity in a thick dielectric/ferrite layer is considered by modeling the layer as a distributed current sheet obeying generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC's).

  9. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and an exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that it leads to convolutional boundary operators for low O(n) memory demand. Second, rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. Ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly those in the deep lit and shadow regions. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder.

  10. A 3D-RISM-SCF method with dual solvent boxes for a highly polarized system: application to 1,6-anhydrosugar formation reaction of phenyl α- and β-D-glucosides under basic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aono, Shinji; Hosoya, Takashi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2013-05-07

    One of the difficulties in application of the usual reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) method to a highly polarized and bulky system arises from the approximate evaluation of electrostatic potential (ESP) with pure point charges. To improve this ESP evaluation, the ESP near a solute is directly calculated with a solute electronic wavefunction, that distant from a solute is approximately calculated with solute point charges, and they are connected with a switching function. To evaluate the fine solvation structure near the solute by incorporating the long-range solute-solvent Coulombic interaction with low computational cost, we introduced the dual solvent box protocol; one small box with the fine spacing is employed for the first and the second solvation shells and the other large box with the normal spacing is employed for long-range solute-solvent interaction. The levoglucosan formation from phenyl α- and β-d-glucosides under basic conditions is successfully inspected by this 3D-RISM-SCF method at the MP2 and SCS-MP2 levels, though the 1D-RISM-SCF could not be applied to this reaction due to the presence of highly polarized and bulky species. This 3D-RISM-SCF calculation reproduces the experimentally reported higher reactivity of the β-anomer. The 3D-RISM-SCF-calculated activation free energy for the β-anomer is closer to the experimental value than the PCM-calculated one. Interestingly, the solvation effect increases the difference in reactivity between these two anomers. The reason is successfully elucidated with 3D-RISM-SCF-calculated microscopic solvation structure and decomposition analysis of solute-solvent interaction.

  11. Evaluation of 3D radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for any matching and coupling conditions by the use of basis functions.

    PubMed

    Tiberi, Gianluigi; Fontana, Nunzia; Monorchio, Agostino; Stara, Riccardo; Retico, Alessandra; Tosetti, Michela

    2015-12-01

    A procedure for evaluating radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in anatomical human models for any matching and coupling conditions is introduced. The procedure resorts to the extraction of basis functions: such basis functions, which represent the fields produced by each individual port without any residual coupling, are derived through an algebraic procedure which uses the S parameter matrix and the fields calculated in one (only) full-wave simulation. The basis functions are then used as building-blocks for calculating the fields for any other S parameter matrix. The proposed approach can be used both for volume coil driven in quadrature and for parallel transmission configuration.

  12. Evaluation of 3D radio-frequency electromagnetic fields for any matching and coupling conditions by the use of basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, Gianluigi; Fontana, Nunzia; Monorchio, Agostino; Stara, Riccardo; Retico, Alessandra; Tosetti, Michela

    2015-12-01

    A procedure for evaluating radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in anatomical human models for any matching and coupling conditions is introduced. The procedure resorts to the extraction of basis functions: such basis functions, which represent the fields produced by each individual port without any residual coupling, are derived through an algebraic procedure which uses the S parameter matrix and the fields calculated in one (only) full-wave simulation. The basis functions are then used as building-blocks for calculating the fields for any other S parameter matrix. The proposed approach can be used both for volume coil driven in quadrature and for parallel transmission configuration.

  13. A new 3D multi-fluid model: a study of kinetic effects and variations of physical conditions in the cometary coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Yinsi; Combi, Michael R.; Toth, Gabor; Huang, Zhenguang; Jia, Xianzhe; Fougere, Nicolas; Tenishev, Valeriy; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, Kenneth C.; Bieler, Andre

    2016-10-01

    Physics-based numerical coma models are desirable whether to interpret the spacecraft observations of the inner coma or to compare with the ground-based observations of the outer coma. In this work, we develop a multi-neutral-fluid model based on BATS-R-US in the University of Michigan's SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework), which is capable of computing both the inner and the outer coma and simulating time-variable phenomena. It treats H2O, OH, H2, O, and H as separate fluids and each fluid has its own velocity and temperature, with collisions coupling all fluids together. The self-consistent collisional interactions decrease the velocity differences, re-distribute the excess energy deposited by chemical reactions among all species, and account for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions. Recognizing that the fluid approach has limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low density environment, we applied our multi-fluid coma model to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) at various heliocentric distances and demonstrated that it is able to yield comparable results as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid under these conditions. Therefore, our model may be a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. In addition, by running the model with several combinations of production rates and heliocentric distances, we can characterize the cometary H2O expansion speeds and demonstrate the nonlinear effect of production rates or photochemical heating. Our results are also compared to previous modeling work (e.g., Bockelee-Morvan & Crovisier 1987) and remote observations (e.g., Tseng et al. 2007), which serve as further validation of our model. This work has been partially supported by grant NNX14AG84G from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, and US Rosetta contracts

  14. A New 3D Multi-fluid Model: A Study of Kinetic Effects and Variations of Physical Conditions in the Cometary Coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Toth, G.; Tenishev, V.; Fougere, N.; Jia, X.; Rubin, M.; Huang, Z.; Hansen, K.; Gombosi, T.; Bieler, A.

    2016-12-01

    Physics-based numerical coma models are desirable whether to interpret the spacecraft observations of the inner coma or to compare with the ground-based observations of the outer coma. In this work, we develop a multi-neutral-fluid model based on the BATS-R-US code of the University of Michigan, which is capable of computing both the inner and outer coma and simulating time-variable phenomena. It treats H2O, OH, H2, O, and H as separate fluids and each fluid has its own velocity and temperature, with collisions coupling all fluids together. The self-consistent collisional interactions decrease the velocity differences, re-distribute the excess energy deposited by chemical reactions among all species, and account for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions. Recognizing that the fluid approach has limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low density environment, we applied our multi-fluid coma model to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at various heliocentric distances and demonstrated that it yields comparable results to the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid under these conditions. Therefore, our model may be a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. In addition, by running the model with several combinations of production rates and heliocentric distances, we characterize the cometary H2O expansion speeds and demonstrate the nonlinear dependencies of production rate and heliocentric distance. Our results are also compared to previous modeling work and remote observations, which serve as further validation of our model.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of 3D diffusion, crystal geometry, and initial conditions on retrieved time-scales from Fe-Mg zoning in natural oriented orthopyroxene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimer, Daniel; Costa, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Volcano petrologists and geochemists increasingly use time-scale determinations of magmatic processes from modeling the chemical zoning patterns in crystals. Most determinations are done using one-dimensional traverses across a two-dimensional crystal section. However, crystals are three-dimensional objects with complex shapes, and diffusion and re-equilibration occurs in multiple dimensions. Given that we can mainly study the crystals in two-dimensional petrographic thin sections, the determined time-scales could be in error if multiple dimensional and geometrical effects are not identified and accounted for. Here we report the results of a numerical study where we investigate the role of multiple dimensions, geometry, and initial conditions of Fe-Mg diffusion in an orthopyroxene crystal with the view towards proper determinations of time scales from modeling natural crystals. We found that merging diffusion fronts (i.e. diffusion from multiple directions) causes 'additional' diffusion that has the greatest influence close to the crystal's corners (i.e. where two crystal faces meet), and with longer times the affected area widens. We also found that the one-dimensional traverses that can lead to the most accurate calculated time-scales from natural crystals are along the b- crystallographic axis on the ab-plane when model inputs (concentration and zoning geometry) are taken as measured (rather than inferred from other observations). More specifically, accurate time-scales are obtained if the compositional traverses are highly symmetrical and contain a concentration plateau measured through the crystal center. On the other hand, for two-dimensional models the ab- and ac-planes are better suited if the initial (pre-diffusion) concentration and zoning geometry inputs are known or can be estimated, although these are a priory unknown, and thus, may be difficult to use in practical terms. We also found that under certain conditions, a combined one-dimensional and two

  16. Apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh.) allergen Mal d 1: effect of cultivar, cultivation system, and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Anne; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela

    2009-11-25

    It has been reported on the basis of skin prick tests and gene expression studies that apple cultivars differ in their allergenic potential. Only a few studies have tried to measure the amount of the major apple allergen Mal d 1 so far. Mal d 1 belongs to the pathogenesis-related proteins, a family of proteins that are induced by pathogens and environmental stress. Due to cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and proteins present in several plant-derived foods, birch pollen allergic patients develop food allergies, most frequently to apples. Mal d 1 content was quantified in different apple cultivars, cultivated at the research stations Klein-Altendorf and Bavendorf, dependent on cultivation method and storage conditions by sandwich-ELISA. Apple cultivars differ considerably in their Mal d 1 content. A high variability in Mal d 1 content was determined within one cultivar and between the two locations for the same apple cultivar. In most cases organically cultivated fruit showed lower Mal d 1 content in comparison to fruit from integrated production. At harvest the detected concentration of Mal d 1 was low, but during storage the Mal d 1 content increased significantly.

  17. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  18. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  19. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  20. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K.; Flowers, Tim J.; Seal, Charlotte E.; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S

  1. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K; Flowers, Tim J; Seal, Charlotte E; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-11-10

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S

  2. Genetic stability of murine pluripotent and somatic hybrid cells may be affected by conditions of their cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ivanovna, Shramova Elena; Alekseevich, Larionov Oleg; Mikhailovich, Khodarovich Yurii; Vladimirovna, Zatsepina Olga

    2011-01-01

    Using mouse pluripotent teratocarcinoma PCC4azal cells and proliferating spleen lymphocytes we obtained a new type of hybrids, in which marker lymphocyte genes were suppressed, but expression the Oct-4 gene was not effected; the hybrid cells were able to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. In order to specify the environmental factors which may affect the genetic stability and other hybrid properties, we analyzed the total chromosome number and differentiation potencies of hybrids respectively to conditions of their cultivation. Particular attention was paid to the number and transcription activity of chromosomal nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), which harbor the most actively transcribed - ribosomal - genes. The results showed that the hybrids obtained are characterized by a relatively stable chromosome number which diminished less than in 5% during 27 passages. However, a long-term cultivation of hybrid cells in non-selective conditions resulted in preferential elimination of some NO- chromosomes, whereas the number of active NORs per cell was increased due to activation of latent NORs. On the contrary, in selective conditions, i.e. in the presence of hypoxantine, aminopterin and thymidine, the total number of NOR-bearing chromosomes was not changed, but a partial inactivation of remaining NORs was observed. The higher number of active NORs directly correlated with the capability of hybrid cells for differentiation to cardiomyocytes.

  3. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  4. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controlled [correction of controled] environment conditions.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirov, A A; Ushakova, S A; Gribovskaya, I A; Tirranen, L S; Manukovsky, N S; Zolotukhin, I G; Karnachuk, R A; Gros, J B; Lasseur, Ch

    2003-01-01

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. Light intensity of 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m2) as compared to 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  5. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  6. Stable isotope models to predict geographic origin and cultivation conditions of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Janet M; West, Jason B; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-06-01

    Here we describe stable isotope based models using hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios to predict geographic region-of-origin and growth environment for marijuana, with the intent of applying these models to analyses of marijuana trafficking in the USA. The models were developed on the basis of eradication specimens and border specimens seized throughout the USA. We tested reliability of the geographic region-of-origin and growth environment models with a "blind" set of 60 marijuana eradication specimens obtained from counties throughout the USA. The two geographic region-of-origin model predictions were 60-67% reliable and cultivation environment model predictions were 86% accurate for the blind specimens. We demonstrate here that stable isotope ratio analysis of marijuana seizures can significantly improve our understanding of marijuana distribution networks and it is for that purpose that these models were developed.

  7. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  8. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  9. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  11. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  12. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  13. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  14. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  15. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  16. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C.A.; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the ‘nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. Practitioner Summary: Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) has been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. Viewers watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (between-subjects design). Around 14% reported effects such as headache and eyestrain linked to S3D itself, while 8% report adverse effects attributable to 3D glasses or negative expectations. PMID:24874550

  17. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  18. Effects of cultivation conditions and media composition on cell growth and lipid productivity of indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-02-01

    The growth and lipid productivity of an isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 were investigated under different media and cultivation conditions, including phototrophic growth (NaHCO(3) or CO(2), with light), heterotrophic growth (glucose, without light), photoheterotrophic growth (glucose, with light) and mixotrophic growth (glucose and CO(2), with light). C. vulgaris ESP-31 preferred to grow under phototrophic (CO(2)), photoheterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions on nitrogen-rich medium (i.e., Basal medium and Modified Bristol's medium), reaching a biomass concentration of 2-5 g/l. The growth on nitrogen-limiting MBL medium resulted in higher lipid accumulation (20-53%) but slower growth rate. Higher lipid content (40-53%) and higher lipid productivity (67-144 mg/l/d) were obtained under mixotrophic cultivation with all the culture media used. The fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipid comprises over 60-68% of saturated fatty acids (i.e., palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0)) and monounsaturated acids (i.e., oleic acid (C18:1)). This lipid composition is suitable for biodiesel production.

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  1. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  2. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  3. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  4. Bone Proteomics experiment (BOP): the first proteomics analysis of mammalian cells cultivated in weightlessness conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costessi, A.; Vascotto, C.; Pines, A.; Romanello, M.; Schonenborg, R.; Schiller, P.; Moro, L.; Tell, G.

    Bone mass loss is a major consequence of extended periods of weightlessness Many studies have been performed on astronauts and animal models establishing that a decrease of the maturation process and of the bone synthesising activity of osteoblast cells play a key role in microgravity-dependent bone mass loss Several experiments on single cells and tissues showed that weightlessness can also influence cells cultivated in vitro Many molecular mechanisms are affected among which the cytoskeleton and intracellular signal transduction cascades However the underlying mechanisms of these changes and their molecular consequences are far from being fully understood and the cellular gravisensing machinery is still unknown In contrast to weightlessness dynamic mechanical loading increases bone density and strength and promotes osteoblast proliferation differentiation and matrix production by acting at the gene expression level However the molecular mechanisms by which mechanical forces are converted into biochemical signalling in bone are also poorly understood A growing body of evidence points to extracellular nucleotides i e ATP and UTP as soluble factors that are released by several cell types in response to mechanical stimulation and that eventually trigger an intracellular signal We have recently demonstrated in the HOBIT osteoblast cell line that ATP and UTP treatments can activate two fundamental transcription factors that promote osteoblast differentiation and physiology Runx2 and Egr-1 as well as their target genes galectin-3 and

  5. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  6. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  7. 3D rotating wall vessel and 2D cell culture of four veterinary virus pathogens: A comparison of virus yields, portions of infectious particles and virus growth curves.

