Science.gov

Sample records for 3d density maps

  1. Hot deformation characterization of duplex low-density steel through 3D processing map development

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamadizadeh, A.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H.R.; Mehtonen, S.; Porter, D.

    2015-09-15

    The high temperature deformation behavior of duplex low-density Fe–18Mn–8Al–0.8C steel was investigated at temperatures in the range of 600–1000 °C. The primary constitutive analysis indicated that the Zener–Hollomon parameter, which represents the coupled effects of temperature and strain rate, significantly varies with the amount of deformation. Accordingly, the 3D processing maps were developed considering the effect of strain and were used to determine the safe and unsafe deformation conditions in association with the microstructural evolution. The deformation at efficiency domain I (900–1100 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}) was found to be safe at different strains due to the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization in austenite. The safe efficiency domain II (700–900 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1}), which appeared at logarithmic strain of 0.4, was characterized by deformation induced ferrite formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microband formation and crack initiation at ferrite\\austenite interphases were the main causes of deformation instability at 600–800 °C\\10{sup −} {sup 2}–10{sup −} {sup 3} s{sup −} {sup 1}. The degree of instability was found to decrease by increasing the strain due to the uniformity of microbanded structure obtained at higher strains. The shear band formation at 900–1100 °C\\1–10{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1} was verified by electron backscattered diffraction. The local dynamic recrystallization of austenite and the deformation induced ferrite formation were observed within shear-banded regions as the results of flow localization. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The 3D processing map is developed for duplex low-density Fe–Mn–Al–C steel. • The efficiency domains shrink, expand or appear with increasing strain. • The occurrence of DRX and DIFF increases the power efficiency. • Crack initiation

  2. 3D Mapping of Polymer Crosslink Density with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J L; Gjersing, E L; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2005-03-11

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to detect areas of low crosslink density in damaged silicone parts in an effort to develop a QA/QC protocol to be used in the development of new parts. Model materials of varying crosslink density first demonstrated the applicability of the method. Analysis of damaged pads has been shown to be clearly distinguishable by MRI. It is our belief that both the T{sub 2} weighted SPI NMR and the T{sub 2} weighted water/fat suppression MRI experiments can be used to map out the location of different cross-linking densities, ultimately determining the quality or homogeneity in polymers.

  3. View-independent Contour Culling of 3D Density Maps for Far-field Viewing of Iso-surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Powei; Ju, Tao; Warren, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, iso-surface is the primary method for visualizing the structure of 3D density maps. We consider a common scenario where the user views the iso-surfaces from a distance and varies the level associated with the iso-surface as well as the view direction to gain a sense of the general 3D structure of the density map. For many types of density data, the iso-surfaces associated with a particular threshold may be nested and never visible during this type of viewing. In this paper, we discuss a simple, conservative culling method that avoids the generation of interior portions of iso-surfaces at the contouring stage. Unlike existing methods that perform culling based on the current view direction, our culling is performed once for all views and requires no additional computation as the view changes. By pre-computing a single visibility map, culling is done at any iso-value with little overhead in contouring. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm on a range of bio-medical data and discuss a practical application in online visualization. PMID:21673830

  4. Enhancing the Contrast of ApoB to Locate the Surface Components in the 3D Density Map of Human LDL

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhang; Atkinson, David

    2010-01-01

    A 26Å resolution map of the structure of human LDL was obtained from cryo-EM and single particle image reconstruction. The structure showed a discoidal shaped LDL particle with high-density regions mainly distributed at the edge of the particle and low-density regions at the flat surface that covers the core region. To determine the chemical components that correspond to these density regions and to delineate the distribution of protein and phospholipid located at the particle surface at the resolution of the map, we used Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Undecagold labeling to increase preferentially the contrast of the apoB protein component on the LDL particle. In the 3D maps from the image reconstruction of the undecagold labeled LDL particles, the high-density region from the undecagold label was distributed mainly at the edge of the particle and lower density regions were found at the flat surfaces that cover the neutral lipid core. This suggests that apoB mainly encircles LDL at the edge of the particle and the phospholipid monolayers are located at the flat surfaces, which are parallel to the cholesterol ester layers in the core and may interact with the core lipid layers through the acyl-chains. PMID:21029740

  5. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  6. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  7. 3D Regression Heat Map Analysis of Population Study Data.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paul; Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Niemann, Uli; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Preim, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies comprise heterogeneous data about a subject group to define disease-specific risk factors. These data contain information (features) about a subject's lifestyle, medical status as well as medical image data. Statistical regression analysis is used to evaluate these features and to identify feature combinations indicating a disease (the target feature). We propose an analysis approach of epidemiological data sets by incorporating all features in an exhaustive regression-based analysis. This approach combines all independent features w.r.t. a target feature. It provides a visualization that reveals insights into the data by highlighting relationships. The 3D Regression Heat Map, a novel 3D visual encoding, acts as an overview of the whole data set. It shows all combinations of two to three independent features with a specific target disease. Slicing through the 3D Regression Heat Map allows for the detailed analysis of the underlying relationships. Expert knowledge about disease-specific hypotheses can be included into the analysis by adjusting the regression model formulas. Furthermore, the influences of features can be assessed using a difference view comparing different calculation results. We applied our 3D Regression Heat Map method to a hepatic steatosis data set to reproduce results from a data mining-driven analysis. A qualitative analysis was conducted on a breast density data set. We were able to derive new hypotheses about relations between breast density and breast lesions with breast cancer. With the 3D Regression Heat Map, we present a visual overview of epidemiological data that allows for the first time an interactive regression-based analysis of large feature sets with respect to a disease. PMID:26529689

  8. State-Of of 3d National Mapping in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoter, Jantien; Vallet, Bruno; Lithen, Thomas; Pla, Maria; Wozniak, Piotr; Kellenberger, Tobias; Streilein, Andre; Ilves, Risto; Ledoux, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Techniques for 3D mapping are maturing. At the same time the need for 3D data is increasing. This has pushed national (and regional) mapping agencies (NMAs) to consider extending their traditional task of providing topographic data into the third dimension. To show how research results in 3D mapping obtained over the past twenty years have been adopted by practice, this paper presents the ongoing work on 3D mapping within seven NMAs, all member of the 3D Special Interest Group of European Spatial Data Research (EuroSDR). The paper shows that some NMAs are still in the initial (experimental) phase of 3D mapping, while others have already built solid databases to maintain 2.5D and 3D topographic data covering their whole country.

  9. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  10. Interactive photogrammetric system for mapping 3D objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Dave E.

    1990-08-01

    A new system, FOTO-G, has been developed for 3D photogrammetric applications. It is a production-oriented software system designed to work with highly unconventional photogrammetric image configurations which result when photographing 3D objects. A demonstration with imagery from an actual 3D-mapping project is reported.

  11. Autonomous Exploration for 3D Map Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joho, Dominik; Stachniss, Cyrill; Pfaff, Patrick; Burgard, Wolfram

    Autonomous exploration is a frequently addressed problem in the robotics community. This paper presents an approach to mobile robot exploration that takes into account that the robot acts in the three-dimensional space. Our approach can build compact three-dimensional models autonomously and is able to deal with negative obstacles such as abysms. It applies a decision-theoretic framework which considers the uncertainty in the map to evaluate potential actions. Thereby, it trades off the cost of executing an action with the expected information gain taking into account possible sensor measurements. We present experimental results obtained with a real robot and in simulation.

  12. 3-D Maps and Compasses in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Arseny; Las, Liora; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2016-07-01

    The world has a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) spatial structure, but until recently the neural representation of space was studied primarily in planar horizontal environments. Here we review the emerging literature on allocentric spatial representations in 3-D and discuss the relations between 3-D spatial perception and the underlying neural codes. We suggest that the statistics of movements through space determine the topology and the dimensionality of the neural representation, across species and different behavioral modes. We argue that hippocampal place-cell maps are metric in all three dimensions, and might be composed of 2-D and 3-D fragments that are stitched together into a global 3-D metric representation via the 3-D head-direction cells. Finally, we propose that the hippocampal formation might implement a neural analogue of a Kalman filter, a standard engineering algorithm used for 3-D navigation. PMID:27442069

  13. Geological mapping goes 3-D in response to societal needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorleifson, H.; Berg, R.C.; Russell, H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition to 3-D mapping has been made possible by technological advances in digital cartography, GIS, data storage, analysis, and visualization. Despite various challenges, technological advancements facilitated a gradual transition from 2-D maps to 2.5-D draped maps to 3-D geological mapping, supported by digital spatial and relational databases that can be interrogated horizontally or vertically and viewed interactively. Challenges associated with data collection, human resources, and information management are daunting due to their resource and training requirements. The exchange of strategies at the workshops has highlighted the use of basin analysis to develop a process-based predictive knowledge framework that facilitates data integration. Three-dimensional geological information meets a public demand that fills in the blanks left by conventional 2-D mapping. Two-dimensional mapping will, however, remain the standard method for extensive areas of complex geology, particularly where deformed igneous and metamorphic rocks defy attempts at 3-D depiction.

  14. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  15. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    PubMed

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/. PMID:25261742

  16. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) Using 23Na and Proton MRI

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/hour concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/ PMID:25261742

  17. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  18. 3D density model of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine

    2009-12-01

    We developed a 3D density model of the continental crust, the subducted plate and the upper mantle of the Central Andes between 20-29°S and 74-61°W through the forward modelling of Bouguer anomaly. The goal of this contribution is to gain insight on the lithospheric structure integrating the available information (geophysical, geologic, petrologic, and geochemical) in a single model. The geometry of our model is defined and constrained by hypocentre location, reflection and refraction on and offshore seismic lines, travel time and attenuation tomography, receiver function analysis, magnetotelluric studies, thermal models and balanced structural cross-sections. The densities allocated to the different bodies are calculated considering petrologic and geochemical data and pressure and temperature conditions. The model consists of 31 parallel E-W vertical planes, where the continental crust comprises distinct bodies, which represent the different morphotectonic units of the Central Andes. We include a partial melting zone at midcrustal depths under the Altiplano-Puna (low-velocity zone) and consider the presence of a rheologically strong block beneath the Salar de Atacama basin, according to recent seismic studies. Contour maps of the depth of the continental Moho, the thickness of the lower crust and the depth to the bottom of the lithosphere below South America are produced. The possible percentage of partial melt in the Central Andes low-velocity zone is estimated. The residual anomaly is calculated by subtracting from the Bouguer anomaly the gravimetric effect of the modelled subducted slab and of the modelled Moho. Isostatic anomalies are calculated from regional and local isostatic Mohos calculated with and without internal loads, derived from our gravity model, which are then compared to the modelled continental Moho. This study contributes to a more detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure of this region of the Andes and provides an integrated 3D

  19. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  20. Rapid high-fidelity visualisation of multispectral 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, Philip M.; Christy, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Mobile LIDAR scanning typically provides captured 3D data in the form of 3D 'Point Clouds'. Combined with colour imagery these data produce coloured point clouds or, if further processed, polygon-based 3D models. The use of point clouds is simple and rapid, but visualisation can appear ghostly and diffuse. Textured 3D models provide high fidelity visualisation, but their creation is time consuming, difficult to automate and can modify key terrain details. This paper describes techniques for the visualisation of fused multispectral 3D data that approach the visual fidelity of polygon-based models with the rapid turnaround and detail of 3D point clouds. The general approaches to data capture and data fusion are identified as well as the central underlying mathematical transforms, data management and graphics processing techniques used to support rapid, interactive visualisation of very large multispectral 3D datasets. Performance data with respect to real-world 3D mapping as well as illustrations of visualisation outputs are included.

  1. Vehicle teleoperation using 3D maps and GPS time synchronization.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taro; Amano, Yoshiharu; Hashizume, Takumi; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2013-01-01

    In conventional vehicle teleoperation systems, using low-bandwidth, high-delay transmission links causes a serious problem for remote control of the vehicles. To solve this problem, a proposed teleoperation system employs 3D maps and GPS time synchronization. Two GPS receivers measure the transmission delay, which the system uses to estimate the vehicle's location and orientation. Field experiments show that the 3D-map-based interface lets users easily comprehend the remote environment while navigating a vehicle. The experiments also show that taking communication delays into account improves maneuverability. PMID:24808084

  2. Estimating Density Gradients and Drivers from 3D Ionospheric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Bust, G. S.; Curtis, N.; Reynolds, A.; Crowley, G.

    2009-12-01

    The transition regions at the edges of the ionospheric storm-enhanced density (SED) are important for a detailed understanding of the mid-latitude physical processes occurring during major magnetic storms. At the boundary, the density gradients are evidence of the drivers that link the larger processes of the SED, with its connection to the plasmasphere and prompt-penetration electric fields, to the smaller irregularities that result in scintillations. For this reason, we present our estimates of both the plasma variation with horizontal and vertical spatial scale of 10 - 100 km and the plasma motion within and along the edges of the SED. To estimate the density gradients, we use Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D), a mature data assimilation algorithm that has been developed over several years and applied to investigations of polar cap patches and space weather storms [Bust and Crowley, 2007; Bust et al., 2007]. We use the density specification produced by IDA4D with a new tool for deducing ionospheric drivers from 3D time-evolving electron density maps, called Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE). The EMPIRE technique has been tested on simulated data from TIMEGCM-ASPEN and on IDA4D-based density estimates with ongoing validation from Arecibo ISR measurements [Datta-Barua et al., 2009a; 2009b]. We investigate the SED that formed during the geomagnetic super storm of November 20, 2003. We run IDA4D at low-resolution continent-wide, and then re-run it at high (~10 km horizontal and ~5-20 km vertical) resolution locally along the boundary of the SED, where density gradients are expected to be highest. We input the high-resolution estimates of electron density to EMPIRE to estimate the ExB drifts and field-aligned plasma velocities along the boundaries of the SED. We expect that these drivers contribute to the density structuring observed along the SED during the storm. Bust, G. S. and G. Crowley (2007

  3. 3D resolved mapping of optical aberrations in thick tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Mahou, Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Débarre, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple method for mapping optical aberrations with 3D resolution within thick samples. The method relies on the local measurement of the variation in image quality with externally applied aberrations. We discuss the accuracy of the method as a function of the signal strength and of the aberration amplitude and we derive the achievable resolution for the resulting measurements. We then report on measured 3D aberration maps in human skin biopsies and mouse brain slices. From these data, we analyse the consequences of tissue structure and refractive index distribution on aberrations and imaging depth in normal and cleared tissue samples. The aberration maps allow the estimation of the typical aplanetism region size over which aberrations can be uniformly corrected. This method and data pave the way towards efficient correction strategies for tissue imaging applications. PMID:22876353

  4. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  5. High density 3D printed microfluidic valves, pumps, and multiplexers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that 3D printing with a digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer can be used to create high density microfluidic devices with active components such as valves and pumps. Leveraging our previous work on optical formulation of inexpensive resins (RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 106621), we demonstrate valves with only 10% of the volume of our original 3D printed valves (Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9, 016501), which were already the smallest that have been reported. Moreover, we show that incorporation of a thermal initiator in the resin formulation along with a post-print bake can dramatically improve the durability of 3D printed valves up to 1 million actuations. Using two valves and a valve-like displacement chamber (DC), we also create compact 3D printed pumps. With 5-phase actuation and a 15 ms phase interval, we obtain pump flow rates as high as 40 μL min(-1). We also characterize maximum pump back pressure (i.e., maximum pressure the pump can work against), maximum flow rate (flow rate when there is zero back pressure), and flow rate as a function of the height of the pump outlet. We further demonstrate combining 5 valves and one DC to create a 3-to-2 multiplexer with integrated pump. In addition to serial multiplexing, we also show that the device can operate as a mixer. Importantly, we illustrate the rapid fabrication and test cycles that 3D printing makes possible by implementing a new multiplexer design to improve mixing, and fabricate and test it within one day. PMID:27242064

  6. A 3D mosaic algorithm using disparity map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bo; Kakeya, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    Conventionally there exist two major methods to create mosaics in 3D videos. One is to duplicate the area of mosaics from the image of one viewpoint (the left view or the right view) to that of the other viewpoint. This method, which is not capable of expressing depth, cannot give viewers a natural perception in 3D. The other method is to create the mosaics separately in the left view and the right view. With this method the depth is expressed in the area of mosaics, but 3D perception is not natural enough. To overcome these problems, we propose a method to create mosaics by using a disparity map. In the proposed method the mosaic of the image from one viewpoint is made with the conventional method, while the mosaic of the image from the other viewpoint is made based on the data of the disparity map so that the mosaic patterns of the two images can give proper depth perception to the viewer. We confirm that the proposed mosaic pattern using a disparity map gives more natural depth perception of the viewer by subjective experiments using a static image and two videos.

  7. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  8. Lidar on small UAV for 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael; Larsson, Hâkan

    2014-10-01

    Small UAV:s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are currently in an explosive technical development phase. The performance of UAV-system components such as inertial navigation sensors, propulsion, control processors and algorithms are gradually improving. Simultaneously, lidar technologies are continuously developing in terms of reliability, accuracy, as well as speed of data collection, storage and processing. The lidar development towards miniature systems with high data rates has, together with recent UAV development, a great potential for new three dimensional (3D) mapping capabilities. Compared to lidar mapping from manned full-size aircraft a small unmanned aircraft can be cost efficient over small areas and more flexible for deployment. An advantage with high resolution lidar compared to 3D mapping from passive (multi angle) photogrammetry is the ability to penetrate through vegetation and detect partially obscured targets. Another advantage is the ability to obtain 3D data over the whole survey area, without the limited performance of passive photogrammetry in low contrast areas. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate 3D lidar mapping capability from a small multirotor UAV. We present the first experimental results and the mechanical and electrical integration of the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 7 kg. The rotating lidar is mounted at an angle of 20 degrees from the horizontal plane giving a vertical field-of-view of 10-50 degrees below the horizon in the aircraft forward directions. For absolute positioning of the 3D data, accurate positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is of high importance. We evaluate the lidar data position accuracy both based on inertial navigation system (INS) data, and on INS data combined with lidar data. The INS sensors consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS, magnetometers, and a pressure sensor for altimetry. The lidar range resolution and accuracy is documented as well as the

  9. 3D map of the human corneal endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gain, Philippe; Rageade, Damien; Bernard, Aurélien; Acquart, Sophie; Peoc'h, Michel; Defoe, Dennis M; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells, specialized in regulating corneal hydration and transparency. They are highly polarized flat cells that separate the cornea from the aqueous humor. Their apical surface, in contact with aqueous humor is hexagonal, whereas their basal surface is irregular. We characterized the structure of human CECs in 3D using confocal microscopy of immunostained whole corneas in which cells and their interrelationships remain intact. Hexagonality of the apical surface was maintained by the interaction between tight junctions and a submembraneous network of actomyosin, braced like a drum. Lateral membranes, which support enzymatic pumps, presented complex expansions resembling interdigitated foot processes at the basal surface. Using computer-aided design and drafting software, we obtained a first simplified 3D model of CECs. By comparing their expression with those in epithelial, stromal and trabecular corneal cells, we selected 9 structural or functional proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. This first 3D map aids our understanding of the morphologic and functional specificity of CECs and could be used as a reference for characterizing future cell therapy products destined to treat endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:27381832

  10. 3D map of the human corneal endothelial cell

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gain, Philippe; Rageade, Damien; Bernard, Aurélien; Acquart, Sophie; Peoc’h, Michel; Defoe, Dennis M.; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are terminally differentiated cells, specialized in regulating corneal hydration and transparency. They are highly polarized flat cells that separate the cornea from the aqueous humor. Their apical surface, in contact with aqueous humor is hexagonal, whereas their basal surface is irregular. We characterized the structure of human CECs in 3D using confocal microscopy of immunostained whole corneas in which cells and their interrelationships remain intact. Hexagonality of the apical surface was maintained by the interaction between tight junctions and a submembraneous network of actomyosin, braced like a drum. Lateral membranes, which support enzymatic pumps, presented complex expansions resembling interdigitated foot processes at the basal surface. Using computer-aided design and drafting software, we obtained a first simplified 3D model of CECs. By comparing their expression with those in epithelial, stromal and trabecular corneal cells, we selected 9 structural or functional proteins for which 3D patterns were specific to CECs. This first 3D map aids our understanding of the morphologic and functional specificity of CECs and could be used as a reference for characterizing future cell therapy products destined to treat endothelial dysfunctions. PMID:27381832

  11. Sensing and 3D Mapping of Soil Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Yücel; Kul, Basri; Okursoy, Rasim

    2008-01-01

    Soil compaction is an important physical limiting factor for the root growth and plant emergence and is one of the major causes for reduced crop yield worldwide. The objective of this study was to generate 2D/3D soil compaction maps for different depth layers of the soil. To do so, a soil penetrometer was designed, which was mounted on the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor, consisting of a mechanical system, data acquisition system (DAS), and 2D/3D imaging and analysis software. The system was successfully tested in field conditions, measuring soil penetration resistances as a function of depth from 0 to 40 cm at 1 cm intervals. The software allows user to either tabulate the measured quantities or generate maps as soon as data collection has been terminated. The system may also incorporate GPS data to create geo-referenced soil maps. The software enables the user to graph penetration resistances at a specified coordinate. Alternately, soil compaction maps could be generated using data collected from multiple coordinates. The data could be automatically stratified to determine soil compaction distribution at different layers of 5, 10,.…, 40 cm depths. It was concluded that the system tested in this study could be used to assess the soil compaction at topsoil and the randomly distributed hardpan formations just below the common tillage depths, enabling visualization of spatial variability through the imaging software.

  12. Computational methods for constructing protein structure models from 3D electron microscopy maps

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (EM) has made significant progress in the past decades. Resolutions of EM maps have been improving as evidenced by recently reported structures that are solved at high resolutions close to 3 Å. Computational methods play a key role in interpreting EM data. Among many computational procedures applied to an EM map to obtain protein structure information, in this article we focus on reviewing computational methods that model protein three-dimensional (3D) structures from a 3D EM density map that is constructed from two-dimensional (2D) maps. The computational methods we discuss range from de novo methods, which identify structural elements in an EM map, to structure fitting methods, where known high resolution structures are fit into a low-resolution EM map. A list of available computational tools is also provided. PMID:23796504

  13. 3D Gel Map of Arabidopsis Complex I

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katrin; Belt, Katharina; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Complex I has a unique structure in plants and includes extra subunits. Here, we present a novel study to define its protein constituents. Mitochondria were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, leaves, and roots. Subunits of complex I were resolved by 3D blue-native (BN)/SDS/SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. Overall, 55 distinct proteins were found, seven of which occur in pairs of isoforms. We present evidence that Arabidopsis complex I consists of 49 distinct types of subunits, 40 of which represent homologs of bovine complex I. The nine other subunits represent special proteins absent in the animal linage of eukaryotes, most prominently a group of subunits related to bacterial gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. A GelMap http://www.gelmap.de/arabidopsis-3d-complex-i/ is presented for promoting future complex I research in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23761796

  14. Density-tapered spiral arrays for ultrasound 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramalli, Alessandro; Boni, Enrico; Savoia, Alessandro Stuart; Tortoli, Piero

    2015-08-01

    The current high interest in 3-D ultrasound imaging is pushing the development of 2-D probes with a challenging number of active elements. The most popular approach to limit this number is the sparse array technique, which designs the array layout by means of complex optimization algorithms. These algorithms are typically constrained by a few steering conditions, and, as such, cannot guarantee uniform side-lobe performance at all angles. The performance may be improved by the ungridded extensions of the sparse array technique, but this result is achieved at the expense of a further complication of the optimization process. In this paper, a method to design the layout of large circular arrays with a limited number of elements according to Fermat's spiral seeds and spatial density modulation is proposed and shown to be suitable for application to 3-D ultrasound imaging. This deterministic, aperiodic, and balanced positioning procedure attempts to guarantee uniform performance over a wide range of steering angles. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulating and comparing the performance of spiral and dense arrays. A good trade-off for small vessel imaging is found, e.g., in the 60λ spiral array with 1.0λ elements and Blackman density tapering window. Here, the grating lobe level is -16 dB, the lateral resolution is lower than 6λ the depth of field is 120λ and, the average contrast is 10.3 dB, while the sensitivity remains in a 5 dB range for a wide selection of steering angles. The simulation results may represent a reference guide to the design of spiral sparse array probes for different application fields. PMID:26285181

  15. Temperature maps measurements on 3D surfaces with infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Gennaro; Ianiro, Andrea; Dello Ioio, Gennaro; Passaro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    The use of the infrared camera as a temperature transducer in wind tunnel applications is convenient and widespread. Nevertheless, the infrared data are available in the form of 2D images while the observed surfaces are often not planar and the reconstruction of temperature maps over them is a critical task. In this work, after recalling the principles of IR thermography, a methodology to rebuild temperature maps on the surfaces of 3D object is proposed. In particular, an optical calibration is applied to the IR camera by means of a novel target plate with control points. The proposed procedure takes also into account the directional emissivity by estimating the viewing angle. All the needed steps are described and analyzed. The advantages given by the proposed method are shown with an experiment in a hypersonic wind tunnel.

  16. Brain surface maps from 3-D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiuhuai; Hansen, Eric W.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    1991-06-01

    The anatomic and functional localization of brain lesions for neurologic diagnosis and brain surgery is facilitated by labeling the cortical surface in 3D images. This paper presents a method which extracts cortical contours from magnetic resonance (MR) image series and then produces a planar surface map which preserves important anatomic features. The resultant map may be used for manual anatomic localization as well as for further automatic labeling. Outer contours are determined on MR cross-sectional images by following the clear boundaries between gray matter and cerebral-spinal fluid, skipping over sulci. Carrying this contour below the surface by shrinking it along its normal produces an inner contour that alternately intercepts gray matter (sulci) and white matter along its length. This procedure is applied to every section in the set, and the image (grayscale) values along the inner contours are radially projected and interpolated onto a semi-cylindrical surface with axis normal to the slices and large enough to cover the whole brain. A planar map of the cortical surface results by flattening this cylindrical surface. The projection from inner contour to cylindrical surface is unique in the sense that different points on the inner contour correspond to different points on the cylindrical surface. As the outer contours are readily obtained by automatic segmentation, cortical maps can be made directly from an MR series.

  17. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Close, E. R.; Merrill, D. W.; Holmes, H. H.

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of disease can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.

  18. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  19. New Maps of the 3-D Distribution of Cold and Warm Interstellar Gas within 500pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry; Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present preliminary maps of the 3-D spatial distribution of cold (T <1000K) neutral and warm (T 5000K) partially ionized interstellar gas as traced by the NaI and CaII absorption lines observed towards stars with distances < 500pc from the Sun. These maps have been constructed from high-resolution (R 80,000) spectral data collected towards 1600 sight-lines, with the 3-D local gas density distribution being calculated from an inversion of the derived column density values. Our new maps, which trace the gas density within a 1kpc 3-D data cube surrounding the Sun, clearly show the neutral boundaries to several interstellar cavities that surround our own Local Bubble region (e.g. Loop I) and also reveal several adjacent interstellar tunnels and chimneys. Our final goal is to obtain maps based on 2000 interstellar sight-line measurements, and these data will be a valuable tool in solving several anomalies linked to the distribution of local gas such as the puzzling distribution of D-to-H values as measured within 1kpc by the NASA FUSE satellite.

  20. Non-parametric 3D map of the intergalactic medium using the Lyman-alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisewski, Jessi; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Freeman, Peter E.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Khandai, Nishikanta; Ozbek, Melih; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Visualizing the high-redshift Universe is difficult due to the dearth of available data; however, the Lyman-alpha forest provides a means to map the intergalactic medium at redshifts not accessible to large galaxy surveys. Large-scale structure surveys, such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), have collected quasar (QSO) spectra that enable the reconstruction of H I density fluctuations. The data fall on a collection of lines defined by the lines of sight (LOS) of the QSO, and a major issue with producing a 3D reconstruction is determining how to model the regions between the LOS. We present a method that produces a 3D map of this relatively uncharted portion of the Universe by employing local polynomial smoothing, a non-parametric methodology. The performance of the method is analysed on simulated data that mimics the varying number of LOS expected in real data, and then is applied to a sample region selected from BOSS. Evaluation of the reconstruction is assessed by considering various features of the predicted 3D maps including visual comparison of slices, probability density functions (PDFs), counts of local minima and maxima, and standardized correlation functions. This 3D reconstruction allows for an initial investigation of the topology of this portion of the Universe using persistent homology.

  1. Automatic 3-D gravity modeling of sedimentary basins with density contrast varying parabolically with depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthi, V.; Sundararajan, N.

    2004-07-01

    A method to model 3-D sedimentary basins with density contrast varying with depth is presented along with a code GRAV3DMOD. The measured gravity fields, reduced to a horizontal plane, are assumed to be available at grid nodes of a rectangular/square mesh. Juxtaposed 3-D rectangular/square blocks with their geometrical epicenters on top coincide with grid nodes of a mesh to approximate a sedimentary basin. The algorithm based on Newton's forward difference formula automatically calculates the initial depth estimates of a sedimentary basin assuming that 2-D infinite horizontal slabs among which, the density contrast varies with depth could generate the measured gravity fields. Forward modeling is realized through an available code GR3DPRM, which computes the theoretical gravity field of a 3-D block. The lower boundary of a sedimentary basin is formulated by estimating the depth values of the 3-D blocks within predetermined limits. The algorithm is efficient in the sense that it automatically generates the grid files of the interpreted results that can be viewed in the form of respective contour maps. Measured gravity fields pertaining to the Chintalpudi sub-basin, India and the Los Angeles basin, California, USA in which the density contrast varies with depth are interpreted to show the applicability of the method.

  2. 3D strength map of the Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebetskiy, Y. L.; Baranov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern and Central Asia is a tectonically complex region which characterized by the great collision between the Asian and Indian plates. Its tectonic evolution is strongly related to the active subduction process along the Pacific border. Stress investigation in the continental crust is a very important problem not only for science but also for the practical purposes. There are four main factors which produce tectonic stresses: gravity anomalies of the crust, density inhomogeneities, deformation from area with intraplate collision, residual elastic deformations and underthrust stresses conditions from convective mantle. We present the stress model of the crust and lithosphere for the Central and Southern Asia on the basis of the finite element modeling. For the crust we take the elasto-plastic rheology with Drucker-Prager criterion. In the lithosphere the elasto-plastic model with von Mises criterion is assumed. We investigated stresses which are produced by the crustal density inhomogeneities and surface relief. The calculations are done using the U-WAY finite element code developed at the Institute of Applied Mechanics Russian Academy of Sciences. (similar to the Nastran program) Density inhomogeneities are based on the AsCRUST-08 crustal model (Baranov, 2008), which has resolution of 1 x 1 degree. AsCRUST-08 was built using the data of deep seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies from published papers. The complex 3D crustal model consists of three layers: upper, middle, and lower crust. Besides depth of the boundaries, we provided average P-wave velocities in the upper, middle and lower parts of the crystalline crust and sediments. The seismic P-velocity data was also recalculated to the densities and the elastic moduli of the crustal layers using the rheological properties and geological constraints. Strength parameters of rocks strongly depend on temperature, tectonic and fluid pressure. Fluid pressure can reduce resistance forces

  3. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes. PMID:22163952

  4. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes. PMID:22163952

  5. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  6. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  7. Inclusion of high resolution MODIS maps on a 3D tropospheric water vapor GPS tomography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Pedro; Catalao, Joao; Nico, Giovanni; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Observing the water vapor distribution on the troposphere remains a challenge for the weather forecast. Radiosondes provide precise water vapor profiles of the troposphere, but lack geographical and temporal coverage, while satellite meteorological maps have good spatial resolution but even poorer temporal resolution. GPS has proved its capacity to measure the integrated water vapor in all weather conditions with high temporal sampling frequency. However these measurements lack a vertical water vapor discretization. Reconstruction of the slant path GPS observation to the satellite allows oblique water vapor measurements. Implementation of a 3D grid of voxels along the troposphere over an area where GPS stations are available enables the observation ray tracing. A relation between the water vapor density and the distanced traveled inside the voxels is established, defining GPS tomography. An inverse problem formulation is needed to obtain a water vapor solution. The combination of precipitable water vapor (PWV) maps obtained from MODIS satellite data with the GPS tomography is performed in this work. The MODIS PWV maps can have 1 or 5 km pixel resolution, being obtained 2 times per day in the same location at most. The inclusion of MODIS PWV maps provides an enhanced horizontal resolution for the tomographic solution and benefits the stability of the inversion problem. A 3D tomographic grid was adjusted over a regional area covering Lisbon, Portugal, where a GNSS network of 9 receivers is available. Radiosonde measurements in the area are used to evaluate the 3D water vapor tomography maps.