    PubMed

    Malenovská, Hana

    2016-02-01

    Only very few comparative studies have been performed that evaluate general trends of virus growth under 3D in comparison with 2D cell culture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate differences when four animal viruses are cultured in 2D and 3D. Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSIV), Bovine adenovirus (BAdV) and Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) were cultivated in 3D rotating wall vessels (RWVs) and conventional 2D cultures. The production of virus particles, the portion of infectious particles, and the infectious growth curves were compared. For all viruses, the production of virus particles (related to cell density), including the non-infectious ones, was lower in 3D than in 2D culture. The production of only infectious particles was significantly lower in BAdV and BPIV-3 in 3D cultures in relation to cell density. The two cultivation approaches resulted in significantly different virus particle-to-TCID50 ratios in three of the four viruses: lower in SuHV-1 and BPIV-3 and higher in BAdV in 3D culture. The infectious virus growth rates were not significantly different in all viruses. Although 3D RWV culture resulted in lower production of virus particles compared to 2D systems, the portion of infectious particles was higher for some viruses.

  8. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  9. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  10. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junling; Zeng, Qin; Liu, Yanlin; Pan, Zhongli

    2012-07-01

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms from selected plants that produce resveratrol and to optimize the conditions for resveratrol production. Endophytes from Merlot wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot), wild Vitis (Vitis quinquangularis Rehd.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.) were isolated, and their abilities to produce resveratrol were evaluated. A total of 65 isolates were obtained and 21 produced resveratrol (6-123 μg/L) in liquid culture. The resveratrol-producing isolates belonged to seven genera, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, and Alternaria. The resveratrol-producing capability decreased or was completely lost in most isolates after three rounds of subculture. It was found that only the strain Alternaria sp. MG1 (isolated from cob of Merlot using GA1 medium) had stable and high resveratrol-producing capability in all subcultures. During liquid cultivation of Alternaria sp. MG1 in potato dextrose medium, the synthesis of resveratrol began on the first day, increased to peak levels on day 7, and then decreased sharply thereafter. Cell growth increased during cultivation and reached a stable and high level of biomass after 5 days. The best fermentation conditions for resveratrol production in liquid cultures of Alternaria sp. MG1 were an inoculum size of 6 %, a medium volume of 125 mL in a 250-mL flask, a rotation speed of 101 rpm, and a temperature of 27 °C.

  11. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  12. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  13. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m -2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 μmol·m -2·s -1. Light intensity of 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m 2) as compared to 920 μmol·m -2·s -1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 μmol·m -2·s -1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  14. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  15. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  16. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  18. Cultivating conditions effects on kefiran production by the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria imbedded within kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Zajšek, Katja; Goršek, Andreja; Kolar, Mitja

    2013-08-15

    The influence of fermentation temperature, agitation rate, and additions of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, vitamins and minerals on production of kefiran by kefir grains lactic acid bacteria was studied in a series of experiments. The main aim of the work was to increase the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production where customised milk was used as fermentation medium. It was proved that the controlling of culturing conditions and the modifying of fermentation medium conditions (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources and vitamins) can dramatically enhance the production of the EPS. The temperature and agitation rate were critical for kefiran production during the 24 h cultivation of grains; our optimised conditions being 25°C and 80 rpm, respectively. In addition, when optimising the effects of additional nutrition, it was found that 5% (w/v) lactose, 0.1% (w/v) thiamine, and 0.1% (w/v) FeCl3 led to the maximal production of EPS. The results indicate that nutrients can be utilised to improve the production of EPS and that good kefir grains growth does not appear to be a determining factor for a high production yield of EPS.

  19. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K Anitha; Torres, Rolando O; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-08-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity.

  20. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  1. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  2. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  3. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  4. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  5. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A.; Ushakova, S.; Gribovskaya, I.; Tirranen, L.; Manukovsky, N.; Zolotukhin, I.

    To investigate feasibility of enhancing closedness in a new generation of biological life support systems (LSS) to involve the inedible phytomass into intrasystem mass exchange the vermicomposting method we have chosen made possible to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) suitable for growing plants. However, to use the SLS in life support systems call for investigation of its physical, chemical and other parameters. Of special importance among them is the capacity of SLS to provide the LSS photosynthesizing component with required mineral elements in selected cultivation conditions. In this connection the aim of this work was to study opportunities of enhancing pr4oduction activity of wheat and radish cenoses by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) without decreasing the harvest index. Increase of light intensity to 250 W/m 2 PAR decreased the intensity of visible photosynthesis of wheat cenosi and slightly increased visible photosynthesis of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. The maximum productivity of wheat cenosis both total and seeds corresponded to the irradiance of 200 W/m 2 PAR. The light intensity of 250 W/m2 PAR decreased productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect of the productivity of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and SLS was determined by the condition of plants, development phase and PAR intensity. By the end of wheat vegetation under 250 W/m 2 there were an order more bacteria of the colon rod group and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and SLS than under other illumination conditions. Investigation of the mineral composition of SLS and the watering solution demonstrated that one of the reasons of inadequate response of the cenosis under study to elevated PAR intensity may be deficiency of accessible forms of some mineral elements, e.g. nitrogen. The above said materials evidence that

  6. Role of microorganisms in emission of nitrous oxide and methane in pulse cultivated soil under laboratory incubation condition.

    PubMed

    Jena, Jyotsnarani; Ray, Sanak; Srichandan, Haragobinda; Das, Anuradha; Das, Trupti

    2013-03-01

    Soil from a pulse cultivated farmers land of Odisha, India, have been subjected to incubation studies for 40 consecutive days, to establish the impact of various nitrogenous fertilizers and water filled pore space (WFPS) on green house gas emission (N2O & CH4). C2H2 inhibition technique was followed to have a comprehensive understanding about the individual contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers towards the emission of N2O. Nevertheless, low concentration of C2H2 (5 ml: flow rate 0.1 kg/cm(2)) is hypothesized to partially impede the metabolic pathways of denitrifying bacterial population, thus reducing the overall N2O emission rate. Different soil parameters of the experimental soil such as moisture, total organic carbon, ammonium content and nitrate-nitrogen contents were measured at regular intervals. Application of external N-sources under different WFPS conditions revealed the diverse role played by the indigenous soil microorganism towards green house gas emission. Isolation of heterotrophic microorganisms (Pseudomonas) from the soil samples, further supported the fact that denitrification might be prevailing during specific conditions thus contributing to N2O emission. Statistical analysis showed that WFPS was the most influential parameter affecting N2O formation in soil in absence of an inhibitor like C2H2.

  7. Enhancing cytochrome P450-mediated conversions in P. pastoris through RAD52 over-expression and optimizing the cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Moser, Sandra; Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Anita; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Pichler, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play an essential role in the biosynthesis of various natural compounds by catalyzing regio- and stereospecific hydroxylation reactions. Thus, CYP activities are of great interest in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceutical compounds or flavors and fragrances. Industrial applicability of CYPs has driven extensive research efforts aimed at improving the performance of these enzymes to generate robust biocatalysts. Recently, our group has identified CYP-mediated hydroxylation of (+)-valencene as a major bottleneck in the biosynthesis of trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone in Pichia pastoris. In the current study, we aimed at enhancing CYP-mediated (+)-valencene hydroxylation by over-expressing target genes identified through transcriptome analysis in P. pastoris. Strikingly, over-expression of the DNA repair and recombination gene RAD52 had a distinctly positive effect on trans-nootkatol formation. Combining RAD52 over-expression with optimization of whole-cell biotransformation conditions, i.e. optimized media composition and cultivation at higher pH value, enhanced trans-nootkatol production 5-fold compared to the initial strain and condition. These engineering approaches appear to be generally applicable for enhanced hydroxylation of hydrophobic compounds in P. pastoris as confirmed here for two additional membrane-attached CYPs, namely the limonene-3-hydroxylase from Mentha piperita and the human CYP2D6.

  8. HPF Implementation of ARC3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Yan, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    We present an HPF (High Performance Fortran) implementation of ARC3D code along with the profiling and performance data on SGI Origin 2000. Advantages and limitations of HPF as a parallel programming language for CFD applications are discussed. For achieving good performance results we used the data distributions optimized for implementation of implicit and explicit operators of the solver and boundary conditions. We compare the results with MPI and directive based implementations.

  9. Analysis of long-term degradation behaviour of polyethylene mulching films with pro-oxidants under real cultivation and soil burial conditions.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifaneia; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Kyrikou, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    Apart from the conventional polyethylene and the bio-based or mainly bio-based biodegradable in soil mulching films, polyethylene mulching films of controlled degradation in soil are already used in agriculture. The use of special pro-oxidants as additives is expected to accelerate the abiotic oxidation and the subsequent chain scission of the polymer under specific UV radiation or thermal degradation conditions, according to the literature. The role of pro-oxidants in the possible biodegradation of polyethylene has been theoretically supported through the use of controlled laboratory conditions. However, results obtained in real soil conditions, but also several laboratory test results, are not supporting these claims and the issue remains disputed. Mulching films made of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with pro-oxidants, after being used for one cultivation period in an experimental field with watermelon cultivation, were buried in the soil under real field conditions. This work presents the analysis of the degradation of the mulching films during the cultivation period as compared to the corresponding changes after a long soil burial period of 8.5 years. The combined effects of critical factors on the photochemical degradation of the degradable mulching LLDPE films with pro-oxidants under the cultivation conditions and their subsequent further degradation behaviour in the soil are analysed by testing their mechanical properties and through spectroscopic and thermal analysis.

  10. Cultivation conditions and selenium fertilization alter the phenolic profile, glucosinolate, and sulforaphane content of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Banuelos, Gary; Finley, John W

    2005-01-01

    Broccoli is a food often consumed for its potential health-promoting properties. The health benefits of broccoli are partly associated with secondary plant compounds that have bioactivity; glucosinolates and phenolic acids are two of the most abundant and important in broccoli. In an effort to determine how variety, stress, and production conditions affect the production of these bioactive components broccoli was grown in the greenhouse with and without selenium (Se) fertilization, and in the field under conventional or organic farming procedures and with or without water stress. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify 12 primary phenolic compounds. Variety had a major effect: There was a preponderance of flavonoids in the Majestic variety, but hydroxycinnamic esters were relatively more abundant in the Legacy variety. Organic farming and water stress decreased the overall production of phenolics. Se fertilization increased glucosinolates in general, and sulforaphane in particular, up to a point; above that Se fertilization decreased glucosinolate production. Organic farming and water stress also decreased glucosinolate production. These data show environmental and genetic variation in phenolics and glucosinolates in broccoli, and warn that not all broccoli may contain all health-promoting bioactive components. They further show that selection for one bioactive component (Se) may decrease the content of other bioactive components such as phenolics and glucosinolates.

  11. 3D fascicle orientations in triceps surae.

    PubMed

    Rana, Manku; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Wakeling, James M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the three-dimensional (3D) muscle fascicle architecture in human triceps surae muscles at different contraction levels and muscle lengths. Six male subjects were tested for three contraction levels (0, 30, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction) and four ankle angles (-15, 0, 15, and 30° of plantar flexion), and the muscles were imaged with B-mode ultrasound coupled to 3D position sensors. 3D fascicle orientations were represented in terms of pennation angle relative to the major axis of the muscle and azimuthal angle (a new architectural parameter introduced in this study representing the radial angle around the major axis). 3D orientations of the fascicles, and the sheets along which they lie, were regionalized in all the three muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus) and changed significantly with contraction level and ankle angle. Changes in the azimuthal angle were of similar magnitude to the changes in pennation angle. The 3D information was used for an error analysis to determine the errors in predictions of pennation that would occur in purely two-dimensional studies. A comparison was made for assessing pennation in the same plane for different contraction levels, or for adjusting the scanning plane orientation for different contractions: there was no significant difference between the two simulated scanning conditions for the gastrocnemii; however, a significant difference of 4.5° was obtained for the soleus. Correct probe orientation is thus more critical during estimations of pennation for the soleus than the gastrocnemii due to its more complex fascicle arrangement.

  12. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  13. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  14. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  15. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  16. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  17. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  19. Steviol glycosides targeted analysis in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from plants cultivated under chilling stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Soufi, Sihem; D'Urso, Gilda; Pizza, Cosimo; Rezgui, Salah; Bettaieb, Taoufik; Montoro, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is an important agricultural crop for the production of a high-potency natural sweetener, sensitive to low temperature during the developmental stage. Stimulation of chilling stress with a pre-treatment with endogenous signalling components and in particular with salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) could induce tolerance to chilling and could constitute a suitable way to maintain quality and quantity of steviol glycosides under controlled artificial environment. In the present work the effects of different putative signalling molecules on the morpho-physiological parameters were evaluated, and a specific method for the quali-quantitative analysis of steviol glycosides in S. rebaudiana plants cultivated under controlled conditions was developed, by using LC-ESI-FT (Orbitrap) MS, LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS and multivariate data analysis. This approach underlined that the pre-treatment has influence on the production of secondary metabolites. In particular Stevia plants characterised by higher contents of rebaudioside A and stevioside, were identified.