  8. 3D mapping and simulation of Geneva Lake environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, Roch; Maignan, Michel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Rapin, Francois; Klein, Audrey

    2010-05-01

    The Geneva Lake is the biggest alpine and subalpine lake in central Europe. The depth of this lake is 309 meters and its total volume of water is 89 billions m3. It takes, on average, around twelve years so that waters of the lake are completely brewed. Furthermore the Geneva lake waters are rich in dissolved substances as carbonate, sulfate. The quantity of particles in suspension in the lake, which mainly arrived from the Rhône, is nowadays around height million of tones. The International Commission for the Leman Lake (CIPEL) works about the improvement of the quality of this lake since 1962. In the present study three dimensional environmental data (temperature, oxygen and nitrate) which cover the period from 1954 to 2008, for a total of 27'500 cases are investigated. We are interested to study the evolution of the temperature of the lake because there is an impact on the reproduction of fishes and also because the winter brewing of the water makes the re-oxygenation of deep-water. In order that biological balance is maintained in a lake, there must be enough oxygen in the water. Moreover, we work on nitrate distribution and evolution because contributions in fertilizers cause eutrophication of lake. The data are very numerous when we consider the time series, some of them with more than 300 occurrences, but there are between 2 and 15 data available for spatial cartography. The basic methodology used for the analysis, mapping and simulations of 3D patterns of environmental data is based on geostatistical predictions (family of kriging models) and conditional stochastic simulations. Spatial and temporal variability, 3D monitoring networks changing over time, make this study challenging. An important problem is also to make interpolation/simulations over a long period of time, like ten years. One way used to overcome this problem, consists in using a weighted average of ten variograms during this period. 3D mapping was carried out using environment data for

  9. Disaster Prevention Coastal Map Production by MMS & C3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatake, Shuhei; Kohori, Yuki; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    In March 2011, Eastern Japan suffered serious damage of Tsunami caused by a massive earthquake. In 2012, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport published "Guideline of setting assumed areas of inundation by Tsunami" to establish the conditions of topography data used for simulation of Tsunami. In this guideline, the elevation data prepared by Geographical Survey Institute of Japan and 2m/5m/10m mesh data of NSDI are adopted for land area, while 500m mesh data of Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan Coast Guard and sea charts are adopted for water area. These data, however, do not have continuity between land area and water area. Therefore, in order to study the possibility of providing information for coastal disaster prevention, we have developed an efficient method to acquire continuous topography over land and water including tidal zone. Land area data are collected by Mobile Mapping System (MMS) and water area depth data are collected by interferometry echo sounder (C3D), and both data are simultaneously acquired on a same boat. Elaborate point cloud data of 1m or smaller are expected to be used for realistic simulation of Tsunami waves going upstream around shoreline. Tests were made in Tokyo Bay (in 2014) and Osaka Bay (in 2015). The purpose the test in Osaka Bay is to make coastal map for disaster prevention as a countermeasure for predicted Nankai massive earthquake. In addition to Tsunami simulation, the continuous data covering land and marine areas are expected to be used effectively for maintenance and repair of aged port and river facilities, maintenance and investigation of dykes, and ecosystem preservation.

  10. 3D Color Digital Elevation Map of AFM Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image is a three dimensional (3D) view of a digital elevation map of a sample collected by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The particle was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress' delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The AFM is part of Phoenix's microscopic station called MECA, or the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Cooperative 3D and 2D mapping with heterogenous ground robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John G., III; Baran, David; Stump, Ethan; Young, Stuart; Christensen, Henrik I.

    2012-06-01

    Efficient and accurate 3D mapping is desirable in disaster recovery as well as urban warfare situations. The speed with which these maps can be generated is vital to provide situational awareness in these situations. A team of mobile robots can work together to build maps more quickly. We present an algorithm by which a team of mobile robots can merge 2D and 3D measurements to build a 3D map, together with experiments performed at a military test facility.

  12. GAM & RF for 3D mapping of multinomial peat properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Aalders, Inge; Morrice, Jane; Hough, Rupert

    2013-04-01

    Different statistical methods have been proposed for fitting the empirical quantitative function linking the soil information to the scorpan factors, while taking into account the spatial structure of the data . Regression kriging extends the methods of kriging and co-kriging and it has been further extended by the use of GAMs (Generalized Additive Models) with the estimation of uncertainty. When multinomial data are modelled, advanced non-parametric methods, such as CART (Classification and Regression Tree), can be used. CARTs have been used widely to estimate soil properties. Bagging trees and Random Forest (RF) approaches have among the best performances among CART methods. CARTs have been used in DSM applications, While RF have often been used in ecological modelling, fewer examples exist in DSM, such as soil erosion occurrence, soil types prediction and soil organic carbon content. In this paper we propose a methodology to map multinomial peat properties in 3D space with a combination of GAMs and RF. The methodology was applied to the humification (according to the VonPost classification) classes in a bog (18 km2) in the north-east of Scotland. A large survey campaign was carried out in 1955 and humification information were collected at 125 points. In order to integrate the information from the GAM in the RT, a series of binary GAMs were fitted using DEM-derived information as covariates. The binary GAMs were fitted assigning 1 if the class considered was present at the location, 0 if the class considered was absent. The probability predictions resulting from the binary GAMs, were included in the pool of covariates used for the RT together with other ancillary covariates. The model diagnostics had a fair to good agreement between measured and modelled values (K statistics). The probability predictions resulting from the binary GAMs proved to be important variables, increasing the agreement of the model. The obtained spatial distribution of values on the

  13. Cortical Mapping of 3D Optical Topography in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Papademetriou, Maria D; Richards, John; Correia, Teresa; Blasi, Anna; Murphy, D. G.; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Johnson, Mark; Elwell, Clare E

    2014-01-01

    Precise localization of cortical activation in the early development of the infant brain remains unclear. It is challenging to co-register haemodynamic responses during functional activation in infants with the underlying anatomy of the brain. We used a multispectral imaging algorithm to reconstruct 3D optical topographic images of haemodynamic responses in an infant during voice processing. In this paper we present a method for co-registering 3D optical topography images reconstructed from functional activation data in infants onto anatomical brain images obtained from MRI structurals of the individual infants. PMID:23852529

  14. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  15. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): 2D Maps and 3D Globes Support Arctic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Gaylord, A. G.; Brady, J. J.; Cody, R. P.; Aguilar, J. A.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Manley, W.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online services to provide support of Arctic science. These services include: a text based online search utility, 2D Internet Map Server (IMS); 3D globes and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS). With ARMAP's 2D maps and 3D globes, users can navigate to areas of interest, view a variety of map layers, and explore U.S. Federally funded research projects. Projects can be queried by location, year, funding program, discipline, and keyword. Links take you to specific information and other web sites associated with a particular research project. The Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database is the foundation of ARMAP including US research funded by the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the United States Geological Survey. Avoiding a duplication of effort has been a primary objective of the ARMAP project which incorporates best practices (e.g. Spatial Data Infrastructure and OGC standard web services and metadata) and off the shelf technologies where appropriate. The ARMAP suite provides tools for users of various levels of technical ability to interact with the data by importing the web services directly into their own GIS applications and virtual globes; performing advanced GIS queries; simply printing maps from a set of predefined images in the map gallery; browsing the layers in an IMS; or by choosing to "fly to" sites using a 3D globe. With special emphasis on the International Polar Year (IPY), ARMAP has targeted science planners, scientists, educators, and the general public. In sum, ARMAP goes beyond a simple map display to enable analysis, synthesis, and coordination of Arctic research. ARMAP may be accessed via the gateway web site at http://www.armap.org.

  16. Sector mapping method for 3D detached retina visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Li, Ke; Lu, Cui-Xin; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    A new sphere-mapping algorithm called sector mapping is introduced to map sector images to the sphere of an eyeball. The proposed sector-mapping algorithm is evaluated and compared with the plane-mapping algorithm adopted in previous work. A simulation that maps an image of concentric circles to the sphere of the eyeball and an analysis of the difference in distance between neighboring points in a plane and sector were used to compare the two mapping algorithms. A three-dimensional model of a whole retina with clear retinal detachment was generated using the Visualization Toolkit software. A comparison of the mapping results shows that the central part of the retina near the optic disc is stretched and its edges are compressed when the plane-mapping algorithm is used. A better mapping result is obtained by the sector-mapping algorithm than by the plane-mapping algorithm in both the simulation results and real clinical retinal detachment three-dimensional reconstruction. PMID:27480739

  17. Low Cost and Efficient 3d Indoor Mapping Using Multiple Consumer Rgb-D Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yang, B. S.; Song, S.

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the miniaturization, lightweight of positioning and remote sensing sensors as well as the urgent needs for fusing indoor and outdoor maps for next generation navigation, 3D indoor mapping from mobile scanning is a hot research and application topic. The point clouds with auxiliary data such as colour, infrared images derived from 3D indoor mobile mapping suite can be used in a variety of novel applications, including indoor scene visualization, automated floorplan generation, gaming, reverse engineering, navigation, simulation and etc. State-of-the-art 3D indoor mapping systems equipped with multiple laser scanners product accurate point clouds of building interiors containing billions of points. However, these laser scanner based systems are mostly expensive and not portable. Low cost consumer RGB-D Cameras provides an alternative way to solve the core challenge of indoor mapping that is capturing detailed underlying geometry of the building interiors. Nevertheless, RGB-D Cameras have a very limited field of view resulting in low efficiency in the data collecting stage and incomplete dataset that missing major building structures (e.g. ceilings, walls). Endeavour to collect a complete scene without data blanks using single RGB-D Camera is not technic sound because of the large amount of human labour and position parameters need to be solved. To find an efficient and low cost way to solve the 3D indoor mapping, in this paper, we present an indoor mapping suite prototype that is built upon a novel calibration method which calibrates internal parameters and external parameters of multiple RGB-D Cameras. Three Kinect sensors are mounted on a rig with different view direction to form a large field of view. The calibration procedure is three folds: 1, the internal parameters of the colour and infrared camera inside each Kinect are calibrated using a chess board pattern, respectively; 2, the external parameters between the colour and infrared camera inside each

  18. Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha

    2013-04-01

    Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.

  19. 3-D numerical evaluation of density effects on tracer tests.

    PubMed

    Beinhorn, M; Dietrich, P; Kolditz, O

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we present numerical simulations carried out to assess the importance of density-dependent flow on tracer plume development. The scenario considered in the study is characterized by a short-term tracer injection phase into a fully penetrating well and a natural hydraulic gradient. The scenario is thought to be typical for tracer tests conducted in the field. Using a reference case as a starting point, different model parameters were changed in order to determine their importance to density effects. The study is based on a three-dimensional model domain. Results were interpreted using concentration contours and a first moment analysis. Tracer injections of 0.036 kg per meter of saturated aquifer thickness do not cause significant density effects assuming hydraulic gradients of at least 0.1%. Higher tracer input masses, as used for geoelectrical investigations, may lead to buoyancy-induced flow in the early phase of a tracer test which in turn impacts further plume development. This also holds true for shallow aquifers. Results of simulations with different tracer injection rates and durations imply that the tracer input scenario has a negligible effect on density flow. Employing model cases with different realizations of a log conductivity random field, it could be shown that small variations of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of the tracer injection well have a major control on the local tracer distribution but do not mask effects of buoyancy-induced flow. PMID:16183165

  20. Ray tracing technique for global 3-D modeling of ionospheric electron density using GNSS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Mohamad Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-06-01

    For space geodetic techniques, operating in microwave band, ionosphere is a dispersive medium; thus, signals traveling through this medium are in the first approximation, affected proportional to the inverse of the square of their frequencies. This effect allows gaining information about the parameters of the ionosphere in terms of total electron content (TEC) or the electron density (Ne). Making use of this phenomenon, space geodetic techniques have turned into a capable tool for studying the ionosphere in the last decades. Up to now, two-dimensional (2-D) models of Vertical TEC (VTEC) have been widely developed and used by different communities; however, due to the fact that these models provide information about the integral of the whole electron content along the vertical or slant raypath, these maps are not useful when information about the ionosphere at different altitude is required. This paper presents a recent study which aims at developing a global 3-D model of the electron density, using measurements from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and by applying the ray tracing technique to the upper atmosphere. The developed modeling approach represents the horizontal variations of the electron density, with two sets of spherical harmonic expansions of degree and order 15. The height dependency of the electron density is represented by a multilayered Chapman profile function for the bottomside and topside ionosphere, and an appropriate model for the plasmasphere. In addition to the geodetic applications of the developed models, within this study, the 3-D models of electron density can include geophysical parameters like maximum electron density and its corresponding height. High-resolution modeling of these parameters allows an improved geophysical interpretation, which is essential in all studies of the upper atmosphere, space weather, and for the solar-terrestrial environment.

  1. Towards High Density 3-D Memory in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Jacob; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Meriles, Carlos; Jayakumar, Harishankar

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is presently the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Of great utility is the ability to optically initialize the NV charge state, which has an immediate impact on the center's light emission properties. Here, we use two-color microscopy in NV-rich, type-1b diamond to demonstrate fluorescence-encoded long-term storage of classical information. As a proof of principle, we write, reset, and rewrite various patterns with 2-D binary bit density comparable to present DVD-ROM technology. The strong fluorescence signal originating from the diffraction-limited bit volume allows us to transition from binary to multi-valued encoding, which translates into a significant storage capacity boost. Finally, we show that our technique preserves information written on different planes of the diamond crystal and thus serves as a platform for three-dimensional storage. Substantial enhancement in the bit density could be achieved with the aid of super resolution microscopy techniques already employed to discriminate between NVs with sub-diffraction, nanometer accuracy, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed 1017 bytes/cm3 We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-1314205.

  2. 3D Road-Mapping in the Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Rossitti, S.; Pfister, M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary 3D road-mapping with syngo iPilot was used as an additional tool for assessing cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) for endovascular therapy. This method provides accurate superimposition of a live fluoroscopic image (native or vascular road-map) and its matching 2D projection of the 3D data set, delivering more anatomic information on one additional display. In the endovascular management of cases with complex anatomy, 3D road-mapping provides excellent image quality at the intervention site. This method can potentially reduce intervention time, the number of DSA runs, fluoroscopy time and the amount of contrast media used in a procedure, with reservation for these factors being mainly operator-dependent. 3D road-mapping probably does not provide any advantage in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms or AVMs with very simple configuration, and it should not be used when acquisition of an optimum 3D data set is not feasible. PMID:20465911

  3. Real time reconstruction of 3-D electron density distribution over Europe with TaD profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutiev, Ivan; Marinov, Pencho; Belehaki, Anna

    2015-04-01

    TaD (TSM-assisted Digisonde) profiler, developed on the base of Topside Sounder Model (TSM), provides vertical electron density profile (EDP) from the bottom of ionosphere up to the GNSS orbit heights over Digisonde sounding stations. TaD EDP uses the bottomside profile provided by Digisonde software and extends it above the F layer peak by representing O+ distribution by α-Chapman formula and H+ distribution by a single exponent. The profile above F layer peak takes the topside scale height HT and transition height hT from TSM and plasmasphere scale height Hp defined as a function of HT. All these profile parameters are adjusted to the current conditions by comparing the profile integral with measured GNSS TEC. The latter is taken from GNSS TEC maps produced by Royal Observatory of Belgium in the area (35˚, 60˚)N and (-15˚, 25˚)E. Maps of foF2 and hmF2 are produced in the same area on the base of DIAS (European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server) network of Digisonde stations and TaD profiles are calculated at all grid nodes (1˚x1˚) on latitude and longitude. Electron density at any point of the 3-D space is then obtained by simple interpolation between nodes. Possible use of reconstruction technique to GNSS applications is demonstrated by calculating the distribution of electron density along various ray paths of GNSS signals.

  4. Mapping 3-D functional capillary geometry in rat skeletal muscle in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Milkovich, Stephanie; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel mapping software package to reconstruct microvascular networks in three dimensions (3-D) from in vivo video images for use in blood flow and O2 transport modeling. An intravital optical imaging system was used to collect video sequences of blood flow in microvessels at different depths in the tissue. Functional images of vessels were produced from the video sequences and were processed using automated edge tracking software to yield location and geometry data for construction of the 3-D network. The same video sequences were analyzed for hemodynamic and O2 saturation data from individual capillaries in the network. Simple user-driven commands allowed the connection of vessel segments at bifurcations, and semiautomated registration enabled the tracking of vessels across multiple focal planes and fields of view. The reconstructed networks can be rotated and manipulated in 3-D to verify vessel connections and continuity. Hemodynamic and O2 saturation measurements made in vivo can be indexed to corresponding vessels and visualized using colorized maps of the vascular geometry. Vessels in each reconstruction are saved as text-based files that can be easily imported into flow or O2 transport models with complete geometry, hemodynamic, and O2 transport conditions. The results of digital morphometric analysis of seven microvascular networks showed mean capillary diameters and overall capillary density consistent with previous findings using histology and corrosion cast techniques. The described mapping software is a valuable tool for the quantification of in vivo microvascular geometry, hemodynamics, and oxygenation, thus providing rich data sets for experiment-based computational models. PMID:22140042

  5. Impact of Building Heights on 3d Urban Density Estimation from Spaceborne Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Feifei; Gong, Jianya; Wang, Le; Wu, Huayi; Yang, Jiansi

    2016-06-01

    In urban planning and design applications, visualization of built up areas in three dimensions (3D) is critical for understanding building density, but the accurate building heights required for 3D density calculation are not always available. To solve this problem, spaceborne stereo imagery is often used to estimate building heights; however estimated building heights might include errors. These errors vary between local areas within a study area and related to the heights of the building themselves, distorting 3D density estimation. The impact of building height accuracy on 3D density estimation must be determined across and within a study area. In our research, accurate planar information from city authorities is used during 3D density estimation as reference data, to avoid the errors inherent to planar information extracted from remotely sensed imagery. Our experimental results show that underestimation of building heights is correlated to underestimation of the Floor Area Ratio (FAR). In local areas, experimental results show that land use blocks with low FAR values often have small errors due to small building height errors for low buildings in the blocks; and blocks with high FAR values often have large errors due to large building height errors for high buildings in the blocks. Our study reveals that the accuracy of 3D density estimated from spaceborne stereo imagery is correlated to heights of buildings in a scene; therefore building heights must be considered when spaceborne stereo imagery is used to estimate 3D density to improve precision.

  6. Mapping 3D Large-Scale Structure at z ˜2 with Lyman-α Forest Tomographic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, J. F.; White, M.; Croft, R. A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Schlegel, D. J.; Suzuki, N.; Kneib, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Spergel, D. N.; Rix, H.; Strauss, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-α (Lyα) forest absorption at z>2 traces the underlying dark-matter distribution, and with a sufficient density of background sightlines can be used to create 3D tomographic maps of large-scale structure. Since the useful Lyα forest in each sightline spans ˜400-500 h-1Mpc, Lyα forest tomography can efficiently map out large-scale structure at z˜2. The Cosmic Lyman-Alpha Program for the Tomographic Reconstruction of Absorption Probes (CLAPTRAP) will be the first survey to attempt this technique. We aim to obtain spectra for a background grid of faint quasars and bright LBGs at 23D map with similar 3 h-1Mpc resolution to be reconstructed from the data. In a recent paper, we have found that spectra with S/N ˜ 4 per Å are sufficient to make excellent-quality tomographic maps that clearly trace the underlying dark-matter distribution at overdensities of order unity. This requires integrations of several hours on moderate-resolution spectrographs mounted on existing 8-10m telescopes, such as LRIS on the Keck-I telescope and VIMOS on the Very Large Telescopes. We aim to observe ˜1500-2000 background sources over 1 sq deg of the COSMOS field with Lyα forest coverage over 2.0map out a total comoving volume of ˜106h-3Mpc3, equivalent to the zCOSMOS and DEEP2 galaxy redshift maps out to z˜1. The total time requirement is 16 nights on either VLT-VIMOS or Keck-LRIS. The resulting tomographic maps will be the first 3D maps of large-scale structure at z>1. In conjunction with the rich multi-wavelength data from the COSMOS survey, these maps will facilitate the study of galaxies in the context of the large-scale environment, reveal the topology of large-scale structure at high-redshifts, and allow the direct detection of galaxy protoclusters at the intersections of the cosmic web. The

  7. Face recognition using 3D facial shape and color map information: comparison and combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godil, Afzal; Ressler, Sandy; Grother, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of 3D surface geometry for face recognition and compare it to one based on color map information. The 3D surface and color map data are from the CAESAR anthropometric database. We find that the recognition performance is not very different between 3D surface and color map information using a principal component analysis algorithm. We also discuss the different techniques for the combination of the 3D surface and color map information for multi-modal recognition by using different fusion approaches and show that there is significant improvement in results. The effectiveness of various techniques is compared and evaluated on a dataset with 200 subjects in two different positions.

  8. TReMAP: Automatic 3D Neuron Reconstruction Based on Tracing, Reverse Mapping and Assembling of 2D Projections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Long, Brian; Peng, Hanchuan

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and accurate digital reconstruction of neurons from large-scale 3D microscopic images remains a challenge in neuroscience. We propose a new automatic 3D neuron reconstruction algorithm, TReMAP, which utilizes 3D Virtual Finger (a reverse-mapping technique) to detect 3D neuron structures based on tracing results on 2D projection planes. Our fully automatic tracing strategy achieves close performance with the state-of-the-art neuron tracing algorithms, with the crucial advantage of efficient computation (much less memory consumption and parallel computation) for large-scale images. PMID:26306866

  9. 3D Freeze-Casting of Cellular Graphene Films for Ultrahigh-Power-Density Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuanlong; El-Kady, Maher F; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Zhu, Guanzhou; Marsh, Kristofer L; Hwang, Jee Youn; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-08-01

    3D cellular graphene films with open porosity, high electrical conductivity, and good tensile strength, can be synthesized by a method combining freeze-casting and filtration. The resulting supercapacitors based on 3D porous reduced graphene oxide (RGO) film exhibit extremely high specific power densities and high energy densities. The fabrication process provides an effective means for controlling the pore size, electronic conductivity, and loading mass of the electrode materials, toward devices with high energy-storage performance. PMID:27214752

  10. Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP): 2D Maps and 3D Globes Support Arctic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A.; Manley, W. F.; Dover, M.; Score, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online applications and data services that support Arctic science by providing project tracking information (who's doing what, when and where in the region) for United States Government funded projects. With ARMAP's 2D mapping application, 3D globes, and data services (http://armap.org), users can search for research projects by location, year, funding program, keyword, investigator, and discipline, among other variables. Key information about each project is displayed within the application with links to web pages that provide additional information. The ARMAP 2D mapping application has been significantly enhanced to include support for multiple projections, improved base maps, additional reference data layers, and optimization for better performance. The additional functionality of this tool will increase awareness of projects funded by numerous entities in the Arctic, enhance coordination for logistics support, help identify geographic gaps in research efforts and potentially foster more collaboration amongst researchers working in the region. Additionally, ARMAP can be used to demonstrate the effects of the International Polar Year (IPY) on funding of different research disciplines by the U.S. Government.

  11. gEMfitter: a highly parallel FFT-based 3D density fitting tool with GPU texture memory acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai V; Cavin, Xavier; Ritchie, David W

    2013-11-01

    Fitting high resolution protein structures into low resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps is an important technique for modeling the atomic structures of very large macromolecular assemblies. This article presents "gEMfitter", a highly parallel fast Fourier transform (FFT) EM density fitting program which can exploit the special hardware properties of modern graphics processor units (GPUs) to accelerate both the translational and rotational parts of the correlation search. In particular, by using the GPU's special texture memory hardware to rotate 3D voxel grids, the cost of rotating large 3D density maps is almost completely eliminated. Compared to performing 3D correlations on one core of a contemporary central processor unit (CPU), running gEMfitter on a modern GPU gives up to 26-fold speed-up. Furthermore, using our parallel processing framework, this speed-up increases linearly with the number of CPUs or GPUs used. Thus, it is now possible to use routinely more robust but more expensive 3D correlation techniques. When tested on low resolution experimental cryo-EM data for the GroEL-GroES complex, we demonstrate the satisfactory fitting results that may be achieved by using a locally normalised cross-correlation with a Laplacian pre-filter, while still being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the well-known COLORES program. PMID:24060989

  12. Mapping the holes: 3D ISM maps and diffuse X-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Puspitarini, L.; Snowden, S.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.

    3D maps of Galactic interstellar dust and gas reveal empty regions, including cavities carved by stellar winds and supernovae. Such cavities are often filled with hot gas and are sources of soft X-ray background emission. We discuss the combined analysis of the diffuse soft (0.25 keV) X-ray background and the 3D distribution of nearby (<1 kpc) dust, including studies of shadows cast by nearby clouds in the background. This analysis benefits from recent progress in the estimate of the foreground X-ray emission from the heliosphere. New and past X-ray data are found to be consistent with the maps if the ≃ 100-150 pc wide Local Bubble surrounding the Sun is filled with 106K gas with a pressure 2nT ≃ 10,000 K cm-3. On the other hand, the giant cavity found in the 3rd Galactic quadrant has a weaker volume emission than the LB and is very likely filled to a large extent with warm ionized gas. Its geometry suggests a link with the tilted Gould belt, and a potential mechanism for the formation of the whole structure has been recently proposed. According to it, the local inclination of gas and stars, the velocity pattern and enhanced star formation could have been initiated 60-70 Myr ago when a massive globular cluster crossed the Galactic Plane in the vicinity of the Sun. The destabilization of stellar orbits around the Sun may have generated enhanced asteroid falls of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction events. Additionally, a short gamma ray burst may have occurred in the cluster during the crossing, producing intense ionization and subsequent shock waves leading to the star formations seen today in the form of the giant ionized region and OB associations at its periphery. Gaia measurements of nearby stars and clusters should help shedding light on the local history.

  13. 3D Globe Support for Arctic Science through the Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, J.; Johnson, G. W.; Gaylord, A. G.; Cody, R.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Franko, J. C.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Manley, W.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes or 3D Geobrowsers play a crucial role in the visualization of spatial data for scientific research. While many applications provide the ability to visualize data, they lack the necessary GIS functionality to query the information. In addition, many users want to overlay their own tabular, vector and raster data on a virtual globe. The 3D Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP 3D) provides a free 3D geobrowser that includes query functionality and support for many data formats and map services. ARMAP 3D was developed on top of a free software application from the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) called ArcGIS Explorer (AGX). Several custom tasks as well as a customizable interface have been developed for ARMAP 3D with AGX's own software development kit (SDK) using .NET framework. ARMAP 3D includes high resolution imagery and information from the Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). ARLSS includes information about NSF research locations plus locations from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) locations. With special emphasis on the International Polar Year (IPY), ARMAP has targeted science planners, scientists, educators, and the general public. In sum, ARMAP goes beyond a simple map display to enable analysis, synthesis, and coordination of Arctic research. Information on the ARMAP suite of applications and services may be accessed via the gateway web site at http://www.armap.org.

  14. Fast quantitative susceptibility mapping using 3D EPI and total generalized variation.

    PubMed

    Langkammer, Christian; Bredies, Kristian; Poser, Benedikt A; Barth, Markus; Reishofer, Gernot; Fan, Audrey Peiwen; Bilgic, Berkin; Fazekas, Franz; Mainero, Caterina; Ropele, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) allows new insights into tissue composition and organization by assessing its magnetic property. Previous QSM studies have already demonstrated that magnetic susceptibility is highly sensitive to myelin density and fiber orientation as well as to para- and diamagnetic trace elements. Image resolution in QSM with current approaches is limited by the long acquisition time of 3D scans and the need for high signal to noise ratio (SNR) to solve the dipole inversion problem. We here propose a new total-generalized-variation (TGV) based method for QSM reconstruction, which incorporates individual steps of phase unwrapping, background field removal and dipole inversion in a single iteration, thus yielding a robust solution to the reconstruction problem. This approach has beneficial characteristics for low SNR data, allowing for phase data to be rapidly acquired with a 3D echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. The proposed method was evaluated with a numerical phantom and in vivo at 3 and 7 T. Compared to total variation (TV), TGV-QSM enforced higher order smoothness which yielded solutions closer to the ground truth and prevented stair-casing artifacts. The acquisition time for images with 1mm isotropic resolution and whole brain coverage was 10s on a clinical 3 Tesla scanner. In conclusion, 3D EPI acquisition combined with single-step TGV reconstruction yields reliable QSM images of the entire brain with 1mm isotropic resolution in seconds. The short acquisition time combined with the robust reconstruction may enable new QSM applications in less compliant populations, clinical susceptibility tensor imaging, and functional resting state examinations. PMID:25731991

  15. Fast Semantic Segmentation of 3d Point Clouds with Strongly Varying Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackel, Timo; Wegner, Jan D.; Schindler, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    We describe an effective and efficient method for point-wise semantic classification of 3D point clouds. The method can handle unstructured and inhomogeneous point clouds such as those derived from static terrestrial LiDAR or photogammetric reconstruction; and it is computationally efficient, making it possible to process point clouds with many millions of points in a matter of minutes. The key issue, both to cope with strong variations in point density and to bring down computation time, turns out to be careful handling of neighborhood relations. By choosing appropriate definitions of a point's (multi-scale) neighborhood, we obtain a feature set that is both expressive and fast to compute. We evaluate our classification method both on benchmark data from a mobile mapping platform and on a variety of large, terrestrial laser scans with greatly varying point density. The proposed feature set outperforms the state of the art with respect to per-point classification accuracy, while at the same time being much faster to compute.

  16. The effect of volumetric (3D) tactile symbols within inclusive tactile maps.

    PubMed

    Gual, Jaume; Puyuelo, Marina; Lloveras, Joaquim

    2015-05-01

    Point, linear and areal elements, which are two-dimensional and of a graphic nature, are the morphological elements employed when designing tactile maps and symbols for visually impaired users. However, beyond the two-dimensional domain, there is a fourth group of elements - volumetric elements - which mapmakers do not take sufficiently into account when it comes to designing tactile maps and symbols. This study analyses the effect of including volumetric, or 3D, symbols within a tactile map. In order to do so, the researchers compared two tactile maps. One of them uses only two-dimensional elements and is produced using thermoforming, one of the most popular systems in this field, while the other includes volumetric symbols, thus highlighting the possibilities opened up by 3D printing, a new area of production. The results of the study show that including 3D symbols improves the efficiency and autonomous use of these products. PMID:25683526

  17. 3D model retrieval using probability density-based shape descriptors.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent; Yemez, Yücel; Schmitt, Francis

    2009-06-01

    We address content-based retrieval of complete 3D object models by a probabilistic generative description of local shape properties. The proposed shape description framework characterizes a 3D object with sampled multivariate probability density functions of its local surface features. This density-based descriptor can be efficiently computed via kernel density estimation (KDE) coupled with fast Gauss transform. The non-parametric KDE technique allows reliable characterization of a diverse set of shapes and yields descriptors which remain relatively insensitive to small shape perturbations and mesh resolution. Density-based characterization also induces a permutation property which can be used to guarantee invariance at the shape matching stage. As proven by extensive retrieval experiments on several 3D databases, our framework provides state-of-the-art discrimination over a broad and heterogeneous set of shape categories. PMID:19372614

  18. Improving the Pan-STARRs/2MASS 3-D dust map: Regularization for increased resolution and fidelity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Green, Gregory; Lee, Albert; Ford Schlafly, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Green et al. (2015) 3-D map of interstellar dust uses photometry of nearly 1 billion stars from Pan-STARRS1 and 2MASS to infer the distribution of dust in the Milky Way. The current map treats each angular pixel (~ 6 arcmin) independently, and estimates the dust in 30 distance bins. However, dust structures cut across pixels and the fit could be improved by coupling the dust density in neighboring pixels. This also has the advantage that fewer stars would be required per pixel, allowing finer angular resolution. We propose a simple way to do this, and show that it allows the use of smaller angular pixels and produces sharper resolution in the distance direction for a test case in Orion. We intend to incorporate similar regularization into the next full-sky 3-D dust map.

  19. Velocity and Density Models Incorporating the Cascadia Subduction Zone for 3D Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, William J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) models incorporating the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The model volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in model coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these models. The version of the model volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the model volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these model volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this model version, no EarthScope-specific results were incorporated. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary model in their research. To this end, it is intended that these models will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity model of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.

  20. Mapping the True 3D Morphology of Deep-Sea Canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huvenne, V. A.; Masson, D.; Tyler, P. A.; Huehnerbach, V.

    2010-12-01

    The importance of submarine canyons as ecosystem hotspots and sediment transport pathways has been recognised for decades (e.g. Heezen et al., 1955; Vetter & Dayton, 1998). However, studying canyon systems in detail is a challenge, because of the complexity and steepness of the terrain. Acoustic surveys are hampered by side-echoes, while the high slope angles cause most types of sampling equipment, deployed from surface vessels, to fail. Ship-borne bathymetric surveys tend to represent the canyon topography in an overly smoothed way as a result of their limited resolution in deep water compared to the scale of the terrain variability. Moreover, it is clear that overhanging cliffs cannot be mapped correctly with traditional, downward looking multibeam echosounders. The increasing availability of underwater vehicles, however, opens new opportunities. During summer 2009, we mapped several submarine canyon habitats in detail, using the UK deep-water Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) ISIS. In particular, we developed a new methodology to map vertical cliffs and overhangs by placing the high-resolution Simrad SM2000 multibeam system of the ROV in a forward-looking position rather than in the traditional downward-looking configuration. The cliff morphology was then mapped by moving the ROV laterally in parallel passes at different depths. Repeating this approach at different distances from the cliff face, we obtained maps of varying resolution and extent. The low resolution maps provide an overview of the general geological framework, while individual strata and faunal colonies can be recognised on the highest resolution maps. Using point-cloud models, we combined the ship-borne bathymetry with the ROV-based data, in order to obtain a true 3D seabed morphology of the canyon study site, which can be used for fly-throughs, geomorphological analysis or habitat mapping. With this approach, we could visualise the spatial structure and density distribution of a unique and

  1. An image encryption algorithm based on 3D cellular automata and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rey, A. Martín; Sánchez, G. Rodríguez

    2015-05-01

    A novel encryption algorithm to cipher digital images is presented in this work. The digital image is rendering into a three-dimensional (3D) lattice and the protocol consists of two phases: the confusion phase where 24 chaotic Cat maps are applied and the diffusion phase where a 3D cellular automata is evolved. The encryption method is shown to be secure against the most important cryptanalytic attacks.

  2. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  3. The application of iterative closest point (ICP) registration to improve 3D terrain mapping estimates using the flash 3D ladar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Jack; Armstrong, Ernest E.; Armbruster, Walter; Richmond, Richard

    2010-04-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to develop an effective means of creating a 3D terrain map image (point-cloud) in GPS denied regions from a sequence of co-bore sighted visible and 3D LIDAR images. Both the visible and 3D LADAR cameras were hard mounted to a vehicle. The vehicle was then driven around the streets of an abandoned village used as a training facility by the German Army and imagery was collected. The visible and 3D LADAR images were then fused and 3D registration performed using a variation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The ICP algorithm is widely used for various spatial and geometric alignment of 3D imagery producing a set of rotation and translation transformations between two 3D images. ICP rotation and translation information obtain from registering the fused visible and 3D LADAR imagery was then used to calculate the x-y plane, range and intensity (xyzi) coordinates of various structures (building, vehicles, trees etc.) along the driven path. The xyzi coordinates information was then combined to create a 3D terrain map (point-cloud). In this paper, we describe the development and application of 3D imaging techniques (most specifically the ICP algorithm) used to improve spatial, range and intensity estimates of imagery collected during urban terrain mapping using a co-bore sighted, commercially available digital video camera with focal plan of 640×480 pixels and a 3D FLASH LADAR. Various representations of the reconstructed point-clouds for the drive through data will also be presented.