  20. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  1. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  2. 3D FaceCam: a fast and accurate 3D facial imaging device for biometrics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason; Zhuang, Ping; May, Patrick; Yi, Steven; Tunnell, David

    2004-08-01

    Human faces are fundamentally three-dimensional (3D) objects, and each face has its unique 3D geometric profile. The 3D geometric features of a human face can be used, together with its 2D texture, for rapid and accurate face recognition purposes. Due to the lack of low-cost and robust 3D sensors and effective 3D facial recognition (FR) algorithms, almost all existing FR systems use 2D face images. Genex has developed 3D solutions that overcome the inherent problems in 2D while also addressing limitations in other 3D alternatives. One important aspect of our solution is a unique 3D camera (the 3D FaceCam) that combines multiple imaging sensors within a single compact device to provide instantaneous, ear-to-ear coverage of a human face. This 3D camera uses three high-resolution CCD sensors and a color encoded pattern projection system. The RGB color information from each pixel is used to compute the range data and generate an accurate 3D surface map. The imaging system uses no moving parts and combines multiple 3D views to provide detailed and complete 3D coverage of the entire face. Images are captured within a fraction of a second and full-frame 3D data is produced within a few seconds. This described method provides much better data coverage and accuracy in feature areas with sharp features or details (such as the nose and eyes). Using this 3D data, we have been able to demonstrate that a 3D approach can significantly improve the performance of facial recognition. We have conducted tests in which we have varied the lighting conditions and angle of image acquisition in the "field." These tests have shown that the matching results are significantly improved when enrolling a 3D image rather than a single 2D image. With its 3D solutions, Genex is working toward unlocking the promise of powerful 3D FR and transferring FR from a lab technology into a real-world biometric solution.

  3. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  4. Elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media: 3D grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfeng, Zhang; Tielin, Liu

    2002-09-01

    We present a new numerical technique for elastic wave modelling in 3D heterogeneous media with surface topography, which is called the 3D grid method in this paper. This work is an extension of the 2D grid method that models P-SV wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media. Similar to the finite-element method in the discretization of a numerical mesh, the proposed scheme is flexible in incorporating surface topography and curved interfaces; moreover it satisfies the free-surface boundary conditions of 3D topography naturally. The algorithm, developed from a parsimonious staggered-grid scheme, solves the problem using integral equilibrium around each node, instead of satisfying elastodynamic differential equations at each node as in the conventional finite-difference method. The computational cost and memory requirements for the proposed scheme are approximately the same as those used by the same order finite-difference method. In this paper, a mixed tetrahedral and parallelepiped grid method is presented; and the numerical dispersion and stability criteria on the tetrahedral grid method and parallelepiped grid method are discussed in detail. The proposed scheme is successfully tested against an analytical solution for the 3D Lamb problem and a solution of the boundary method for the diffraction of a hemispherical crater. Moreover, examples of surface-wave propagation in an elastic half-space with a semi-cylindrical trench on the surface and 3D plane-layered model are presented.

  5. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  6. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  7. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  8. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  9. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  10. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  11. Crouzon syndrome associated with acanthosis nigricans: prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings and postnatal 3D CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Nørgaard, Pernille; Hagen, Casper Petri; Hove, Hanne; Dunø, Morten; Nissen, Kamilla Rothe; Kreiborg, Sven; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2012-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (CAN) is a very rare condition with an approximate prevalence of 1 per 1 million newborns. We add the first report on prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings in CAN. In addition we present the postnatal 3D CT findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular testing. PMID:23986840

  12. GEN3D Ver. 1.37

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    GEN3D is a three-dimensional mesh generation program. The three-dimensional mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional mesh into threedimensions according to one of four types of transformations: translating, rotating, mapping onto a spherical surface, and mapping onto a cylindrical surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, and revolving about an axis. GEN3D can be used to mesh geometries that are axisymmetric or planar, but, due to three-dimensional loading or boundary conditions, require a three-dimensional finite element mesh and analysis. More importantly, it can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GEN3D reads and writes twodimensional and threedimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes used by the Engineering Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  13. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  14. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  15. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  16. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  18. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  19. 3D Imaging with Holographic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Kou, Shan Shan

    2010-04-01

    There are two main types of tomography that enable the 3D internal structures of objects to be reconstructed from scattered data. The commonly known computerized tomography (CT) give good results in the x-ray wavelength range where the filtered back-projection theorem and Radon transform can be used. These techniques rely on the Fourier projection-slice theorem where rays are considered to propagate straight through the object. Another type of tomography called `diffraction tomography' applies in applications in optics and acoustics where diffraction and scattering effects must be taken into account. The latter proves to be a more difficult problem, as light no longer travels straight through the sample. Holographic tomography is a popular way of performing diffraction tomography and there has been active experimental research on reconstructing complex refractive index data using this approach recently. However, there are two distinct ways of doing tomography: either by rotation of the object or by rotation of the illumination while fixing the detector. The difference between these two setups is intuitive but needs to be quantified. From Fourier optics and information transformation point of view, we use 3D transfer function analysis to quantitatively describe how spatial frequencies of the object are mapped to the Fourier domain. We first employ a paraxial treatment by calculating the Fourier transform of the defocused OTF. The shape of the calculated 3D CTF for tomography, by scanning the illumination in one direction only, takes on a form that we might call a 'peanut,' compared to the case of object rotation, where a diablo is formed, the peanut exhibiting significant differences and non-isotropy. In particular, there is a line singularity along one transverse direction. Under high numerical aperture conditions, the paraxial treatment is not accurate, and so we make use of 3D analytical geometry to calculate the behaviour in the non-paraxial case. This time, we

  20. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  1. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  2. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) Using 23Na and Proton MRI

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/hour concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/ PMID:25261742

  3. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  4. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  5. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  6. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  7. NMR and GC-MS Based Metabolic Profiling and Free-Radical Scavenging Activities of Cordyceps pruinosa Mycelia Cultivated under Different Media and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Taek-Joo; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seul-Gi; Chun, Young-Jin; Sung, Gi-Ho; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2014-01-01

    Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites) by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY) media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources. PMID:24608751

  8. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the viewer has a problem with focusing or depth perception. Also, the techniques used to create the 3- ... eyes), or other conditions that persistently inhibit focusing, depth perception or normal 3-D vision, would have difficulty ...

  9. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  10. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  11. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  12. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  13. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Method for 3-D Flows with Curved Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Shyy, Wei; Yu, Dazhi; Luo, Li-Shi

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we investigate two issues that are important to computational efficiency and reliability in fluid dynamics applications of the lattice, Boltzmann equation (LBE): (1) Computational stability and accuracy of different lattice Boltzmann models and (2) the treatment of the boundary conditions on curved solid boundaries and their 3-D implementations. Three athermal 3-D LBE models (D3QI5, D3Ql9, and D3Q27) are studied and compared in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness. The boundary treatment recently developed by Filippova and Hanel and Met et al. in 2-D is extended to and implemented for 3-D. The convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the 3-D LBE models with the boundary treatment for curved boundaries were tested in simulations of four 3-D flows: (1) Fully developed flows in a square duct, (2) flow in a 3-D lid-driven cavity, (3) fully developed flows in a circular pipe, and (4) a uniform flow over a sphere. We found that while the fifteen-velocity 3-D (D3Ql5) model is more prone to numerical instability and the D3Q27 is more computationally intensive, the 63Q19 model provides a balance between computational reliability and efficiency. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the boundary treatment for 3-D arbitrary curved geometry has second-order accuracy and possesses satisfactory stability characteristics.

  15. Slope instability in complex 3D topography promoted by convergent 3D groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. E.; Brien, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Slope instability in complex topography is generally controlled by the interaction between gravitationally induced stresses, 3D strengths, and 3D pore-fluid pressure fields produced by flowing groundwater. As an example of this complexity, coastal bluffs sculpted by landsliding commonly exhibit a progression of undulating headlands and re-entrants. In this landscape, stresses differ between headlands and re-entrants and 3D groundwater flow varies from vertical rainfall infiltration to lateral groundwater flow on lower permeability layers with subsequent discharge at the curved bluff faces. In plan view, groundwater flow converges in the re-entrant regions. To investigate relative slope instability induced by undulating topography, we couple the USGS 3D limit-equilibrium slope-stability model, SCOOPS, with the USGS 3D groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. By rapidly analyzing the stability of millions of potential failures, the SCOOPS model can determine relative slope stability throughout the 3D domain underlying a digital elevation model (DEM), and it can utilize both fully 3D distributions of pore-water pressure and material strength. The two models are linked by first computing a groundwater-flow field in MODFLOW, and then computing stability in SCOOPS using the pore-pressure field derived from groundwater flow. Using these two models, our analyses of 60m high coastal bluffs in Seattle, Washington showed augmented instability in topographic re-entrants given recharge from a rainy season. Here, increased recharge led to elevated perched water tables with enhanced effects in the re-entrants owing to convergence of groundwater flow. Stability in these areas was reduced about 80% compared to equivalent dry conditions. To further isolate these effects, we examined groundwater flow and stability in hypothetical landscapes composed of uniform and equally spaced, oscillating headlands and re-entrants with differing amplitudes. The landscapes had a constant slope for both

  16. For 3D laparoscopy: a step toward advanced surgical navigation: how to get maximum benefit from 3D vision.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Wolfgang; Storz, Pirmin; Kirschniak, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    The authors are grateful for the interesting perspectives given by Buchs and colleagues in their letter to the editor entitled "3D Laparoscopy: A Step Toward Advanced Surgical Navigation." Shutter-based 3D video systems failed to become established in the operating room in the late 1990s. To strengthen the starting conditions of the new 3D technology using better monitors and high definition, the authors give suggestions for its practical use in the clinical routine. But first they list the characteristics of single-channeled and bichanneled 3D laparoscopes and describe stereoscopic terms such as "comfort zone," "stereoscopic window," and "near-point distance." The authors believe it would be helpful to have the 3D pioneers assemble and share their experiences with these suggestions. Although this letter discusses "laparoscopy," it would also be interesting to collect experiences from other surgical disciplines, especially when one is considering whether to opt for bi- or single-channeled optics.

  17. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  18. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  19. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  20. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  1. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  2. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  3. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  4. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  5. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  6. Trophic relations of Opatrumsabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Brygadyrenko, Viktor V; Nazimov, Sergii S

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrumsabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761) - a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosaucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours), Euphorbiavirgata (3.45), Solanumnigrum (3.32), Centauriascabiosa (2.47), Lamiumalbum (2.41), Aristolochiaclematitis (1.76), Chenopodiumalbum (1.73), Arctiumlappa (1.51), Asperulaodorata (1.20). A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perillanankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours), Lycopersiconesculentum (3.75), Tropaeolummajus (3.29), Nicotianatabacum (2.66), Rumexacetosa (1.96), Betavulgaris (1.27). Opatrumsabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.

  7. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brygadyrenko, Viktor V.; Nazimov, Sergii S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761) – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours), Euphorbia virgata (3.45), Solanum nigrum (3.32), Centauria scabiosa (2.47), Lamium album (2.41), Aristolochia clematitis (1.76), Chenopodium album (1.73), Arctium lappa (1.51), Asperula odorata (1.20). A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours), Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75), Tropaeolum majus (3.29), Nicotiana tabacum (2.66), Rumex acetosa (1.96), Beta vulgaris (1.27). Opatrum sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched. PMID:25685032

  8. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  9. Strategies to reconstruct 3D Coffea arabica L. plant structure.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Fabio Takeshi; Tosti, Jonas Barbosa; Androcioli-Filho, Armando; Brancher, Jacques Duílio; Costes, Evelyne; Rakocevic, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Accurate model of structural elements is necessary to model the foliage and fruit distributions in cultivated plants, both of them being key parameters for yield prediction. However, the level of details in architectural data collection could vary, simplifying the data collection when plants get older and because of the high time cost required. In the present study, we aimed at reconstructing and analyzing plant structure, berry distributions and yield in Coffea arabica (Arabica coffee), by using both detailed or partial morphological information and probabilistic functions. Different datasets of coffee plant architectures were available with different levels of detail depending on the tree age. Three scales of decomposition-plant, axes and metamers were used reconstruct the plant architectures. CoffePlant3D, a software which integrates a series of mathematical, computational and statistical methods organized in three newly developed modules, AmostraCafe3D, VirtualCafe3D and Cafe3D, was developed to accurately reconstruct coffee plants in 3D, whatever the level of details available. The number of metamers of the 2nd order axes was shown to be linearly proportional to that of the orthotropic trunk, and the number of berries per metamer was modeled as a Gaussian function within a specific zone along the plagiotropic axes. This ratio of metamer emission rhythm between the orthotropic trunk and plagiotropic axes represents the pillar of botanical events in the C. arabica development and was central in our modeling approach, especially to reconstruct missing data. The methodology proposed for reconstructing coffee plants under the CoffePlant3D was satisfactorily validated across dataset available and could be performed for any other Arabica coffee variety.

  10. CFL3D User's Manual (Version 5.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Sherrie L.; Biedron, Robert T.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the User's Manual for the CFL3D computer code, a thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver for structured multiple-zone grids. Descriptions of the code's input parameters, non-dimensionalizations, file formats, boundary conditions, and equations are included. Sample 2-D and 3-D test cases are also described, and many helpful hints for using the code are provided.

  11. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  12. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution promotes 3D photography as an important tool to obtain objective object information. Keeping mainly in mind World Heritage documentation as well as Heritage protection, it is another intention of this paper, to stimulate the interest in applications of 3D photography for professionals as well as for amateurs. In addition this is also an activity report of the international CIPA task group 3. The main part of this paper starts with "Digging the treasure of existing international 3D photography". This does not only belong to tangible but also to intangible Cultural Heritage. 3D photography clearly supports the recording, the visualization, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. Therefore the use of 3D photography in C.H. should increase on an international level. The presented samples in 3D represent a voluminous, almost partly "forgotten treasure" of international archives for 3D photography. The next chapter is on "Promoting new 3D photography in Cultural Heritage". Though 3D photographs are a well-established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, even suited to provide "near real" documentation, they are still a matter of research and improvement. Beside the use of 3D cameras even single lenses cameras are very much suited for photographic 3D documentation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Currently at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, low altitude aerial photography is exposed from a maximum height of 13m, using a hand hold carbon telescope rod. The use of this "huge selfie stick" is also an (international) recommendation, to expose high resolution 3D photography of monuments under expedition conditions. In addition to the carbon rod recently a captive balloon and a hexacopter UAV- platform is in use, mainly to take better synoptically (extremely low altitude, ground truth) aerial photography. Additional experiments with respect to "easy

  13. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  14. Development of 3D holographic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Meriç; Önal Tayyar, Duygu

    2016-03-01

    Here we present the development of a 3D holographic endoscope with an interferometer built around a commercial rigid endoscope. We consider recording the holograms with coherent and incoherent light separately without compromising the white light imaging capacity of the endoscope. In coherent light based recording, reference wave required for the hologram is obtained in two different ways. First, as in the classical holography, splitting the laser beam before the object illumination, and secondly creating the reference beam from the object beam itself. This second method does not require path-length matching between the object wave and the reference wave, and it allows the usage of short coherence length light sources. For incoherent light based holographic recordings various interferometric configurations are considered. Experimental results on both illumination conditions are presented.

  15. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires

    PubMed Central

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly. PMID:28327533

  16. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires.

    PubMed

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-03-22

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly.

  17. True 3D displays for avionics and mission crewstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholler, Elizabeth A.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Lucente, Mark E.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    3D threat projection has been shown to decrease the human recognition time for events, especially for a jet fighter pilot or C4I sensor operator when the advantage of realization that a hostile threat condition exists is the basis of survival. Decreased threat recognition time improves the survival rate and results from more effective presentation techniques, including the visual cue of true 3D (T3D) display. The concept of 'font' describes the approach adopted here, but whereas a 2D font comprises pixel bitmaps, a T3D font herein comprises a set of hologram bitmaps. The T3D font bitmaps are pre-computed, stored, and retrieved as needed to build images comprising symbols and/or characters. Human performance improvement, hologram generation for a T3D symbol font, projection requirements, and potential hardware implementation schemes are described. The goal is to employ computer-generated holography to create T3D depictions of a dynamic threat environments using fieldable hardware.

  18. Stereoscopic 3D video games and their effects on engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill; Zerebecki, Chris; Tawadrous, Mina; Stanfield, Brodie; Hogue, Urszula

    2012-03-01

    With television manufacturers developing low-cost stereoscopic 3D displays, a large number of consumers will undoubtedly have access to 3D-capable televisions at home. The availability of 3D technology places the onus on content creators to develop interesting and engaging content. While the technology of stereoscopic displays and content generation are well understood, there are many questions yet to be answered surrounding its effects on the viewer. Effects of stereoscopic display on passive viewers for film are known, however video games are fundamentally different since the viewer/player is actively (rather than passively) engaged in the content. Questions of how stereoscopic viewing affects interaction mechanics have previously been studied in the context of player performance but very few have attempted to quantify the player experience to determine whether stereoscopic 3D has a positive or negative influence on their overall engagement. In this paper we present a preliminary study of the effects stereoscopic 3D have on player engagement in video games. Participants played a video game in two conditions, traditional 2D and stereoscopic 3D and their engagement was quantified using a previously validated self-reporting tool. The results suggest that S3D has a positive effect on immersion, presence, flow, and absorption.

  19. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering made by 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Leukers, Barbara; Gülkan, Hülya; Irsen, Stephan H; Milz, Stefan; Tille, Carsten; Schieker, Matthias; Seitz, Hermann

    2005-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a significant need for synthetic bone replacement materials used in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Rapid prototyping and especially 3D printing is a suitable technique to create custom implants based on medical data sets. 3D printing allows to fabricate scaffolds based on Hydroxyapatite with complex internal structures and high resolution. To determine the in vitro behaviour of cells cultivated on the scaffolds, we designed a special test-part. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the scaffolds and cultivated under static and dynamic setups. Histological evaluation was carried out to characterise the cell ingrowth. In summary, the dynamic cultivation method lead to a stronger population compared to the static cultivation method. The cells proliferated deep into the structure forming close contact to Hydroxyapatite granules.

  20. High cell density cultivation of recombinant yeasts and bacteria under non-pressurized and pressurized conditions in stirred tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Arnd; Bartsch, Stefan; Husemann, Bernward; Engel, Philip; Schroer, Kirsten; Ribeiro, Betina; Stöckmann, Christoph; Seletzky, Juri; Büchs, Jochen

    2007-10-31

    This study demonstrates the applicability of pressurized stirred tank bioreactors for oxygen transfer enhancement in aerobic cultivation processes. The specific power input and the reactor pressure was employed as process variable. As model organism Escherichia coli, Arxula adeninivorans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Corynebacterium glutamicum were cultivated to high cell densities. By applying specific power inputs of approx. 48kWm(-3) the oxygen transfer rate of a E. coli culture in the non-pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was lifted up to values of 0.51moll(-1)h(-1). When a reactor pressure up to 10bar was applied, the oxygen transfer rate of a pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was lifted up to values of 0.89moll(-1)h(-1). The non-pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was able to support non-oxygen limited growth of cell densities of more than 40gl(-1) cell dry weight (CDW) of E. coli, whereas the pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was able to support non-oxygen limited growth of cell densities up to 225gl(-1) CDW of A. adeninivorans, 89gl(-1) CDW of S. cerevisiae, 226gl(-1) CDW of C. glutamicum and 110gl(-1) CDW of E. coli. Compared to literature data, some of these cell densities are the highest values ever achieved in high cell density cultivation of microorganisms in stirred tank bioreactors. By comparing the specific power inputs as well as the k(L)a values of both systems, it is demonstrated that only the pressure is a scaleable tool for oxygen transfer enhancement in industrial stirred tank bioreactors. Furthermore, it was shown that increased carbon dioxide partial pressures did not remarkably inhibit the growth of the investigated model organisms.

  1. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  2. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  3. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  4. Towards functional assembly of 3D and 2D nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.; Wang, Kai; Ievlev, Anton V.; Muckley, Eric S.; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-09-01

    Functional assemblies of materials can be realized by tuning the work function and band gap of nanomaterials by rational material selection and design. Here we demonstrate the structural assembly of 2D and 3D nanomaterials and show that layering a 2D material monolayer on a 3D metal oxide leads to substantial alteration of both the surface potential and optical properties of the 3D material. A 40 nm thick film of polycrystalline NiO was produced by room temperature rf-sputtering, resulting in a 3D nanoparticle assembly. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 10-30 μm WS2 flakes (2D material) were placed on the NiO surface using a PDMS stamp transfer technique. The 2D/3D WS2/NiO assembly was characterized using confocal micro Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the vibrational properties and using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to evaluate the surface potential. Raman maps of the 2D/3D assembly show spatial non-uniformity of the A1g mode ( 418 cm-1) and the disorder-enhanced longitudinal acoustic mode, 2LA(M) ( 350 cm-1), suggesting that the WS2 exists in a strained condition on when transferred onto 3D polycrystalline NiO. KPFM measurements show that single layer WS2 on SiO2 has a surface potential 75 mV lower than that of SiO2, whereas the surface potential of WS2 on NiO is 15 mV higher than NiO, indicating that WS2 could act as electron donor or acceptor depending on the 3D material it is interfaced with. Thus 2D and 3D materials can be organized into functional assemblies with electron flow controlled by the WS2 either as the electron donor or acceptor.

  5. Demonstration of a 3D vision algorithm for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports an extension of the MIAG algorithm for recognition and motion parameter determination of general 3-D polyhedral objects based on model matching techniques and using movement invariants as features of object representation. Results of tests conducted on the algorithm under conditions simulating space conditions are presented.

  6. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  7. Tomographic 3D-PIV and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Wieneke, Bernhard; Scarano, Fulvio; Schröder, Andreas

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry is a 3D PIV technique based on the illumination, recording, reconstruction and analysis of tracer-particle motion within a three-dimensional measurement volume. The recently developed technique makes use of several simultaneous views of the illuminated particles, typically 4, and their three-dimensional reconstruction as a light-intensity distribution by means of optical tomography. The reconstruction is performed with the MART algorithm (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique), yielding a 3D distribution of light intensity discretized over an array of voxels. The reconstructed tomogram pair is then analyzed by means of 3D crosscorrelation with an iterative multigrid volume-deformation technique, returning the three-component velocity vector distribution over the measurement volume. The implementation of the tomographic technique in time-resolved mode by means of high repetition rate PIV hardware has the capability to yield 4D velocity information. The first part of the chapter describes the operation principles and gives a detailed assessment of the tomographic reconstruction algorithm performance based upon a computer-simulated experiment. The second part of the chapter proposes four applications on two flow cases: 1. the transitional wake behind a circular cylinder; 2. the turbulent boundary layer developing over a flat plate. For the first case, experiments in air at ReD = 2700 are described together with the experimental assessment of the tomographic reconstruction accuracy. In this experiment a direct comparison is made between the results obtained by tomographic PIV and stereo-PIV. Experiments conducted in a water facility on the cylinder wake shows the extension of the technique to time-resolved measurements in water at ReD = 540 by means of a low repetition rate PIV system. A high data yield is obtained using high-resolution cameras (2k × 2k pixels) returning 650k vectors per volume. Measurements of the

  8. Dark matter in 3D

    DOE PAGES

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.

    2016-03-21

    We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our methodmore » using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. Furthermore, we conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and constrain or measure the presence of anisotropies.« less

  9. Dark matter in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.

    2016-03-21

    We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. Furthermore, we conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and constrain or measure the presence of anisotropies.

  10. Dark Matter in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Hedri, Sonia El; Wacker, Jay G.

    2012-04-01

    We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. We conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and constrain or measure the presence of anisotropies.

  11. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  12. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  13. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  14. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  15. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  16. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  17. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  18. 3-D object-oriented image analysis of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, I.; Kerle, N.; van der Meijde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geophysical data are the main source of information about the subsurface. Geophysical techniques are, however, highly non-unique in determining specific physical parameters and boundaries of subsurface objects. To obtain actual physical information, an inversion process is often applied, in which measurements at or above the Earth surface are inverted into a 2- or 3-D subsurface spatial distribution of the physical property. Interpreting these models into structural objects, related to physical processes, requires a priori knowledge and expert analysis which is susceptible to subjective choices and is therefore often non-repeatable. In this research, we implemented a recently introduced object-based approach to interpret the 3-D inversion results of a single geophysical technique using the available a priori information and the physical and geometrical characteristics of the interpreted objects. The introduced methodology is semi-automatic and repeatable, and allows the extraction of subsurface structures using 3-D object-oriented image analysis (3-D OOA) in an objective knowledge-based classification scheme. The approach allows for a semi-objective setting of thresholds that can be tested and, if necessary, changed in a very fast and efficient way. These changes require only changing the thresholds used in a so-called ruleset, which is composed of algorithms that extract objects from a 3-D data cube. The approach is tested on a synthetic model, which is based on a priori knowledge on objects present in the study area (Tanzania). Object characteristics and thresholds were well defined in a 3-D histogram of velocity versus depth, and objects were fully retrieved. The real model results showed how 3-D OOA can deal with realistic 3-D subsurface conditions in which the boundaries become fuzzy, the object extensions become unclear and the model characteristics vary with depth due to the different physical conditions. As expected, the 3-D histogram of the real data was

  19. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  20. 3D arrays for high throughput assay of cell migration and electrotaxis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sanjun; Gao, Runchi; Devreotes, Peter N; Mogilner, Alex; Zhao, Min

    2013-09-01

    Cell behaviour in 3D environments can be significantly different from those in 2D cultures. With many different 3D matrices being developed and many experimental modalities used to modulate cell behaviour in 3D, it is necessary to develop high throughput techniques to study behaviour in 3D. We report on a 3D array on slide and have adapted this to our electrotaxis chamber, thereby offering a novel approach to quantify cellular responses to electric fields (EFs) in 3D conditions, in different matrices, with different strains of cells, under various field strengths. These developments used Dictyostelium cells to illustrate possible applications and limitations.

  1. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  2. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  3. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  4. Phytochemical contents and enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) samples cultivated under organic and conventional agricultural conditions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, F Sezer; Ozturk, Nilgun; Celik, Sadiye Ayse; Pulur, Aysen; Kan, Yuksel

    2013-09-01

    Inhibitory effect of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts from Anethum graveolens L. (dill) cultivated under organic (AG-O) and conventional (AG-C) conditions was tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase at 200 μg mL⁻¹. Their antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging assays as well as ferric ion-chelation capacity, ferric-(FRAP), and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP). The phytochemical analyses have been performed on both of the plant samples. GC-MS analysis pointed out that α-phellandrene was the main component in both of the essential oils in varying amounts (47.75% for AG-O and 27.94% for AG-C), while oleic acid was the dominant in the fruit oils of two samples (36.39% for AG-O and 53.87% for AG-C). HPLC analysis showed that both of the extracts contained rosmarinic acid as the major phenolic acid. The extracts inhibited BChE at moderate level, while the ethanol extracts exerted remarkable NO scavenging effect. The results emphasize that cultivation conditions may have effect on bioactivity and phytochemical content on plant samples.

  5. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  6. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  7. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  8. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-04-29

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  9. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  10. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  11. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  12. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  13. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  14. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  15. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  16. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  17. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  18. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  19. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  20. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  1. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  2. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  3. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  4. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  5. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  6. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  7. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  9. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  10. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  11. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  12. D-Root: a system for cultivating plants with the roots in darkness or under different light conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva-Navas, Javier; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A; Manzano, Concepción; Pallero-Baena, Mercedes; Navarro-Neila, Sara; Téllez-Robledo, Bárbara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M; Baigorri, Roberto; Gallego, Francisco Javier; del Pozo, Juan C

    2015-10-01

    In nature roots grow in the dark and away from light (negative phototropism). However, most current research in root biology has been carried out with the root system grown in the presence of light. Here, we have engineered a device, called Dark-Root (D-Root), to grow plants in vitro with the aerial part exposed to the normal light/dark photoperiod while the roots are in the dark or exposed to specific wavelengths or light intensities. D-Root provides an efficient system for cultivating a large number of seedlings and easily characterizing root architecture in the dark. At the morphological level, root illumination shortens root length and promotes early emergence of lateral roots, therefore inducing expansion of the root system. Surprisingly, root illumination also affects shoot development, including flowering time. Our analyses also show that root illumination alters the proper response to hormones or abiotic stress (e.g. salt or osmotic stress) and nutrient starvation, enhancing inhibition of root growth. In conclusion, D-Root provides a growing system closer to the natural one for assaying Arabidopsis plants, and therefore its use will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in root development, hormonal signaling and stress responses.