  4. Vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination based on 3D lithostratigraphical models of porous aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply a methodology in order to reconstruct a lithostratigraphic 3D model of an aquifer so as to define some parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination of porous aquifers. The DRASTIC, SINTACS and AVI methods have been applied to an alluvial coastal aquifer of southern Italy. The stratigraphic reconstruction has been obtained by interpolating stratigraphic data from more than one borehole per 2 km. The lithostratigraphic reconstruction of a 3D model has been applied and used for three-dimensional or two-dimensional representations. In the first two methods, the layers of the vadose zone and the aquifer media have been evaluated not only by the interpolation of the single boreholes and piezometers, but also by the 3D model, assigning the scores of the parameters of each layer of the 3D model. The comparison between the maps constructed from the weighted values in each borehole and the maps deriving from the attribution of the values of each layer of the 3D model, highlights that the second representation avoids or minimizes the "bullseye" effect linked to the presence of boreholes with higher or lower values. The study has demonstrated that it is possible to integrate a 3D lithostratigraphic model of an aquifer in the assessment of the parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination by Point Count System methods. PMID:23391897

  5. 3D mapping of airway wall thickening in asthma with MSCT: a level set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Hartley, Ruth; Grenier, Philippe A.; Brightling, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Assessing the airway wall thickness in multi slice computed tomography (MSCT) as image marker for airway disease phenotyping such asthma and COPD is a current trend and challenge for the scientific community working in lung imaging. This paper addresses the same problem from a different point of view: considering the expected wall thickness-to-lumen-radius ratio for a normal subject as known and constant throughout the whole airway tree, the aim is to build up a 3D map of airway wall regions of larger thickness and to define an overall score able to highlight a pathological status. In this respect, the local dimension (caliber) of the previously segmented airway lumen is obtained on each point by exploiting the granulometry morphological operator. A level set function is defined based on this caliber information and on the expected wall thickness ratio, which allows obtaining a good estimate of the airway wall throughout all segmented lumen generations. Next, the vascular (or mediastinal dense tissue) contact regions are automatically detected and excluded from analysis. For the remaining airway wall border points, the real wall thickness is estimated based on the tissue density analysis in the airway radial direction; thick wall points are highlighted on a 3D representation of the airways and several quantification scores are defined. The proposed approach is fully automatic and was evaluated (proof of concept) on a patient selection coming from different databases including mild, severe asthmatics and normal cases. This preliminary evaluation confirms the discriminative power of the proposed approach regarding different phenotypes and is currently extending to larger cohorts.

  6. A volumetric sensor for real-time 3D mapping and robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Ricard, Benoit; Laurendeau, Denis

    2006-05-01

    The use of robots for (semi-) autonomous operations in complex terrains such as urban environments poses difficult mobility, mapping, and perception challenges. To be able to work efficiently, a robot should be provided with sensors and software such that it can perceive and analyze the world in 3D. Real-time 3D sensing and perception in this operational context are paramount. To address these challenges, DRDC Valcartier has developed over the past years a compact sensor that combines a wide baseline stereo camera and a laser scanner with a full 360 degree azimuth and 55 degree elevation field of view allowing the robot to view and manage overhang obstacles as well as obstacles at ground level. Sensing in 3D is common but to efficiently navigate and work in complex terrain, the robot should also perceive, decide and act in three dimensions. Therefore, 3D information should be preserved and exploited in all steps of the process. To achieve this, we use a multiresolution octree to store the acquired data, allowing mapping of large environments while keeping the representation compact and memory efficient. Ray tracing is used to build and update the 3D occupancy model. This model is used, via a temporary 2.5D map, for navigation, obstacle avoidance and efficient frontier-based exploration. This paper describes the volumetric sensor concept, describes its design features and presents an overview of the 3D software framework that allows 3D information persistency through all computation steps. Simulation and real-world experiments are presented at the end of the paper to demonstrate the key elements of our approach.

  7. The Use of Uas for Rapid 3d Mapping in Geomatics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Tian-Yuan Shih, Peter; Yu, Sz-Cheng; Tsai, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor). The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  8. Effect of density gradients in confined supersonic shear layers. Part 2: 3-D modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peroomian, Oshin; Kelly, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of basic flow density gradients on the supersonic wall modes were investigated in Part 1 of this analysis. In that investigation only the 2-D modes were studied. Tam and Hu investigated the 3-D modes in a confined vortex sheet and reported that the first 2-D Class A mode (A01) had the highest growth rate compared to all other 2-D and 3-D modes present in the vortex sheet for that particular set of flow patterns. They also showed that this result also held true for finite thickness shear layers with delta(sub w) less than 0.125. For free shear layers, Sandham and Reynolds showed that the 3-D K-H mode became the dominant mode for M(sub c) greater than 0.6. Jackson and Grosch investigated the effect of crossflow and obliqueness on the slow and fast odes present in a M(sub c) greater than 1 environment and showed that for certain combination of crossflow and wave angles the growth rates could be increased by up to a factor of 2 with respect to the 2-D case. The case studied here is a confined shear layer shown in Part 1. All solution procedures and basic low profiles are the same as in Part 1. The effect of density gradients on the 3-D modes present in the density ratios considered in Part 1 are investigated.

  9. An analytical algorithm for 3D magnetic field mapping of a watt balance magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Zhengkun; Zhao, Wei; Han, Bing; Lu, Yunfeng; Li, Shisong

    2016-04-01

    A yoke-based permanent magnet, which has been employed in many watt balances at national metrology institutes, is supposed to generate strong and uniform magnetic field in an air gap in the radial direction. However, in reality the fringe effect due to the finite height of the air gap will introduce an undesired vertical magnetic component to the air gap, which should either be measured or modeled towards some optimizations of the watt balance. A recent publication, i.e. Li et al (2015 Metrologia 52 445), presented a full field mapping method, which in theory will supply useful information for profile characterization and misalignment analysis. This article is an additional material of Li et al (2015 Metrologia 52 445), which develops a different analytical algorithm to represent the 3D magnetic field of a watt balance magnet based on only one measurement for the radial magnetic flux density along the vertical direction, B r (z). The new algorithm is based on the electromagnetic nature of the magnet, which has a much better accuracy.

  10. Pilot Application of 3d Underwater Imaging Techniques for Mapping Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile Meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rende, F. S.; Irving, A. D.; Lagudi, A.; Bruno, F.; Scalise, S.; Cappa, P.; Montefalcone, M.; Bacci, T.; Penna, M.; Trabucco, B.; Di Mento, R.; Cicero, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Seagrass communities are considered one of the most productive and complex marine ecosystems. Seagrasses belong to a small group of 66 species that can form extensive meadows in all coastal areas of our planet. Posidonia oceanica beds are the most characteristic ecosystem of the Mediterranean Sea, and should be constantly monitored, preserved and maintained, as specified by EU Habitats Directive for priority habitats. Underwater 3D imaging by means of still or video cameras can allow a detailed analysis of the temporal evolution of these meadows, but also of the seafloor morphology and integrity. Video-photographic devices and open source software for acquiring and managing 3D optical data rapidly became more and more effective and economically viable, making underwater 3D mapping an easier task to carry out. 3D reconstruction of the underwater scene can be obtained with photogrammetric techniques that require just one or more digital cameras, also in stereo configuration. In this work we present the preliminary results of a pilot 3D mapping project applied to the P. oceanica meadow in the Marine Protected Area of Capo Rizzuto (KR, Calabria Region - Italy).

  11. From digital mapping to GIS-based 3D visualization of geological maps: example from the Western Alps geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Gianni; Cassulo, Roberto; Festa, Andrea; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Nicolò, Gabriele; Perotti, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Collection of field geological data and sharing of geological maps are nowadays greatly enhanced by using digital tools and IT (Information Technology) applications. Portable hardware allows accurate GPS localization of data and homogeneous storing of information in field databases, whereas GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applications enable generalization of field data and realization of geological map databases. A further step in the digital processing of geological map information consists of building virtual visualization by means of GIS-based 3D viewers, that allow projection and draping of significant geological features over photo-realistic terrain models. Digital fieldwork activities carried out by the Authors in the Western Alps, together with building of geological map databases and related 3D visualizations, are an example of application of the above described digital technologies. Digital geological mapping was performed by means of a GIS mobile software loaded on a rugged handheld device, and lithological, structural and geomorphological features with their attributes were stored in different layers that form the field database. The latter was then generalized through usual map processing steps such as outcrops interpolation, characterization of geological boundaries and selection of meaningful punctual observations. This map databases was used for building virtual visualizations through a GIS-based 3D-viewer that loaded detailed DTM (resolution of 5 meters) and aerial images. 3D visualizations were focused on projection and draping of significant stratigraphic contacts (e.g. contacts that separate different Quaternary deposits) and tectonic contacts (i.e. exhumation-related contacts that dismembered original ophiolite sequences). In our experience digital geological mapping and related databases ensured homogeneous data storing and effective sharing of information, and allowed subsequent building of 3D GIS-based visualizations. The latters gave

  12. Dislocation Density Tensor Characterization of Deformation Using 3D X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Ben C; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; El-Azab, Anter; Liu, Wenjun

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) X-ray microscopy with submicron resolution has been used to make spatially resolved measurements of lattice curvature and elastic strain over two-dimensional slices in thin deformed Si plates. The techniques and capabilities associated with white-beam 3D X-ray microscopy are discussed, and both theoretical and experimental considerations associated with the measurement of Nye dislocation density tensors in deformed materials are presented. The ability to determine the local geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density in the form of a dislocation density tensor, with micron spatial resolution over mesoscopic length scales, is demonstrated. Results are shown for the special case of an elastically bent (dislocation free) thin Si plate and for a similar thin Si plate that was bent plastically, above the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature, to introduce dislocations. Within the uncertainties of the measurements, the known result that GND density is zero for elastic bending is obtained, and well-defined GND distributions are observed in the plastically deformed Si plate. The direct and absolute connection between experimental measurements of GND density and multiscale modeling and computer simulations of deformation microstructures is discussed to highlight the importance of submicron-resolution 3D X-ray microscopy for mesoscale characterization of material defects and to achieve a fundamental understanding of deformation in ductile materials.

  13. Dislocation density tensor characterization of deformation using 3D x-ray microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, B. C.; Tischler, J. Z.; El-Azab, A.; Liu, W.; ORNL; Florida State Univ.

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) X-ray microscopy with submicron resolution has been used to make spatially resolved measurements of lattice curvature and elastic strain over two-dimensional slices in thin deformed Si plates. The techniques and capabilities associated with white-beam 3D X-ray microscopy are discussed, and both theoretical and experimental considerations associated with the measurement of Nye dislocation density tensors in deformed materials are presented. The ability to determine the local geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density in the form of a dislocation density tensor, with micron spatial resolution over mesoscopic length scales, is demonstrated. Results are shown for the special case of an elastically bent (dislocation free) thin Si plate and for a similar thin Si plate that was bent plastically, above the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature, to introduce dislocations. Within the uncertainties of the measurements, the known result that GND density is zero for elastic bending is obtained, and well-defined GND distributions are observed in the plastically deformed Si plate. The direct and absolute connection between experimental measurements of GND density and multiscale modeling and computer simulations of deformation microstructures is discussed to highlight the importance of submicron-resolution 3D X-ray microscopy for mesoscale characterization of material defects and to achieve a fundamental understanding of deformation in ductile materials.

  14. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  15. 3D printed elastic honeycombs with graded density for tailorable energy absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Simon R. G.; Farrow, Ian R.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the development and experimental analysis of hyperelastic honeycombs with graded densities, for the purpose of energy absorption. Hexagonal arrays are manufactured from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing and the density graded by varying cell wall thickness though the structures. Manufactured samples are subject to static compression tests and their energy absorbing potential analysed via the formation of energy absorption diagrams. It is shown that by grading the density through the structure, the energy absorption profile of these structures can be manipulated such that a wide range of compression energies can be efficiently absorbed.

  16. Automated 3d Road Sign Mapping with Stereovision-Based Mobile Mapping Exploiting Disparity Information from Dense Stereo Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Nebiker, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents algorithms and investigations on the automated detection, classification and mapping of road signs which systematically exploit depth information from stereo images. This approach was chosen due to recent progress in the development of stereo matching algorithms enabling the generation of accurate and dense depth maps. In comparison to mono imagery-based approaches, depth maps also allow 3D mapping of the objects. This is essential for efficient inventory and for future change detection purposes. Test measurements with the mobile mapping system by the Institute of Geomatics Engineering of the FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland demonstrated that the developed algorithms for the automated 3D road sign mapping perform well, even under difficult to poor lighting conditions. Approximately 90% of the relevant road signs with predominantly red, blue and yellow colors in Switzerland can be detected, and 85% can be classified correctly. Furthermore, fully automated mapping with a 3D accuracy of better than 10 cm is possible.

  17. Measuring distances and reddenings for a billion stars: Toward a 3D dust map from Pan-STARRS 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gregory Maurice; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jurić, Mario; Burgett, Will; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kudritzki, Rolf Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-03-10

    We present a method to infer reddenings and distances to stars based only on their broad-band photometry, and show how this method can be used to produce a three-dimensional (3D) dust map of the Galaxy. Our method samples from the full probability density function of distance, reddening, and stellar type for individual stars, as well as the full uncertainty in reddening as a function of distance in the 3D dust map. We incorporate prior knowledge of the distribution of stars in the Galaxy and the detection limits of the survey. For stars in the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) 3π survey, we demonstrate that our reddening estimates are unbiased and accurate to ∼0.13 mag in E(B – V) for the typical star. Based on comparisons with mock catalogs, we expect distances for main-sequence stars to be constrained to within ∼20%-60%, although this range can vary, depending on the reddening of the star, the precise stellar type, and its position on the sky. A later paper will present a 3D map of dust over the three quarters of the sky surveyed by PS1. Both the individual stellar inferences and the 3D dust map will enable a wealth of Galactic science in the plane. The method we present is not limited to the passbands of the PS1 survey but may be extended to incorporate photometry from other surveys, such as the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (where available), and in the future, LSST and Gaia.

  18. 3D maps of the local ISM from inversion of individual color excess measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Valette, B.; Puspitarini, L.; Eyer, L.; Casagrande, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Galactic interstellar matter (ISM) are a potential tool of wide use, but accurate and detailed maps are still lacking. One of the ways to construct the maps is to invert individual distance-limited ISM measurements, a method we have applied here to measurements of stellar color excess in the optical. Methods: We assembled color excess data together with the associated parallax or photometric distances to constitute a catalog of ≃23 000 sightlines for stars within 2.5 kpc. The photometric data are taken from Strömgren catalogs, the Geneva photometric database, and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey. We also included extinctions derived towards open clusters. We applied an inversion method based on a regularized Bayesian approach to this color excess dataset, a method previously used for mapping at closer distances. Results: We show the dust spatial distribution resulting from the inversion by means of planar cuts through the differential opacity 3D distribution, and by means of 2D maps of the integrated opacity from the Sun up to various distances. The mapping assigns locations to the nearby dense clouds and represents their distribution at the spatial resolution that is allowed by the dataset properties, i.e. ≃10 pc close to the Sun and increasing to ≃100 pc beyond 1 kpc. Biases toward nearby and/or weakly extincted stars make this dataset particularly appropriate to mapping the local and neighboring cavities and to locating faint, extended nearby clouds, which are both goals that are difficult or impossible with other mapping methods. The new maps reveal a ≃1 kpc wide empty region in the third quadrant in the continuation of the so-called CMa tunnel of the Local Cavity, a cavity that we identify as the Superbubble GSH238+00+09 detected in radio emission maps and that is found to be bounded by the Orion and Vela clouds. The maps also show an extended narrower tunnel in the opposite direction (l ≃ 70°) that also extends

  19. Comparison of interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric 3D metrics in mapping of forest resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karila, K.; Karjalainen, M.; Yu, X.; Vastaranta, M.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppa, J.

    2015-04-01

    Accurate forest resources maps are needed in diverse applications ranging from the local forest management to the global climate change research. In particular, it is important to have tools to map changes in forest resources, which helps us to understand the significance of the forest biomass changes in the global carbon cycle. In the task of mapping changes in forest resources for wide areas, Earth Observing satellites could play the key role. In 2013, an EU/FP7-Space funded project "Advanced_SAR" was started with the main objective to develop novel forest resources mapping methods based on the fusion of satellite based 3D measurements and in-situ field measurements of forests. During the summer 2014, an extensive field surveying campaign was carried out in the Evo test site, Southern Finland. Forest inventory attributes of mean tree height, basal area, mean stem diameter, stem volume, and biomass, were determined for 91 test plots having the size of 32 by 32 meters (1024 m2). Simultaneously, a comprehensive set of satellite and airborne data was collected. Satellite data also included a set of TanDEM-X (TDX) and TerraSAR-X (TSX) X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, suitable for interferometric and stereo-radargrammetric processing to extract 3D elevation data representing the forest canopy. In the present study, we compared the accuracy of TDX InSAR and TSX stereo-radargrammetric derived 3D metrics in forest inventory attribute prediction. First, 3D data were extracted from TDX and TSX images. Then, 3D data were processed as elevations above the ground surface (forest canopy height values) using an accurate Digital Terrain Model (DTM) based on airborne laser scanning survey. Finally, 3D metrics were calculated from the canopy height values for each test plot and the 3D metrics were compared with the field reference data. The Random Forest method was used in the forest inventory attributes prediction. Based on the results InSAR showed slightly better

  20. SU-F-BRF-08: Conformal Mapping-Based 3D Surface Matching and Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y; Zeng, W; Gu, X; Liu, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, non-rigid 3D surface matching and registration has been used extensively in engineering and medicine. However, matching 3D surfaces undergoing non-rigid deformation accurately is still a challenging mathematical problem. In this study, we present a novel algorithm to address this issue by introducing intrinsic symmetry to the registration Methods: Our computational algorithm for symmetric conformal mapping is divided into three major steps: 1) Finding the symmetric plane; 2) Finding feature points; and 3) Performing cross registration. The key strategy is to preserve the symmetry during the conformal mapping, such that the image on the parameter domain is symmetric and the area distortion factor on the parameter image is also symmetric. Several novel algorithms were developed using different conformal geometric tools. One was based on solving Riemann-Cauchy equation and the other one employed curvature flow Results: Our algorithm was implemented using generic C++ on Windows XP and used conjugate gradient search optimization for acceleration. The human face 3D surface images were acquired using a high speed 3D scanner based on the phase-shifting method. The scanning speed was 30 frames/sec. The image resolution for each frame was 640 × 480. For 3D human face surfaces with different expressions, postures, and boundaries, our algorithms were able to produce consistent result on the texture pattern on the overlapping region Conclusion: We proposed a novel algorithm to improve the robustness of conformal geometric methods by incorporating the symmetric information into the mapping process. To objectively evaluate its performance, we compared it with most existing techniques. Experimental results indicated that our method outperformed all the others in terms of robustness. The technique has a great potential in real-time patient monitoring and tracking in image-guided radiation therapy.

  1. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates. PMID:26488641

  2. Generation of 3-D surface maps in waste storage silos using a structured light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, B. L.; Rowe, J. C.; Dinkins, M. A.; Christensen, B.; Selleck, C.; Jacoboski, D.; Markus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Surface contours inside the large waste storage tanks typical of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are, in general, highly irregular. In addition to pipes and other pieces of equipment in the tanks, the surfaces may have features such as mounds, fissures, crystalline structures, and mixed solid and liquid forms. Prior to remediation activities, it will be necessary to characterize the waste to determine the most effective remediation approaches. Surface contour data will be required both prior to and during remediation. The use is described of a structured light source to generate 3-D surface contour maps of the interior of waste storage silos at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, OH. The landscape inside these large waste storage tanks bears a strong resemblance to some of the landscapes that might be encountered during lunar or planetary exploration. Hence, these terrestrial 3-D mapping techniques may be directly applicable to extraterrestrial exploration. In further development, it will be demonstrated that these 3-D data can be used for robotic task planning just as 3-D surface contour data of a satellite could be used to plan maintenance tasks for a space-based servicing robot.

  3. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  4. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulos, Maged N.K.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.

  5. Web GIS in practice VII: stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Robinson, Larry R

    2009-01-01

    Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the 'third dimension' or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in "true 3D", with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system. PMID:19849837

  6. 3D Magnetic Induction Maps of Nanoscale Materials Revealed by Electron Holographic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same specimen with high spatial resolution are missing. Here, we demonstrate the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the dominant axial component of the magnetic induction and electrostatic potential within a cobalt nanowire (NW) of 100 nm in diameter with spatial resolution below 10 nm by applying electron holographic tomography. The tomogram was obtained using a dedicated TEM sample holder for acquisition, in combination with advanced alignment and tomographic reconstruction routines. The powerful approach presented here is widely applicable to a broad range of 3D magnetic nanostructures and may trigger the progress of novel spintronic nonplanar nanodevices. PMID:27182110

  7. RESEARCH NOTE: Empirical 3-D basis for the internal density of a planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambat, Frédéric; Ricard, Yanick

    2005-07-01

    Various papers have discussed the forward relationships between internal density anomalies of a planet and its external gravity field. The inverse modelling, i.e. finding the internal density anomalies from the external potential is known to be highly non-unique. In this research note, we explain how a 3-D basis can be built to represent the internal density variations that includes a subset that explicitly spans the kernel of the forward gravity operator. This representation clarifies the origin of the non-uniqueness of the gravity sources and implies the existence of a natural minimal norm inverse for the internal density. We illustrate these ideas by comparing a tomographic model of the mantle to the minimal norm density.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D interstellar extinct. map within nearest kpc (Gontcharov, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    The product of the previously constructed 3D maps of stellar reddening (2010AstL...36..584G) and Rv variations (2012AstL...38...12G) has allowed us to produce a 3D interstellar extinction map within the nearest kiloparsec from the Sun with a spatial resolution of 100pc and an accuracy of 0.2m. This map is compared with the 2D reddening map by Schlegel et al. (1998ApJ...500..525S), the 3D extinction map at high latitudes by Jones et al. (2011AJ....142...44J), and the analytical 3D extinction models by Arenou et al. (1992A&A...258..104A) and Gontcharov (2009AstL...35..780G). In all cases, we have found good agreement and show that there are no systematic errors in the new map everywhere except the direction toward the Galactic center. We have found that the map by Schlegel et al. (1998ApJ...500..525S) reaches saturation near the Galactic equator at E(B-V)>0.8m, has a zero-point error and systematic errors gradually increasing with reddening, and among the analytical models those that take into account the extinction in the Gould Belt are more accurate. Our extinction map shows that it is determined by reddening variations at low latitudes and Rv variations at high ones. This naturally explains the contradictory data on the correlation or anticorrelation between reddening and Rv available in the literature. There is a correlation in a thin layer near the Galactic equator, because both reddening and Rv here increase toward the Galactic center. There is an anticorrelation outside this layer, because higher values of Rv correspond to lower reddening at high and middle latitudes. Systematic differences in sizes and other properties of the dust grains in different parts of the Galaxy manifest themselves in this way. The largest structures within the nearest kiloparsec, including the Local Bubble, the Gould Belt, the Great Tunnel, the Scorpius, Perseus, Orion, and other complexes, have manifested themselves in the constructed map. (1 data file).

  9. 3D Mapping of Glacially-Sculpted Bedrock in Central Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderman, L.; Stark, C. P.; Creyts, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    The movement of glaciers and ice sheets through sliding over bedrock depends on the configuration of the subglacial hydrological system. Over time, the glacier erodes the bedrock, which in turn changes water drainage pathways, the overall interaction with the ice, and potentially sliding rates. Drainage can take many forms. At the largest scale, subglacial lakes tens of kilometers in length store water, but the individual pathways are often on the order of meters or smaller. Studies at such a fine scale are only possible by looking at deglaciated beds to infer water drainage. 3D mapping can resolve centimeter scale features and inform studies of the processes that created them. In this survey, Agisoft Photoscan's structure from motion algorithm is used to create a map of Umpire Rock in New York's Central Park from digital photographs. Over 3300 photographs are taken at a separation of roughly half a meter to cover the 1000 square meter survey area. The surface is imaged in separate sections and the resulting point clouds are each aligned with a central section using Photoscan's Align Chunks tool. This process allows additional areas to easily be added to the 3D map. The scale of the final model is accurate to 1mm across the survey area and 3D meshes with a surface resolution of up to 5mm can be created. The distribution of striation directions and sizes on surfaces across the outcrop gives the overall flow direction of the ice and, more locally, illustrates how ice deforms around bedrock features. In addition to striations, we identify cavities and subtle drainage features that are oblique to ice flow. This study demonstrates the relative ease of 3D mapping bedrock outcrops from digital photographs, and indicates the utility of applying this process to more recently deglaciated areas.

  10. A Photo-Realistic 3-D Mapping System for Extreme Nuclear Environments: Chornobyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, M.; Matthies, L.; Osborn, J.; Teza, J.; Thayer, S.

    1998-01-01

    We present a novel stereoscopic mapping system for use in nuclear accident settings. First we discuss a radiation shielded sensor array desigtned to tolerate 10(sup 6)R of cumulative dose. Next we give procedures to ensure timely, accurate range estimation using trinocular stereo. Finally, we review the implementation of a system for the integration of range information into a 3-D, textured, metrically accurate surface mesh.

  11. Nondestructive volumetric 3-D chemical mapping of nickel-sulfur compounds at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Harris W. M.; Chu Y.; Nelson, G.J.; Kiss, A.M.; Izzo Jr, J.R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, S.; Chiu W.K.S.

    2012-04-04

    Nano-structures of nickel (Ni) and nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) materials were studied and mapped in 3D with high-resolution x-ray nanotomography combined with full field XANES spectroscopy. This method for characterizing these phases in complex microstructures is an important new analytical imaging technique, applicable to a wide range of nanoscale and mesoscale electrochemical systems.

  12. Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in Second Life.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Burden, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes technologies from Daden Limited for geographically mapping and accessing live news stories/feeds, as well as other real-time, real-world data feeds (e.g., Google Earth KML feeds and GeoRSS feeds) in the 3-D virtual world of Second Life, by plotting and updating the corresponding Earth location points on a globe or some other suitable form (in-world), and further linking those points to relevant information and resources. This approach enables users to visualise, interact with, and even walk or fly through, the plotted data in 3-D. Users can also do the reverse: put pins on a map in the virtual world, and then view the data points on the Web in Google Maps or Google Earth. The technologies presented thus serve as a bridge between mirror worlds like Google Earth and virtual worlds like Second Life. We explore the geo-data display potential of virtual worlds and their likely convergence with mirror worlds in the context of the future 3-D Internet or Metaverse, and reflect on the potential of such technologies and their future possibilities, e.g. their use to develop emergency/public health virtual situation rooms to effectively manage emergencies and disasters in real time. The paper also covers some of the issues associated with these technologies, namely user interface accessibility and individual privacy. PMID:18042275

  13. B1 Mapping of Short T2* Spins Using a 3D Radial Gradient Echo Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Naoharu; Garwood, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a method to acquire a radiofrequency (B1) field map when the signal has a short T2*. Theory and Methods The method is based on the actual flip angle imaging (AFI) technique and a radial 3D gradient-echo sequence known as COncurrent Dephasing and Excitation (CODE) which preserves short T2* signals. CODE was implemented with Gradient-modulated Offset-Independent Adiabaticity (GOIA) pulses to obtain high estimation sensitivity with AFI. The correlation method, that removes the quadratic phase from the frequency-modulated pulse excitation, was modified to handle gradient-modulated pulses. Validity of the modified correlation procedure was tested by Bloch simulations. CODE experiments with sinc, hyperbolic secant, and GOIA pulses were performed in order to see effects from the frequency- and gradient-modulation. Finally, GOIA-CODE AFI was conducted and compared with conventional AFI with 3D GRE. Results The modified correlation method developed to accommodate frequency- and gradient-modulations of GOIA performed well as judged by the minimal impact on reconstructed image quality. GOIA-CODE AFI provided flip angle maps consistent with those measured by GRE AFI when the T2* was long (> 2 ms) and continued to perform well for short T2* signals. Conclusion The proposed technique provides a means to obtain a 3D B1 field map when imaging spins with short T2*. PMID:23754634

  14. Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Burden, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes technologies from Daden Limited for geographically mapping and accessing live news stories/feeds, as well as other real-time, real-world data feeds (e.g., Google Earth KML feeds and GeoRSS feeds) in the 3-D virtual world of Second Life, by plotting and updating the corresponding Earth location points on a globe or some other suitable form (in-world), and further linking those points to relevant information and resources. This approach enables users to visualise, interact with, and even walk or fly through, the plotted data in 3-D. Users can also do the reverse: put pins on a map in the virtual world, and then view the data points on the Web in Google Maps or Google Earth. The technologies presented thus serve as a bridge between mirror worlds like Google Earth and virtual worlds like Second Life. We explore the geo-data display potential of virtual worlds and their likely convergence with mirror worlds in the context of the future 3-D Internet or Metaverse, and reflect on the potential of such technologies and their future possibilities, e.g. their use to develop emergency/public health virtual situation rooms to effectively manage emergencies and disasters in real time. The paper also covers some of the issues associated with these technologies, namely user interface accessibility and individual privacy. PMID:18042275

  15. Large-scale Inference Problems in Astronomy: Building a 3D Galactic Dust Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkbeiner, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    The term ''Big Data'' has become trite, as modern technology has made data sets of terabytes or even petabytes easy to store. Such data sets provide a sandbox in which to develop new statistical inference techniques that can extract interesting results from increasingly rich (and large) databases. I will give an example from my work on mapping the interstellar dust of the Milky Way. 2D emission-based maps have been used for decades to estimate the reddening and emission from interstellar dust, with applications from CMB foregrounds to surveys of large-scale structure. For studies within the Milky Way, however, the third dimension is required. I will present our work on a 3D dust map based on Pan-STARRS1 and 2MASS over 3/4 of the sky (http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.01005), assess its usefulness relative to other dust maps, and discuss future work. Supported by the NSF.

  16. Digital mono- and 3D stereo-photogrammetry for geological and geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapozza, Cristian; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Castelletti, Claudio; Bozzini, Claudio; Ambrosi, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The generalization of application of digital tools for managing, mapping and updating geological data have become widely accepted in the last decennia. Despite the increasing quality and availability of digital topographical maps, orthorectified aerial photographs (orthophotos) and high resolution (5 up to 0.5 m) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), a correct recognition of the kind, the nature and the boundaries of geological formations and geomophological landforms, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits or slope instabilities is often very difficult on conventional two-dimensional (2D) products, in particular in steep zones (rock walls and talus slopes), under the forest cover, for a very complex topography and in deeply urbanised zones. In many cases, photo-interpretative maps drawn only by 2D data sets must be improved by field verifications or, at least, by field oblique photographs. This is logical, because our natural perception of the real world is three-dimensional (3D), which is partially disabled by the application of 2D visualization techniques. Here we present some examples of application of digital mapping based on a 3D visualization (for aerial and satellite images photo-interpretation) or on a terrestrial perception by digital mono-photogrammetry (for oblique photographs). The 3D digital mapping was performed thanks to an extension of the software ESRI® ArcGIS™ called ArcGDS™. This methodology was also applied on historical aerial photographs (normally analysed by optical stereo-photogrammetry), which were digitized by scanning and then oriented and aero-triangulated thanks to the ArcGDS™ software, allowing the 3D visualisation and the mapping in a GIS environment (Ambrosi and Scapozza, 2015). The mono-photogrammetry (or monoplotting) is the technique of photogrammetrical georeferentiation of single oblique unrectified photographs, which are related to a DEM. In other words, the monoplotting allows relating each pixel of the photograph to the

  17. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps for Seattle, Washington, Based on 3D Ground-Motion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, A. D.; Stephenson, W. J.; Carver, D. L.; Williams, R. A.; Odum, J. K.; Rhea, S.