  13. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of osmoregulation in Litopenaeus vannamei under three cultivated conditions with different salinities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Lu, Yunliang

    2016-03-10

    Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important euryhaline crustaceans, is cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater worldwide. We performed Illumina RNA sequencing of L. vannamei gills, generating 124,914,870; 119,250,450; and 105,487,350 raw reads from the shrimps cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater, respectively. From these reads, 466,293 transcripts were de novo assembled and annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 1752 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the freshwater group compared with the seawater group, including 1242 upregulated and 510 downregulated genes. In addition, 1246 genes were differentially expressed in the brackish group vs. the seawater water group, including 659 upregulated and 587 downregulated genes. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in energy metabolism, substance metabolism, ion transport and signal transduction, and genetic process. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to analyze the functional significance of the differentially expressed genes, included those responding to salinity through diverse biological functions and processes and numerous potential genes associated with the osmotic response. L. vannamei responses to the three cultivated salinities were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The transcriptional database established from the current research adds to the information available on L. vannamei and the findings expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of osmoregulation mechanisms in this species.

  14. Accessing 3D microtissue metabolism: Lactate and oxygen monitoring in hepatocyte spheroids.

    PubMed

    Weltin, Andreas; Hammer, Steffen; Noor, Fozia; Kaminski, Yeda; Kieninger, Jochen; Urban, Gerald A

    2017-01-15

    3D hepatic microtissues, unlike 2D cell cultures, retain many of the in-vivo-like functionalities even after long-term cultivation. Such 3D cultures are increasingly applied to investigate liver damage due to drug exposure in toxicology. However, there is a need for thorough metabolic characterization of these microtissues for mechanistic understanding of effects on culture behaviour. We measured metabolic parameters from single human HepaRG hepatocyte spheroids online and continuously with electrochemical microsensors. A microsensor platform for lactate and oxygen was integrated in a standard 96-well plate. Electrochemical microsensors for lactate and oxygen allow fast, precise and continuous long-term measurement of metabolic parameters directly in the microwell. The demonstrated capability to precisely detect small concentration changes by single spheroids is the key to access their metabolism. Lactate levels in the culture medium starting from 50µM with production rates of 5µMh(-1) were monitored and precisely quantified over three days. Parallel long-term oxygen measurements showed no oxygen depletion or hypoxic conditions in the microwell. Increased lactate production by spheroids upon suppression of the aerobic metabolism was observed. The dose-dependent decrease in lactate production caused by the addition of the hepatotoxic drug Bosentan was determined. We showed that in a toxicological application, metabolic monitoring yields quantitative, online information on cell viability, which complements and supports other methods such as microscopy. The demonstrated continuous access to 3D cell culture metabolism within a standard setup improves in vitro toxicology models in replacement strategies of animal experiments. Controlling the microenvironment of such organotypic cultures has impact in tissue engineering, cancer therapy and personalized medicine.

  15. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  16. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  18. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  19. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  20. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  1. A 3D Contact Smoothing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M A; Laursen, T A

    2002-05-02

    Smoothing of contact surfaces can be used to eliminate the chatter typically seen with node on facet contact and give a better representation of the actual contact surface. The latter affect is well demonstrated for problems with interference fits. In this work we present two methods for the smoothing of contact surfaces for 3D finite element contact. In the first method, we employ Gregory patches to smooth the faceted surface in a node on facet implementation. In the second method, we employ a Bezier interpolation of the faceted surface in a mortar method implementation of contact. As is well known, node on facet approaches can exhibit locking due to the failure of the Babuska-Brezzi condition and in some instances fail the patch test. The mortar method implementation is stable and provides optimal convergence in the energy of error. In the this work we demonstrate the superiority of the smoothed versus the non-smoothed node on facet implementations. We also show where the node on facet method fails and some results from the smoothed mortar method implementation.

  2. Non-isothermal 3D SDPD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Potami, Raffaele; Gatsonis, Nikolaos

    2012-11-01

    The study of fluids at micro and nanoscale requires new modeling and computational approaches. Smooth Particle Dissipative Dynamics (SDPD) is a mesh-free method that provides a bridge between the continuum equations of hydrodynamics embedded in the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach and the molecular nature embedded in the DPD approach. SDPD is thermodynamically consistent, does not rely on arbitrary coefficients for its thermostat, involves realistic transport coefficients, and includes fluctuation terms. SDPD is implemented in our work for arbitrary 3D geometries with a methodology to model solid wall boundary conditions. We present simulations for isothermal flows for verification of our approach. The entropy equation is implemented with a velocity-entropy Verlet integration algorithm Flows with heat transfer are simulated for verification of the SDPD. We present also the self-diffusion coefficient derived from SDPD simulations for gases and liquids. Results show the scale dependence of self-diffusion coefficient on SDPD particle size. Computational Mathematics Program of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant/contract number FA9550-06-1-0236.

  3. Visualization of 3-D tensor fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesselink, L.

    1996-01-01

    Second-order tensor fields have applications in many different areas of physics, such as general relativity and fluid mechanics. The wealth of multivariate information in tensor fields makes them more complex and abstract than scalar and vector fields. Visualization is a good technique for scientists to gain new insights from them. Visualizing a 3-D continuous tensor field is equivalent to simultaneously visualizing its three eigenvector fields. In the past, research has been conducted in the area of two-dimensional tensor fields. It was shown that degenerate points, defined as points where eigenvalues are equal to each other, are the basic singularities underlying the topology of tensor fields. Moreover, it was shown that eigenvectors never cross each other except at degenerate points. Since we live in a three-dimensional world, it is important for us to understand the underlying physics of this world. In this report, we describe a new method for locating degenerate points along with the conditions for classifying them in three-dimensional space. Finally, we discuss some topological features of three-dimensional tensor fields, and interpret topological patterns in terms of physical properties.

  4. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  5. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  6. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  7. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  8. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  9. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  17. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  18. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  19. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  20. Effects of manure and cultivation on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions from a corn field under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Heller, Hadar; Bar-Tal, Asher; Tamir, Guy; Bloom, Paul; Venterea, Rodney T; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Yi; Clapp, C Edward; Fine, Pinchas

    2010-01-01

    The use of organic residues as soil additives is increasing, but, depending on their composition and application methods, these organic amendments can stimulate the emissions of CO(2) and N(2)O. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of management practices in irrigated sweet corn (Zea mays L.) on CO(2) and N(2)O emissions and to relate emissions to environmental factors. In a 3-yr study, corn residues (CR) and pasteurized chicken manure (PCM) were used as soil amendments compared with no residue (NR) under three management practices: shallow tillage (ST) and no tillage (NT) under consecutive corn crops and ST without crop. Tillage significantly increased (P < 0.05) CO(2) and N(2)O fluxes in residue-amended plots and in NR plots. Carbon dioxide and N(2)O fluxes were correlated with soil NH(4) concentrations and with days since tillage and days since seeding. Fluxes of CO(2) were correlated with soil water content, whereas N(2)O fluxes had higher correlation with air temperature. Annual CO(2) emissions were higher with PCM than with CR and NR (9.7, 2.9, and 2.3 Mg C ha(-1), respectively). Fluxes of N(2)O were 34.4, 0.94, and 0.77 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) with PCM, CR, and NR, respectively. Annual amounts of CO(2)-C and N(2)O-N emissions from the PCM treatments were 64 and 3% of the applied C and N, respectively. Regardless of cultivation practices, elevated N(2)O emissions were recorded in the PCM treatment. These emissions could negate some of the beneficial effects of PCM on soil properties.

  1. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID

  2. 3D printing technology using high viscous materials - Synthesis of functional materials and fabrication of 3D metal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongik

    In the 3D printing technology, the research for using various materials has been performing. In this research work, 3D printable high viscous materials are suggested as one of the solutions for problems in the traditional 3D printing technology. First, Cu-Ag coreshell was synthesized as a functional material. In terms of the reaction rate, reaction rate limiting step was defined as a fundamental research, and then prepared Cu-Ag coreshell was printed and analyzed. Second, the high viscous Cu paste was prepared and then metal 3D printed structure was fabricated by using new printing method. In the synthesis of Cu-Ag coreshell, different sizes of Cu particle, 2μm and 100nm were used, and when 2μm Cu was applied, the reaction rate was limited by film diffusion control. However, when 100nm Cu was applied, reaction rate was controlled by CuO film and the rate of the reaction, which includes removing CuO film in the solution, is limited by chemical reaction control. The shape of Cu-Ag particle is spherical in the 2μm Cu condition and dendrite shape in the 100nm Cu condition respectively. The conductivity of Cu-Ag coreshell paste increased as increasing content of coreshell particle in the paste and sintering temperature. In order to print high viscous metal paste, the high viscous Cu paste was printed by using screw extruder, and the viscosity of Cu paste was measured as a fundamental research. As increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste, the viscosity also increased. In addition, the shrinkage factor was reduced by increasing wt.% of Cu in the paste. An optimized printing condition for the high viscous material was obtained, and by using this condition, 3D metal structure was fabricated. The final product was heat treated and polished. Through these processes, a fine quality of metal 3D structure was printed.

  3. A note on singularities of the 3-D Euler equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we consider analytic initial conditions with finite energy, whose complex spatial continuation is a superposition of a smooth background flow and a singular field. Through explicit calculation in the complex plane, we show that under some assumptions, the solution to the 3-D Euler equation ceases to be analytic in the real domain in finite time.

  4. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  5. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  6. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  7. Optimization of substrate preparation for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation by studying different raw materials and substrate preparation conditions (composting: phases I and II).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has become one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world, mainly in Brazil. Among many factors involved in a mushroom production, substrate preparation is the most critical step, which can be influenced by composting management techniques. Looking forward to optimizing the substrate preparation process, were tested different composting conditions (7 and 14 days of composting with or without conditioning), potential raw materials (decumbens grass, brizantha grass and sugarcane straw) and nitrogen supplementation (with or without wheat bran) on oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The substrate composted for 7 days with conditioning showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (24.04 and 100.54 %, respectively). Substrates without conditioning (7 and 14 days of composting) showed smaller mushroom yield and biological efficiency. Among the raw materials tested, brizantha grass showed higher mushroom yield followed by decumbens grass, sugarcane straw and wheat straw (28.5, 24.32, 23.5 and 19.27 %, respectively). Brizantha grass also showed higher biological efficiency followed by sugarcane straw, decumbens grass and wheat straw (123.95, 103.70, 96.90 and 86.44 %, respectively). Supplementation with wheat bran improved yield and biological efficiency in all substrate formulations tested; thus, oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency were influenced by substrate formulation (raw materials), supplementation and composting conditions.

  8. FUN3D and CFL3D Computations for the First High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used to compute flow over the NASA Trapezoidal Wing at high lift conditions for the 1st AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop, held in Chicago in June 2010. The unstructured-grid code FUN3D and the structured-grid code CFL3D were applied to several different grid systems. The effects of code, grid system, turbulence model, viscous term treatment, and brackets were studied. The SST model on this configuration predicted lower lift than the Spalart-Allmaras model at high angles of attack; the Spalart-Allmaras model agreed better with experiment. Neglecting viscous cross-derivative terms caused poorer prediction in the wing tip vortex region. Output-based grid adaptation was applied to the unstructured-grid solutions. The adapted grids better resolved wake structures and reduced flap flow separation, which was also observed in uniform grid refinement studies. Limitations of the adaptation method as well as areas for future improvement were identified.

  9. 3-d interpolation in object perception: evidence from an objective performance paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Philip J; Garrigan, Patrick; Shipley, Thomas F; Yin, Carol; Machado, Liana

    2005-06-01

    Object perception requires interpolation processes that connect visible regions despite spatial gaps. Some research has suggested that interpolation may be a 3-D process, but objective performance data and evidence about the conditions leading to interpolation are needed. The authors developed an objective performance paradigm for testing 3-D interpolation and tested a new theory of 3-D contour interpolation, termed 3-D relatability. The theory indicates for a given edge which orientations and positions of other edges in space may be connected to it by interpolation. Results of 5 experiments showed that processing of orientation relations in 3-D relatable displays was superior to processing in 3-D nonrelatable displays and that these effects depended on object formation. 3-D interpolation and 3-D relatabilty are discussed in terms of their implications for computational and neural models of object perception, which have typically been based on 2-D-orientation-sensitive units.

  10. Analysis of temporal stability of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    An analysis has been made of the stability of the images generated by electronic autostereoscopic 3D displays, studying the time course of the photometric and colorimetric parameters. The measurements were made on the basis of the procedure recommended in the European guideline EN 61747-6 for the characterization of electronic liquid-crystal displays (LCD). The study uses 3 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and numbers of pixels, taking the measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). For each of the displays, the time course is shown for the tristimulus values and the chromaticity coordinates in the XYZ CIE 1931 system and values from the time periods required to reach stable values of these parameters are presented. For the analysis of how the procedure recommended in the guideline EN 61747-6 for 2D displays influenced the results, and for the adaption of the procedure to the characterization of 3D displays, the experimental conditions of the standard procedure were varied, making the stability analysis in the two ocular channels (RE and LE) of the 3D mode and comparing the results with those corresponding to the 2D. The results of our study show that the stabilization time of a autostereoscopic 3D display with parallax barrier technology depends on the tristimulus value analysed (X, Y, Z) as well as on the presentation mode (2D, 3D); furthermore, it was found that whether the 3D mode is used depends on the ocular channel evaluated (RE, LE).

  11. Practical pseudo-3D registration for large tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Laperre, Kjell; Sasov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Image registration is a powerful tool in various tomographic applications. Our main focus is on microCT applications in which samples/animals can be scanned multiple times under different conditions or at different time points. For this purpose, a registration tool capable of handling fairly large volumes has been developed, using a novel pseudo-3D method to achieve fast and interactive registration with simultaneous 3D visualization. To reduce computation complexity in 3D registration, we decompose it into several 2D registrations, which are applied to the orthogonal views (transaxial, sagittal and coronal) sequentially and iteratively. After registration in each view, the next view is retrieved with the new transformation matrix for registration. This reduces the computation complexity significantly. For rigid transform, we only need to search for 3 parameters (2 shifts, 1 rotation) in each of the 3 orthogonal views instead of 6 (3 shifts, 3 rotations) for full 3D volume. In addition, the amount of voxels involved is also significantly reduced. For the proposed pseudo-3D method, image-based registration is employed, with Sum of Square Difference (SSD) as the similarity measure. The searching engine is Powell's conjugate direction method. In this paper, only rigid transform is used. However, it can be extended to affine transform by adding scaling and possibly shearing to the transform model. We have noticed that more information can be used in the 2D registration if Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) or Parallel Projections (PP) is used instead of the orthogonal views. Also, other similarity measures, such as covariance or mutual information, can be easily incorporated. The initial evaluation on microCT data shows very promising results. Two application examples are shown: dental samples before and after treatment and structural changes in materials before and after compression. Evaluation on registration accuracy between pseudo-3D method and true 3D method has

  12. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  13. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  14. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  15. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  16. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  17. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  18. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  19. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  20. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  1. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  2. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  3. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  4. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  5. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  6. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  7. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  8. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  9. 3D Geo-Information in Urban Climate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, F.; Aldea, M.; Luca, O.; Iacoboaea, C.; Gaman, F.; Parlow, E.

    2016-10-01

    3D geo-information is essential for urban climate studies. It is obvious that both natural environment and built-up environment play the fundamental role in defining the climatic conditions for urban areas, which affect the quality of human life and human comfort. The paper presents the main categories of 3D geo-information used in urban climate studies and roles in creating and operating the numerical models specially designed to simulate urban planning scenarios and improvement of the urban climate situation.

  10. Status of 3D Ice Shape Measurement Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    (1) Main goal of the Airframe Icing Technical Challenge is to achieve acceptance of experimental and computational icing simulation tools -SupercooledLarge Droplet Icing (SLD) conditions -3D airframe components including swept wings; (2) It is necessary to develop suitable means of recording and archiving fully 3D descriptions of experimental ice accretion geometry; (3) Past research has shown that commercial laser scanners have the potential to be adapted to this task; and (4) A research plan has been developed to implement and validate the use of this technology for experimental ice accretions.

  11. 3D display considerations for rugged airborne environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnidge, Tracy J.; Tchon, Joseph L.

    2015-05-01

    The KC-46 is the next generation, multi-role, aerial refueling tanker aircraft being developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force. Rockwell Collins has developed the Remote Vision System (RVS) that supports aerial refueling operations under a variety of conditions. The system utilizes large-area, high-resolution 3D displays linked with remote sensors to enhance the operator's visual acuity for precise aerial refueling control. This paper reviews the design considerations, trade-offs, and other factors related to the selection and ruggedization of the 3D display technology for this military application.

  12. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  13. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  14. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  15. A new computer-controlled air-liquid interface cultivation system for the generation of differentiated cell cultures of the airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Michaela; Förster, Christine; Beschay, Morris; Branscheid, Detlev; Emura, Makito

    2016-01-01

    The increased application of in vitro systems in pharmacology and toxicology requires cell culture systems that facilitate the cultivation process and ensure stable, reproducible and controllable cultivation conditions. Up to now, some devices have been developed for the cultivation of cells under submersed conditions. However, systems meeting the requirements of an air-liquid interface (ALI) cultivation for the special needs of bronchial epithelial cells for example are still lacking. In order to obtain in vivo like organization and differentiation of these cells they need to be cultivated under ALI conditions on microporous membranes in direct contact with the environmental atmosphere. For this purpose, a Long-Term-Cultivation system was developed (CULTEX(®) LTC-C system) for the computer-controlled cultivation of such cells. The transwell inserts are placed in an incubator module (24 inserts), which can be adjusted for the medium level (ultrasonic pulse-echosensor), time and volume-dependent medium exchange, and frequency for mixing the medium with a rotating disc for homogeneous distribution of medium and secretion components. Normal primary freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells were cultivated for up to 38 days to show the efficiency of such a cultivation procedure for generating 3D cultures exhibiting in vivo-like pseudostratified organization of the cells as well as differentiation characteristics like mucus-producing and cilia-forming cells.

  16. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  17. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  18. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  19. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  20. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  1. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  2. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  3. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  4. Measuring the Visual Salience of 3D Printed Objects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Lindlbauer, David; Lessig, Christian; Maertens, Marianne; Alexa, Marc

    2016-01-01

    To investigate human viewing behavior on physical realizations of 3D objects, the authors use an eye tracker with scene camera and fiducial markers on 3D objects to gather fixations on the presented stimuli. They use this data to validate assumptions regarding visual saliency that so far have experimentally only been analyzed for flat stimuli. They provide a way to compare fixation sequences from different subjects and developed a model for generating test sequences of fixations unrelated to the stimuli. Their results suggest that human observers agree in their fixations for the same object under similar viewing conditions. They also developed a simple procedure to validate computational models for visual saliency of 3D objects and found that popular models of mesh saliency based on center surround patterns fail to predict fixations.

  5. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  6. Multi-view 3D display using waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Chang-Kun

    2015-07-01

    We propose a multi-projection based multi-view 3D display system using an optical waveguide. The images from the projection units with the angle satisfying the total internal reflection (TIR) condition are incident on the waveguide and experience multiple reflections at the interface by the TIR. As a result of the multiple reflections in the waveguide, the projection distance in horizontal direction is effectively reduced to the thickness of the waveguide, and it is possible to implement the compact projection display system. By aligning the projection array in the entrance part of the waveguide, the multi-view 3D display system based on the multiple projectors with the minimized structure is realized. Viewing zones are generated by combining the waveguide projection system, a vertical diffuser, and a Fresnel lens. In the experimental setup, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified and a ten-view 3D display system with compact size in projection space is implemented.

  7. Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.

  8. [Pathophysiological diagnosis of facial paralysis using 3-D MRI].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, T; Hirata, K; Yuki, N; Sato, T

    2001-04-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis(facial diplesia) is often observed in Guillain-Barré syndrome(GBS) and Fisher's syndrome (FS). We tried to observe injured facial nerves using three-dimensional(3-D) MRI in facial diplesia due to GBS and its variants and examined function of blood nerve barrier and clinical use of 3-D MRI for detecting injured facial nerves. In the four patients with GBS and its variants(GBS three cases, FS one case), while routine brain MRI did not show any abnormal findings, contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI revealed Gd-enhancement of the facial nerves. On the other hand, only one case showed visualization using contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI in twelve cases of Bell's palsy. Therefore, it may be presumed that the reason why the significantly higher rate of visualization in facial paralysis in GBS and its variants than in Bell's palsy is attributable to a difference in the mechanism of injury or the extreme seriousness of the disease. In conclusion, the observation of facial nerve using 3-D MRI was very useful to know the condition of the facial diplesia in GBS and its variants.

  9. 1,3-Propanediol production from glycerol with a novel biocatalyst Shimwellia blattae ATCC 33430: Operational conditions and kinetics in batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Alberto; Wojtusik, Mateusz; Ripoll, Vanessa; Santos, Victoria E; Garcia-Ochoa, F

    2016-01-01

    Shimwellia blattae ATCC 33430 as biocatalyst in the conversion of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol is herein evaluated. Several operational conditions in batch cultivations, employing pure and raw glycerol as sole carbon source, were studied. Temperature was studied at shaken bottle scale, while pH control strategy, together with the influence of raw glycerol and its impurities during fermentation were studied employing a 2L STBR. Thereafter, fluid dynamic conditions were considered by changing the stirring speed and the gas supply (air or nitrogen) in the same scale-up experiments. The best results were obtained at a temperature of 37°C, an agitation rate of 200rpm, with free pH evolution from 6.9 and subsequent control at 6.5 and no gas supply during the fermentation, employing an initial concentration of 30g/L of raw glycerol. Under these conditions, the biocatalyst is competitive, leading to results in line with other previous works in the literature in batch conditions, reaching a final concentration of 1,3-propanediol of 13.84g/L, with a yield of 0.45g/g and a productivity of 1.19g/(Lh) from raw glycerol.

  10. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  11. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  12. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  13. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  14. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  15. 3D Simulations of the Beehive Proplyd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, J. A.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Cerqueira, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Some star formation regions, like the Orion nebula, have stars of different masses, from massive stars, responsible for strong ionizing winds and HII regions, to low-mass stars, which spend a long time in the protostellar phase, and are frequently associated with protostellar disks and jets. Massive O or B stars emit a great deal of UV radiation, able to dissociate the hydrogen molecule (FUV radiation, energies between 6-13 eV), to ionize the atomic hydrogen (EUV radiation, energies greater than 13.6 eV) and heat the gas. Around these stars, a large and hot (10^{4}K) region is formed, known as HII region. T-Tauri stars inside HII regions produce a type of young stellar object, a proplyd, described with accuracy in O'Dell et al. (1993). Proplyds exhibit a cometary shape from which we can distinguish a central low-mass star with an accretion disk, an ionization front, a photodissociation region and, sometimes, an external bow shock and a protostellar jet. Its morphological characteristics depends on the distance between the low-mass star and the source of the ionizing radiation. The Beehive, a giant proplyd in Orion Nebula, has attracted attention due to its exotic system of rings coaxial to the HH540 jet's axis. Bally et al. (2005) suggested that the rings are perturbations due to the crossing of the ionization front by the jet. In this work, we test this hypothesis making 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations over an adaptive grid, using the Yguazú-A code (Raga et al., 2000), properly adapted for the Beehive conditions. Our results show that the jet causes a perturbation in the ionization front of the proplyd, but is necessary to adjust carefully some parameters of the jet like its velocity and ejection frequency in order to have the results matching the observations.

  16. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  17. Three-dimensional perfusion cultivation of human cardiac-derived progenitors facilitates their expansion while maintaining progenitor state.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Olga; Ruvinov, Emil; Cohen, Smadar

    2014-11-01

    The therapeutic application of autologous cardiac-derived progenitor cells (CPCs) requires a large cell quantity generated under defined conditions. Herein, we investigated the applicability of a three-dimensional (3D) perfusion cultivation system to facilitate the expansion of CPCs harvested from human heart biopsies and characterized by a relatively high percentage of c-kit(+) cells. The cells were seeded in macroporous alginate scaffolds and after cultivation for 7 days under static conditions, some of the constructs were transferred into a perfusion bioreactor, which was operated for an additional 14 days. A robust and highly reproducible human CPC (hCPC) expansion of more than seven-fold was achieved under the 3D perfusion culture conditions, while under static conditions, the expansion of CPCs was limited only to the first 7 days, after which it leveled-off. On day 21 of perfusion cultivation, the expanded cells exhibited a higher expression level of the progenitor marker c-kit, suggesting that the c-kit-positive CPCs are the main cell population undergoing proliferation. The profile of the spontaneous differentiation in the perfused construct was different from that in the static cultivated constructs; genes typical for cardiac and endothelial cell lineages were more widely expressed in the perfused constructs. By contrast, the differentiation to osteogenic (Von Kossa staining and alkaline phosphatase activity) and adipogenic (Oil Red staining) lineages was reduced in the perfused constructs compared with static cultivated constructs. Collectively, our results indicate that 3D perfusion cultivation mode is an appropriate system for robust expansion of human CPCs while maintaining their progenitor state and differentiation potential into the cardiovascular cell lineages.

  18. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  19. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  20. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  1. Effects of cultivation conditions on the uptake of arsenite and arsenic chemical species accumulated by Pteris vittata in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Masayoshi; Sato, Takahiko; Shinoda, Kozo; Inoue, Chihiro

    2011-03-01

    The physiological responses of the arsenic-hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata, such as arsenic uptake and chemical transformation in the fern, have been investigated. However, a few questions remain regarding arsenic treatment in hydroponics. Incubation conditions such as aeration, arsenic concentration, and incubation period might affect those responses of P. vittata in hydroponics. Arsenite uptake was low under anaerobic conditions, as previously reported. However, in an arsenite uptake experiment, phosphorous (P) starvation-dependent uptake of arsenate was observed under aerobic conditions. Time course-dependent analysis of arsenite oxidation showed that arsenite was gradually oxidized to arsenate during incubation. Arsenite oxidation was not observed in any of the control conditions, such as exposure to a nutrient solution or to culture medium only, or with the use of dried root; arsenite oxidation was only observed when live root was used. This result suggests that sufficient aeration allows the rhizosphere system to oxidize arsenite and enables the fern to efficiently take up arsenite as arsenate. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses showed that long-duration exposure to arsenic using a hydroponic system led to the accumulation of arsenate as the dominant species in the root tips, but not in the whole roots, partly because up-regulation of arsenate uptake by P starvation of the fern was caused and retained by long-time incubation. Analysis of concentration-dependent arsenate uptake by P. vittata showed that the uptake switched from a high-affinity transport system to a low-affinity system at high arsenate concentrations, which partially explains the increased arsenate abundance in the whole root.

  2. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K. Anitha; Torres, Rolando O.; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity. PMID:27342311

  3. Effect of outdoor conditions on Nannochloropsis salina cultivation in artificial seawater using nutrients from anaerobic digestion effluent.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Ge, Xumeng; Park, Stephen Y; Li, Yebo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of simulated outdoor seasonal climatic conditions on Nannochloropsis salina (N. salina) grown using nutrients from anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent were evaluated in this study. Under various light exposure (LE) and temperature (10-30 °C) conditions, N. salina specific growth rate (μ) was strongly affected by LE. Light availability (LA) was observed to be crucial for biomass production, with μ values of 0.038±0.013 d(-1), 0.093±0.013 d(-1), and 0.151±0.021 d(-1) for 6-h, 12-h, and 24-h LA conditions, respectively. Temperature (10-25 °C) was not significant in affecting the light dependent growth coefficient (μ/LE), indicating the suitability of culturing this strain in the Ohio climate. Cultures exposed to low illumination had significantly higher unsaturated fatty acid content than those under high illumination, with nearly 29% higher eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) content. Using LE and light attenuation resulted in adequate prediction of N. salina growth in a 1000 L open raceway pond.

  4. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  5. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  6. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  7. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  8. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  9. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  10. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  11. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  12. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  13. [3D echocardiography. Mathematical principles and technical realization].