    2007-12-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Seattle using over 500 3D finite-difference simulations of ground motions from earthquakes in the Seattle fault zone, Cascadia subduction zone, South Whidbey Island fault, and background shallow and deep source areas. The maps depict 1 Hz response spectral accelerations with 2, 5, and 10% probabilities of being exceeded in 50 years. The simulations were used to generate site and source dependent amplification factors that are applied to rock-site attenuation relations. The maps incorporate essentially the same fault sources and earthquake recurrence times as the 2002 national seismic hazard maps. The simulations included basin surface waves and basin-edge focusing effects from a 3D model of the Seattle basin. The 3D velocity model was validated by modeling several earthquakes in the region, including the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake, that were recorded by our Seattle Urban Seismic Network and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. The simulations duplicate our observation that earthquakes from the south and southwest typically produce larger amplifications in the Seattle basin than earthquakes from other azimuths, relative to rock sites outside the basin. Finite-fault simulations were run for earthquakes along the Seattle fault zone, with magnitudes ranging from 6.6 to 7.2, so that the effects of rupture directivity were included. Nonlinear amplification factors for soft-soil sites of fill and alluvium were also applied in the maps. For the Cascadia subduction zone, 3D simulations with point sources at different locations along the zone were used to determine amplification factors across Seattle expected for great subduction-zone earthquakes. These new urban seismic hazard maps are based on determinations of hazard for 7236 sites with a spacing of 280 m. The maps show that the highest hazard locations for this frequency band (around 1 Hz) are soft-soil sites (fill and alluvium) within the Seattle basin and

  18. 3D Distribution of the Coronal Electron Density and its Evolution with Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Reginald, Nelson Leslie; Davila, Joseph M.; St. Cyr, Orville Chris

    2016-05-01

    The variability of the solar white-light corona and its connection to the solar activity has been studied for more than a half century. It is widely accepted that the temporal variation of the total radiance of the K-corona follows the solar cycle pattern (e.g., correlated with sunspot number). However, the origin of this variation and its relationships with regard to coronal mass ejections and the solar wind are yet to be clearly understood. We know that the COR1-A and –B instruments onboard the STEREO spacecraft have continued to perform high-cadence (5 min) polarized brightness measurements from two different vantage points over a long period of time that encompasses the solar minimum of Solar Cycle 23 to the solar maximum of Solar Cycle 24. This extended period of polarized brightness measurements can now be used to reconstruct 3D electron density distributions of the corona between the heliocentric heights of 1.5-4.0 solar radii. In this study we have constructed the 3D coronal density models for 100 Carrington rotations (CRs) from 2007 to 2014 using the spherically symmetric inversion (SSI) method. The validity of these 3D density models is verified by comparing with similar 3D density models created by other means such as tomography, MHD modeling, and 2D density distributions inverted from the polarized brightness images from LASCO/C2 instrument onboard the SOHO spacecraft. When examining the causes for the temporal variation of the global electron content we find that its increase from the solar minimum to maximum depends on changes to both the total area and mean density of coronal streamers. We also find that the global and hemispheric electron contents show quasi-periodic variations with a period of 8-9 CRs during the ascending and maximum phases of Solar Cycle 24 through wavelet analysis. In addition, we also explore any obvious relationships between temporal variation of the global electron content with the photospheric magnetic flux, total mass of

  19. γ-TEMPy: Simultaneous Fitting of Components in 3D-EM Maps of Their Assembly Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Arun Prasad; Vasishtan, Daven; Alber, Frank; Topf, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary We have developed a genetic algorithm for building macromolecular complexes using only a 3D-electron microscopy density map and the atomic structures of the relevant components. For efficient sampling the method uses map feature points calculated by vector quantization. The fitness function combines a mutual information score that quantifies the goodness of fit with a penalty score that helps to avoid clashes between components. Testing the method on ten assemblies (containing 3–8 protein components) and simulated density maps at 10, 15, and 20 Å resolution resulted in identification of the correct topology in 90%, 70%, and 60% of the cases, respectively. We further tested it on four assemblies with experimental maps at 7.2–23.5 Å resolution, showing the ability of the method to identify the correct topology in all cases. We have also demonstrated the importance of the map feature-point quality on assembly fitting in the lack of additional experimental information. PMID:26655474

  20. Reduction of Breast Density Following Tamoxifen Treatment Evaluated by 3-D MRI: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Chang, Daniel; Wang, Yi-Ting; Nie, Ke; Chang, Ruey-Feng; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the change of breast density in women receiving tamoxifen treatment using 3-D MRI. Sixteen women were studied. Each woman received breast MRI before and after tamoxifen. The breast and the fibroglandular tissue were segmented using a computer-assisted algorithm, based on T1-weighted images. The fibroglandular tissue volume (FV) and breast volume (BV) were measured and the ratio was calculated as the percent breast density (%BD). The changes in breast volume (ΔBV), fibroglandular tissue volume (ΔFV), and percent density (Δ%BD) between two MRI studies were analyzed and correlated with treatment duration and baseline breast density. The ΔFV showed a reduction in all 16 women. The Δ%BD showed a mean reduction of 5.8%. The reduction of FV was significantly correlated with baseline FV (P<0.001) and treatment duration (P=0.03). The percentage change in FV was correlated with duration (P=0.049). The reduction in %BD was positively correlated with baseline %BD (p=0.02). Women with higher baseline %BD showed more reduction of %BD. 3D MRI may be useful for the measurement of the small changes of ΔFV and Δ%BD after tamoxifen. These changes can potentially be used to correlate with the future reduction of cancer risk. PMID:20832226

  1. 3D density imaging with muons flux measurements from underground galleries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Marteau, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric muons flux measurements provide information on sub-surface density distribution, giving insights on the medium structure. We measured the muons flux from the underground galleries of the Tournemire experimental platform to image the medium between the galleries and the surface. The experiment aimed at evaluating the capacity of the method to detect the presence of discontinuities produced either by secondary strike-slip faults that present small vertical displacements or by a karstic network may be present at the level of an upper aquifer. Measurements were performed from three different sites so the trajectories of detected muons paths intersect in the medium. Such a configuration provided complementary information on the density distribution, offering the possibility to seek density variations at different depths. A specific calibration method was applied in order to interpolate the data acquired at different times with the same muons sensor. Muons flux measurements variations were then processed through a non-linear inversion, producing a 3D image of the density together with an evaluation of the different distinguished targets reliability. The density distribution showed the presence of a very low density region at the level of the upper aquifer, suggesting the presence of a karstic network hosting locally cavities. The trace of secondary strike-slip faults did not appear clearly on the image as the density contrast they produce might be too low compared to the signal to noise ratio present in the muons flux data. We propose different strategies to improve the density image accuracy.

  2. Enhanced Rgb-D Mapping Method for Detailed 3d Modeling of Large Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengjun; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Wu; Darwish, Walid; Wu, Bo; Hu, Han; Chen, Min

    2016-06-01

    RGB-D sensors are novel sensing systems that capture RGB images along with pixel-wise depth information. Although they are widely used in various applications, RGB-D sensors have significant drawbacks with respect to 3D dense mapping of indoor environments. First, they only allow a measurement range with a limited distance (e.g., within 3 m) and a limited field of view. Second, the error of the depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor. In this paper, we propose an enhanced RGB-D mapping method for detailed 3D modeling of large indoor environments by combining RGB image-based modeling and depth-based modeling. The scale ambiguity problem during the pose estimation with RGB image sequences can be resolved by integrating the information from the depth and visual information provided by the proposed system. A robust rigid-transformation recovery method is developed to register the RGB image-based and depth-based 3D models together. The proposed method is examined with two datasets collected in indoor environments for which the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method

  3. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  4. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  5. 'Distance mapping' and the 3D structure of BD +30° 3639

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akras, S.; Steffen, W.

    2012-06-01

    BD +30° 3639 is a member of a group of uncommon planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet central star and higher expansion velocities in [O III] than in [N II] lines. Images and high-resolution spectra from the literature are used in order to construct a 3D model of the nebula using the morpho-kinematic code SHAPE. We find that two homologous expansion laws are needed for the [N II] and [O III] shells. We conclude that the internal velocity field of BD +30° 3639 decreases with the distance from the central star at least between the [O III] and [N II] shells. A cylindrical velocity component is used to replicate the high-speed bipolar collimated outflows. We also present a new kinematic analysis technique called 'distance mapping'. It uses the observed proper motion vectors and the 3D velocity field to generate maps that can be used as a constraint to the morpho-kinematic modelling with SHAPE as well as improve the accuracy for distance determination. It is applied to BD +30° 3639 using 178 internal proper motion vectors from Li, Harrington & Borkowski and our 3D velocity field to determine a distance of 1.52 ± 0.21 kpc. Finally, we find evidence for an interaction between the eastern part of the nebula and the ambient H2 molecular gas.

  6. High Efficiency, Low Distortion 3D Diffusion Tensor Imaging with Variable Density Spiral Fast Spin Echoes (3D DW VDS RARE)

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lawrence R.; Jung, Youngkyoo; Inati, Souheil; Tyszka, J. Michael; Wong, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an acquisition and reconstruction method designed to acquire high resolution 3D fast spin echo diffusion tensor images while mitigating the major sources of artifacts in DTI - field distortions, eddy currents and motion. The resulting images, being 3D, are of high SNR, and being fast spin echoes, exhibit greatly reduced field distortions. This sequence utilizes variable density spiral acquisition gradients, which allow for the implementation of a self-navigation scheme by which both eddy current and motion artifacts are removed. The result is that high resolution 3D DTI images are produced without the need for eddy current compensating gradients or B0 field correction. In addition, a novel method for fast and accurate reconstruction of the non-Cartesian data is employed. Results are demonstrated in the brains of normal human volunteers. PMID:19778618

  7. 3D mapping of somatotopic reorganization with small animal functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Wang, Shumin; Chen, Der-Yow; Dodd, Stephen; Goloshevsky, Artem; Koretsky, Alan P.

    2009-01-01

    There are few in vivo noninvasive methods to study neuroplasticity in animal brains. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been developed for animal brain mapping, but few fMRI studies have analyzed functional alteration due to plasticity in animal models. One major limitation is that fMRI maps are characterized by statistical parametric mapping making the apparent boundary dependent on the statistical threshold used. Here, we developed a method to characterize the location of center-of-mass in fMRI maps that is shown not to be sensitive to statistical threshold. Utilizing centers-of-mass as anchor points to fit the spatial distribution of the BOLD response enabled quantitative group analysis of altered boundaries of functional somatosensory maps. This approach was used to study cortical reorganization in the rat primary somatosensory cortex (S1) after sensory deprivation to the barrel cortex by follicle ablation (F.A.). FMRI demonstrated an enlarged nose S1 representation in the 3D somatotopic functional maps. This result clearly demonstrates that fMRI enables the spatial mapping of functional changes that can characterize multiple regions of S1 cortex and still be sensitive to changes due to plasticity. PMID:19770051

  8. 2D Maps, 3D Globes, and OGC Web Services Supporting Arctic Science through the Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. W.; Gaylord, A. G.; Brady, J.; Cody, R.; Ramirez, G.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Rubio, C.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Manley, W.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online services designed to provide support for Arctic science. These services include: a text based online search utility, 2D Internet Map Server (IMS), 3D globe applications (Google Earth and ArcGIS Explorer), Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) Service , and a prototype 2D ArcGIS Server Web Mapping Application (WMA). Avoiding a duplication of effort has been a primary objective of the ARMAP project which incorporates best practices (e.g. OGC standard web services and metadata) and off the shelf technologies. The Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database is the foundation of all the ARMAP services and includes US research funded by the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. With ARMAP's 2D maps and 3D globes, users can navigate to areas of interest, view a variety of map layers, and explore U.S. federally funded research projects. Projects can be queried by location, year, funding program, discipline, and keyword. Links to specific information and other web sites associated with particular research projects are included. . The ARMAP suite provides tools for users of various levels of technical ability to interact with data by running text based queries, browsing in 2D or 3D, or importing the KML and OGC web services directly into their own GIS applications and virtual globes. With special emphasis on the International Polar Year (IPY), ARMAP has targeted science planners, scientists, educators, and the general public. In sum, ARMAP goes beyond a simple map display to enable analysis, synthesis, and coordination of Arctic research. ARMAP may be accessed via the gateway web site at http://www.armap.org.

  9. Testing the PV-Theta Mapping Technique in a 3-D CTM Model Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, Stacey M.

    2004-01-01

    Mapping lower stratospheric ozone into potential vorticity (PV)- potential temperature (Theta) coordinates is a common technique employed to analyze sparse data sets. Ozone transformed into a flow-following dynamical coordinate system is insensitive to meteorological variations. Therefore data from a wide range of times/locations can be compared, so long as the measurements were made in the same airmass (as defined by PV). Moreover, once a relationship between ozone and PV/Theta is established, a full 3D ozone field can be estimated from this relationship and the 3D analyzed PV field. However, ozone data mapped in this fashion can be hampered by noisy PV fields, or "mis-matches" in the resolution and/or exact location of the ozone and PV measurements. In this study, we investigate the PV-ozone relationship using output from a recent 50-year run of the Goddard 3D chemical transport model (CTM). Model constituents are transported using off-line dynamics from the finite volume general circulation model (FVGCM). By using the internally consistent model PV and ozone fields, we minimize noise due to mis-matching and resolution issues. We calculate correlations between model ozone and PV throughout the stratosphere, and test the sensitivity of the technique to initial data resolution. To do this we degrade the model data to that of various satellite instruments, then compare the mapped fields derived from the sub-sampled data to the full resolution model data. With these studies we can determine appropriate limits for the PV-theta mapping technique in latitude, altitude, and as a function of original data resolution.

  10. High-Resolution Variable-Density 3D Cones Coronary MRA

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii Okai; Ingle, R. Reeve; Wu, Holden H.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve the spatial/temporal resolution of whole-heart coronary MR angiography (CMRA) by developing a variable-density (VD) 3D cones acquisition suitable for image reconstruction with parallel imaging and compressed sensing techniques. Methods A VD 3D cones trajectory design incorporates both radial and spiral trajectory undersampling techniques to achieve higher resolution. This design is used to generate a VD cones trajectory with 0.8 mm/66 ms isotropic spatial/temporal resolution, using a similar number of readouts as our previous fully sampled cones trajectory (1.2 mm/100 ms). Scans of volunteers and patients are performed to evaluate the performance of the VD trajectory, using non-Cartesian L1-ESPIRiT for high-resolution image reconstruction. Results With gridding reconstruction, the high-resolution scans experience an expected drop in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, but with L1-ESPIRiT, the apparent noise is substantially reduced. Compared to 1.2 mm images, in each volunteer, the L1-ESPIRiT 0.8 mm images exhibit higher vessel sharpness values in the right and left anterior descending arteries. Conclusion CMRA with isotropic sub-millimeter spatial resolution and high temporal resolution can be performed with VD 3D cones to improve the depiction of coronary arteries. PMID:26172829

  11. Efficient 3D movement-based kernel density estimator and application to wildlife ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracey-PR, Jeff; Sheppard, James K.; Lockwood, Glenn K.; Chourasia, Amit; Tatineni, Mahidhar; Fisher, Robert N.; Sinkovits, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe an efficient implementation of a 3D movement-based kernel density estimator for determining animal space use from discrete GPS measurements. This new method provides more accurate results, particularly for species that make large excursions in the vertical dimension. The downside of this approach is that it is much more computationally expensive than simpler, lower-dimensional models. Through a combination of code restructuring, parallelization and performance optimization, we were able to reduce the time to solution by up to a factor of 1000x, thereby greatly improving the applicability of the method.

  12. On topological mapping of yarn structures in 3-D braided composite preforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Q.; Wang, A.S.D.

    1994-12-31

    Previous studies have established that the internal yarn structure in a 3-D braided preform possesses a certain topological character which is determined by the braiding method alone, regardless of the preform shape or the yarn size used. This unique geometric property provides the possibility that yarn structures in preforms of different shapes may be mathematically connected from one to another, as long as the preforms are produced by the same braiding procedure. Exploring this possibility, the present paper discusses a geometric mapping method for the determination of the internal yarn structures in preforms of complex shapes. The idea is to obtain the desired mapping between two preform shapes, the mapping being able to also link analytically the respective yarn structures. Thus, if the yarn structure in one shape (simple) is known, the yarn structure in the other shape (complex) can be determined by the mapping. Illustrative examples using preforms braided by the 4-step 1x1 method are presented in detail. In general, determination of the desired mapping between two preforms of complex shapes requires a numerical and iterative procedure; between two preforms of relatively simple shapes, closed form mapping functions can be obtained.

  13. 3D Globe Support for Arctic Science through the Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, J. J.; Gaylord, A. G.; Johnson, G.; Cody, R. P.; Dover, M.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Manley, W.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP) is a suite of online services to provide support of Arctic science. These services include: a text based online search utility, 2D Internet Map Server (IMS); 3D globes and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS). With special emphasis on the International Polar Year (IPY), ARMAP has a target audience of science planners, scientists, educators, and the general public. The Arctic Research Logistics Support Service (ARLSS) database is the foundation of ARMAP and includes information on US research funded by the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the United States Geological Survey. Avoiding a duplication of effort has been a primary objective of the ARMAP project, which incorporates best practices (e.g. Spatial Data Infrastructure and OGC standard web services and metadata) and off the shelf technologies where appropriate. ARMAP services may be accessed via the gateway web site at http://www.armap.org. ARMAP's 3D globe services includes a layer users can download into Google Earth and a prototype ArcGIS Explorer (ESRI) application. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the two virtual globe applications will be presented.

  14. Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  15. Adaptation of video game UVW mapping to 3D visualization of gene expression patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vize, Peter D.; Gerth, Victor E.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression patterns within an organism plays a critical role in associating genes with biological processes in both health and disease. During embryonic development the analysis and comparison of different gene expression patterns allows biologists to identify candidate genes that may regulate the formation of normal tissues and organs and to search for genes associated with congenital diseases. No two individual embryos, or organs, are exactly the same shape or size so comparing spatial gene expression in one embryo to that in another is difficult. We will present our efforts in comparing gene expression data collected using both volumetric and projection approaches. Volumetric data is highly accurate but difficult to process and compare. Projection methods use UV mapping to align texture maps to standardized spatial frameworks. This approach is less accurate but is very rapid and requires very little processing. We have built a database of over 180 3D models depicting gene expression patterns mapped onto the surface of spline based embryo models. Gene expression data in different models can easily be compared to determine common regions of activity. Visualization software, both Java and OpenGL optimized for viewing 3D gene expression data will also be demonstrated.

  16. Development and application of a ray-tracing code integrating with 3D equilibrium mapping in LHD ECH experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, T., Ii; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Makino, R.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Ejiri, A.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-11-01

    The central electron temperature has successfully reached up to 7.5 keV in large helical device (LHD) plasmas with a central high-ion temperature of 5 keV and a central electron density of 1.3× {{10}19} m-3. This result was obtained by heating with a newly-installed 154 GHz gyrotron and also the optimisation of injection geometry in electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The optimisation was carried out by using the ray-tracing code ‘LHDGauss’, which was upgraded to include the rapid post-processing three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium mapping obtained from experiments. For ray-tracing calculations, LHDGauss can automatically read the relevant data registered in the LHD database after a discharge, such as ECH injection settings (e.g. Gaussian beam parameters, target positions, polarisation and ECH power) and Thomson scattering diagnostic data along with the 3D equilibrium mapping data. The equilibrium map of the electron density and temperature profiles are then extrapolated into the region outside the last closed flux surface. Mode purity, or the ratio between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode, is obtained by calculating the 1D full-wave equation along the direction of the rays from the antenna to the absorption target point. Using the virtual magnetic flux surfaces, the effects of the modelled density profiles and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region with a given polarisation are taken into account. Power deposition profiles calculated for each Thomson scattering measurement timing are registered in the LHD database. The adjustment of the injection settings for the desired deposition profile from the feedback provided on a shot-by-shot basis resulted in an effective experimental procedure.

  17. Dose distribution and mapping with 3D imaging presentation in intraoral and panoramic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Yung-Hui; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2011-10-01

    In current medical imaging applications, high quality images not only provide more diagnostic value for anatomic delineation but also offer functional information for treatment direction. However, this approach would potentially subscribe higher radiation dose in dental radiographies, which has been putatively associated with low-birth-weight during pregnancy, which affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis or thereby directly affects the reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to apply the high resolution 3-D image mapping technique to evaluate radiation doses from the following aspects: (1) verifying operating parameters of dental X-ray units, (2) measuring the leakage radiations and (3) mapping dose with 3-D radiographic imaging to evaluate dose distribution in head and neck regions. From the study results, we found that (1) leakage radiation from X-ray units was about 21.31±15.24 mR/h (<100 mR/h), (2) error of actual tube voltage for 60 kVp setting was from 0.2% to 6.5%, with an average of 2.5% (<7%) and (3) the error of exposure time for a 0.5-1.5 s setting was within 0.7-8.5%, with an average of 7.3% (<10%) error as well. Our 3-D dose mapping demonstrated that dose values were relatively lower in soft tissues and higher in bone surfaces compared with other investigations. Multiple causes could contribute to these variations, including irradiation geometry, image equipment and type of technique applied, etc. From the results, we also observed that larger accumulated doses were presented in certain critical organs, such as salivary gland, thyroid gland and bone marrow. Potential biological affects associated with these findings warrant further investigation.

  18. High power density microbial fuel cell with flexible 3D graphene-nickel foam as anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Qian, Fang; Song, Yang; Lu, Xihong; Chen, Shaowei; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2013-10-01

    The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible surface area for microbial colonization and electron mediators, but also a uniform macro-porous scaffold for effective mass diffusion of the culture medium. Significantly, at a steady state of the power generation, the MFC device with flexible rGO-Ni electrodes produced an optimal volumetric power density of 661 W m-3 calculated based on the volume of anode material, or 27 W m-3 based on the volume of the anode chamber. These values are substantially higher than that of plain nickel foam, and other conventional carbon based electrodes (e.g., carbon cloth, carbon felt, and carbon paper) measured in the same conditions. To our knowledge, this is the highest volumetric power density reported for mL-scale MFC device with a pure strain of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We also demonstrated that the MFC device can be operated effectively in a batch-mode at least for a week. These new 3D rGO-Ni electrodes show great promise for improving the power generation of MFC devices.The structure and electrical conductivity of anode play a significant role in the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide-nickel (denoted as rGO-Ni) foam as an anode for MFC through controlled deposition of rGO sheets onto the nickel foam substrate. The loading amount of rGO sheets and electrode surface area can be controlled by the number of rGO loading cycles. 3D rGO-Ni foam anode provides not only a large accessible

  19. A novel technique for visualizing high-resolution 3D terrain maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammann, John

    2007-02-01

    A new technique is presented for visualizing high-resolution terrain elevation data. It produces realistic images at small scales on the order of the data resolution and works particularly well when natural objects are present. Better visualization at small scales opens up new applications, like site surveillance for security and Google Earth-type local search and exploration tasks that are now done with 2-D maps. The large 3-D maps are a natural for high-resolution stereo display. The traditional technique drapes a continuous surface over the regularly spaced elevation values. This technique works well when displaying large areas or in cities with large buildings, but falls apart at small scales or for natural objects like trees. The new technique visualizes the terrain as a set of disjoint square patches. It is combined with an algorithm that identifies smooth areas within the scene. Where the terrain is smooth, such as in grassy areas, roads, parking lots and rooftops, it warps the patches to create a smooth surface. For trees or shrubs or other areas where objects are under-sampled, however, the patches are left disjoint. This has the disadvantage of leaving gaps in the data, but the human mind is very adept at filling in this missing information. It has the strong advantage of making natural terrain look realistic, trees and bushes look stylized but still look natural and are easy to interpret. Also, it does not add artifacts to the map, like filling in blank vertical walls where there are alcoves and other structure and extending bridges and overpasses down to the ground. The new technique is illustrated using very large 1-m resolution 3-D maps from the Rapid Terrain Visualization (RTV) program, and comparisons are made with traditional visualizations using these maps.

  20. Amoeboid migration mode adaption in quasi-3D spatial density gradients of varying lattice geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelashvili, Mari; Emmert, Martin; Hodeck, Kai F.; Heinrich, Doris

    2014-07-01

    Cell migration processes are controlled by sensitive interaction with external cues such as topographic structures of the cell’s environment. Here, we present systematically controlled assays to investigate the specific effects of spatial density and local geometry of topographic structure on amoeboid migration of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. This is realized by well-controlled fabrication of quasi-3D pillar fields exhibiting a systematic variation of inter-pillar distance and pillar lattice geometry. By time-resolved local mean-squared displacement analysis of amoeboid migration, we can extract motility parameters in order to elucidate the details of amoeboid migration mechanisms and consolidate them in a two-state contact-controlled motility model, distinguishing directed and random phases. Specifically, we find that directed pillar-to-pillar runs are found preferably in high pillar density regions, and cells in directed motion states sense pillars as attractive topographic stimuli. In contrast, cell motion in random probing states is inhibited by high pillar density, where pillars act as obstacles for cell motion. In a gradient spatial density, these mechanisms lead to topographic guidance of cells, with a general trend towards a regime of inter-pillar spacing close to the cell diameter. In locally anisotropic pillar environments, cell migration is often found to be damped due to competing attraction by different pillars in close proximity and due to lack of other potential stimuli in the vicinity of the cell. Further, we demonstrate topographic cell guidance reflecting the lattice geometry of the quasi-3D environment by distinct preferences in migration direction. Our findings allow to specifically control amoeboid cell migration by purely topographic effects and thus, to induce active cell guidance. These tools hold prospects for medical applications like improved wound treatment, or invasion assays for immune cells.

  1. A Novel 2D-to-3D Video Conversion Method Using Time-Coherent Depth Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shouyi; Dong, Hao; Jiang, Guangli; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion method for 3D entertainment applications. 3D entertainment is getting more and more popular and can be found in many contexts, such as TV and home gaming equipment. 3D image sensors are a new method to produce stereoscopic video content conveniently and at a low cost, and can thus meet the urgent demand for 3D videos in the 3D entertaiment market. Generally, 2D image sensor and 2D-to-3D conversion chip can compose a 3D image sensor. Our study presents a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion algorithm which can be adopted in a 3D image sensor. In our algorithm, a depth map is generated by combining global depth gradient and local depth refinement for each frame of 2D video input. Global depth gradient is computed according to image type while local depth refinement is related to color information. As input 2D video content consists of a number of video shots, the proposed algorithm reuses the global depth gradient of frames within the same video shot to generate time-coherent depth maps. The experimental results prove that this novel method can adapt to different image types, reduce computational complexity and improve the temporal smoothness of generated 3D video. PMID:26131674

  2. A Novel 2D-to-3D Video Conversion Method Using Time-Coherent Depth Maps.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shouyi; Dong, Hao; Jiang, Guangli; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion method for 3D entertainment applications. 3D entertainment is getting more and more popular and can be found in many contexts, such as TV and home gaming equipment. 3D image sensors are a new method to produce stereoscopic video content conveniently and at a low cost, and can thus meet the urgent demand for 3D videos in the 3D entertaiment market. Generally, 2D image sensor and 2D-to-3D conversion chip can compose a 3D image sensor. Our study presents a novel 2D-to-3D video conversion algorithm which can be adopted in a 3D image sensor. In our algorithm, a depth map is generated by combining global depth gradient and local depth refinement for each frame of 2D video input. Global depth gradient is computed according to image type while local depth refinement is related to color information. As input 2D video content consists of a number of video shots, the proposed algorithm reuses the global depth gradient of frames within the same video shot to generate time-coherent depth maps. The experimental results prove that this novel method can adapt to different image types, reduce computational complexity and improve the temporal smoothness of generated 3D video. PMID:26131674

  3. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health. PMID:26831342

  4. Efficient dense blur map estimation for automatic 2D-to-3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosters, L. P. J.; de Haan, G.

    2012-03-01

    Focus is an important depth cue for 2D-to-3D conversion of low depth-of-field images and video. However, focus can be only reliably estimated on edges. Therefore, Bea et al. [1] first proposed an optimization based approach to propagate focus to non-edge image portions, for single image focus editing. While their approach produces accurate dense blur maps, the computational complexity and memory requirements for solving the resulting sparse linear system with standard multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques, are infeasible within the stringent requirements of the consumer electronics and broadcast industry. In this paper we propose fast, efficient, low latency, line scanning based focus propagation, which mitigates the need for complex multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques. In addition we propose facial blur compensation to compensate for false shading edges that cause incorrect blur estimates in people's faces. In general shading leads to incorrect focus estimates, which may lead to unnatural 3D and visual discomfort. Since visual attention mostly tends to faces, our solution solves the most distracting errors. A subjective assessment by paired comparison on a set of challenging low-depth-of-field images shows that the proposed approach achieves equal 3D image quality as optimization based approaches, and that facial blur compensation results in a significant improvement.

  5. Slip versus Field-Line Mapping in Describing 3D Reconnection of Coronal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Torok, T.; Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate two techniques for describing the structure of the coronal magnetic field and its evolution due to reconnection in numerical 3D simulations of the solar corona and CMEs. These techniques employ two types of mapping of the boundary of the computational domain on itself. One of them is defined at a given time moment via connections of the magnetic field lines to their opposite endpoints. The other mapping, called slip mapping, relates field line endpoints at two different time moments and allows one to identify the slippage of plasma elements due to resistivity across field lines for a given time interval (Titov et al. 2009). The distortion of each of these mappings can be measured by using the so-called squashing factor Q (Titov 2007). The high-Q layers computed for the first and second mappings define, respectively, (quasi-)separatrix surfaces and reconnection fronts in evolving magnetic configurations. Analyzing these structural features, we are able to reveal topologically different domains and reconnected flux systems in the configurations, in particular, open, closed and disconnected magnetic flux tubes, as well as quantify the related magnetic flux transfer. Comparison with observations makes it possible also to relate these features to observed morphological elements such as flare loops and ribbons, and EUV dimmings. We illustrate these general techniques by applying them to particular data-driven MHD simulations. *Research supported by NASA's HSR and LWS Programs, and NSF/SHINE and NSF/FESD.

  6. Deformable image registration and 3D strain mapping for the quantitative assessment of cortical bone microdamage.

    PubMed

    Christen, David; Levchuk, Alina; Schori, Stefan; Schneider, Philipp; Boyd, Steven K; Müller, Ralph

    2012-04-01

    The resistance to forming microcracks is a key factor for bone to withstand critical loads without fracturing. In this study, we investigated the initiation and propagation of microcracks in murine cortical bone by combining three-dimensional images from synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography and time-lapsed biomechanical testing to observe microdamage accumulation over time. Furthermore, a novel deformable image registration procedure utilizing digital volume correlation and demons image registration was introduced to compute 3D strain maps allowing characterization of the mechanical environment of the microcracks. The displacement and strain maps were validated in a priori tests. At an image resolution of 740 nm the spatial resolution of the strain maps was 10 μm (MTF), while the errors of the displacements and strains were 130 nm and 0.013, respectively. The strain maps revealed a complex interaction of the propagating microcracks with the bone microstructure. In particular, we could show that osteocyte lacunae play a dual role as stress concentrating features reducing bone strength, while at the same time contributing to the bone toughness by blunting the crack tip. We conclude that time-lapsed biomechanical imaging in combination with three-dimensional strain mapping is suitable for the investigation of crack initiation and propagation in many porous materials under various loading scenarios. PMID:22402165

  7. Inlining 3d Reconstruction, Multi-Source Texture Mapping and Semantic Analysis Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for façade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the façades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM). The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM) of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA) tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained façade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and

  8. Evaluation Model for Pavement Surface Distress on 3d Point Clouds from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pavement surface distress for maintenance planning of road pavement using 3D point clouds from Mobile Mapping System (MMS). The issue on maintenance planning of road pavement requires scheduled rehabilitation activities for damaged pavement sections to keep high level of services. The importance of this performance-based infrastructure asset management on actual inspection data is globally recognized. Inspection methodology of road pavement surface, a semi-automatic measurement system utilizing inspection vehicles for measuring surface deterioration indexes, such as cracking, rutting and IRI, have already been introduced and capable of continuously archiving the pavement performance data. However, any scheduled inspection using automatic measurement vehicle needs much cost according to the instruments' specification or inspection interval. Therefore, implementation of road maintenance work, especially for the local government, is difficult considering costeffectiveness. Based on this background, in this research, the methodologies for a simplified evaluation for pavement surface and assessment of damaged pavement section are proposed using 3D point clouds data to build urban 3D modelling. The simplified evaluation results of road surface were able to provide useful information for road administrator to find out the pavement section for a detailed examination and for an immediate repair work. In particular, the regularity of enumeration of 3D point clouds was evaluated using Chow-test and F-test model by extracting the section where the structural change of a coordinate value was remarkably achieved. Finally, the validity of the current methodology was investigated by conducting a case study dealing with the actual inspection data of the local roads.

  9. Mass Movement Susceptibility in the Western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A Preliminary 3-D Mapping Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, K. A.; Giardino, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mass movement is a major activity that impacts lives of humans and their infrastructure. Human activity in steep, mountainous regions is especially at risk to this potential hazard. Thus, the identification and quantification of risk by mapping and determining mass movement susceptibility are fundamental in protecting lives, resources and ensuring proper land use regulation and planning. Specific mass-movement processes including debris flows, rock falls, snow avalanches and landslides continuously modify the landscape of the San Juan Mountains. Historically, large-magnitude slope failures have repeatedly occurred in the region. Common triggers include intense, long-duration precipitation, freeze-thaw processes, human activity and various volcanic lithologies overlying weaker sedimentary formations. Predicting mass movement is challenging because of its episodic and spatially, discontinuous occurrence. Landslides in mountain terrain are characterized as widespread, highly mobile and have a long duration of activity. We developed a 3-D model for landslide susceptibility using Geographic Information Systems Technology (GIST). The study area encompasses eight USGS quadrangles: Ridgway, Dallas, Mount Sneffels, Ouray, Telluride, Ironton, Ophir and Silverton. Fieldwork consisted of field reconnaissance mapping at 1:5,000 focusing on surficial geomorphology. Field mapping was used to identify potential locations, which then received additional onsite investigation and photographic documentation of features indicative of slope failure. A GIS module was created using seven terrain spatial databases: geology, surficial geomorphology (digitized), slope aspect, slope angle, vegetation, soils and distance to infrastructure to map risk. The GIS database will help determine risk zonation for the study area. Correlations between terrain parameters leading to slope failure were determined through the GIS module. This 3-D model will provide a spatial perspective of the landscape to

  10. Intra-retinal layer segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography using coarse grained diffusion map

    PubMed Central

    Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful and noninvasive method for retinal imaging. In this paper, we introduce a fast segmentation method based on a new variant of spectral graph theory named diffusion maps. The research is performed on spectral domain (SD) OCT images depicting macular and optic nerve head appearance. The presented approach does not require edge-based image information in localizing most of boundaries and relies on regional image texture. Consequently, the proposed method demonstrates robustness in situations of low image contrast or poor layer-to-layer image gradients. Diffusion mapping applied to 2D and 3D OCT datasets is composed of two steps, one for partitioning the data into important and less important sections, and another one for localization of internal layers. In the first step, the pixels/voxels are grouped in rectangular/cubic sets to form a graph node. The weights of the graph are calculated based on geometric distances between pixels/voxels and differences of their mean intensity. The first diffusion map clusters the data into three parts, the second of which is the area of interest. The other two sections are eliminated from the remaining calculations. In the second step, the remaining area is subjected to another diffusion map assessment and the internal layers are localized based on their textural similarities. The proposed method was tested on 23 datasets from two patient groups (glaucoma and normals). The mean unsigned border positioning errors (mean ± SD) was 8.52 ± 3.13 and 7.56 ± 2.95 μm for the 2D and 3D methods, respectively. PMID:23837966

  11. Mapping gray-scale image to 3D surface scanning data by ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jones, Peter R. M.

    1997-03-01

    The extraction and location of feature points from range imaging is an important but difficult task in machine vision based measurement systems. There exist some feature points which are not able to be detected from pure geometric characteristics, particularly in those measurement tasks related to the human body. The Loughborough Anthropometric Shadow Scanner (LASS) is a whole body surface scanner based on structured light technique. Certain applications of LASS require accurate location of anthropometric landmarks from the scanned data. This is sometimes impossible from existing raw data because some landmarks do not appear in the scanned data. Identification of these landmarks has to resort to surface texture of the scanned object. Modifications to LASS were made to allow gray-scale images to be captured before or after the object was scanned. Two-dimensional gray-scale image must be mapped to the scanned data to acquire the 3D coordinates of a landmark. The method to map 2D images to the scanned data is based on the colinearity conditions and ray-tracing method. If the camera center and image coordinates are known, the corresponding object point must lie on a ray starting from the camera center and connecting to the image coordinate. By intersecting the ray with the scanned surface of the object, the 3D coordinates of a point can be solved. Experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  12. A 3D endoscopy reconstruction as a saliency map for analysis of polyp shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Josue; Martínez, Fabio; Gómez, Martín.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    A first diagnosis of colorectal cancer is performed by examination of polyp shape and appearance during an endoscopy routine procedure. However, the video-endoscopy is highly noisy because exacerbated physiological conditions like increased motility or secretion may limit the visual analysis of lesions. In this work a 3D reconstruction of the digestive tract is proposed, facilitating the polyp shape evaluation by highlighting its surface geometry and allowing an analysis from different perspectives. The method starts by a spatio-temporal map, constructed to group the different regions of the tract by their similar dynamic patterns during the sequence. Then, such map was convolved with a second derivative of a Gaussian kernel that emulates the camera distortion and allows to highlight the polyp surface. The position initialization in each frame of the kernel was computed from expert manual delineation and propagated along the sequence based on. Results show reliable reconstructions, with a salient 3D polyp structure that can then be better observed.

  13. Improved Uav-Borne 3d Mapping by Fusing Optical and Laserscanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, B.; Weinmann, M.; Meidow, J.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a new method for fusing optical and laserscanner data is presented for improved UAV-borne 3D mapping. We propose to equip an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a small platform which includes two sensors: a standard low-cost digital camera and a lightweight Hokuyo UTM-30LX-EW laserscanning device (210 g without cable). Initially, a calibration is carried out for the utilized devices. This involves a geometric camera calibration and the estimation of the position and orientation offset between the two sensors by lever-arm and bore-sight calibration. Subsequently, a feature tracking is performed through the image sequence by considering extracted interest points as well as the projected 3D laser points. These 2D results are fused with the measured laser distances and fed into a bundle adjustment in order to obtain a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). It is demonstrated that an improvement in terms of precision for the pose estimation is derived by fusing optical and laserscanner data.

  14. Multi-layer 3D imaging using a few viewpoint images and depth map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suginohara, Hidetsugu; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method that makes multi-layer images from a few viewpoint images to display a 3D image by the autostereoscopic display that has multiple display screens in the depth direction. We iterate simple "Shift and Subtraction" processes to make each layer image alternately. The image made in accordance with depth map like a volume slicing by gradations is used as the initial solution of iteration process. Through the experiments using the prototype stacked two LCDs, we confirmed that it was enough to make multi-layer images from three viewpoint images to display a 3D image. Limiting the number of viewpoint images, the viewing area that allows stereoscopic view becomes narrow. To broaden the viewing area, we track the head motion of the viewer and update screen images in real time so that the viewer can maintain correct stereoscopic view within +/- 20 degrees area. In addition, we render pseudo multiple viewpoint images using depth map, then we can generate motion parallax at the same time.

  15. Quasi-3D Resistivity Imaging - Results from Geophysical Mapping and Forward Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, D.; Kneisel, C.

    2009-04-01

    2D resistivity tomography has proven to be a reliable tool in detecting, characterizing and mapping of permafrost, especially in joint application with other geophysical methods, e.g. seismic refraction. For many permafrost related problems a 3D image of the subsurface is of interest. Possibilities of quasi-3D imaging by collating several 2D ERT files into one quasi-3D file were tested. Data acquisition took place on a vegetated scree slope with isolated permafrost lenses in the Bever Valley, Swiss Alps. 21 2D-electrical arrays were applied with an electrode spacing of 5 m and a parallel spacing of 20 and 30 m using the Wenner electrode configuration. Refraction seismic was applied parallel to every second ERT array, with a geophone spacing of 5 m for validation. Results of quasi-3D imaging indicate that the most important factors influencing data quality are parallel spacing and number of right-angled crossing profiles. While the quasi-3D images generated of 2D-files with a parallel spacing of 20 m provide an interpretable image, 30 m spacing results in a blurred illustration of resistivity structures. To test the influence of crossing profiles quasi-3D images were inverted using only parallel measured data files as well as images containing right-angled crossing transects. Application of crossing profiles is of great importance, because the number of model blocks with interpolated resistivity values between parallel profiles is minimized. In case of two adjacent high resistivity anomalies a quasi-3D image consisting of parallel measured transects only illustrates one anomaly. A crossing profile provides information to differentiate the anomalies. Forward modeling was used to prove these assumptions and to improve the application of 2D ERT with regard to quasi-3D imaging. Main focus was on electrode and parallel spacing, the influence of crossing transects and the applicability of different array types. A number of 2D ERT profiles were generated, using the forward

  16. New 3D seismicity maps using chromo-stereoscopy with two alternative freewares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Seismicity maps play a key role in an introduction of geosciences studies or outreach programs. Various techniques are used in order to show earthquakes in a three dimensional field. To use "chromo-stereoscopy" is our simple and easier-making solution. The Chroma Depth 3D Glasses are employed for this purpose. The glasses consist of two transparent blazed grating films covered with a paper holder and cost a little (1 US$). Looking through these glasses, the colored chart turns into three dimensional perspective due to the mechanism that the color codes make a depth dimension with dispersion. We use two complementary freewares to make maps, the GMT (Generic Mapping Tools, Wessel and Smith.1988) and the POV-Ray (Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. 2004). The two softwares have their own advantages; the GMT is specialized for map making with simple scripts, while the POV-Ray produces realistic 3D rendering images with more complicated scripts. The earthquakes are plotted with the rainbow color codes depending on their depths in a black background as printed or PC images. Therefore, the red colored shallow earthquakes are float in front and blue colored ones sink deeper. This effect is so amazing that the students who first wear these glasses are strongly moved and fascinated with this simple mechanism. The data used here are from JMA seismicity catalogue and USGS (ANSS) catalogue. The POV-Ray version needs coastline data, so we got them from the Coastline Extractor (NGDC) web site. Also, the POR-Ray has no function to draw lines in three dimensions, so we had to make some trials for showing them in relief. The main target of our map is "the Wadati-Beniof zone", in which the sub-ducting oceanic plate surface is fringed by deeper earthquakes colored yellow, green to blue. The active volcanic regions such as the Hawaii islands or the active fault regions such as the San Andreas Fault are also effective targets of our method. However, since their shallow complicated seismic

  17. Re-Dimensional Thinking in Earth Science: From 3-D Virtual Reality Panoramas to 2-D Contour Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John; Carter, Glenda; Butler, Susan; Slykhuis, David; Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of gender and spatial perception on student interactivity with contour maps and non-immersive virtual reality. Eighteen eighth-grade students elected to participate in a six-week activity-based course called "3-D GeoMapping." The course included nine days of activities related to topographic mapping. At the end…

  18. 3-D density models within an ellipsoidal-Earth from inversion of geoid anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, C. M.; Ussami, N.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling density perturbations is very important to understand geodynamic processes which occur within the Earth's mantle. Commonly, the Earth's density is predicted by converting a velocity model into a density model using either a constant scaling factor or a relationship provided by mineral physics. Nonetheless, several factors such as temperature, composition and melting can affect the wave propagation speed so that a seismically converted density model may not retrieve the actual density distribution. This limitation may hamper the modeling the geodynamic processes. Due to advances in satellite-derived gravity data acquisition (e.g. GRACE, GOCE), the gravity field is now obtained with an unprecedented accuracy and resolution allowing us to estimate more uniformly the 3-D density distribution for the whole Earth. Here we present a computational algorithm to invert geoid anomalies in order to estimate density variations in the mantle. Using an ellipsoidal-Earth approximation, the model space is represented by a set of tesseroids. From a synthetic geoid anomaly caused by a plume tail ascending through the mantle with Gaussian noise added, the inversion code is capable to recover with good accuracy the density contrast and the body geometry when compared to the synthetic model. This algorithm was also tested in a natural case study, where geoid anomalies from the Yellowstone Province (YP) were inverted. The estimated density model (EDM) has a predominantly negative density contrast (~ -50 kg/m3) relative to the surrounding upper mantle and extends to the depth of 1000 km. The EDM exhibits an anti-correlation of up to -0.7 with one of the most recent S-velocity model for the western United States. The predicted dynamic topography from the EDM explains almost 80 % of the observed dynamic topography in the YP. From our results, we conclude that a joint-interpretation of density anomalies derived from geoid and velocity perturbations from seismic tomography models

  19. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  20. 3D viscosity maps for Greenland and effect on GRACE mass balance estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE satellite mission measures mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. To correct for glacial isostatic adjustment numerical models are used. Although generally found to be a small signal, the full range of possible GIA models has not been explored yet. In particular, low viscosities due to a wet mantle and high temperatures due to the nearby Iceland hotspot could have a significant effect on GIA gravity rates. The goal of this study is to present a range of possible viscosity maps, and investigate the effect on GRACE mass balance estimates. Viscosity is derived using flow laws for olivine. Mantle temperature is computed from global seismology models, based on temperature derivatives for different mantle compositions. An indication for grain sizes is obtained by xenolith findings at a few locations. We also investigate the weakening effect of the presence of melt. To calculate gravity rates, we use a finite-element GIA model with the 3D viscosity maps and the ICE-5G loading history. GRACE mass balances for mascons in Greenland are derived with a least-squares inversion, using separate constraints for the inland and coastal areas in Greenland. Biases in the least-squares inversion are corrected using scale factors estimated from a simulation based on a surface mass balance model (Xu et al., submitted to The Cryosphere). Model results show enhanced gravity rates in the west and south of Greenland with 3D viscosity maps, compared to GIA models with 1D viscosity. The effect on regional mass balance is up to 5 Gt/year. Regional low viscosity can make present-day gravity rates sensitivity to ice thickness changes in the last decades. Therefore, an improved ice loading history for these time scales is needed.

  1. Density functional study of hydrazine N-N bond cleaving on 3d metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathurrahman, Fadjar; Kasai, Hideaki

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical calculations based on dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D2) has been performed to investigate hydrazine adsorption and N-N bond cleaving on closed packed surfaces of 3d metals: Fe(110), Co(0001), Ni(111), Cu(111), and Zn(0001). The activation energies of N-N bond cleaving of hydrazine on each surface are estimated using climbing-image nudged elastic band (CINEB) method. The results showed that the activation energies for this process have increasing trend from Fe(110) to Zn(0001). By examining the electronic structure of the adsorbed hydrazine, it is found that this trend is related to occupation of derived 6σ* orbitals. It is also found that approximate linear relationship between reaction energy and activation energy (the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationship) holds for those surfaces.

  2. The 3D heat flux density distribution on a novel parabolic trough wavy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demagh, Yassine; Kabar, Yassine; Bordja, Lyes; Noui, Samira

    2016-05-01

    The non-uniform concentrated solar flux distribution on the outer surface of the absorber pipe can lead to large circumferential gradient temperature and high concentrated temperature of the absorber pipe wall, which is one of the primary causes of parabolic trough solar receiver breakdown. In this study, a novel shape of the parabolic trough absorber pipe is proposed as a solution to well homogenize the solar flux distribution, as well as, the temperature in the absorber wall. The conventional straight absorber located along the focal line of the parabola is replaced by wavy one (invention patent by Y. Demagh [1]) for which the heat flux density distribution on the outer surface varies in both axial and azimuthal directions (3D) while it varies only in the azimuthal direction on the former (2D). As far as we know, there is not previous study which has used a longitudinally wavy pipe as an absorber into the parabolic trough collector unit.

  3. 3D simulations of gas puff effects on edge density and ICRF coupling in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bobkov, V.; Lunt, T.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Coster, D.; Bilato, R.; Jacquet, P.; Brida, D.; Feng, Y.; Wolfrum, E.; Guimarais, L.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-03-01

    In recent experiments, a local gas puff was found to be an effective way to tailor the scrape-off layer (SOL) density and improve the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) power coupling in tokamaks. In order to quantitatively reproduce these experiments, to understand the corresponding physics and to optimize the gas valve positions and rates, simulations were carried out with the 3D edge plasma transport code EMC3-EIRENE in ASDEX Upgrade. An inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge with a moderate gas puff rate (1.2  ×  1022 electrons s-1) is used in our simulations. We simulated cases with gas puff in the lower divertor, the outer mid-plane and the top of the machine while keeping other conditions the same. Compared with the lower divertor gas puff, the outer mid-plane gas puff can increase the local density in front of the antennas most effectively, while a toroidally uniform but significantly smaller enhancement is found for the top gas puff. Good agreement between our simulations and experiments is obtained. With further simulations, the mechanisms of SOL density tailoring via local gas puffing and the strategies of gas puff optimization are discussed in the paper.

  4. A new method for automated discontinuity trace mapping on rock mass 3D surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an automated discontinuity trace mapping method on a 3D surface model of rock mass. Feature points of discontinuity traces are first detected using the Normal Tensor Voting Theory, which is robust to noisy point cloud data. Discontinuity traces are then extracted from feature points in four steps: (1) trace feature point grouping, (2) trace segment growth, (3) trace segment connection, and (4) redundant trace segment removal. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify optimal values for the parameters used in the proposed method. The optimal triangular mesh element size is between 5 cm and 6 cm; the angle threshold in the trace segment growth step is between 70° and 90°; the angle threshold in the trace segment connection step is between 50° and 70°, and the distance threshold should be at least 15 times the mean triangular mesh element size. The method is applied to the excavation face trace mapping of a drill-and-blast tunnel. The results show that the proposed discontinuity trace mapping method is fast and effective and could be used as a supplement to traditional direct measurement of discontinuity traces.

  5. Synchronous radiation sensing and 3D urban mapping for improved source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Gordon; Stiltner, L. Justin; Kochersberger, Kevin; McLean, Morgan; Czaja, Wojtek

    2014-05-01

    The acquisition of synchronous EO imagery and gamma radiation data in aerial overflights of an unmanned aircraft can provide valuable spatial context for radioactive source mapping. Using image-based 3D reconstruction methods, a terrain map can be generated and used to reason about more likely radiation source locations. For instance, vehicles may be likely hiding places for nuclear materials, so a source model with assigned probability is used at the vehicle to reduce the overall uncertainty in position estimation. Environment reconstructions based on EO imagery with a mapped gamma radiation overlay provide intrinsic correlations between the datasets. Using radioactive material dispersion models or point source models, the derived correlations serve to enhance coarse gamma radiation data. The use of autonomous unmanned aircraft provide a valuable tool in acquiring these data as they are capable of accurate and repeatable position control while eliminating exposure danger to the operators. In this experiment, two sources (.084 Ci 137Ce and .00048 Ci 133Ba) were distributed in a field with varying terrain and a scan was conducted using the Virginia Tech Yamaha RMAX autonomous helicopter equipped with a two-camera imaging system and a NaI scintillation-type spectrometer. Terrain reconstruction was conducted using both structure from motion (SfM) and stereo vision techniques, and radiation data synchronized to the imagery was overlaid.

  6. GPR data processing for 3D fracture mapping in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.; Gourry, J. C.

    1996-11-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been successfully applied to detect and map fractures in marble quarries. The aim was to distinguish quickly intact marketable marble areas from fractured ones in order to improve quarry management. The GPR profiling method was chosen because it is non destructive and quickly provides a detailed image of the subsurface. It was performed in domains corresponding to future working areas in real quarry-exploitation conditions. Field surveying and data processing were adapted to the local characteristics of the fractures: E-W orientation, sub-vertical dip, and karst features. After the GPR profiles had been processed, using methods adapted from seismics (amplitude compensation, filtering and Fourier migration), the interpreted fractures from a 12 × 24 × 15 m zone were incorporated into a 3D model. Due to the low electrical conductivity of the marble, GPR provides penetration depths of about 8 and 15 m, and resolutions of about 1 and 5 cm for frequencies of 900 and 300 MHz respectively. The detection power thus seems to be sufficient to recommend use of this method. As requested by the quarriers, the 3D representation can be used directly by themselves to locate high- or low-quality marble areas. Comparison between the observed surface fractures and the fractures detected using GPR showed reasonable correlation.

  7. 3-D seismic improves structural mapping of a gas storage reservoir (Paris basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, F. ); Pinson, C. )

    1993-09-01

    In the Paris basin, anticlinal structures with closure of no more than 80 m and surface area of a few km[sup 2] are used for underground gas storage. At Soings-en-Sologne, a three-dimensional (3-D) survey (13 km[sup 2]) was carried out over such a structure to establish its exact geometry and to detail its fault network. Various reflectors were picked automatically on the migrated data: the top of the Kimmeridgian, the top of the Bathoinian and the base of the Hettangian close to the top of the reservoir. The isochron maps were converted into depth using data from 12 wells. Horizon attributes (amplitude, dip, and azimuth) were used to reconstruct the fault's pattern with much greater accuracy than that supplied by interpretation from previous two-dimensional seismic. The Triassic and the Jurassic are affected by two systems of conjugate faults (N10-N110, inherited from the Hercynian basement and N30-N120). Alternating clay and limestone are the cause of numerous structural disharmonies, particularly on both sides of the Bathonian. Ridges associated with N30-N120 faults suggest compressive movements contemporaneous with the tertiary events. The northern structure in Soings-en-Sologne thus appear to be the result of polyphased tectonics. Its closure (25 m), which is associated either with dips or faults, is described in detail by 3-D seismic, permitting more accurate forecast of the volume available for gas storage.

  8. Non-destructive mapping of grain orientations in 3D by laboratory X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, S. A.; Reischig, P.; Holzner, C.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Withers, P. J.; Merkle, A. P.; Feser, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure, non-destructively and in three-dimensions, is a powerful tool for understanding many aspects related to damage and deformation mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. To this end, the technique of X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) using monochromatic synchrotron and polychromatic laboratory X-ray sources has been shown to be capable of mapping crystal grains and their orientations non-destructively in 3D. Here we describe a novel laboratory-based X-ray DCT modality (LabDCT), enabling the wider accessibility of the DCT technique for routine use and in-depth studies of, for example, temporal changes in crystallographic grain structure non-destructively over time through ‘4D’ in situ time-lapse studies. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by studying a titanium alloy (Ti-β21S) sample. In the current implementation the smallest grains that can be reliably detected are around 40 μm. The individual grain locations and orientations are reconstructed using the LabDCT method and the results are validated against independent measurements from phase contrast tomography and electron backscatter diffraction respectively. Application of the technique promises to provide important insights related to the roles of recrystallization and grain growth on materials properties as well as supporting 3D polycrystalline modelling of materials performance. PMID:26494523

  9. Mapping Nearby Terrain in 3D by Use of a Grid of Laser Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Curtis; Liebe, Carl; Chang, Johnny; Brown, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic system, to be mounted aboard an exploratory robotic vehicle, would be used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) map of nearby terrain and obstacles for purposes of navigating the vehicle across the terrain and avoiding the obstacles. The difference between this system and the other systems would lie in the details of implementation. In this system, the illumination would be provided by a laser. The beam from the laser would pass through a two-dimensional diffraction grating, which would divide the beam into multiple beams propagating in different, fixed, known directions. These beams would form a grid of bright spots on the nearby terrain and obstacles. The centroid of each bright spot in the image would be computed. For each such spot, the combination of (1) the centroid, (2) the known direction of the light beam that produced the spot, and (3) the known baseline would constitute sufficient information for calculating the 3D position of the spot.

  10. 3D mapping of nanoscale electric potentials in semiconductor structures using electron-holographic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Daniel; Lubk, Axel; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico; Lichte, Hannes

    2016-09-01

    Off-axis electron holography (EH) is a powerful method for mapping projected electric potentials, such as built-in potentials in semiconductor devices, in two dimensions (2D) at nanometer resolution. However, not well-defined thickness profiles, surface effects, and composition changes of the sample under investigation complicate the interpretation of the projected potentials. Here, we demonstrate how these problems can be overcome by combining EH with tomographic techniques, that is, electron holographic tomography (EHT), reconstructing electric potentials in 3D. We present EHT reconstructions of an n-type MOSFET including its dopant-related built-in potentials inside the device, as well as of a GaAs/AlGaAs core-multishell nanowire containing a 5 nm thick quantum well tube.

  11. Correlated 3D Nanoscale Mapping and Simulation of Coupled Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electron tomography in combination with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) experiments and simulations was used to unravel the interplay between structure and plasmonic properties of a silver nanocuboid dimer. The precise 3D geometry of the particles fabricated by means of electron beam lithography was reconstructed through electron tomography, and the full three-dimensional information was used as an input for simulations of energy-loss spectra and plasmon resonance maps. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory was found throughout, bringing the comparison between EELS imaging and simulations to a quantitative and correlative level. In addition, interface mode patterns, normally masked by the projection nature of a transmission microscopy investigation, could be unambiguously identified through tomographic reconstruction. This work overcomes the need for geometrical assumptions or symmetry restrictions of the sample in simulations and paves the way for detailed investigations of realistic and complex plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26495933

  12. A 3D map of the human genome at kilobase resolution reveals principles of chromatin looping.

    PubMed

    Rao, Suhas S P; Huntley, Miriam H; Durand, Neva C; Stamenova, Elena K; Bochkov, Ivan D; Robinson, James T; Sanborn, Adrian L; Machol, Ido; Omer, Arina D; Lander, Eric S; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2014-12-18

    We use in situ Hi-C to probe the 3D architecture of genomes, constructing haploid and diploid maps of nine cell types. The densest, in human lymphoblastoid cells, contains 4.9 billion contacts, achieving 1 kb resolution. We find that genomes are partitioned into contact domains (median length, 185 kb), which are associated with distinct patterns of histone marks and segregate into six subcompartments. We identify ∼10,000 loops. These loops frequently link promoters and enhancers, correlate with gene activation, and show conservation across cell types and species. Loop anchors typically occur at domain boundaries and bind CTCF. CTCF sites at loop anchors occur predominantly (>90%) in a convergent orientation, with the asymmetric motifs "facing" one another. The inactive X chromosome splits into two massive domains and contains large loops anchored at CTCF-binding repeats. PMID:25497547

  13. A 3D reconstruction solution to ultrasound Joule heat density tomography based on acousto-electric effect: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R.; Song, A.; Li, X. D.; Lu, Y.; Yan, R.; Xu, B.; Li, X.

    2014-10-01

    A 3D reconstruction solution to ultrasound Joule heat density tomography based on acousto-electric effect by deconvolution is proposed for noninvasive imaging of biological tissue. Compared with ultrasound current source density imaging, ultrasound Joule heat density tomography doesn't require any priori knowledge of conductivity distribution and lead fields, so it can gain better imaging result, more adaptive to environment and with wider application scope. For a general 3D volume conductor with broadly distributed current density field, in the AE equation the ultrasound pressure can't simply be separated from the 3D integration, so it is not a common modulation and basebanding (heterodyning) method is no longer suitable to separate Joule heat density from the AE signals. In the proposed method the measurement signal is viewed as the output of Joule heat density convolving with ultrasound wave. As a result, the internal 3D Joule heat density can be reconstructed by means of Wiener deconvolution. A series of computer simulations set for breast cancer imaging applications, with consideration of ultrasound beam diameter, noise level, conductivity contrast, position dependency and size of simulated tumors, have been conducted to evaluate the feasibility and performance of the proposed reconstruction method. The computer simulation results demonstrate that high spatial resolution 3D ultrasound Joule heat density imaging is feasible using the proposed method, and it has potential applications to breast cancer detection and imaging of other organs.

  14. Novel multiresolution mammographic density segmentation using pseudo 3D features and adaptive cluster merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenda; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erica R. E.; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection, precise identification of women at risk, and application of appropriate disease prevention measures are by far the most effective ways to overcome the disease. Successful mammographic density segmentation is a key aspect in deriving correct tissue composition, ensuring an accurate mammographic risk assessment. However, mammographic densities have not yet been fully incorporated with non-image based risk prediction models, (e.g. the Gail and the Tyrer-Cuzick model), because of unreliable segmentation consistency and accuracy. This paper presents a novel multiresolution mammographic density segmentation, a concept of stack representation is proposed, and 3D texture features were extracted by adapting techniques based on classic 2D first-order statistics. An unsupervised clustering technique was employed to achieve mammographic segmentation, in which two improvements were made; 1) consistent segmentation by incorporating an optimal centroids initialisation step, and 2) significantly reduced the number of missegmentation by using an adaptive cluster merging technique. A set of full field digital mammograms was used in the evaluation. Visual assessment indicated substantial improvement on segmented anatomical structures and tissue specific areas, especially in low mammographic density categories. The developed method demonstrated an ability to improve the quality of mammographic segmentation via clustering, and results indicated an improvement of 26% in segmented image with good quality when compared with the standard clustering approach. This in turn can be found useful in early breast cancer detection, risk-stratified screening, and aiding radiologists in the process of decision making prior to surgery and/or treatment.

  15. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  16. 3D-Mapping of Dolomitized Structures in Lower Cambrian Phosphorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippler, Dorothee; Stammeier, Jessica A.; Brunner, Roland; Rosc, Jördis; Franz, Gerhard; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Dolomitization is a widespread phenomenon in ancient sedimentary rocks, particularly close to the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Dolomite can form in synsedimentary or hydrothermal environments, preferentially via the replacement of solid carbonate precursor phases. Synsedimentary dolomite formation is often associated with microbial activity, such as bacterial sulfate reduction or methanogenesis. In this study, we investigate dolomitic phosphorites from the Lowermost Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoori Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India, using micro-CT 3D-mapping, in order to unravel the complex diagenetic history of the rocks. The selected sample shows alternating layering of phosphatic mudstones and sparitic dolostone, in which brecciated layers of phosphorite or phosphatic mudstones are immersed in a dolomite-rich matrix. Lamination occurs on a sub-millimetre scale, with lamination sometimes wavy to crinkly. This fabric is interpreted as former microbial mats, providing the environment for early diagenetic phosphatization. Preliminary electron backscatter imaging with scanning microscopy revealed that dolomite crystals often occur in spherical to ellipsoidal structures, typically with a high porosity. This dolomite is associated with botryoidal apatite, organic matter and small amounts of calcite. Micro-CT 3D-mappings reveal that dolomite structures are cigar-shaped, elongated and up to 600 μm long. They are further arranged in a Mikado-like oriented framework spanning a layer thickness of a few millimetres. Analyses of ambient pore space, with similar elongated outlines and filled with organic matter, suggest a potential coherence of ambient pore space and shape of the dolomite structures. Allowing for other associated mineral phases, such as pyrite and silicates, and their spatial distribution, the present approach can be used to unravel distinct diagenetic reaction pathways, and might thus constrain the proxy potential of these Lower Cambrian dolomitic phosphorites

  17. 3D models mapping optimization through an integrated parameterization approach: cases studies from Ravenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, L.; Fantini, F.; Bertacchi, S.

    2014-06-01

    Image-based modelling tools based on SfM algorithms gained great popularity since several software houses provided applications able to achieve 3D textured models easily and automatically. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of controlling models parameterization process, considering that automatic solutions included in these modelling tools can produce poor results in terms of texture utilization. In order to achieve a better quality of textured models from image-based modelling applications, this research presents a series of practical strategies aimed at providing a better balance between geometric resolution of models from passive sensors and their corresponding (u,v) map reference systems. This aspect is essential for the achievement of a high-quality 3D representation, since "apparent colour" is a fundamental aspect in the field of Cultural Heritage documentation. Complex meshes without native parameterization have to be "flatten" or "unwrapped" in the (u,v) parameter space, with the main objective to be mapped with a single image. This result can be obtained by using two different strategies: the former automatic and faster, while the latter manual and time-consuming. Reverse modelling applications provide automatic solutions based on splitting the models by means of different algorithms, that produce a sort of "atlas" of the original model in the parameter space, in many instances not adequate and negatively affecting the overall quality of representation. Using in synergy different solutions, ranging from semantic aware modelling techniques to quad-dominant meshes achieved using retopology tools, it is possible to obtain a complete control of the parameterization process.

  18. A 3-D density model of Greece constrained by gravity and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, Jannis; Papoulia, Joanna; Yegorova, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    A 3-D density model of Greece was developed by gravity modelling constrained by 2-D seismic profiles. Densities were defined from seismic velocities using the Nafe & Drake and Birch empirical functions for the sediments, crust and upper mantle. Sediments in the North Aegean are 6 km thick, and are deposited in transtensional basins developing by dextral strike slip motion of the North Anatolian Fault. The Cyclades, central Aegean Sea, are free of sediments. South of Crete, in the Libyan Sea, sediments are approximately 11 km thick. At the western Hellenides sediments of up to 8 km thickness have been accumulated in basins formed by crustal bending and southwestwards thrusting of the Hellenic napes. At a deeper crustal level variations of crustal type and thickness cause density variations explaining large part of the observed gravity field. The North Aegean domain is characterized by a 24-km-thick continental crust, including sediments, whereas the western Cyclades, in central Aegean area, have a slightly thickened crust of 26 km. Crustal thicknesses vary between 16 km in the deep Ionian and Cretan Seas to 40 km in the western Hellenides. In western Crete crust is 30-32 km thick, thinning eastwards to only 26 km. The deep Ionian basin, the Mediterranean Ridge, as well as most of the Libyan Sea are underlain by oceanic crust. In western Turkey the crust thickens from 30 km along the coast to 34 km to the interior. A third deeper level of density variations occurs in the upper mantle. Subduction of the oceanic lithosphere below the Aegean continental domain destabilizes the thermal field, uplifting the isotherms by convection and conduction below the Aegean Sea. Consequently, volume expansion of the upper mantle and lithological changes reduce its density and depress the gravity intensity. This low density-velocity upper mantle extends from the Sporades islands in the North Aegean to the Cretan Sea, occupying the space between the cold subducted Ionian oceanic

  19. Large-scale 3D mapping of the intergalactic medium using the Lyman α forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Melih; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2016-03-01

    Maps of the large-scale structure of the Universe at redshifts 2-4 can be made with the Lyman α forest which are complementary to low-redshift galaxy surveys. We apply the Wiener interpolation method of Caucci et al. to construct three-dimensional maps from sets of Lyman α forest spectra taken from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We mimic some current and future quasar redshift surveys [Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extended BOSS (eBOSS) and Mid-Scale Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (MS-DESI)] by choosing similar sightline densities. We use these appropriate subsets of the Lyman α absorption sightlines to reconstruct the full three-dimensional Lyman α flux field and perform comparisons between the true and the reconstructed fields. We study global statistical properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) maps with autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis, slice plots, local peaks and point-by-point scatter. We find that both the density field and the statistical properties of the IGM are recovered well enough that the resulting IGM maps can be meaningfully considered to represent large-scale maps of the Universe in agreement with Caucci et al., on larger scales and for sparser sightlines than had been tested previously. Quantitatively, for sightline parameters comparable to current and near future surveys the correlation coefficient between true and reconstructed fields is r > 0.9 on scales >30 h-1 Mpc. The properties of the maps are relatively insensitive to the precise form of the covariance matrix used. The final BOSS quasar Lyman α forest sample will allow maps to be made with a resolution of ˜30 h-1 Mpc over a volume of ˜15 h-3 Gpc3 between redshifts 1.9 and 2.3.

  20. True-3D Accentuating of Grids and Streets in Urban Topographic Maps Enhances Human Object Location Memory

    PubMed Central

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information. PMID:25679208

  1. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    PubMed

    Edler, Dennis; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Kuchinke, Lars; Dickmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic) displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids) and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets) in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000) further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate) and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy). It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm) significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information. PMID:25679208

  2. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps of Seattle, Washington, Including 3D Sedimentary Basin Effects and Rupture Directivity: Implications of 3D Random Velocity Variations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, A. D.; Stephenson, W. J.; Carver, D.; Odum, J.; Williams, R. A.; Rhea, S.

    2010-12-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Seattle for 1 Hz spectral acceleration, using over five hundred 3D finite-difference simulations of earthquakes on the Seattle fault, Southern Whidbey Island fault, and Cascadia subduction zone, as well as for random deep and shallow earthquakes at various locations. The 3D velocity model was validated by modeling the observed waveforms for the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake and several smaller events in the region. At these longer periods (≥ 1 sec) that are especially important to the response of buildings of ten stories or higher, seismic waves are strongly influenced by sedimentary basins and rupture directivity. We are investigating how random spatial variations in the 3D velocity model affect the simulated ground motions for M6.7 earthquakes on the Seattle fault. A fractal random variation of shear-wave velocity with a Von Karman correlation function produces spatial variations of peak ground velocity with multiple scale lengths. We find that a 3D velocity model with a 10% standard deviation in shear-wave velocity in the top 1.5 km and 5% standard deviation from 1.5-10 km depth produces variations in peak ground velocities of as much as a factor of two, relative to the case with no random variations. The model with random variations generally reduces the peak ground velocity of the forward rupture directivity pulse for sites near the fault where basin-edge focusing of S-waves occurs. It also tends to reduce the peak velocity of localized areas where basin surface waves are focused. However, the medium with random variations also causes small-scale amplification of ground motions over distances of a few kilometers. We are also evaluating alternative methods of characterizing the aleatory uncertainty in the probabilistic hazard calculations.