    PubMed

    Wollschläger, H

    1995-08-01

    The ultimate goal of any imaging technique for the investigation of the anatomy of the beating heart is a 3D-display of the cardiac morphology throughout a complete heart cycle. The reason for this interest is quite clear: 3D-imaging has the potential for a better understanding of the individual morphology under normal and pathological conditions and especially, if complex therapeutic decisions have to been made. In the clinical practice, the echocardiographer attempts to obtain a spatial information by a mental reassembling of the 2D echocardiographic images, that are obtained from different imaging planes. This procedure, however, is very subjective and, thus, highly susceptible for errors. Therefore, the 3D-echocardiography has been developed to replace this mental process by an "objective" and reproducible computerized reconstruction. Prerequisite for such a 3D-surface reconstruction is a cubic, isotropic digital data set with cubic data volumes, so called "Voxels" (Figure 1). The term "isotropic" means, that the resolution is identical in all directions, and that the data density within the cube is homogeneous. Those cubes are the mathematical basis for any 3D-reconstruction. At the first step on the way to 3D-images, the data cubes have to be filled with 2D echo information. So far, three principal modalities of image acquisition are available for the clinical routine: parallel scanning from the esophagus (Figure 2), rotational scanning (transesophageal--Figure 3a--or transthoracic--Figure 3b). In all cases, the imaging planes are incremented by an external stepper motor using a dedicated computer logic for gated image acquisition. At the present time, despite geometrical shortcomings, the TEE omniplane probe with rotational scanning is the most widely used system. It can be applied for standard investigations as well as for "3D"-data acquisition after only minor modifications. The process of 3D-reconstruction is a sequence of repeated steps of image

  14. Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3-D seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3-D earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a 3-D seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3-D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model, respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3-D crust-over-mantle model.

  15. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  16. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  17. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  18. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  19. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  20. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  1. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  2. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  3. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  4. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  5. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  6. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  7. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also being developed. Other on-going and planned developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a computational link that allows easy integration with transport and stability physics modules for integrated modeling. EFIT reconstruction capability is also being extended to 3D based on perturbation solutions to the 3D Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation.

  8. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  9. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  10. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  11. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  12. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  13. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  14. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  15. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  16. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Chris; Jagers, Bert

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  17. Superplastic forming using NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M.

    1996-12-04

    The superplastic forming process requires careful control of strain rates in order to avoid strain localizations. A load scheduler was developed and implemented into the nonlinear finite element code NIKE3D to provide strain rate control during forming simulation and process schedule output. Often the sheets being formed in SPF are very thin such that less expensive membrane elements can be used as opposed to shell elements. A large strain membrane element was implemented into NIKE3D to assist in SPF process modeling.

  18. [Delirium, depression, dementia: solving the 3D's].

    PubMed

    Schuerch, M; Farag, L; Deom, S

    2012-01-01

    As there is no consensus in the specialized literature, it is often difficult to recognize the ties existing between dementia, delirium and depression. Depression preceding dementia is well-documented. Depressive symptoms during the process of dementia are less well-known. So are the close relationships between dementia and delirium as well as between delirium and depression. The commonality of symptoms between the three often causes diagnostic dilemmas. Unfortunately, elderly patients can often present two, or even three, of the "3 D's" simultaneously. Untangling the 3 D's has been the subject of several articles. We propose a synthesis as well as our thoughts on the subject from a clinical psychogeriatric standpoint.

  19. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  20. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.

  1. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  2. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  3. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  4. Scalable 3D GIS environment managed by 3D-XML-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Rui, Jianxun; Chen, Neng

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, the namely 3D GIS technologies become a key factor in establishing and maintaining large-scale 3D geoinformation services. However, with the rapidly increasing size and complexity of the 3D models being acquired, a pressing needed for suitable data management solutions has become apparent. This paper outlines that storage and exchange of geospatial data between databases and different front ends like 3D models, GIS or internet browsers require a standardized format which is capable to represent instances of 3D GIS models, to minimize loss of information during data transfer and to reduce interface development efforts. After a review of previous methods for spatial 3D data management, a universal lightweight XML-based format for quick and easy sharing of 3D GIS data is presented. 3D data management based on XML is a solution meeting the requirements as stated, which can provide an efficient means for opening a new standard way to create an arbitrary data structure and share it over the Internet. To manage reality-based 3D models, this paper uses 3DXML produced by Dassault Systemes. 3DXML uses opening XML schemas to communicate product geometry, structure and graphical display properties. It can be read, written and enriched by standard tools; and allows users to add extensions based on their own specific requirements. The paper concludes with the presentation of projects from application areas which will benefit from the functionality presented above.

  5. MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

  6. Development of 3D video and 3D data services for T-DMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kugjin; Lee, Hyun; Hur, Namho; Kim, Jinwoong

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present motivation, system concept, and implementation details of stereoscopic 3D visual services on T-DMB. We have developed two types of 3D visual service : one is '3D video service', which provides 3D depth feeling for a video program by sending left and right view video streams, and the other is '3D data service', which provides presentation of 3D objects overlaid on top of 2D video program. We have developed several highly efficient and sophisticated transmission schemes for the delivery of 3D visual data in order to meet the system requirements such as (1) minimization of bitrate overhead to comply with the strict constraint of T-DMB channel bandwidth; (2) backward and forward compatibility with existing T-DMB; (3) maximize the eye-catching effect of 3D visual representation while reducing eye fatigue. We found that, in contrast to conventional way of providing a stereo version of a program as a whole, the proposed scheme can lead to variety of efficient and effective 3D visual services which can be adapted to many business models.

  7. Massively parallel implementation of 3D-RISM calculation with volumetric 3D-FFT.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Norio; Tadano, Hiroto; Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Hirata, Fumio

    2014-07-05

    A new three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) program for massively parallel machines combined with the volumetric 3D fast Fourier transform (3D-FFT) was developed, and tested on the RIKEN K supercomputer. The ordinary parallel 3D-RISM program has a limitation on the number of parallelizations because of the limitations of the slab-type 3D-FFT. The volumetric 3D-FFT relieves this limitation drastically. We tested the 3D-RISM calculation on the large and fine calculation cell (2048(3) grid points) on 16,384 nodes, each having eight CPU cores. The new 3D-RISM program achieved excellent scalability to the parallelization, running on the RIKEN K supercomputer. As a benchmark application, we employed the program, combined with molecular dynamics simulation, to analyze the oligomerization process of chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 mutant. The results demonstrate that the massive parallel 3D-RISM program is effective to analyze the hydration properties of the large biomolecular systems.

  8. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  9. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.

    2017-02-01

    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  10. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  11. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  12. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics.

  13. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  14. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  15. A Cray T3D performance study

    SciTech Connect

    Nallana, A.; Kincaid, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    We carry out a performance study using the Cray T3D parallel supercomputer to illustrate some important features of this machine. Timing experiments show the speed of various basic operations while more complicated operations give some measure of its parallel performance.

  16. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  17. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  18. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  19. Accuracy of 3-D reconstruction with occlusions.

    PubMed

    Begon, Mickaël; Lacouture, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    A marker has to be seen by at least two cameras for its three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, and the accuracy can be improved with more cameras. However, a change in the set of cameras used in the reconstruction can alter the kinematics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the harmful effect of occlusions on two-dimensional (2-D) images and to make recommendations about the signal processing. A reference kinematics data set was collected for a three degree-of-freedom linkage with three cameras of a commercial motion analysis system without any occlusion on the 2-D images. In the 2-D images, some occlusions were artificially created based on trials of real cyclic motions. An interpolation of 2-D trajectories before the 3-D reconstruction and two filters (Savitsky-Golay and Butterworth filters) after reconstruction were successively applied to minimize the effect of the 2-D occlusions. The filter parameters were optimized by minimizing the root mean square error between the reference and the filtered data. The optimal parameters of the filters were marker dependent, whereas no filter was necessary after a 2-D interpolation. As the occlusions cause systematic error in the 3-D reconstruction, the interpolation of the 2-D trajectories is more appropriate than filtering the 3-D trajectories.

  20. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  1. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  2. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  3. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Lega, Elena; Velasco, David

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential (r s), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk (γ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ, up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  4. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  5. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  6. 3-D Flyby of Enawo by GPM

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this 3-D Flyby animation of GPM rainfall data, rain was falling at a rate of over 220 mm (8.7 inches) per hour in intense downpours. Many of these storms were reaching altitudes above 16 km (9.9...

  7. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  8. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  9. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  10. Constructing Arguments with 3-D Printed Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, William; Dickerson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a fourth-grade lesson where 3-D printing technologies were not only a stimulus for engagement but also served as a modeling tool providing meaningful learning opportunities. Specifically, fourth-grade students construct an argument that animals' external structures function to support survival in a particular…

  11. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    algorithms. The 3D environment causes beam splitting, which affects both the perceived bearing and the received level on a towed array. 2 To date... sound level as dozens of ships crisscross an area. The variations in intensity should allow us to infer the range-integrated transmission loss

  12. Model-based 3D SAR reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Gunther, Jake; Moon, Todd

    2014-06-01

    Three dimensional scene reconstruction with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is desirable for target recognition and improved scene interpretability. The vertical aperture, which is critical to reconstruct 3D SAR scenes, is almost always sparsely sampled due to practical limitations, which creates an underdetermined problem. This papers explores 3D scene reconstruction using a convex model-based approach. The approach developed is demonstrated on 3D scenes, but can be extended to SAR reconstruction of sparsely sampled signals in the spatial and, or, frequency domains. The model-based approach enables knowledge-aided image formation (KAIF) by incorporating spatial, aspect, and sparsity magnitude terms into the image reconstruction. The incorporation of these terms, which are based on prior scene knowledge, will demonstrate improved results compared to traditional image formation algorithms. The SAR image formation problem is formulated as a second order cone program (SOCP) and the results are demonstrated on 3D scenes using simulated data and data from the GOTCHA data collect.1 The model-based results are contrasted against traditional backprojected images.

  13. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  14. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  15. Smoothing 3-D Data for Torpedo Paths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    parametric estimation , consider data collected at 200 sequential observation times (e.g., 800 to 1,000 for the 3-D data used in this section). Samples...sample when the fitted curve is a straight line (refer to Appendix B). (e) Parametric estimation could also be modified to delete some samples (e.g

  16. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  17. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  18. Development of three-dimensional memory (3D-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong-Yu; Shen, Chen; Jiang, Lingli; Dong, Bin; Zhang, Guobiao

    2016-10-01

    Since the invention of 3-D ROM in 1996, three-dimensional memory (3D-M) has been under development for nearly two decades. In this presentation, we'll review the 3D-M history and compare different 3D-Ms (including 3D-OTP from Matrix Semiconductor, 3D-NAND from Samsung and 3D-XPoint from Intel/Micron).

  19. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  20. Tracking earthquake source evolution in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.; Gorbatov, A.; Spiliopoulos, S.

    2014-08-01

    Starting from the hypocentre, the point of initiation of seismic energy, we seek to estimate the subsequent trajectory of the points of emission of high-frequency energy in 3-D, which we term the `evocentres'. We track these evocentres as a function of time by energy stacking for putative points on a 3-D grid around the hypocentre that is expanded as time progresses, selecting the location of maximum energy release as a function of time. The spatial resolution in the neighbourhood of a target point can be simply estimated by spatial mapping using the properties of isochrons from the stations. The mapping of a seismogram segment to space is by inverse slowness, and thus more distant stations have a broader spatial contribution. As in hypocentral estimation, the inclusion of a wide azimuthal distribution of stations significantly enhances 3-D capability. We illustrate this approach to tracking source evolution in 3-D by considering two major earthquakes, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Solomons islands event that ruptured across a plate boundary and the 2013 Mw 8.3 event 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. In each case we are able to provide estimates of the evolution of high-frequency energy that tally well with alternative schemes, but also to provide information on the 3-D characteristics that is not available from backprojection from distant networks. We are able to demonstrate that the major characteristics of event rupture can be captured using just a few azimuthally distributed stations, which opens the opportunity for the approach to be used in a rapid mode immediately after a major event to provide guidance for, for example tsunami warning for megathrust events.

  1. Parallel CARLOS-3D code development

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, J.M.; Kotulski, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

  2. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER

  3. The 3D Elevation Program and America's infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-11-07

    Infrastructure—the physical framework of transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and other systems—and construction management—the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from beginning to end—are critical to the Nation’s prosperity. The American Society of Civil Engineers has warned that, despite the importance of the Nation’s infrastructure, it is in fair to poor condition and needs sizable and urgent investments to maintain and modernize it, and to ensure that it is sustainable and resilient. Three-dimensional (3D) light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data provide valuable productivity, safety, and cost-saving benefits to infrastructure improvement projects and associated construction management. By providing data to users, the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data. The size and breadth of improvements for the Nation’s infrastructure and construction management needs call for an efficient, systematic approach to acquiring foundational 3D elevation data. The 3DEP approach to national data coverage will yield large cost savings over individual project-by-project acquisitions and will ensure that data are accessible for other critical applications.

  4. 3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.

    PubMed

    Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John

    2012-11-13

    The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device.

  5. Augmented Reality vs Virtual Reality for 3D Object Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Krichenbauer, Max; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Taketomi, Takafumi; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu

    2017-01-25

    Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) are on the verge of becoming commodity hardware available to the average user and feasible to use as a tool for 3D work. Some HMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) functionality. Apart from avoiding collisions with the environment, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment. However, whether these effects are positive or negative has not yet been studied extensively. For most tasks it is unknown whether AR has any advantage over VR. In this work we present the results of a user study in which we compared user performance measured in task completion time on a 9 degrees of freedom object selection and transformation task performed either in AR or VR, both with a 3D input device and a mouse. Our results show faster task completion time in AR over VR. When using a 3D input device, a purely VR environment increased task completion time by 22.5% on average compared to AR (p < 0:024). Surprisingly, a similar effect occurred when using a mouse: users were about 17.3% slower in VR than in AR (p < 0:04). Mouse and 3D input device produced similar task completion times in each condition (AR or VR) respectively. We further found no differences in reported comfort.