  3. Enabling 3D-Liver Perfusion Mapping from MR-DCE Imaging Using Distributed Computing

    PubMed Central

    Leporq, Benjamin; Camarasu-Pop, Sorina; Davila-Serrano, Eduardo E.; Pilleul, Frank; Beuf, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    An MR acquisition protocol and a processing method using distributed computing on the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) to allow 3D liver perfusion parametric mapping after Magnetic Resonance Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (MR-DCE) imaging are presented. Seven patients (one healthy control and six with chronic liver diseases) were prospectively enrolled after liver biopsy. MR-dynamic acquisition was continuously performed in free-breathing during two minutes after simultaneous intravascular contrast agent (MS-325 blood pool agent) injection. Hepatic capillary system was modeled by a 3-parameters one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The processing step was parallelized and executed on the EGI. It was modeled and implemented as a grid workflow using the Gwendia language and the MOTEUR workflow engine. Results showed good reproducibility in repeated processing on the grid. The results obtained from the grid were well correlated with ROI-based reference method ran locally on a personal computer. The speed-up range was 71 to 242 with an average value of 126. In conclusion, distributed computing applied to perfusion mapping brings significant speed-up to quantification step to be used for further clinical studies in a research context. Accuracy would be improved with higher image SNR accessible on the latest 3T MR systems available today. PMID:27006915

  4. The Derivation of Fault Volumetric Properties from 3D Trace Maps Using Outcrop Constrained Discrete Fracture Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgetts, David; Seers, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Fault systems are important structural elements within many petroleum reservoirs, acting as potential conduits, baffles or barriers to hydrocarbon migration. Large, seismic-scale faults often serve as reservoir bounding seals, forming structural traps which have proved to be prolific plays in many petroleum provinces. Though inconspicuous within most seismic datasets, smaller subsidiary faults, commonly within the damage zones of parent structures, may also play an important role. These smaller faults typically form narrow, tabular low permeability zones which serve to compartmentalize the reservoir, negatively impacting upon hydrocarbon recovery. Though considerable improvements have been made in the visualization field to reservoir-scale fault systems with the advent of 3D seismic surveys, the occlusion of smaller scale faults in such datasets is a source of significant uncertainty during prospect evaluation. The limited capacity of conventional subsurface datasets to probe the spatial distribution of these smaller scale faults has given rise to a large number of outcrop based studies, allowing their intensity, connectivity and size distributions to be explored in detail. Whilst these studies have yielded an improved theoretical understanding of the style and distribution of sub-seismic scale faults, the ability to transform observations from outcrop to quantities that are relatable to reservoir volumes remains elusive. These issues arise from the fact that outcrops essentially offer a pseudo-3D window into the rock volume, making the extrapolation of surficial fault properties such as areal density (fracture length per unit area: P21), to equivalent volumetric measures (i.e. fracture area per unit volume: P32) applicable to fracture modelling extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate an approach which harnesses advances in the extraction of 3D trace maps from surface reconstructions using calibrated image sequences, in combination with a novel semi

  5. First 3D thermal mapping of an active volcano using an advanced photogrammetric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Raphael; Baratoux, David; Lacogne, Julien; Lopez, Teodolina; Fauchard, Cyrille; Bretar, Frédéric; Arab-Sedze, Mélanie; Staudacher, Thomas; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Thermal infrared data obtained in the [7-14 microns] spectral range are usually used in many Earth Science disciplines. These studies are exclusively based on the analysis of 2D information. In this case, a quantitative analysis of the surface energy budget remains limited, as it may be difficult to estimate the radiative contribution of the topography, the thermal influence of winds on the surface or potential imprints of subsurface flows on the soil without any precise DEM. The draping of a thermal image on a recent DEM is a common method to obtain a 3D thermal map of a surface. However, this method has many disadvantages i) errors can be significant in the orientation process of the thermal images, due to the lack of tie points between the images and the DEM; ii) the use of a recent DEM implies the use of another remote sensing technique to quantify the topography; iii) finally, the characterization of the evolution of a surface requires the simultaneous acquisition of thermal data and topographic information, which may be expensive in most cases. The stereophotogrammetry method allows to reconstitute the relief of an object from photos taken from different positions. Recently, substantial progress have been realized in the generation of high spatial resolution topographic surfaces using stereophotogrammetry. However, the presence of shadows, homogeneous textures and/or weak contrasts in the visible spectrum (e.g., flowing lavas, uniform lithologies) may prevent from the use of such method, because of the difficulties to find tie points on each image. Such situations are more favorable in the thermal infrared spectrum, as any variation in the thermal properties or geometric orientation of the surfaces may induce temperature contrasts that are detectable with a thermal camera. This system, usually functioning with a array sensor (Focal Plane Array) and an optical device, have geometric characteristics that are similar to digital cameras. Thus, it may be possible

  6. Developed Design for Humeral Head Replacement Using 3D Surface Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of dimensional and geometrical data on the humeral head replacement (HHR) objects is essential for solving the relevant designing problems in the physics of reverse engineering (RE). In this work, 2D-assessment for human humerus was performed using the computed tomography (CT) technique within the RE plan, after which the 2D images of humeral objects were converted into 3D images. The conversion was successful and indicated a clear difference in the 2D and 3D estimates of sizes and geometry of the humerus. The authors have analyzed and confirmed experimentally the statistical information on the relevant anatomical objects. The results of finite-element simulation of the compressive stresses affecting the geometry of 3D surface mapping were analyzed using SolidWorks software. For developing the biomechanical design of an HHR object suitable biomaterials were selected, and different metal-based biomaterials are discussed as applied at various loads. New methodology is presented for the size estimation of humeral head - both anatomical and artificial - in 3D-shape. A detailed interpretation is given for the results of CT D-measurements. Izmēru un ģeometrisko datu novērtējums, kas attiecas uz pleca kaula galviņas nomaiņas (PKGN) objektiem, nepieciešams, lai risinātu virkni reversīvās inženierijas (RI) problēmu. Šajā darbā cilvēka pleca kaula galviņas divdimensiju novērtējums tika veikts ar datortomogrāfijas palīdzību (RI) ietvaros, un pēc tam objekta divdimensiju attēlojums tika pārveidots trīsdimensiju. Pārveidojums bija sekmīgs, parādot pleca kaula galviņas izmēru un ģeometrijas atšķirības starp 2D un 3D novērtējumiem. Autori izanalizēja un eksperimentāli apstiprināja statistisko informāciju pēc dotā veida anatomiskiem objektiem. Saspiešanas sasprindzinājumi, kuri ietekmē trīsdimensiju virsmas attēlojuma ģeometriju, tika analizēti ar gala-elementu simulācijas metodi, lietojot programmu Solid

  7. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    PubMed

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity. PMID:11015933

  8. Mapping electronic ordering in chromium in 3D with x-ray microdiffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ruqing

    2015-03-01

    In the antiferromagnetic state of chromium, electrons form spin-density waves and charge-density waves with wave vector along one of the lattice cubic axes; the spontaneous ordering of the electrons breaks the lattice symmetry and creates domains within a single crystal. We report the first 3-dimentional mapping of charge-density wave domains in bulk polycrystalline chromium samples using differential-aperture x-ray microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357

  9. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (<1km) lunar subsurface structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  10. 3D Inversion of Gravity Anomalies for the Interpretation of Sedimentary Basins using Variable Density Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Concern about sedimentary basins is generally related to their genetic and economic significance. Analysis of sedimentary basins requires the acquisition of data through outcrop studies and subsurface investigations that encompass drilling and geophysics. These data are commonly analysed by computer-assisted techniques. One of these methods is based on analysing gravity anomalies to compute the depth of sedimentary basin-basement rock interface. Sedimentary basins produce negative gravity anomalies, because they have mostly lower densities than that of the surrounding basement rocks. Density variations in a sedimentary fill increase rapidly at shallower depths then gradually reach the density of surrounding basement rocks due to the geostatic pressure i.e. compaction. The decrease of the density contrast can be easily estimated by a quadratic function. Hence, if the densities are chosen properly and the regional background is removed correctly, the topographical relief of the sedimentary basin-basement rock interface might be estimated by the inversion of the gravity data using an exponential density-depth relation. Three dimensional forward modelling procedure can be carried out by introducing a Cartesian coordinate system, and placing vertical prisms just below observation points on the grid plane. Depth to the basement, namely depths to the bottom of the vertical prisms are adjusted in an iterative manner by minimizing the differences between measured and calculated residual gravity anomalies. In this study, we present a MATLAB-based inversion code for the interpretation of sedimentary basins by approximating the topographical relief of sedimentary basin-basement rock interfaces. For a given gridded residual gravity anomaly map, the procedure estimates the bottom depths of vertical prisms by considering some published formulas and assumptions. The utility of the developed inversion code was successfully tested on theoretically produced gridded gravity data set

  11. The internal density distribution of comet 67P/C-G based on 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, Laurent; Hviid, Stubbe; Capanna, Claire; Gaskell, Robert; Gutierrez, Pedro; Preusker, Frank; Rodionov, Sergey; Scholten, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The OSIRIS camera aboard the Rosetta spacecraft observed the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G from the mapping phase in summer 2014 until now. The images have allowed the reconstruction in three-dimension of nucleus surface with stereophotogrammetry (Preusker et al., Astron. Astrophys.) and stereophotoclinometry (Jorda et al., submitted to Icarus) techniques. We use the reconstructed models to constrain the internal density distribution based on: (i) the measurement of the offset between the center of mass and center of figure of the object, and (ii) the assumption that flat areas observed at the surface of the comet correspond to iso-gravity surfaces. The results of our analysis will be presented, and the consequences for the internal structure and formation of the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G will be discussed.

  12. 3D imaging of radiation damage in silicon sensor and spatial mapping of charge collection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubek, M.; Jakubek, J.; Zemlicka, J.; Platkevic, M.; Havranek, V.; Semian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Radiation damage in semiconductor sensors alters the response and degrades the performance of many devices ultimately limiting their stability and lifetime. In semiconductor radiation detectors the homogeneity of charge collection becomes distorted while decreasing the overall detection efficiency. Moreover the damage can significantly increase the detector noise and degrade other electrical properties such as leakage current. In this work we present a novel method for 3D mapping of the semiconductor radiation sensor volume allowing displaying the three dimensional distribution of detector properties such as charge collection efficiency and charge diffusion rate. This technique can visualize the spatially localized changes of local detector performance after radiation damage. Sensors used were 300 μm and 1000 μm thick silicon bump-bonded to a Timepix readout chip which serves as an imaging multichannel microprobe (256 × 256 square pixels with pitch of 55 μm, i.e. all together 65 thousand channels). Per pixel energy sensitivity of the Timepix chip allows to evaluate the local charge collection efficiency and also the charge diffusion rate. In this work we implement an X-ray line scanning technique for systematic evaluation of changes in the performance of a silicon sensor intentionally damaged by energetic protons.

  13. Euro-Maps 3D- A Transnational, High-Resolution Digital Surface Model For Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttenthaler, A.; Barner, F.; Hass, T.; Makiola, J.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.; Carl, S.; Steiner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Euro-Maps 3D is a homogeneous 5 m spaced digital surface model (DSM) semi-automatically derived by Euromap from 2.5 m in-flight stereo data provided by the Indian IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 satellite. This new and innovative product has been developed in close co- operation with the Remote Sensing Technology Institute (IMF) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and is being jointly exploited. The very detailed and accurate representation of the surface is achieved by using a sophisticated and well adapted algorithm implemented on the basis of the Semi-Global Matching approach. In addition, the final product includes detailed flanking information consisting of several pixel-based quality and traceability layers also including an ortho layer. The product is believed to provide maximum accuracy and transparency. The DSM product meets and exceeds HRE80 qualification standards. The DSM product will be made available transnational in a homogeneous quality for most parts of Europe, North Africa and Turkey by Euromap step-by-step. Other areas around the world are processed on demand.

  14. 3-D modeling useful tool for planning. [mapping groundwater and soil pollution and subsurface features

    SciTech Connect

    Calmbacher, C.W. )

    1992-12-01

    Visualizing and delineating subsurface geological features, groundwater contaminant plumes, soil contamination, geological faults, shears and other features can prove invaluable to environmental consultants, engineers, geologists and hydrogeologists. Three-dimensional modeling is useful for a variety of applications from planning remediation to site planning design. The problem often is figuring out how to convert drilling logs, map lists or contaminant levels from soil and groundwater into a 3-D model. Three-dimensional subsurface modeling is not a new requirement, but a flexible, easily applied method of developing such models has not always been readily available. LYNX Geosystems Inc. has developed the Geoscience Modeling System (GMS) in answer to the needs of those regularly having to do three-dimensional geostatistical modeling. The GMS program has been designed to allow analysis, interpretation and visualization of complex geological features and soil and groundwater contamination. This is a powerful program driven by a 30 volume modeling technology engine. Data can be entered, stored, manipulated and analyzed in ways that will present very few limitations to the user. The program has selections for Geoscience Data Management, Geoscience Data Analysis, Geological Modeling (interpretation and analysis), Geostatistical Modeling and an optional engineering component.

  15. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Soil Chemical Characteristics at Micrometric Scale by Combining 2D SEM-EDX Data and 3D X-Ray CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Hapca, Simona; Baveye, Philippe C.; Wilson, Clare; Lark, Richard Murray; Otten, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological limitations, most chemical and biological measurements can be carried out only on exposed soil surfaces or 2-dimensional cuts through soil samples. Methods need to be developed to produce 3D maps of soil properties based on spatial sequences of 2D maps. In this general context, the objective of the research described here was to develop a method to generate 3D maps of soil chemical properties at the microscale by combining 2D SEM-EDX data with 3D X-ray computed tomography images. A statistical approach using the regression tree method and ordinary kriging applied to the residuals was developed and applied to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron, and oxygen at the microscale. The spatial correlation between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the chemical maps made it possible to use a regression-tree model as an initial step to predict the 3D chemical composition. For chemical elements, e.g., iron, that are sparsely distributed in a soil sample, the regression-tree model provides a good prediction, explaining as much as 90% of the variability in some of the data. However, for chemical elements that are more homogenously distributed, such as carbon, silicon, or oxygen, the additional kriging of the regression tree residuals improved significantly the prediction with an increase in the R2 value from 0.221 to 0.324 for carbon, 0.312 to 0.423 for silicon, and 0.218 to 0.374 for oxygen, respectively. The present research develops for the first time an integrated experimental and theoretical framework, which combines geostatistical methods with imaging techniques to unveil the 3-D chemical structure of soil at very fine scales. The methodology presented

  16. The performance of semilocal and hybrid density functionals in 3d transition-metal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furche, Filipp; Perdew, John P.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the performance of contemporary semilocal and hybrid density functionals for bond energetics, structures, dipole moments, and harmonic frequencies of 3d transition-metal (TM) compounds by comparison with gas-phase experiments. Special attention is given to the nonempirical metageneralized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSS) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 146401 (2003)], which has been implemented in TURBOMOLE for the present work. Trends and error patterns for classes of homologous compounds are analyzed, including dimers, monohydrides, mononitrides, monoxides, monofluorides, polyatomic oxides and halogenides, carbonyls, and complexes with organic π ligands such as benzene and cyclopentadienyl. Weakly bound systems such as Ca2, Mn2, and Zn2 are discussed. We propose a reference set of reaction energies for benchmark purposes. Our all-electron results with quadruple zeta valence basis sets validate semilocal density-functional theory as the workhorse of computational TM chemistry. Typical errors in bond energies are substantially larger than in (organic) main group chemistry, however. The Becke-Perdew'86 [Phys. Rev. A 38, 3098 (1988); Phys. Rev. B 33, 8822 (1986)] GGA and the TPSS meta-GGA have the best price/performance ratio, while the TPSS hybrid functional achieves a slightly lower mean absolute error in bond energies. The popular Becke three-parameter hybrid B3LYP underbinds significantly and tends to overestimate bond distances; we give a possible explanation for this. We further show that hybrid mixing does not reduce the width of the error distribution on our reference set. The error of a functional for the s-d transfer energy of a TM atom does not predict its error for TM bond energies and bond lengths. For semilocal functionals, self-interaction error in one- and three-electron bonds appears to be a major source of error in TM reaction energies. Nevertheless, TPSS predicts the correct ground

  17. Determination of a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Celia; Choisne, Julie; Nérot, Agathe; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa

    2016-05-01

    Body segment parameters (BSP) for each body׳s segment are needed for biomechanical analysis. To provide population-specific BSP, precise estimation of body׳s segments volume and density are needed. Widely used uniform densities, provided by cadavers׳ studies, did not consider the air present in the lungs when determining the thorax density. The purpose of this study was to propose a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling. Bi-planar X-ray radiographies were acquired on 58 participants allowing 3D reconstructions of the spine, rib cage and human body shape. Three methods of computing the thorax mass were compared for 48 subjects: (1) the Dempster Uniform Density Method, currently in use for BSPs calculation, using Dempster density data, (2) the Personalized Method using full-description of the thorax based on 3D reconstruction of the rib cage and spine and (3) the Improved Uniform Density Method using a uniform thorax density resulting from the Personalized Method. For 10 participants, comparison was made between the body mass obtained from a force-plate and the body mass computed with each of the three methods. The Dempster Uniform Density Method presented a mean error of 4.8% in the total body mass compared to the force-plate vs 0.2% for the Personalized Method and 0.4% for the Improved Uniform Density Method. The adjusted thorax density found from the 3D reconstruction was 0.74g/cm(3) for men and 0.73g/cm(3) for women instead of the one provided by Dempster (0.92g/cm(3)), leading to a better estimate of the thorax mass and body mass. PMID:26976227

  18. Inductively Driven, 3D Liner Compression of a Magnetized Plasma to Megabar Energy Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Slough, John

    2015-02-01

    modules. The additional energy and switching capability proposed will thus provide for optimal utilization of the liner energy. The following tasks were outlined for the three year effort: (1) Design and assemble the foil liner compression test structure and chamber including the compression bank and test foils [Year 1]. (2) Perform foil liner compression experiments and obtain performance data over a range on liner dimensions and bank parameters [Year 2]. (3) Carry out compression experiments of the FRC plasma to Megagauss fields and measure key fusion parameters [Year 3]. (4) Develop numerical codes and analyze experimental results, and determine the physics and scaling for future work [Year 1-3]. The principle task of the project was to design and assemble the foil liner FRC formation chamber, the full compression test structure and chamber including the compression bank. This task was completed successfully. The second task was to test foils in the test facility constructed in year one and characterize the performance obtained from liner compression. These experimental measurements were then compared with analytical predictions, and numerical code results. The liner testing was completed and compared with both the analytical results as well as the code work performed with the 3D structural dynamics package of ANSYS Metaphysics®. This code is capable of modeling the dynamic behavior of materials well into the non-linear regime (e.g. a bullet hit plate glass). The liner dynamic behavior was found to be remarkably close to that predicted by the 3D structural dynamics results. Incorporating a code that can also include the magnetics and plasma physics has also made significant progress at the UW. The remaining test bed construction and assembly task is was completed, and the FRC formation and merging experiments were carried out as planned. The liner compression of the FRC to Megagauss fields was not performed due to not obtaining a sufficiently long lived FRC during the

  19. 3D leaf water content mapping using terrestrial laser scanner backscatter intensity with radiometric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi; Wang, Tiejun; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Niemann, K. Olaf

    2015-12-01

    Leaf water content (LWC) plays an important role in agriculture and forestry management. It can be used to assess drought conditions and wildfire susceptibility. Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data have been widely used in forested environments for retrieving geometrically-based biophysical parameters. Recent studies have also shown the potential of using radiometric information (backscatter intensity) for estimating LWC. However, the usefulness of backscatter intensity data has been limited by leaf surface characteristics, and incidence angle effects. To explore the idea of using LiDAR intensity data to assess LWC we normalized (for both angular effects and leaf surface properties) shortwave infrared TLS data (1550 nm). A reflectance model describing both diffuse and specular reflectance was applied to remove strong specular backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle. Leaves with different surface properties were collected from eight broadleaf plant species for modeling the relationship between LWC and backscatter intensity. Reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to compensate for incidence angle effects. Results showed that before removing the specular influences, there was no significant correlation (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05) between the backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle and LWC. After the removal of the specular influences, a significant correlation emerged (R2 = 0.74, P < 0.05). The agreement between measured and TLS-derived LWC demonstrated a significant reduction of RMSE (root mean square error, from 0.008 to 0.003 g/cm2) after correcting for the incidence angle effect. We show that it is possible to use TLS to estimate LWC for selected broadleaved plants with an R2 of 0.76 (significance level α = 0.05) at leaf level. Further investigations of leaf surface and internal structure will likely result in improvements of 3D LWC mapping for studying physiology and ecology in vegetation.

  20. Seismic Hazard Maps for Seattle, Washington, Incorporating 3D Sedimentary Basin Effects, Nonlinear Site Response, and Rupture Directivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Stephenson, William J.; Carver, David L.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Rhea, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report presents probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Seattle, Washington, based on over 500 3D simulations of ground motions from scenario earthquakes. These maps include 3D sedimentary basin effects and rupture directivity. Nonlinear site response for soft-soil sites of fill and alluvium was also applied in the maps. The report describes the methodology for incorporating source and site dependent amplification factors into a probabilistic seismic hazard calculation. 3D simulations were conducted for the various earthquake sources that can affect Seattle: Seattle fault zone, Cascadia subduction zone, South Whidbey Island fault, and background shallow and deep earthquakes. The maps presented in this document used essentially the same set of faults and distributed-earthquake sources as in the 2002 national seismic hazard maps. The 3D velocity model utilized in the simulations was validated by modeling the amplitudes and waveforms of observed seismograms from five earthquakes in the region, including the 2001 M6.8 Nisqually earthquake. The probabilistic seismic hazard maps presented here depict 1 Hz response spectral accelerations with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years. The maps are based on determinations of seismic hazard for 7236 sites with a spacing of 280 m. The maps show that the most hazardous locations for this frequency band (around 1 Hz) are soft-soil sites (fill and alluvium) within the Seattle basin and along the inferred trace of the frontal fault of the Seattle fault zone. The next highest hazard is typically found for soft-soil sites in the Duwamish Valley south of the Seattle basin. In general, stiff-soil sites in the Seattle basin exhibit higher hazard than stiff-soil sites outside the basin. Sites with shallow bedrock outside the Seattle basin have the lowest estimated hazard for this frequency band.

  1. 3-D or median map? Earthquake scenario ground-motion maps from physics-based models versus maps from ground-motion prediction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are two common ways to create a ground-motion map for a hypothetical earthquake: using ground motion prediction equations (by far the more common of the two) and using 3-D physics-based modeling. The former is very familiar to engineers, the latter much less so, and the difference can present a problem because engineers tend to trust the familiar and distrust novelty. Maps for essentially the same hypothetical earthquake using the two different methods can look very different, while appearing to present the same information. Using one or the other can lead an engineer or disaster planner to very different estimates of damage and risk. The reasons have to do with depiction of variability, spatial correlation of shaking, the skewed distribution of real-world shaking, and the upward-curving relationship between shaking and damage. The scientists who develop the two kinds of map tend to specialize in one or the other and seem to defend their turf, which can aggravate the problem of clearly communicating with engineers.The USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) HayWired scenario has addressed the challenge of explaining to engineers the differences between the two maps, and why, in a disaster planning scenario, one might want to use the less-familiar 3-D map.

  2. 3d-4f magnetic interaction with density functional theory plus u approach: local Coulomb correlation and exchange pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yachao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hong

    2013-12-12

    The 3d-4f exchange interaction plays an important role in many lanthanide based molecular magnetic materials such as single-molecule magnets and magnetic refrigerants. In this work, we study the 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions in a series of Cu(II)-Gd(III) (3d(9)-4f(7)) dinuclear complexes based on the numerical atomic basis-norm-conserving pseudopotential method and density functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction approach (DFT+U). We obtain improved description of the 4f electrons by including the semicore 5s5p states in the valence part of the Gd-pseudopotential. The Hubbard U correction is employed to treat the strongly correlated Cu-3d and Gd-4f electrons, which significantly improve the agreement of the predicted exchange constants, J, with experiment, indicating the importance of accurate description of the local Coulomb correlation. The high efficiency of the DFT+U approach enables us to perform calculations with molecular crystals, which in general improve the agreement between theory and experiment, achieving a mean absolute error smaller than 2 cm(-1). In addition, through analyzing the physical effects of U, we identify two magnetic exchange pathways. One is ferromagnetic and involves an interaction between the Cu-3d, O-2p (bridge ligand), and the majority-spin Gd-5d orbitals. The other one is antiferromagnetic and involves Cu-3d, O-2p, and the empty minority-spin Gd-4f orbitals, which is suppressed by the planar Cu-O-O-Gd structure. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the DFT+U method for evaluating the 3d-4f exchange interactions, provides a better understanding of the exchange mechanism in the Cu(II)-Gd(III) complexes, and paves the way for exploiting the magnetic properties of the 3d-4f compounds containing lanthanides other than Gd. PMID:24274078

  3. 3D electron density imaging using single scattered x rays with application to breast CT and mammographic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uytven, Eric Peter

    Screening mammography is the current standard in detecting breast cancer. However, its fundamental disadvantage is that it projects a 3D object into a 2D image. Small lesions are difficult to detect when superimposed over layers of normal tissue. Commercial Computed Tomography (CT) produces a true 3D image yet has a limited role in mammography due to relatively low resolution and contrast. With the intent of enhancing mammography and breast CT, we have developed an algorithm which can produce 3D electron density images using a single projection. Imaging an object with x rays produces a characteristic scattered photon spectrum at the detector plane. A known incident beam spectrum, beam shape, and arbitrary 3D matrix of electron density values enable a theoretical scattered photon distribution to be calculated. An iterative minimization algorithm is used to make changes to the electron density voxel matrix to reduce regular differences between the theoretical and the experimentally measured distributions. The object is characterized by the converged electron density image. This technique has been validated in simulation using data produced by the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. At both mammographic and CT energies, a scanning polychromatic pencil beam was used to image breast tissue phantoms containing lesion-like inhomogeneities. The resulting Monte Carlo data is processed using a Nelder-Mead iterative algorithm (MATLAB) to produce the 3D matrix of electron density values. Resulting images have confirmed the ability of the algorithm to detect various 1x1x2.5 mm3 lesions with calcification content as low as 0.5% (p<0.005) at a dose comparable to mammography.

  4. Sheet 280—Fossombrone 3D: A study project for a new geological map of Italy in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Borraccini, Francesco; Susini, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this project is to define and test a method for building a three-dimensional (3D) geological model of Italy based on maps at a 1:50,000 scale, using the new national geological mapping program (CARG project). A structural model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone (Northern Apennines, central Italy) was produced using recently developed 3D visualization techniques. This area is characterized by faulted anticlines and broad synclines, involving a Triassic-Palaeogene succession detached from its underlying basement. Exhaustive knowledge of the regional and local geology, combined with available subsurface (well and seismic) data, makes this area a good test site for developing a 3D geological modeling method. The model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone was built in two steps. In the first step, we built a 2.5D geological model using the digital elevation model combined with the new 1:50,000 scale geological map of the area. This 2.5D model shows relationships between topographic elements, geology and major structures much better than traditional 2D geological maps. In the second step, we constructed an in-depth model integrating a large amount of subsurface data with field data from the recent mapping project. The geological model of Sheet 280—Fossombrone clarifies structural geometries and kinematics of this external part of the Northern Apennines. Structural and geomorphic analyses were performed on the 3D model to evaluate how additional information can be obtained from 3D cartography in order to improve knowledge of the study area. We present results of these analyses as examples.

  5. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs. PMID:26504637

  6. Advances in animal ecology from 3D-LiDAR ecosystem mapping.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Here, we review insights gained through the application of LiDAR to animal ecology studies, revealing the fundamental importance of structure for animals. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential compared with traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. To develop a better understanding of animal dynamics, future studies will benefit from considering 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa. PMID:25457158

  7. Non-twist map bifurcation of drift-lines and drift-island formation in saturated 3D MHD equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefferle, David; Cooper, Wilfred A.; Graves, Jonathan P.

    2015-11-01

    Based on non-canonical perturbation theory, guiding-centre drift equations are identified as perturbed magnetic field-line equations. The topology of passing-particle orbits, called drift-lines, is completely determined by the magnetic configuration. In axisymmetric tokamak fields, drift-lines lie on shifted flux-surfaces, called drift-surfaces. Field-lines and drift-lines are subject to island structures at rational surfaces only when a non-axisymmetric component is added. The picture is different in the case of 3D saturated MHD equilibrium like the helical core associated with a non-resonant internal kink mode. In assuming nested flux-surfaces, these bifurcated states, expected for a reversed q-profile with qmin close yet above unity and conveniently obtained in VMEC, feature integrable field-lines. The helical drift-lines however become resonant with the axisymmetric component in the region of qmin and spontaneously generate drift-islands. Due to the locally reversed sheared q-profile, the drift-island structure follows the bifurcation/reconnection mechanism of non-twist maps. This result provides a theoretical interpretation of NBI fast ion helical hot-spots in Long-Lived Modes as well as snake-like impurity density accumulation in internal MHD activity.

  8. Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) 3-D reconstruction of density enhancements behind interplanetary shocks: In-situ comparison near Earth and at STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hamilton, M. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Clover, J. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.

    2011-07-01

    SMEI and IPS remotely observe increased brightness and velocity enhancements behind interplanetary shocks that are also seen in situ. We use the UCSD time-dependent 3-D reconstruction technique to map these enhancements, and compare them with measurements at the SOHO, Wind, ACE, and STEREO spacecraft. The analyses of these shocks from hour-averaged in-situ data show that the enhanced density column associated with the shock response varies considerably between different instruments, even for in-situ instruments located at L1 near Earth. The relatively-low-resolution SMEI 3-D reconstructions generally show density enhancements, and within errors, the column excesses match those observed in situ. In these SMEI 3-D reconstructions from remotely-sensed data, the shock density enhancements appear not as continuous broad fronts, but as segmented structures. This may provide part of the explanation for the observed discrepancies between the various in-situ measurements at Earth and STEREO, but not between individual instruments near L1.

  9. PF2fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps.

    PubMed

    Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2015-10-01

    There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2) fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2) fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2) fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2) fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2) fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2) fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search. PMID:26469938

  10. PF2 fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps

    PubMed Central

    Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Rasheed, Muhibur; Vollrath, Antje; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2015-01-01

    There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data), and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM) maps (albeit at coarser resolution) of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits) the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF2 fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting) for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF2 fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D) alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF2 fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF2 fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF2 fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF2 fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search. PMID:26469938

  11. A method for 3D electron density imaging using single scattered x-rays with application to mammographic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Uytven, Eric; Pistorius, Stephen; Gordon, Richard

    2008-10-01

    Screening mammography is the current standard in detecting breast cancer. However, its fundamental disadvantage is that it projects a 3D object into a 2D image. Small lesions are difficult to detect when superimposed over layers of normal, heterogeneous tissue. In this work, we examine the potential of single scattered photon electron density imaging in a mammographic environment. Simulating a low-energy (<20 keV) scanning pencil beam, we have developed an algorithm capable of producing 3D electron density images from a single projection. We have tested the algorithm by imaging parts of a simulated mammographic accreditation phantom containing lesions of various sizes. The results indicate that the group of imaged lesions differ significantly from background breast tissue (p < 0.005), confirming that electron density imaging may be a useful diagnostic test for the presence of breast cancer.

  12. Spectral mapping of 3D multi-cellular tumor spheroids: time-resolved confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Saswat; Nandi, Somen; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Das, Gaurav; Ghosh, Surajit; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-07-21

    A tumor-like multi-cellular spheroid (3D) differs from a 2D cell in a number of ways. This is demonstrated using time resolved confocal microscopy. Two different tumor spheroids - HeLa (cervical cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) - are studied using 3 different fluorescent dyes - C153 (non-covalent), CPM (covalent) and doxorubicin (non-covalent, anti-cancer drug). The pattern of localization of these three fluorescent probes in the 3D tumor cell exhibits significant differences from that in the conventional 2D cells. For both the cells (HeLa and A549), the total uptake of doxorubicin in the 3D cell is much lower than that in the 2D cell. The uptake of doxorubicin molecules in the A549 spheroid is significantly different compared to the HeLa spheroid. The local polarity (i.e. emission maxima) and solvation dynamics in the 3D tumor cell differ from those in 2D cells. The covalent probe CPM exhibits intermittent fluorescence oscillations in the 1-2 s time scale. This is attributed to redox processes. These results may provide new insights into 3D tumors. PMID:27336201

  13. Advances in animal ecology from 3D ecosystem mapping with LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Although the use of LiDAR data is widespread in vegetation science, it has only recently (< 14 years) been applied to animal ecology. Despite such recent application, LiDAR has enabled new insights in the field and revealed the fundamental importance of 3D ecosystem structure for animals. We reviewed the studies to date that have used LiDAR in animal ecology, synthesising the insights gained. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential than traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. LiDAR technology can be applied to animal ecology studies in a wide variety of environments to answer an impressive array of questions. Drawing on case studies from vastly different groups, termites and lions, we further demonstrate the applicability of LiDAR and highlight new understanding, ranging from habitat preference to predator-prey interactions, that would not have been possible from studies restricted to field based methods. We conclude with discussion of how future studies will benefit by using LiDAR to consider 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa to develop a better understanding of animal dynamics.

  14. Mobile 3d Mapping with a Low-Cost Uav System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, F.; Klonowski, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this contribution it is shown how an UAV system can be built at low costs. The components of the system, the equipment as well as the control software are presented. Furthermore an implemented programme for photogrammetric flight planning and its execution are described. The main focus of this contribution is on the generation of 3D point clouds from digital imagery. For this web services and free software solutions are presented which automatically generate 3D point clouds from arbitrary image configurations. Possibilities of georeferencing are described whereas the achieved accuracy has been determined. The presented workflow is finally used for the acquisition of 3D geodata. On the example of a landfill survey it is shown that marketable products can be derived using a low-cost UAV.

  15. A mapping of an ensemble of mitochondrial sequences for various organisms into 3D space based on the word composition.

    PubMed

    Aita, Takuyo; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    To visualize a bird's-eye view of an ensemble of mitochondrial genome sequences for various species, we recently developed a novel method of mapping a biological sequence ensemble into Three-Dimensional (3D) vector space. First, we represented a biological sequence of a species s by a word-composition vector x(s), where its length [absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the sequence length, and its unit vector x(s)/[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] represents the relative composition of the K-tuple words through the sequence and the size of the dimension, N=4(K), is the number of all possible words with the length of K. Second, we mapped the vector x(s) to the 3D position vector y(s), based on the two following simple principles: (1) [absolute value]y(s)[absolute value]=[absolute value]x(s)[absolute value] and (2) the angle between y(s) and y(t) maximally correlates with the angle between x(s) and x(t). The mitochondrial genome sequences for 311 species, including 177 Animalia, 85 Fungi and 49 Green plants, were mapped into 3D space by using K=7. The mapping was successful because the angles between vectors before and after the mapping highly correlated with each other (correlation coefficients were 0.92-0.97). Interestingly, the Animalia kingdom is distributed along a single arc belt (just like the Milky Way on a Celestial Globe), and the Fungi and Green plant kingdoms are distributed in a similar arc belt. These two arc belts intersect at their respective middle regions and form a cross structure just like a jet aircraft fuselage and its wings. This new mapping method will allow researchers to intuitively interpret the visual information presented in the maps in a highly effective manner. PMID:22776549

  16. Mapping molecular orientational distributions for biological sample in 3D (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HE, Wei; Ferrand, Patrick; Richter, Benjamin; Bastmeyer, Martin; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Measuring molecular orientation properties is very appealing for scientists in molecular and cell biology, as well as biomedical research. Orientational organization at the molecular scale is indeed an important brick to cells and tissues morphology, mechanics, functions and pathologies. Recent work has shown that polarized fluorescence imaging, based on excitation polarization tuning in the sample plane, is able to probe molecular orientational order in biological samples; however this applies only to information in 2D, projected in the sample plane. To surpass this limitation, we extended this approach to excitation polarization tuning in 3D. The principle is based on the decomposition of any arbitrary 3D linear excitation in a polarization along the longitudinal z-axis, and a polarization in the transverse xy-sample plane. We designed an interferometer with one arm generating radial polarization light (thus producing longitudinal polarization under high numerical aperture focusing), the other arm controlling a linear polarization in the transverse plane. The amplitude ratio between the two arms can vary so as to get any linear polarized excitation in 3D at the focus of a high NA objective. This technique has been characterized by polarimetry imaging at the back focal plane of the focusing objective, and modeled theoretically. 3D polarized fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated on actin stress fibers in non-flat cells suspended on synthetic polymer structures forming supporting pillars, for which heterogeneous actin orientational order could be identified. This technique shows a great potential in structural investigations in 3D biological systems, such as cell spheroids and tissues.

  17. 2D map projections for visualization and quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Sendra, G. Hernán; Hoerth, Christian H.; Wunder, Christian; Lorenz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Map3-2D, a freely available software to accurately project up to five-dimensional (5D) fluorescence microscopy image data onto full-content 2D maps. Similar to the Earth’s projection onto cartographic maps, Map3-2D unfolds surface information from a stack of images onto a single, structurally connected map. We demonstrate its applicability for visualization and quantitative analyses of spherical and uneven surfaces in fixed and dynamic live samples by using mammalian and yeast cells, and giant unilamellar vesicles. Map3-2D software is available at http://www.zmbh.uni-heidelberg.de//Central_Services/Imaging_Facility/Map3-2D.html. PMID:26208256

  18. A GPU-based finite-size pencil beam algorithm with 3D-density correction for radiotherapy dose calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuejun; Jelen, Urszula; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-06-01

    Targeting at the development of an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on graphics processing unit (GPU). This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework (Gu et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97). Dosimetric evaluations against Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on ten IMRT treatment plans (five head-and-neck cases and five lung cases). For all cases, there is improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm and for most cases the improvement is significant. Regarding the efficiency, because of the appropriate arrangement of memory access and the usage of GPU intrinsic functions, the dose calculation for an IMRT plan can be accomplished well within 1 s (except for one case) with this new GPU-based FSPB algorithm. Compared to the previous GPU-based FSPB algorithm without 3D-density correction, this new algorithm, though slightly sacrificing the computational efficiency (~5-15% lower), has significantly improved the dose calculation accuracy, making it more suitable for online IMRT replanning.

  19. A GPU-based finite-size pencil beam algorithm with 3D-density correction for radiotherapy dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuejun; Jelen, Urszula; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-06-01

    Targeting at the development of an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on graphics processing unit (GPU). This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework (Gu et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97). Dosimetric evaluations against Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on ten IMRT treatment plans (five head-and-neck cases and five lung cases). For all cases, there is improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm and for most cases the improvement is significant. Regarding the efficiency, because of the appropriate arrangement of memory access and the usage of GPU intrinsic functions, the dose calculation for an IMRT plan can be accomplished well within 1 s (except for one case) with this new GPU-based FSPB algorithm. Compared to the previous GPU-based FSPB algorithm without 3D-density correction, this new algorithm, though slightly sacrificing the computational efficiency (∼5-15% lower), has significantly improved the dose calculation accuracy, making it more suitable for online IMRT replanning. PMID:21558589

  20. Mapping the Monoceros Ring in 3D with Pan-STARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganson, Eric; Conn, Blair; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth; Dolphin, Andrew; Draper, Peter W.; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Metcalfe, Nigel; Schlafly, Edward F.; Slater, Colin T.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher Z.

    2016-07-01

    Using the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we derive limiting magnitude, spatial completeness, and density maps that we use to probe the three-dimensional structure and estimate the stellar mass of the so-called Monoceros Ring. The Monoceros Ring is an enormous and complex stellar sub-structure in the outer Milky Way disk. It is most visible across the large Galactic Anticenter region, 120^\\circ \\lt l\\lt 240^\\circ , -30^\\circ \\lt b\\lt +40^\\circ . We estimate its stellar mass density profile along every line of sight in 2° × 2° pixels over the entire 30,000 deg2 Pan-STARRS1 survey using the previously developed match software. By parsing this distribution into a radially smooth component and the Monoceros Ring, we obtain its mass and distance from the Sun along each relevant line of sight. The Monoceros Ring is significantly closer to us in the south (6 kpc) than in the north (9 kpc). We also create 2D cross-sections parallel to the Galactic plane that show 135° of the Monoceros Ring in the south and 170° of the Monoceros Ring in the north. We show that the northern and southern structures are also roughly concentric circles, suggesting that they may be waves rippling from a common origin. Excluding the Galactic plane ˜ +/- 4^\\circ , we observe an excess mass of 4× {10}6{M}ȯ across 120^\\circ \\lt l\\lt 240^\\circ . If we interpolate across the Galactic plane, we estimate that this region contains 8× {10}6{M}ȯ . If we assume (somewhat boldly) that the Monoceros Ring is a set of two Galactocentric rings, its total mass is 6× {10}7{M}ȯ . Finally, if we assume that it is a set of two circles centered at a point 4 kpc from the Galactic center in the anti-central direction, as our data suggests, we estimate its mass to be 4× {10}7{M}ȯ .

  1. Road Signs Detection and Recognition Utilizing Images and 3d Point Cloud Acquired by Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  2. Synthesis of ultralow density 3D graphene-CNT foams using a two-step method.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Soumya; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Machado, Leonardo D; Ozden, Sehmus; Vajtai, Robert; Galvao, Douglas S; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-09-21

    Here, we report a highly scalable two-step method to produce graphene foams with ordered carbon nanotube reinforcements. In our approach, we first used solution assembly methods to obtain graphene oxide foam. Next, we employed chemical vapor deposition to simultaneously grow carbon nanotubes and thermally reduce the 3D graphene oxide scaffold. The resulting structure presented increased stiffness, good mechanical stability and oil absorption properties. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to further elucidate failure mechanisms and to understand the enhancement of the mechanical properties. The simulations showed that mechanical failure is directly associated with bending of vertical reinforcements, and that, for similar length and contact area, much more stress is required to bend the corresponding reinforcements of carbon nanotubes, thus explaining the experimentally observed enhanced mechanical properties. PMID:27546001

  3. An efficient algorithm for mapping imaging data to 3D unstructured grids in computational biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P; Einstein, David M; Jacob, Richard E; Corley, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging-based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: (i) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstructured ventricular grid; (ii) the mapping of serial cyrosection histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and (iii) the mapping of computed tomography-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case. PMID:23293066

  4. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P.; Einstein, David M.; Corley, Richard A.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2013-01-01

    Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: 1) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstuctured ventricular grid; 2) the mapping of serial cyro-section histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and 3) the mapping of CT-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case.

  5. Topographical guidance of 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeleau, Francois; Tang, Lauren N.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2013-12-01

    During cancer progression, metastatic cells leave the primary tumor and invade into the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) within the surrounding stroma. This ECM network is highly heterogeneous, and interest in understanding how this network can affect cell behavior has increased in the past several decades. However, replicating this heterogeneity has proven challenging. Here, we designed and utilized a method to create a well-defined interface between two distinct regions of high- and low-density collagen gels to mimic the heterogeneities in density found in the tumor stroma. We show that cells will invade preferentially from the high-density side into the low-density side. We also demonstrate that the net cell migration is a function of the density of the collagen in which the cells are embedded, and the difference in density between the two regions has minimal effect on cell net displacement and distance travelled. Our data further indicate that a low-to-high density interface promotes directional migration and induces formation of focal adhesion on the interface surface. Together, the current results demonstrate how ECM heterogeneities, in the form of interfacial boundaries, can affect cell migration.

  6. Diffraction effects incorporated design of a parallax barrier for a high-density multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Ju, Heongkyu; Kwon, Hyunkyung; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2016-02-22

    We present optical characteristics of view image provided by a high-density multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display (HD-MVA3D) with a parallax barrier (PB). Diffraction effects that become of great importance in such a display system that uses a PB, are considered in an one-dimensional model of the 3D display, in which the numerical simulation of light from display panel pixels through PB slits to viewing zone is performed. The simulation results are then compared to the corresponding experimental measurements with discussion. We demonstrate that, as a main parameter for view image quality evaluation, the Fresnel number can be used to determine the PB slit aperture for the best performance of the display system. It is revealed that a set of the display parameters, which gives the Fresnel number of ∼ 0.7 offers maximized brightness of the view images while that corresponding to the Fresnel number of 0.4 ∼ 0.5 offers minimized image crosstalk. The compromise between the brightness and crosstalk enables optimization of the relative magnitude of the brightness to the crosstalk and lead to the choice of display parameter set for the HD-MVA3D with a PB, which satisfies the condition where the Fresnel number lies between 0.4 and 0.7. PMID:26907057

  7. System Considerations and Challendes in 3d Mapping and Modeling Using Low-Cost Uav Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    In the last few years, low-cost UAV systems have been acknowledged as an affordable technology for geospatial data acquisition that can meet the needs of a variety of traditional and non-traditional mapping applications. In spite of its proven potential, UAV-based mapping is still lacking in terms of what is needed for it to become an acceptable mapping tool. In other words, a well-designed system architecture that considers payload restrictions as well as the specifications of the utilized direct geo-referencing component and the imaging systems in light of the required mapping accuracy and intended application is still required. Moreover, efficient data processing workflows, which are capable of delivering the mapping products with the specified quality while considering the synergistic characteristics of the sensors onboard, the wide range of potential users who might lack deep knowledge in mapping activities, and time constraints of emerging applications, are still needed to be adopted. Therefore, the introduced challenges by having low-cost imaging and georeferencing sensors onboard UAVs with limited payload capability, the necessity of efficient data processing techniques for delivering required products for intended applications, and the diversity of potential users with insufficient mapping-related expertise needs to be fully investigated and addressed by UAV-based mapping research efforts. This paper addresses these challenges and reviews system considerations, adaptive processing techniques, and quality assurance/quality control procedures for achievement of accurate mapping products from these systems.

  8. 5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal Predictive 3D Maps of Large-Scale Cultural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity

  9. Age- and race-dependence of the fibroglandular breast density analyzed on 3D MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ke; Su, Min-Ying; Chau, Man-Kwun; Chan, Siwa; Nguyen, Hoanglong; Tseng, Tiffany; Huang, Yuhong; McLaren, Christine E.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the age- and race-dependence of the breast fibroglandular tissue density based on three-dimensional breast MRI. Methods: The normal breasts of 321 consecutive patients including Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics were studied. The subjects were separated into three age groups: Younger than 45, between 45 and 55, and older than 55. Computer algorithms based on body landmarks were used to segment the breast, and fuzzy c-means algorithm was used to segment the fibroglandular tissue. Linear regression analysis was applied to compare mean differences among different age groups and race∕ethnicity groups. The obtained parameters were not normally distributed, and the transformed data, natural log (ln) for the fibroglandular tissue volume, and the square root for the percent density were used for statistical analysis. Results: On the average, the transformed fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density decreased significantly with age. Racial differences in mean transformed percent density were found among women older than 45, but not among women younger than 45. Mean percent density was higher in Asians compared to Caucasians and Hispanics; the difference remained significant after adjustment for age, but not significant after adjusted for both age and breast volume. There was no significant difference in the density between the Caucasians and the Hispanics. Conclusions: The results analyzed using the MRI-based method show age- and race-dependence, which is consistent with literature using mammography-based methods. PMID:20632587

  10. Comparative Analysis of 3D Expression Patterns of Transcription Factor Genes and Digit Fate Maps in the Developing Chick Wing

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Irene; Bain, Andrew; Planzer, Thorsten; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-01-01

    Hoxd13, Tbx2, Tbx3, Sall1 and Sall3 genes are candidates for encoding antero-posterior positional values in the developing chick wing and specifying digit identity. In order to build up a detailed profile of gene expression patterns in cell lineages that give rise to each of the digits over time, we compared 3 dimensional (3D) expression patterns of these genes during wing development and related them to digit fate maps. 3D gene expression data at stages 21, 24 and 27 spanning early bud to digital plate formation, captured from in situ hybridisation whole mounts using Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) were mapped to reference wing bud models. Grafts of wing bud tissue from GFP chicken embryos were used to fate map regions of the wing bud giving rise to each digit; 3D images of the grafts were captured using OPT and mapped on to the same models. Computational analysis of the combined computerised data revealed that Tbx2 and Tbx3 are expressed in digit 3 and 4 progenitors at all stages, consistent with encoding stable antero-posterior positional values established in the early bud; Hoxd13 and Sall1 expression is more dynamic, being associated with posterior digit 3 and 4 progenitors in the early bud but later becoming associated with anterior digit 2 progenitors in the digital plate. Sox9 expression in digit condensations lies within domains of digit progenitors defined by fate mapping; digit 3 condensations express Hoxd13 and Sall1, digit 4 condensations Hoxd13, Tbx3 and to a lesser extent Tbx2. Sall3 is only transiently expressed in digit 3 progenitors at stage 24 together with Sall1 and Hoxd13; then becomes excluded from the digital plate. These dynamic patterns of expression suggest that these genes may play different roles in digit identity either together or in combination at different stages including the digit condensation stage. PMID:21526123

  11. Lessons in modern digital field geology: Open source software, 3D techniques, and the new world of digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Terry; Hurtado, Jose; Langford, Richard; Serpa, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Although many geologists refuse to admit it, it is time to put paper-based geologic mapping into the historical archives and move to the full potential of digital mapping techniques. For our group, flat map digital geologic mapping is now a routine operation in both research and instruction. Several software options are available, and basic proficiency with the software can be learned in a few hours of instruction and practice. The first practical field GIS software, ArcPad, remains a viable, stable option on Windows-based systems. However, the vendor seems to be moving away from ArcPad in favor of mobile software solutions that are difficult to implement without GIS specialists. Thus, we have pursued a second software option based on the open source program QGIS. Our QGIS system uses the same shapefile-centric data structure as our ArcPad system, including similar pop-up data entry forms and generic graphics for easy data management in the field. The advantage of QGIS is that the same software runs on virtually all common platforms except iOS, although the Android version remains unstable as of this writing. A third software option we are experimenting with for flat map-based field work is Fieldmove, a derivative of the 3D-capable program Move developed by Midland Valley. Our initial experiments with Fieldmove are positive, particularly with the new, inexpensive (<300Euros) Windows tablets. However, the lack of flexibility in data structure makes for cumbersome workflows when trying to interface our existing shapefile-centric data structures to Move. Nonetheless, in spring 2014 we will experiment with full-3D immersion in the field using the full Move software package in combination with ground based LiDAR and photogrammetry. One new workflow suggested by our initial experiments is that field geologists should consider using photogrammetry software to capture 3D visualizations of key outcrops. This process is now straightforward in several software packages, and

  12. SU-C-213-02: Characterizing 3D Printing in the Fabrication of Variable Density Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Madamesila, J; McGeachy, P; Villarreal-Barajas, J; Khan, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this work, we present characterization, process flow, quality control and application of 3D fabricated low density phantoms for radiotherapy quality assurance. Methods: A Rostock delta 3D printer using polystyrene filament of diameter 1.75 mm was used to print geometric volumes of 2×2×1 cm{sup 3} of varying densities. The variable densities of 0.1 to 0.75 g/cm {sup 3} were created by modulating the infill. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to establish an infill-density calibration curve as well as characterize the quality of the print such as uniformity and the infill pattern. The time required to print these volumes was also recorded. Using the calibration, two low density cones (0.19, 0.52 g/cm{sup 3}) were printed and benchmarked against commercially available phantoms. The dosimetric validation of the low density scaling of Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) was performed by using a 0.5 g/cm{sup 3} slab of 10×10×2.4 cm{sup 3} with EBT3 GafChromic film. The gamma analysis at 3%/3mm criteria were compared for the measured and computed dose planes. Results: Analysis of the volume of air pockets in the infill resulted in a reasonable uniformity for densities 0.4 to 0.75 g/cm{sup 3}. Printed phantoms with densities below 0.4 g/cm{sup 3} exhibited a higher ratio of air to polystyrene resulting in large non-uniformity. Compared to the commercial inserts, good agreement was observed only for the printed 0.52 g/cm{sup 3} cone. Dosimetric comparison for a printed low density volume placed in-between layers of solid water resulted in >95% gamma agreement between AAA calculated dose planes and measured EBT3 films for a 6MV 5×5 cm{sup 2} clinical beam. The comparison showed disagreement in the penumbra region. Conclusion: In conclusion, 3D printing technology opens the door to desktop fabrication of variable density phantoms at economical prices in an efficient manner for the quality assurance needs of a small clinic.

  13. Pulmonary nodule classification based on CT density distribution using 3D thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Ohamatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Mori, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Kozo; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2004-04-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has been investigated to provide physicians with quantitative information, such as estimates of the malignant likelihood, to aid in the classification of abnormalities detected at screening of lung cancers. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for classifying nodule density patterns that provides information with respect to nodule statuses such as lesion stage. This method consists of three steps, nodule segmentation, histogram analysis of CT density inside nodule, and classifying nodules into five types based on histogram patterns. In this paper, we introduce a two-dimensional (2-D) joint histogram with respect to distance from nodule center and CT density inside nodule and explore numerical features with respect to shape and position of the joint histogram.

  14. [The reconstruction of welding arc 3D electron density distribution based on Stark broadening].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang; Hua, Xue-Ming; Pan, Cheng-Gang; Li, Fang; Wang, Min

    2012-10-01

    The three-dimensional electron density is very important for welding arc quality control. In the present paper, Side-on characteristic line profile was collected by a spectrometer, and the lateral experimental data were approximated by a polynomial fitting. By applying an Abel inversion technique, the authors obtained the radial intensity distribution at each wavelength and thus constructed a profile for the radial positions. The Fourier transform was used to separate the Lorentz linear from the spectrum reconstructed, thus got the accurate Stark width. And we calculated the electronic density three-dimensional distribution of the TIG welding are plasma. PMID:23285847

  15. A direct approach for instantaneous 3D density field reconstruction from background-oriented schlieren (BOS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, F.; Todoroff, V.; Plyer, A.; Le Besnerais, G.; Donjat, D.; Micheli, F.; Champagnat, F.; Cornic, P.; Le Sant, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for reconstruction of instantaneous density volume from 3D background-oriented schlieren (3DBOS) measurements, with a validation on a dedicated flexible experimental BOS bench. In contrast to previous works, we use a direct formulation where density is estimated from measured deviation fields without the intermediate step of density gradient reconstruction. Regularization techniques are implemented to deal with the ill-posed problem encountered. The resulting high-dimensional optimization is conducted by conjugate gradient techniques. A parallel algorithm, implemented on graphics processing unit, helps to speed up the calculation. The resulting software is validated on synthetic BOS images of a 3D density field issued from a numerical simulation. Then, we describe a dedicated 3DBOS experimental facility which has been built to study various BOS settings and to assess the performance of the proposed numerical reconstruction process. Results on various datasets illustrate the potential of the method for flow characterization and measurement in real-world conditions.

  16. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  17. 3D mapping of geological contacts by coupling Aerial Laser Scanning, Gigapixel photography and open access pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Liliane; Guerin, Antoine; Abellán, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Multiple sources of geological data exist nowadays, most of them are in 2D (e.g. geological maps, geological panoramic sketch), and only a few are in 3D (e.g. block diagram). One of the current challenges in geological mapping consists not only in providing a more consistent 3D data, but also in pursuing a gathering and a harmonisation of the geological information in order to obtain a more consistent interpretations of the 3D geological models. New remote sensing techniques have significantly improved the representation of three-dimensional surfaces during the last decade, especially for steep and inaccessible rockcliffs. Therefore, we present an exploratory study aiming to find a reliable method for carrying out a three-dimensional mapping of geological contacts using a High Resolution Digital Elevation Model (HRDEM) with a 1 meter cell size. To this end, we selected the "Scex Rouge Mountain" as pilot study area. This outcrop, which is located in the Diablerets Massif (Vaud, Swiss Alps), has the particularity to present very distinguishable folded geological boundaries on its Southern face. The Southern slope belongs to the Wildhorn nappe, which is mainly composed of sedimentary rocks. The top-layer is composed of siliceous limestones, the well-visible fold layer is the "Pygurus layer" and consist of sandy limestone. Finally the bottom-layer includes marly schist and clayey limestones. At first, different sources of information has been draped on the HRDEM of the Scex Rouge Mountain, including not only classical geological maps (1:25 000) but also different sources of imagery (e.g. gigapixel panoramas, open access images, etc.). In a second step, several three-dimensional polylines have been drawn following the geological limit on each drapped HRDEM. Then we investigated the accuracy of 2D classical geological maps by comparing these geological limits with the drawn 3D polylines. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method, a ground truth needs

  18. GPU-based rapid reconstruction of cellular 3D refractive index maps from tomographic phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardikman, Gili; Shaked, Natan T.

    2016-03-01

    We present highly parallel and efficient algorithms for real-time reconstruction of the quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) refractive-index maps of biological cells without labeling, as obtained from the interferometric projections acquired by tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). The new algorithms are implemented on the graphic processing unit (GPU) of the computer using CUDA programming environment. The reconstruction process includes two main parts. First, we used parallel complex wave-front reconstruction of the TPM-based interferometric projections acquired at various angles. The complex wave front reconstructions are done on the GPU in parallel, while minimizing the calculation time of the Fourier transforms and phase unwrapping needed. Next, we implemented on the GPU in parallel the 3-D refractive index map retrieval using the TPM filtered-back projection algorithm. The incorporation of algorithms that are inherently parallel with a programming environment such as Nvidia's CUDA makes it possible to obtain real-time processing rate, and enables high-throughput platform for label-free, 3-D cell visualization and diagnosis.

  19. EMRinger: Side-chain-directed model and map validation for 3D Electron Cryomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Barad, Benjamin A; Echols, Nathaniel; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Cheng, Yifan; DiMaio, Frank; Adams, Paul D; Fraser, James S

    2015-01-01

    Advances in high resolution electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) have been accompanied by the development of validation metrics to independently assess map quality and model geometry. EMRinger assesses the precise fitting of an atomic model into the map during refinement and shows how radiation damage alters scattering from negatively charged amino acids. EMRinger will be useful for monitoring progress in resolving and modeling high-resolution features in cryo-EM. PMID:26280328

  20. Mapping dynamic mechanical remodeling in 3D tumor models via particle tracking microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin P.; Hanna, William; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    Particle tracking microrheology (PTM) has recently been employed as a non-destructive way to longitudinally track physical changes in 3D pancreatic tumor co-culture models concomitant with tumor growth and invasion into the extracellular matrix (ECM). While the primary goal of PTM is to quantify local viscoelasticity via the Generalized Stokes-Einstein Relation (GSER), a more simplified way of describing local tissue mechanics lies in the tabulation and subsequent visualization of the spread of probe displacements in a given field of view. Proper analysis of this largely untapped byproduct of standard PTM has the potential to yield valuable insight into the structure and integrity of the ECM. Here, we use clustering algorithms in R to analyze the trajectories of probes in 3D pancreatic tumor/fibroblast co-culture models in an attempt to differentiate between probes that are effectively constrained by the ECM and/or contractile traction forces, and those that exhibit uninhibited mobility in local water-filled pores. We also discuss the potential pitfalls of this method. Accurately and reproducibly quantifying the boundary between these two categories of probe behavior could result in an effective method for measuring the average pore size in a given region of ECM. Such a tool could prove useful for studying stromal depletion, physical impedance to drug delivery, and degradation due to cellular invasion.

  1. Using 3D dynamic cartography and hydrological modelling for linear streamflow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogue, G.; Pfister, L.; Leviandier, T.; Humbert, J.; Hoffmann, L.; El Idrissi, A.; Iffly, J.-F.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a regionalization methodology and an original representation of the downstream variation of daily streamflow using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (HRM) and the 3D visualization tools of the GIS ArcView. The regionalization of the parameters of the HRM model was obtained by fitting simultaneously the runoff series from five sub-basins of the Alzette river basin (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg) according to the permeability of geological formations. After validating the transposability of the regional parameter values on five test basins, streamflow series were simulated with the model at ungauged sites in one medium size geologically contrasted test basin and interpolated assuming a linear increase of streamflow between modelling points. 3D spatio-temporal cartography of mean annual and high raw and specific discharges are illustrated. During a severe flooding, the propagation of the flood waves in the different parts of the stream network shows an important contribution of sub-basins lying on impervious geological formations (direct runoff) compared with those including permeable geological formations which have a more contrasted hydrological response. The effect of spatial variability of rainfall is clearly perceptible.

  2. CheS-Mapper - Chemical Space Mapping and Visualization in 3D

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing chemical datasets is a challenging task for scientific researchers in the field of chemoinformatics. It is important, yet difficult to understand the relationship between the structure of chemical compounds, their physico-chemical properties, and biological or toxic effects. To that respect, visualization tools can help to better comprehend the underlying correlations. Our recently developed 3D molecular viewer CheS-Mapper (Chemical Space Mapper) divides large datasets into clusters of similar compounds and consequently arranges them in 3D space, such that their spatial proximity reflects their similarity. The user can indirectly determine similarity, by selecting which features to employ in the process. The tool can use and calculate different kind of features, like structural fragments as well as quantitative chemical descriptors. These features can be highlighted within CheS-Mapper, which aids the chemist to better understand patterns and regularities and relate the observations to established scientific knowledge. As a final function, the tool can also be used to select and export specific subsets of a given dataset for further analysis. PMID:22424447

  3. Quantitative analysis of nanoripple and nanoparticle patterns by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babonneau, D.; Camelio, S.; Vandenhecke, E.; Rousselet, S.; Garel, M.; Pailloux, F.; Boesecke, P.

    2012-06-01

    3D reciprocal space mapping in the grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering geometry was used to obtain accurate morphological characteristics of nanoripple patterns prepared by broad beam-ion sputtering of Al2O3 and Si3N4 amorphous thin films as well as 2D arrays of Ag nanoparticles obtained by glancing angle deposition on Al2O3 nanorippled buffer layers. Experiments and theoretical simulations based on the distorted-wave Born approximation make it possible to determine the average 3D shape of the ripples and nanoparticles together with crucial information on their in-plane organization. In the case of nanoparticle arrays, the approach was also used to quantify the growth conformity of an additional capping layer, which proceeds by replication of the buried ripple pattern.

  4. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst`s task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  5. Density equalizing map projections: A new algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1992-02-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm.

  6. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  7. Mapping of the spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mice: fast and reliable genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Holm, Mai Marie; Delenclos, Marion; Jensen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    Background The mocha mouse carries a spontaneous deletion in the Ap3d1 gene, encoding the delta 1 subunit of the adaptor related protein complex 3, (Ap3d1), and subsequently lack the expression of functional AP-3. This leads to a deficiency in vesicle transport and storage, which affects neurotransmitter vesicle turnover and release in the central nervous system. Since the genomic sequence of the Ap3d1 gene of mocha mouse is not known, precise mapping of the deletion as well as reliable genotyping protocols are lacking. Findings We sequenced the Ap3d1 gene (HGNC GeneID: 8943) around the deletion site in the mocha mouse and revealed a 10639 bp deletion covering exon 2 to 6. Subsequently, new PCR primers were designed yielding a reliable genotyping protocol of both newborn and adult tissue. To examine the genotypes further, hippocampal neurons were cultured from mocha and control mice. Patch-clamp recordings showed that mocha neurons had a higher input resistance, and that autaptic EPSC in mocha cultures depressed faster and stronger as compared with control cultures. Conclusion Our study reports the sequence of the deleted part of the Ap3d1 gene in mocha mice, as well as a reliable PCR-based genotyping protocol. We cultured hippocampal neurons from control and mocha mice, and found a difference in input resistance of the neurons, and in the synaptic short-term plasticity of glutamatergic autapses showing a larger synaptic depression than controls. The described procedures may be useful for the future utilization of the mocha mouse as a model of defective vesicle biogenesis. Importantly, as genotyping by eye color is complicated in newborn mice, the designed protocol is so fast and reliable that newborn mice could rapidly be genotyped and hippocampal neurons dissociated and cultured, which is normally best done at P0-P2. PMID:19032734

  8. From Rice Bran to High Energy Density Supercapacitors: A New Route to Control Porous Structure of 3D Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Ma, Xilan; Idrees, Faryal; Xu, Bin; Hao, Xin; Lin, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Controlled micro/mesopores interconnected structures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon with high specific surface areas (SSA) are successfully prepared by carbonization and activation of biomass (raw rice brans) through KOH. The highest SSA of 2475 m2 g−1 with optimized pore volume of 1.21 cm3 g−1 (40% for mesopores) is achieved for KOH/RBC = 4 mass ratio, than others. The as-prepared 3D porous carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors exhibit high specific capacitance specifically at large current densities of 10 A g−1 and 100 A g−1 i.e., 265 F g−1 and 182 F g−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. Moreover, a high power density ca. 1223 W kg−1 (550 W L−1) and energy density 70 W h kg−1 (32 W h L−1) are achieved on the base of active material loading (~10 mg cm2) in the ionic liquid. The findings can open a new avenue to use abundant agricultural by-products as ideal materials with promising applications in high-performance energy-storage devices. PMID:25434348

  9. Particle-based optical pressure sensors for 3D pressure mapping.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Niladri; Xie, Yan; Chalaseni, Sandeep; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents particle-based optical pressure sensors for in-flow pressure sensing, especially for microfluidic environments. Three generations of pressure sensitive particles have been developed- flat planar particles, particles with integrated retroreflectors and spherical microballoon particles. The first two versions suffer from pressure measurement dependence on particles orientation in 3D space and angle of interrogation. The third generation of microspherical particles with spherical symmetry solves these problems making particle-based manometry in microfluidic environment a viable and efficient methodology. Static and dynamic pressure measurements have been performed in liquid medium for long periods of time in a pressure range of atmospheric to 40 psi. Spherical particles with radius of 12 μm and balloon-wall thickness of 0.5 μm are effective for more than 5 h in this pressure range with an error of less than 5%. PMID:26342493

  10. EMRinger: side chain–directed model and map validation for 3D cryo-electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barad, Benjamin A.; Echols, Nathaniel; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Cheng, Yifan; DiMaio, Frank; Adams, Paul D.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-08-17

    Advances in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) require the development of validation metrics to independently assess map quality and model geometry. We report that EMRinger is a tool that assesses the precise fitting of an atomic model into the map during refinement and shows how radiation damage alters scattering from negatively charged amino acids. EMRinger (https://github.com/fraser-lab/EMRinger) will be useful for monitoring progress in resolving and modeling high-resolution features in cryo-EM.

  11. Mapping the 3D Connectivity of the Rat Inner Retinal Vascular Network Using OCT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Conor; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Weiner, Geoffrey; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) graphing based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography for characterization of the inner retinal vascular architecture and determination of its topologic principles. Methods Rat eyes (N = 3) were imaged with a 1300-nm spectral/Fourier domain OCT microscope. A topologic model of the inner retinal vascular network was obtained from OCT angiography data using a combination of automated and manually-guided image processing techniques. Using a resistive network model, with experimentally-quantified flow in major retinal vessels near the optic nerve head as boundary conditions, theoretical changes in the distribution of flow induced by vessel dilations were inferred. Results A topologically-representative 3D vectorized graph of the inner retinal vasculature, derived from OCT angiography data, is presented. The laminar and compartmental connectivity of the vasculature are characterized. In contrast to sparse connectivity between the superficial vitreal vasculature and capillary plexuses of the inner retina, connectivity between the two capillary plexus layers is dense. Simulated dilation of single arterioles is shown to produce both localized and lamina-specific changes in blood flow, while dilation of capillaries in a given retinal vascular layer is shown to lead to increased total flow in that layer. Conclusions Our graphing and modeling data suggest that vascular architecture enables both local and lamina-specific control of blood flow in the inner retina. The imaging, graph analysis, and modeling approach presented here will help provide a detailed characterization of vascular changes in a variety of retinal diseases, both in experimental preclinical models and human subjects. PMID:26325417

  12. Symmetry-plane model of 3D Euler flows: Mapping to regular systems and numerical solutions of blowup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulungye, Rachel M.; Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel D.