  6. 3D Multi-Spectrum Sensor System with Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Ig-Jae; Lee, Sangyoun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3D) multi-spectrum sensor system, which combines a 3D depth sensor and multiple optical sensors for different wavelengths. Various image sensors, such as visible, infrared (IR) and 3D sensors, have been introduced into the commercial market. Since each sensor has its own advantages under various environmental conditions, the performance of an application depends highly on selecting the correct sensor or combination of sensors. In this paper, a sensor system, which we will refer to as a 3D multi-spectrum sensor system, which comprises three types of sensors, visible, thermal-IR and time-of-flight (ToF), is proposed. Since the proposed system integrates information from each sensor into one calibrated framework, the optimal sensor combination for an application can be easily selected, taking into account all combinations of sensors information. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, a face recognition system with light and pose variation is designed. With the proposed sensor system, the optimal sensor combination, which provides new effectively fused features for a face recognition system, is obtained. PMID:24072025

  7. Joint source/channel coding for prioritized wireless transmission of multiple 3-D regions of interest in 3-D medical imaging data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, V

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a 3-D medical image coding method featuring two major improvements to previous work on 3-D region of interest (RoI) coding for telemedicine applications. Namely, 1) a data prioritization scheme that allows coding of multiple 3-D-RoIs; and 2) a joint/source channel coding scheme that allows prioritized transmission of multiple 3-D-RoIs over wireless channels. The method, which is based on the 3-D integer wavelet transform and embedded block coding with optimized truncation with 3-D context modeling, generates scalable and error-resilient bit streams with 3-D-RoI decoding capabilities. Coding of multiple 3-D-RoIs is attained by prioritizing the wavelet-transformed data according to a Gaussian mixed distribution, whereas error resiliency is attained by employing the error correction capabilities of rate-compatible punctured turbo codes. The robustness of the proposed method is evaluated for transmission of real 3-D medical images over Rayleigh-fading channels with a priori knowledge of the channel condition. Evaluation results show that the proposed coding method provides a superior performance compared to equal error protection and unequal error protection techniques.

  8. Evaluation of reproducibility and reliability of 3D soft tissue analysis using 3D stereophotogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Plooij, J M; Swennen, G R J; Rangel, F A; Maal, T J J; Schutyser, F A C; Bronkhorst, E M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Bergé, S J

    2009-03-01

    In 3D photographs the bony structures are neither available nor palpable, therefore, the bone-related landmarks, such as the soft tissue gonion, need to be redefined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of 49 soft tissue landmarks, including newly defined 3D bone-related soft tissue landmarks with the use of 3D stereophotogrammetric images. Two observers carried out soft-tissue analysis on 3D photographs twice for 20 patients. A reference frame and 49 landmarks were identified on each 3D photograph. Paired Student's t-test was used to test the reproducibility and Pearson's correlation coefficient to determine the reliability of the landmark identification. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of the landmarks were high. The study showed a high reliability coefficient for intraobserver (0.97 (0.90 - 0.99)) and interobserver reliability (0.94 (0.69 - 0.99)). Identification of the landmarks in the midline was more precise than identification of the paired landmarks. In conclusion, the redefinition of bone-related soft tissue 3D landmarks in combination with the 3D photograph reference system resulted in an accurate and reliable 3D photograph based soft tissue analysis. This shows that hard tissue data are not needed to perform accurate soft tissue analysis.

  9. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. Methods To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6–8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%–90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Results Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Conclusion Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers. PMID:28203553

  10. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  11. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels into Complex, Cellularized Structures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Sycks, Dalton; Chan, Hon Fai; Lin, Shaoting; Lopez, Gabriel P; Guilak, Farshid; Leong, Kam W; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2015-07-15

    X. Zhao and co-workers develop on page 4035 a new biocompatible hydrogel system that is extremely tough and stretchable and can be 3D printed into complex structures, such as the multilayer mesh shown. Cells encapsulated in the tough and printable hydrogel maintain high viability. 3D-printed structures of the tough hydrogel can sustain high mechanical loads and deformations.

  12. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server.

    PubMed

    Cannone, Jamie J; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Gutell, Robin R; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-07-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa.

  13. Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultralarge screen 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Toshihiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2004-10-01

    A large screen 2D display used at stadiums and theaters consists of a number of pixel modules. The pixel module usually consists of 8x8 or 16x16 LED pixels. In this study we develop a 3D pixel module in order to construct a large screen 3D display which is glass-free and has the motion parallax. This configuration for a large screen 3D display dramatically reduces the complexity of wiring 3D pixels. The 3D pixel module consists of several LCD panels, several cylindrical lenses, and one small PC. The LCD panels are slanted in order to differentiate the distances from same color pixels to the axis of the cylindrical lens so that the rays from the same color pixels are refracted into the different horizontal directions by the cylindrical lens. We constructed a prototype 3D pixel module, which consists of 8x4 3D pixels. The prototype module is designed to display 300 different patterns into different horizontal directions with the horizontal display angle pitch of 0.099 degree. The LCD panels are controlled by a small PC and the 3D image data is transmitted through the Gigabit Ethernet.

  14. NIKE3D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Maker, B.; Hallquist, J.O.; Ferencz, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  15. SB3D User Manual, Santa Barbara 3D Radiative Transfer Model

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hirok, William

    1999-01-01

    SB3D is a three-dimensional atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer model for the Solar spectrum. The microphysics employed in the model are the same as used in the model SBDART. It is assumed that the user of SB3D is familiar with SBDART and IDL. SB3D differs from SBDART in that computations are conducted on media in three-dimensions rather than a single column (i.e. plane-parallel), and a stochastic method (Monte Carlo) is employed instead of a numerical approach (Discrete Ordinates) for estimating a solution to the radiative transfer equation. Because of these two differences between SB3D and SBDART, the input and running of SB3D is more unwieldy and requires compromises between model performance and computational expense. Hence, there is no one correct method for running the model and the user must develop a sense to the proper input and configuration of the model.

  16. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  17. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  18. 3D gaze tracking system for NVidia 3D Vision®.

    PubMed

    Wibirama, Sunu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate parallax setting in stereoscopic content generally causes visual fatigue and visual discomfort. To optimize three dimensional (3D) effects in stereoscopic content by taking into account health issue, understanding how user gazes at 3D direction in virtual space is currently an important research topic. In this paper, we report the study of developing a novel 3D gaze tracking system for Nvidia 3D Vision(®) to be used in desktop stereoscopic display. We suggest an optimized geometric method to accurately measure the position of virtual 3D object. Our experimental result shows that the proposed system achieved better accuracy compared to conventional geometric method by average errors 0.83 cm, 0.87 cm, and 1.06 cm in X, Y, and Z dimensions, respectively.

  19. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  20. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  1. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  2. A modern approach to storing of 3D geometry of objects in machine engineering industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, E. A.; Aslanov, G. A.; Sokolov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D graphics is a kind of computer graphics which has absorbed a lot from the vector and raster computer graphics. It is used in interior design projects, architectural projects, advertising, while creating educational computer programs, movies, visual images of parts and products in engineering, etc. 3D computer graphics allows one to create 3D scenes along with simulation of light conditions and setting up standpoints.

  3. 3D passive photon counting automatic target recognition using advanced correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Javidi, Bahram

    2011-03-15

    In this Letter, we present results for detecting and recognizing 3D objects in photon counting images using integral imaging with maximum average correlation height filters. We show that even under photon starved conditions objects may be automatically recognized in passively sensed 3D images using advanced correlation filters. We show that the proposed filter synthesized with ideal training images can detect and recognize a 3D object in photon counting images, even in the presence of occlusions and obscuration.

  4. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  5. Cultivation of two thermotolerant microalgae under tropical conditions: Influences of carbon sources and light duration on biomass and lutein productivity in four seasons.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Pai-Ho; Soong, Keryea; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Biomass and lutein productivities of two thermotolerant microalgae were assessed in tropical outdoor conditions in all four seasons. Generally, addition of bicarbonate at 0.2g/L every two days or 2% CO2 did not enhance the productivities compared to the controls, and the productivities in the spring were higher than in the fall. Durations of effective irradiance positively correlated to the productivity of Coelastrella sp. F50 well, but not for Desmodesmus sp. F2. The ineffective light intensity was below 5000 lux (about 106μmol/m(2)s). The productivities produced in the 17cm diameter bottles were 1.5- to 1.9-fold higher than that in the 27cm ones. Lutein content, about 0.5% in biomass on average, did not change significantly grown in different carbon sources or seasons. The annual productivities of the microalgal biomass and lutein in one hectare were estimated to be 33tons and 180kg, respectively, using the non-optimized photobioreactor cultivation.

  6. 3D vision system for intelligent milking robot automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In a milking robot, the correct localization and positioning of milking teat cups is of very high importance. The milking robots technology has not changed since a decade and is based primarily on laser profiles for teats approximate positions estimation. This technology has reached its limit and does not allow optimal positioning of the milking cups. Also, in the presence of occlusions, the milking robot fails to milk the cow. These problems, have economic consequences for producers and animal health (e.g. development of mastitis). To overcome the limitations of current robots, we have developed a new system based on 3D vision, capable of efficiently positioning the milking cups. A prototype of an intelligent robot system based on 3D vision for real-time positioning of a milking robot has been built and tested under various conditions on a synthetic udder model (in static and moving scenarios). Experimental tests, were performed using 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGBD cameras. The proposed algorithms permit the online segmentation of teats by combing 2D and 3D visual information. The obtained results permit the teat 3D position computation. This information is then sent to the milking robot for teat cups positioning. The vision system has a real-time performance and monitors the optimal positioning of the cups even in the presence of motion. The obtained results, with both TOF and RGBD cameras, show the good performance of the proposed system. The best performance was obtained with RGBD cameras. This latter technology will be used in future real life experimental tests.

  7. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  9. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  10. Optical microcavity scanning 3D tomography.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Andrea; Criante, Luigino; LoTurco, Sara; Farina, Marco

    2014-10-01

    A scanning optical microcavity is exploited to achieve lens-free 3D tomography of microfluidic channels. The microcavity, powered by a low-coherence source, is realized by approaching a cleaved fiber to few tens of micrometers over the sample. The interference of scattered waves inside the cavity shapes the transverse field distribution by focusing the beam and overcoming the diffraction limit due to the optical-fiber numerical aperture. The focusing effect is also preserved in the inner layers of the sample, allowing optical 3D tomography. Analysis of microfluidic channels was demonstrated through this noninvasive technique. Although the experimental setup recalls the well-known fiber-optic Fourier-domain common-path optical coherence tomography, the proposed method has intrinsic characteristics that distinguish it from the former one.

  11. Slate characterization using 3D laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.; Taboada, J.; Martínez, J.; Matías, J. M.; Vilán, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Quality control is a necessary component of the slate slab manufacturing process so as to evaluate defects as defined by the current standard for slate. Quality control has traditionally been performed manually by an expert in the field, with the consequent human subjectivity. We studied the feasibility of using a 3D laser scanner to measure slate slabs and analyze possible defects that would lead to the rejection of slabs for particular industrial processes. The application requires slate characterization to be performed in real time and thereby requires a short computation time. We describe an optimized calibration method based on Tsai's approach that reduces calculation complexity and cost in this key 3D laser scanning stage. Configured and implemented for slate slab characterization, the system produces the required information in real time during the production process.

  12. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  13. 3D plasma camera for planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthomier, Matthieu; Morel, Xavier; Techer, Jean-Denis

    2014-05-01

    A new 3D field-of-view toroidal space plasma analyzer based on an innovative optical concept allows the coverage of 4π str solid angle with only two sensor heads. It fits the need of all-sky thermal plasma measurements on three-axis stabilized spacecraft which are the most commonly used platforms for planetary missions. The 3D plasma analyzer also takes advantage of the new possibilities offered by the development of an ultra low-power multi-channel charge sensitive amplifier used for the imaging detector of the instrument. We present the design and measured performances of a prototype model that will fly on a test rocket in 2014.

  14. Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Glinert, E.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Becker, B.G. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La

    1990-09-24

    Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  15. 3D Visualization of Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamicists and biologists have long recognized the benefits of formation flight. When birds or aircraft fly in the upwash region of the vortex generated by leaders in a formation, induced drag is reduced for the trail bird or aircraft, and efficiency improves. The major consequence of this is that fuel consumption can be greatly reduced. When two aircraft are separated by a large enough longitudinal distance, the aircraft are said to be flying in a cooperative trajectory. A simulation has been developed to model autonomous cooperative trajectories of aircraft; however it does not provide any 3D representation of the multi-body system dynamics. The topic of this research is the development of an accurate visualization of the multi-body system observable in a 3D environment. This visualization includes two aircraft (lead and trail), a landscape for a static reference, and simplified models of the vortex dynamics and trajectories at several locations between the aircraft.

  16. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  17. Volumetric visualization of 3D data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Gregory; Miles, Richard

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the ability to obtain detailed data on large complex structures in three dimensions. This development occurred first in the medical field, with CAT (computer aided tomography) scans and now magnetic resonance imaging, and in seismological exploration. With the advances in supercomputing and computational fluid dynamics, and in experimental techniques in fluid dynamics, there is now the ability to produce similar large data fields representing 3D structures and phenomena in these disciplines. These developments have produced a situation in which currently there is access to data which is too complex to be understood using the tools available for data reduction and presentation. Researchers in these areas are becoming limited by their ability to visualize and comprehend the 3D systems they are measuring and simulating.

  18. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate 3D phase and absorption recovery from partially coherent intensity images captured with a programmable LED array source. Images are captured through-focus with four different illumination patterns. Using first Born and weak object approximations (WOA), a linear 3D differential phase contrast (DPC) model is derived. The partially coherent transfer functions relate the sample’s complex refractive index distribution to intensity measurements at varying defocus. Volumetric reconstruction is achieved by a global FFT-based method, without an intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Because the illumination is spatially partially coherent, the transverse resolution of the reconstructed field achieves twice the NA of coherent systems and improved axial resolution. PMID:27867705

  19. 3-D seismic data for geohazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gafford, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes, is now being used to supplement, or in some cases, even replace conventional high resolution geohazard surveys in the Gulf of Mexico. The use of 3-D seismic data has improved the identification and understanding of some types of geohazards and has resulted in a more thorough interpretation of the shallow geologic section. The use of seismic interpretation workstations has allowed the geohazard interpreter to apply new tools in geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geohazard analysis. Some of the newer geophysical technologies used for exploration purposes are now being adapted for use in the identification and assessment of drilling hazards in the near-seafloor sedimentary section.

  20. 3D FFTs on a Single FPGA.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Benjamin; Zhang, Hansen; Sheng, Jiayi; Landaverde, Raphael; Herbordt, Martin C

    2014-05-01

    The 3D FFT is critical in many physical simulations and image processing applications. On FPGAs, however, the 3D FFT was thought to be inefficient relative to other methods such as convolution-based implementations of multi-grid. We find the opposite: a simple design, operating at