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a family of 2D models describing the dynamics on the so-called symmetry plane of the full 3D Euler fluid equations. These models depend on a free real parameter and can be solved analytically. For selected representative values of the free parameter, we apply the method introduced in [M.D. Bustamante, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenom. 240, 1092 (2011)] to map the fluid equations bijectively to globally regular systems. By comparing the analytical solutions with the results of numerical simulations, we establish that the numerical simulations of the mapped regular systems are far more accurate than the numerical simulations of the original systems, at the same spatial resolution and CPU time. In particular, the numerical integrations of the mapped regular systems produce robust estimates for the growth exponent and singularity time of the main blowup quantity (vorticity stretching rate), converging well to the analytically-predicted values even beyond the time at which the flow becomes under-resolved (i.e. the reliability time). In contrast, direct numerical integrations of the original systems develop unstable oscillations near the reliability time. We discuss the reasons for this improvement in accuracy, and explain how to extend the analysis to the full 3D case. Supported under the programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Cycle 5 and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

  13. Hard Copy to Digital Transfer: 3D Models that Match 2D Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    This research describes technical drawing techniques applied in a project involving digitizing of existing hard copy subsurface mapping for the preparation of three dimensional graphic and mathematical models. The intent of this research was to identify work flows that would support the project, ensure the accuracy of the digital data obtained,…

  14. Learning Benefits of Using 2D versus 3D Maps: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Ellder, Erik; Larsson, Anders; Thelin, Mikael; Jansund, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The traditional important role of maps used for educational purposes has gained further potential with recent advances in GIS technology. But beyond specific courses in cartography this potential seems little realized in geography teaching. This article investigates the extent to which any learning benefits may be derived from the use of such…

  15. GPR Detection and 3D Mapping of Lateral Macropores II. Riparian Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology and prevalence of 1-10 cm diameter macropores in forested riparian wetland buffers is largely unknown despite their importance as a source of preferential nutrient delivery to stream channels. Here, we validated in situ procedures for detecting and mapping the three-dimensional struct...

  16. Quenching of the beam-plasma instability by 3-D spectra of large scale density fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muschietti, L.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented to explain the highly variable yet low level of Langmuir waves measured in situ by spacecraft when electron beams associated with Type III solar bursts are passing by; the low level of excited waves allows the propagation of such streams from the Sun to well past 1 AU without catastrophic energy losses. The model is based, first, on the existence of large scale density fluctuations that are able to efficiently diffuse small k beam unstable Langmuir waves in phase space, and, second, on the presence of a significantly isotropic nonthermal tail in the distribution function of the background electron population, which is capable of stabilizing larger k modes. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict various levels of Langmuir waves depending on the parameters. This feature is consistent with the high variability actually observed in the measurements.

  17. 3D model of small-scale density cavities in the auroral magnetosphere with field-aligned current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Misonova, V. G.; Savina, O. N.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a 3D model of small-scale density cavities stimulated by an auroral field-aligned current and an oscillating field-aligned current of kinetic Alfvén waves. It is shown that when the field-aligned current increases so that the electron drift velocity exceeds a value of the order of the electron thermal velocity, the plasma becomes unstable to the formation of cavities with low density and strong electric field. The condition of instability is associated with the value of the background magnetic field. In the case of a relatively weak magnetic field (where the electron gyro-radius is greater than the ion acoustic wavelength), the current instability can lead to the formation of one-dimensional cavities along the magnetic field. In the case of a stronger magnetic field (where the ion acoustic wavelength is greater than the electron gyro-radius, but still is less than the ion gyro-radius), the instability can lead to the formation of 3D density cavities. In this case, the spatial scales of the cavity, both along and across the background magnetic field, can be comparable, and at the earlier stage of the cavity formation they are of the order of the ion acoustic wavelength. Rarefactions of the cavity density are accompanied by an increase in the electric field and are limited by the pressure of bipolar electric fields that occur within them. The estimates of typical density cavity characteristics and the results of numerical solutions agree with known experimental data: small-scale structures with a sufficiently strong electric field are observed in the auroral regions with strong field-aligned current.

  18. Mapping tropical biodiversity using spectroscopic imagery : characterization of structural and chemical diversity with 3-D radiative transfer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J. B.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Lefèvre-Fonollosa, M. J.; Proisy, C.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity is a major environmental trend. Tropical ecosystems are particularly threatened due to climate change, invasive species, farming and natural resources exploitation. Recent advances in remote sensing of biodiversity confirmed the potential of high spatial resolution spectroscopic imagery for species identification and biodiversity mapping. Such information bridges the scale-gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. In order to produce fine-scale resolution maps of canopy alpha-diversity and beta-diversity of the Peruvian Amazonian forest, we designed, applied and validated a method based on spectral variation hypothesis to CAO AToMS (Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System) images, acquired from 2011 to 2013. There is a need to understand on a quantitative basis the physical processes leading to this spectral variability. This spectral variability mainly depends on canopy chemistry, structure, and sensor's characteristics. 3D radiative transfer modeling provides a powerful framework for the study of the relative influence of each of these factors in dense and complex canopies. We simulated series of spectroscopic images with the 3D radiative model DART, with variability gradients in terms of leaf chemistry, individual tree structure, spatial and spectral resolution, and applied methods for biodiversity mapping. This sensitivity study allowed us to determine the relative influence of these factors on the radiometric signal acquired by different types of sensors. Such study is particularly important to define the domain of validity of our approach, to refine requirements for the instrumental specifications, and to help preparing hyperspectral spatial missions to be launched at the horizon 2015-2025 (EnMAP, PRISMA, HISUI, SHALOM, HYSPIRI, HYPXIM). Simulations in preparation include topographic variations in order to estimate the robustness

  19. Noninvasive 3D elasticity mapping using phase-stabilized optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Twa, Michael; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel method for noninvasive elasticity mapping in three dimensions using phase stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE). By calculating the velocity in all radial directions from the origin of the induced shear wave, a volumetric elasticity map of the sample was generated. Due to the submicrometer spatial sensitivity of PhS-SSOCE, the loading force and the induced deformation amplitude can be minimal, thus preserving the structure and function of delicate tissues such as the cornea and sclera of the eye. Tissue mimicking agar phantoms were utilized for proof of concept testing and the results show that this method can noninvasively provide a three dimensional estimation of sample elasticity.

  20. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Love, Lonnie J; Rowe, John C

    2013-01-01

    An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as quantify the temperature of a part during fabrication. The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the temperature map of the oven provides insight into the global temperature variation within the oven that may lead to understanding variations in the properties of parts as a function of location. The observation of the temperature variation of a part that fails during construction provides insight into how the deposition process itself impacts temperature distribution within a single part leading to failure.

  1. An LS-MARS method for modeling regional 3D ionospheric electron density based on GPS data and IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Szu-Pyng; Chen, Yao-Chung; Ning, Fang-Shii; Tu, Yuh-Min

    2015-05-01

    The methods of developing an accurate and effective ionospheric electron density (IED) model have greatly interested ionosphere researchers. Numerous scholars have proposed many effective and reliable models and methods of global positioning system (GPS)-based computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) in the past decades. This study introduced a new function-based CIT method, namely the LS-MARS (Least Squares method-Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines), combining MARS with IEDs calculated by International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to automatically choose the best representing basis functions for the three-dimensional (3D) electron density inside that modeling area. This selected basis functions was substituted into the observation equation of the GPS total electron content (TEC) to calculate the design matrix. Finally, the weighted damped least squares (WDLS) were adopted to reestimate the IED model coefficients. In contrast to common function-based CIT methods, the LS-MARS can be used to attain optimal 3D model automatically, flexibly, adaptively based on the IRI without a priori knowledge of the IED distribution mathematical function. The findings indicated that the LS-MARS model had a smaller recovery TEC error than did the MARS_IRI2012 model, and the VTEC calculated using the LS-MARS model was closer to the VTEC obtained from International GNSS Service (IGS) final IONEX files than was the VTEC calculated using the MARS_IRI2012 and IRI2012. Therefore, this method exhibits strong modeling effectiveness and reliability, and can be an efficient alternative method for estimating regional 3D IED models.

  2. Texture of B-mode echograms: 3-D simulations and experiments of the effects of diffraction and scatterer density.

    PubMed

    Oosterveld, B J; Thijssen, J M; Verhoef, W A

    1985-04-01

    B-mode echograms were simulated by employing the impulse response method in transmission and reception using a discrete scatterer tissue model, with and without attenuation. The analytic signal approach was used for demodulation of the RF A-mode lines. The simulations were performed in 3-D space and compared to B-mode echograms obtained from experiments with scattering tissue phantoms. The average echo amplitude appeared to increase towards the focus and to decrease beyond it. In the focal zone, the average amplitude increased proportionally to the square root of the scatterer density. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was found to be independent of depth, i.e., 1.91 as predicted for a Rayleigh distribution of gray levels, although a minimum was found in the focal zone at relatively low scatterer densities. The SNR continuously increased with increasing scatterer density and reached the limit of 1.91 at relatively high densities (greater than 10(4) cm-3). The lateral full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the two dimensional autocovariance function of the speckle increased continuously from the transducer face to far beyond the focus and decreased thereafter due to the diffraction effect. The lateral FWHM decreased proportionally to the logarithm of the scatterer density at low densities and reached a limit at high densities. Introduction of attenuation in the simulated tissue resulted in a much more pronounced depth dependence of the texture. The axial FWHM was independent of the distance to the transducer to a first approximation and decreased slightly with increasing scatterer density until a limit was reached at densities larger than 10(3) cm-3. This limit was in agreement with theory. The experiments confirmed the simulations and it can be concluded that the presented results are of great importance to the understanding of B-mode echograms and to the potential use of the analysis of B-mode texture for tissue characterization. PMID:3909602

  3. Fully integrated system-on-chip for pixel-based 3D depth and scene mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Martin; De Coi, Beat; Thalmann, Markus; Gancarz, Radoslav; Ferrat, Pascal; Dürmüller, Martin; Britt, Florian; Annese, Marco; Ledergerber, Markus; Catregn, Gion-Pol

    2012-03-01

    We present for the first time a fully integrated system-on-chip (SoC) for pixel-based 3D range detection suited for commercial applications. It is based on the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, i.e. measuring the phase difference of a reflected pulse train. The product epc600 is fabricated using a dedicated process flow, called Espros Photonic CMOS. This integration makes it possible to achieve a Quantum Efficiency (QE) of >80% in the full wavelength band from 520nm up to 900nm as well as very high timing precision in the sub-ns range which is needed for exact detection of the phase delay. The SoC features 8x8 pixels and includes all necessary sub-components such as ToF pixel array, voltage generation and regulation, non-volatile memory for configuration, LED driver for active illumination, digital SPI interface for easy communication, column based 12bit ADC converters, PLL and digital data processing with temporary data storage. The system can be operated at up to 100 frames per second.

  4. Dynamic 3-D chemical agent cloud mapping using a sensor constellation deployed on mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Konno, Daisei; Rossi, David; Marinelli, William J.; Seem, Pete

    2014-05-01

    The need for standoff detection technology to provide early Chem-Bio (CB) threat warning is well documented. Much of the information obtained by a single passive sensor is limited to bearing and angular extent of the threat cloud. In order to obtain absolute geo-location, range to threat, 3-D extent and detailed composition of the chemical threat, fusion of information from multiple passive sensors is needed. A capability that provides on-the-move chemical cloud characterization is key to the development of real-time Battlespace Awareness. We have developed, implemented and tested algorithms and hardware to perform the fusion of information obtained from two mobile LWIR passive hyperspectral sensors. The implementation of the capability is driven by current Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle operational tactics and represents a mission focused alternative of the already demonstrated 5-sensor static Range Test Validation System (RTVS).1 The new capability consists of hardware for sensor pointing and attitude information which is made available for streaming and aggregation as part of the data fusion process for threat characterization. Cloud information is generated using 2-sensor data ingested into a suite of triangulation and tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The approaches are amenable to using a limited number of viewing projections and unfavorable sensor geometries resulting from mobile operation. In this paper we describe the system architecture and present an analysis of results obtained during the initial testing of the system at Dugway Proving Ground during BioWeek 2013.

  5. Geo-Referenced Mapping Using AN Airborne 3d Time-Of Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, T. K.; Nitsche, M.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the first experience of a close range bird's eye view photogrammetry with range imaging (RIM) sensors for the real time generation of high resolution geo-referenced 3D surface models. The aim of this study was to develop a mobile, versatile and less costly outdoor survey methodology to measure natural surfaces compared to the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Two commercial RIM cameras (SR4000 by MESA Imaging AG and a CamCube 2.0 by PMDTechnologies GmbH) were mounted on a lightweight crane and on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The field experiments revealed various challenges in real time deployment of the two state-of-the-art RIM systems, e.g. processing of the large data volume. Acquisition strategy and data processing and first measurements are presented. The precision of the measured distances is less than 1 cm for good conditions. However, the measurement precision degraded under the test conditions due to direct sunlight, strong illumination contrasts and helicopter vibrations.

  6. 3D Raman mapping of the collagen fibril orientation in human osteonal lamellae.

    PubMed

    Schrof, Susanne; Varga, Peter; Galvis, Leonardo; Raum, Kay; Masic, Admir

    2014-09-01

    Chemical composition and fibrillar organization are the major determinants of osteonal bone mechanics. However, prominent methodologies commonly applied to investigate mechanical properties of bone on the micro scale are usually not able to concurrently describe both factors. In this study, we used polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) to simultaneously analyze structural and chemical information of collagen fibrils in human osteonal bone in a single experiment. Specifically, the three-dimensional arrangement of collagen fibrils in osteonal lamellae was assessed. By analyzing the anisotropic intensity of the amide I Raman band of collagen as a function of the orientation of the incident laser polarization, different parameters related to the orientation of the collagen fibrils and the degree of alignment of the fibrils were derived. Based on the analysis of several osteons, two major fibrillar organization patterns were identified, one with a monotonic and another with a periodically changing twist direction. These results confirm earlier reported twisted and oscillating plywood arrangements, respectively. Furthermore, indicators of the degree of alignment suggested the presence of disordered collagen within the lamellar organization of the osteon. The results show the versatility of the analytical PRS approach and demonstrate its capability in providing not only compositional, but also 3D structural information in a complex hierarchically structured biological material. The concurrent assessment of chemical and structural features may contribute to a comprehensive characterization of the microstructure of bone and other collagen-based tissues. PMID:25025981

  7. 3D strain engineered self-rolled thin-film architecture for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbey, Griffin; Gong, Chen; Yu, Cynthia; Blythe, Clayton; Leite, Marina

    Recently, multiple 3D geometries have been implemented into energy storage devices (e . g . nanowire anodes and arrays of interdigitated rods) in order to better accommodate the large volume expansion experienced by the anode during lithiation and to increase the structure energy density. However, most approached structures are difficult to scale up. Here we show how self-rolled thin-films can maintain a high energy density and can potentially accommodate the volume expansion suffered by the anode. The self-rolled tubes are fabricated by physical deposition of the active layers, creating a stress gradient between thin-film stack due to differences in coefficient of thermal expansion. Upon a sacrificial layer removal, the thin-film rolls to relieve this built-in stress. We predict the final dimension of self-rolled battery tubes using known elastic properties of materials commonly used as the active layers of the device. We will discuss an appropriate figure-of-merit that defines how the winding process can ultimately affect the volumetric capacity of 3D self-rolled batteries.

  8. An ultra-high element density pMUT array with low crosstalk for 3-D medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Tian, He; Wang, Yu-Feng; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Cang-Hai; Chen, Hao; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2013-01-01

    A ~1 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) array with ultra-high element density and low crosstalk is proposed for the first time. This novel pMUT array is based on a nano-layer spin-coating lead zirconium titanium film technique and can be fabricated with high element density using a relatively simple process. Accordingly, key fabrication processes such as thick piezoelectric film deposition, low-stress Si-SOI bonding and bulk silicon removal have been successfully developed. The novel fine-pitch 6 × 6 pMUT arrays can all work at the desired frequency (~1 MHz) with good uniformity, high performance and potential IC integration compatibility. The minimum interspace is ~20 μm, the smallest that has ever been achieved to the best of our knowledge. These arrays can be potentially used to steer ultrasound beams and implement high quality 3-D medical imaging applications. PMID:23896705

  9. Evaluating the presentation and usability of 2D and 3D maps generated by unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Jason; Baran, David; Evans, A. W.

    2013-05-01

    Currently fielded small unmanned ground vehicles (SUGVs) are operated via teleoperation. This method of operation requires a high level of operator involvement within, or near within, line of sight of the robot. As advances are made in autonomy algorithms, capabilities such as automated mapping can be developed to allow SUGVs to be used to provide situational awareness with an increased standoff distance while simultaneously reducing operator involvement. In order to realize these goals, it is paramount the data produced by the robot is not only accurate, but also presented in an intuitive manner to the robot operator. The focus of this paper is how to effectively present map data produced by a SUGV in order to drive the design of a future user interface. The effectiveness of several 2D and 3D mapping capabilities was evaluated by presenting a collection of pre-recorded data sets of a SUGV mapping a building in an urban environment to a user panel of Soldiers. The data sets were presented to each Soldier in several different formats to evaluate multiple factors, including update frequency and presentation style. Once all of the data sets were presented, a survey was administered. The questions in the survey were designed to gauge the overall usefulness of the mapping algorithm presentations as an information generating tool. This paper presents the development of this test protocol along with the results of the survey.

  10. Development of a numerical procedure to map a general 3-d body onto a near-circle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hommel, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Conformal mapping is a classical technique utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping is utilized in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. These shapes are transformed onto a near-circle image for which the equations of fluid motion are discretized on the mapped plane and solved numerically by utilizing the appropriate techniques. In comparison to other grid-generation techniques such as algerbraic or differential type, conformal mapping offers an analytical and accurate form even if the grid deformation is large. One of the most appealing features is that the grid can be constrained to remain orthogonal to the body after the transformation. Hence, the grid is suitable for analyzing the supersonic flow past a blunt object. The associated shock as a coordinate surface adjusts its position in the course of computation until convergence is reached. The present work applied conformal mapping to 3-D bodies with no axis of symmetry such as the Aerobraking Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle, transforming the AFE shape onto a near-circle image. A numerical procedure and code are used to generate grids around the AFE body.

  11. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  12. Lab Experiments Probe Interactions Between Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents and 3D Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauria, K.; Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted scaled laboratory experiments of unconfined dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) to examine interactions between three - dimensional obstacles and dilute PDCs. While it is known that PDCs can surmount barriers by converting kinetic energy into potential energy, the signature of topography on PDC dynamics is unclear. To examine the interplay between PDCs and topography, we turbulently suspended heated and ambient-temperature 20 μm talc powder in air within an 8.5 x 6.1 x 2.6 m tank. Experimental parameters (Froude number, densimetric and thermal Richardson number, particle Stokes and Settling numbers) were scaled such that the experimental currents were dynamically similar to natural PCS. The Reynolds number, however, is much smaller than in natural currents, but still large enough for the flows to be turbulent. We placed cylindrical and ridge-like objects in the path of the currents, illuminated the currents with orthogonal laser sheets, and recorded each experiment with high definition cameras. We observed currents surmounting ridge-like barriers (barrier height = current height). Slanted ridges redirected the currents upward and parallel to the upstream face of the ridges (~45° from horizontal). Down stream of the slanted ridges, ambient-temperature currents reattached to the floor. By comparison, hot currents reversed buoyancy and lifted off. These observations suggest that obstacles enhance air entrainment, a process key to affecting runout distance and the depletion of fine particles in ignimbrites. Moreover, we observed vortex shedding in the wake of cylinders. Our experiments demonstrate that barriers of various shapes affect PDC dynamics and can shorten PDC runout distances. Understanding the effects of topography on PDCs is required for interpreting many deposits because processes such as vortex shedding and topographically-induced changes in turbulent length scales and entrainment likely leave depositional signatures.

  13. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  14. 3D modelling of soil texture: mapping and incertitude estimation in centre-France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Martin, Manuel P.; Saby, Nicolas P. A.; Richer de Forges, Anne C.; Nehlig, Pierre; Martelet, Guillaume; Arrouays, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    Soil texture is an important component of all soil physical-chemical processes. The spatial variability of soil texture plays a crucial role in the evaluation and modelling of all distributed processes. The object of this study is to determine the spatial variation of soil granulometric fractions (i.e., clay, silt, sand) in the region "Centre" of France in relation to the main controlling factors, and to create extended maps of these properties following GlobalSoilMap specifications. For this purpose we used 2487 soil profiles of the French soil database (IGCS - Inventory Management and Soil Conservation) and continuum depth values of the properties within the soil profiles have been calculated with a quadratic splines methodology optimising the spline parameters in each soil profile. We used environmental covariates to predict soil properties within the region at depth intervals 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-100, and 100-200 cm. Concerning environmental covariates, we used SRTM and ASTER DEM with 90m and 30m resolution, respectively, to generate terrain parameters and topographic indexes. Other covariates we used are Gamma Ray maps, Corine land cover, available geological and soil maps of the region at scales 1M, 250k and 50k. Soil texture is modeled with the application of the compositional data analysis theory namely, alr-transform (Aitchison, 1986) which considers in statistical calculation the complementary dependence between the different granulometric classes (i.e. 100% constraint). The prediction models of the alr-transformed variables have been developed with the use of boosting regression trees (BRT), then, using a LMM - Linear Mixed Model - that separates a fixed effect from a random effect related to the continuous spatially correlated variation of the property. In this case, the LMM is applied to the two co-regionalized properties (clay and sand alr-transforms). Model uncertainty mapping represents a practical way to describe efficiency and limits of

  15. Development of Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning System for Indoor Mapping and As-Built BIM Using Constrained SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  16. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy. PMID:26501292

  17. The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.G.; Davis, M.

    1996-11-01

    GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

  18. 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Christopher N.; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Anderson, Jill T.; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Zurek, Paul R.; Symonova, Olga; Zheng, Ying; Bucksch, Alexander; Mileyko, Yuriy; Galkovskyi, Taras; Moore, Brad T.; Harer, John; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Weitz, Joshua S.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala × Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r2 = 24–37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops. PMID:23580618

  19. Scatterer size and concentration estimation technique based on a 3D acoustic impedance map from histologic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.

    2001-05-01

    Accurate estimates of scatterer parameters (size and acoustic concentration) are beneficial adjuncts to characterize disease from ultrasonic backscatterer measurements. An estimation technique was developed to obtain parameter estimates from the Fourier transform of the spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). A 3D impedance map (3DZM) is used to obtain the SAF of tissue. 3DZMs are obtained by aligning digitized light microscope images from histologic preparations of tissue. Estimates were obtained for simulated 3DZMs containing spherical scatterers randomly located: relative errors were less than 3%. Estimates were also obtained from a rat fibroadenoma and a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor (MMT). Tissues were fixed (10% neutral-buffered formalin), embedded in paraffin, serially sectioned and stained with H&E. 3DZM results were compared to estimates obtained independently against ultrasonic backscatter measurements. For the fibroadenoma and MMT, average scatterer diameters were 91 and 31.5 μm, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements yielded average scatterer diameters of 105 and 30 μm, respectively. The 3DZM estimation scheme showed results similar to those obtained by the independent ultrasonic measurements. The 3D impedance maps show promise as a powerful tool to characterize ultrasonic scattering sites of tissue. [Work supported by the University of Illinois Research Board.

  20. New robust 3-D phase unwrapping algorithms: application to magnetic field mapping and undistorting echoplanar images.

    PubMed

    Cusack, R; Papadakis, N

    2002-07-01

    The phase, as well as the magnitude, of MRI images can carry useful information. It may be used to encode flow or temperature, or to map the magnetic field for the undistorting of EPIs and automated shimming. In all cases, we measure the extra spin given to nuclei. Unfortunately, we can only measure the final phase of the spins: the rotation is wrapped into the range [-pi, +pi], and to obtain a measure of the parameter of interest the missing multiples of 2pi must be replaced--a process known as phase unwrapping. While simple in principle, standard phase unwrapping algorithms fail catastrophically in the presence of even small amounts of noise. Here we present a new algorithm for robust three-dimensional phase unwrapping, in which unwrapping is guided, so that it initially works on less noisy regions. We test the algorithm on simulated phase data, and on maps of magnetic field, which were then used to successfully undistort EPI images. The unwrapping algorithm could be directly applied to other kinds of phase data. PMID:12169259

  1. Energy Dispersive X-ray Tomography for 3D Elemental Mapping of Individual Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Slater, Thomas J A; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy within the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) provides accurate elemental analysis with high spatial resolution, and is even capable of providing atomically resolved elemental maps. In this technique, a highly focused electron beam is incident upon a thin sample and the energy of emitted X-rays is measured in order to determine the atomic species of material within the beam path. This elementally sensitive spectroscopy technique can be extended to three dimensional tomographic imaging by acquiring multiple spectrum images with the sample tilted along an axis perpendicular to the electron beam direction. Elemental distributions within single nanoparticles are often important for determining their optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. Techniques such as X-ray tomography and slice and view energy dispersive X-ray mapping in the scanning electron microscope provide elementally sensitive three dimensional imaging but are typically limited to spatial resolutions of > 20 nm. Atom probe tomography provides near atomic resolution but preparing nanoparticle samples for atom probe analysis is often challenging. Thus, elementally sensitive techniques applied within the scanning transmission electron microscope are uniquely placed to study elemental distributions within nanoparticles of dimensions 10-100 nm. Here, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy within the STEM is applied to investigate the distribution of elements in single AgAu nanoparticles. The surface segregation of both Ag and Au, at different nanoparticle compositions, has been observed. PMID:27403838

  2. 3D reconstruction and heat map of porcine recurrent laryngeal nerve anatomy: branching and spatial location.

    PubMed

    Mason, Nena Lundgreen; Christiansen, Marc; Wisco, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is a common post-operative complication of many head and neck surgeries. Theoretically, the best treatment to restore partial function to a damaged recurrent laryngeal nerve would be reinnervation of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle via anastomosis of the recurrent laryngeal and phrenic nerves. The pig is an excellent model of human laryngeal anatomy and physiology but a more thorough knowledge of porcine laryngeal anatomy is necessary before the pig can be used to improve existing surgical strategies, and develop new ones. This study first identifies the three most common recurrent laryngeal nerve branching patterns in the pig. Secondly, this study presents three-dimensional renderings of the porcine larynx onto which the recurrent laryngeal nerve patterns are accurately mapped. Lastly, heat maps are presented to display the spatial variability of recurrent laryngeal nerve trunks and primary branches on each side of 15 subjects (28 specimens). We intend for this study to be useful to groups using a porcine model to study posterior cricoarytenoid muscle reinnervation techniques. PMID:27086418

  3. 3D maps of the local interstellar medium: searching for the imprints of past events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.

    2015-01-01

    Inversion of interstellar (IS) gas or dust absorbing columns measured along the path to stars distributed in distance and direction allows reconstructing the distribution of interstellar matter (ISM) in three dimensions. A low resolution IS dust map based on reddening measurements towards 23,000 nearby stars is used to illustrate the potential of the more detailed maps that are expected within the next several years. The map reveals the location of the main IS cloud complexes up to distances on the order of 600 to 1200 pc depending on directions. Owing to target selection biases towards weakly reddened, brighter stars, the map is especially revealing in terms of regions devoid of IS matter. It traces the Local Bubble and its neighboring cavities, including a conspicuous, giant, >=1000 pc long cavity in the third quadrant located beyond the so-called βMa tunnel. This cavity is bordered by the main constituents of the Gould belt, the well-known and still unexplained rotating and expanding ring of clouds and young stars, inclined by ~ 20° to the galactic plane. Comparing the dust distribution with X-ray emission maps and IS gas observations shows that the giant cavity contains a large fraction of warm, fully ionized and dust-poor gas in addition to million K, X-ray bright gas. This set of structures must reflect the main events that occurred in the past; today however even the formation of the Gould belt is still a matter of controversy. It has been suggested recently that the Cretaceus-Tertiary (KT) mass extinction is potentially due to a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that occurred in the massive globular cluster (GC) 47 Tuc during its close encounter with the Sun ~70 Myrs ago. Such a hypothesis is based on computations of the cluster and Sun trajectories and the frequency of short GRBs in GC's. Given the mass, speed and size of 47 Tuc, wherever it crossed the Galactic plane it must have produced at the crossing site significant dynamical effects on the disk stars and IS

  4. Mapping tree density at a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, T. W.; Glick, H. B.; Covey, K. R.; Bettigole, C.; Maynard, D. S.; Thomas, S. M.; Smith, J. R.; Hintler, G.; Duguid, M. C.; Amatulli, G.; Tuanmu, M.-N.; Jetz, W.; Salas, C.; Stam, C.; Piotto, D.; Tavani, R.; Green, S.; Bruce, G.; Williams, S. J.; Wiser, S. K.; Huber, M. O.; Hengeveld, G. M.; Nabuurs, G.-J.; Tikhonova, E.; Borchardt, P.; Li, C.-F.; Powrie, L. W.; Fischer, M.; Hemp, A.; Homeier, J.; Cho, P.; Vibrans, A. C.; Umunay, P. M.; Piao, S. L.; Rowe, C. W.; Ashton, M. S.; Crane, P. R.; Bradford, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    The global extent and distribution of forest trees is central to our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere. We provide the first spatially continuous map of forest tree density at a global scale. This map reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous estimate. Of these trees, approximately 1.39 trillion exist in tropical and subtropical forests, with 0.74 trillion in boreal regions and 0.61 trillion in temperate regions. Biome-level trends in tree density demonstrate the importance of climate and topography in controlling local tree densities at finer scales, as well as the overwhelming effect of humans across most of the world. Based on our projected tree densities, we estimate that over 15 billion trees are cut down each year, and the global number of trees has fallen by approximately 46% since the start of human civilization.

  5. Mapping tree density at a global scale.

    PubMed

    Crowther, T W; Glick, H B; Covey, K R; Bettigole, C; Maynard, D S; Thomas, S M; Smith, J R; Hintler, G; Duguid, M C; Amatulli, G; Tuanmu, M-N; Jetz, W; Salas, C; Stam, C; Piotto, D; Tavani, R; Green, S; Bruce, G; Williams, S J; Wiser, S K; Huber, M O; Hengeveld, G M; Nabuurs, G-J; Tikhonova, E; Borchardt, P; Li, C-F; Powrie, L W; Fischer, M; Hemp, A; Homeier, J; Cho, P; Vibrans, A C; Umunay, P M; Piao, S L; Rowe, C W; Ashton, M S; Crane, P R; Bradford, M A

    2015-09-10

    The global extent and distribution of forest trees is central to our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere. We provide the first spatially continuous map of forest tree density at a global scale. This map reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous estimate. Of these trees, approximately 1.39 trillion exist in tropical and subtropical forests, with 0.74 trillion in boreal regions and 0.61 trillion in temperate regions. Biome-level trends in tree density demonstrate the importance of climate and topography in controlling local tree densities at finer scales, as well as the overwhelming effect of humans across most of the world. Based on our projected tree densities, we estimate that over 15 billion trees are cut down each year, and the global number of trees has fallen by approximately 46% since the start of human civilization. PMID:26331545

  6. Initial Results of 3D Topographic Mapping Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Oberst, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Archinal, B. A.; Beyer, R. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Chen, Y.; Hwangbo, J.; Lawver, J. D.; Scholten, F.; Mattson, S. S.; Howington-Kraus, A. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), launched June 18, 2009, carries the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) as one of seven remote sensing instruments on board. The camera system is equipped with a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and two Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) for systematic lunar surface mapping and detailed site characterization for potential landing site selection and resource identification. The LROC WAC is a pushframe camera with five 14-line by 704-sample framelets for visible light bands and two 16-line by 512-sample (summed 4x to 4 by 128) UV bands. The WAC can also acquire monochrome images with a 14-line by 1024-sample format. At the nominal 50-km orbit the visible bands ground scale is 75-m/pixel and the UV 383-m/pixel. Overlapping WAC images from adjacent orbits can be used to map topography at a scale of a few hundred meters. The two panchromatic NAC cameras are pushbroom imaging sensors each with a Cassegrain telescope of a 700-mm focal length. The two NAC cameras are aligned with a small overlap in the cross-track direction so that they cover a 5-km swath with a combined field-of-view (FOV) of 5.6°. At an altitude of 50-km, the NAC can provide panchromatic images from its 5,000-pixel linear CCD at a ground scale of 0.5-m/pixel. Calibration of the cameras was performed by using precision collimator measurements to determine the camera principal points and radial lens distortion. The orientation of the two NAC cameras is estimated by a boresight calibration using double and triple overlapping NAC images of the lunar surface. The resulting calibration results are incorporated into a photogrammetric bundle adjustment (BA), which models the LROC camera imaging geometry, in order to refine the exterior orientation (EO) parameters initially retrieved from the SPICE kernels. Consequently, the improved EO parameters can significantly enhance the quality of topographic products derived from LROC NAC imagery. In addition, an analysis of the spacecraft

  7. Mapping and Modelling of the PNG Slump - 3-D Evidence to demonstrate a Tsunami Source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappin, D. R.; McMurtry, G. M.; Smith, J. R.; Watts, P.

    2004-12-01

    The original offshore data set for the slump that is now generally accepted as the source of the 1998 PNG tsunami was originally presented as 2-D bathymetry images, seismic sections and as seabed photographs. The dataset images a cohesive rotational failure offshore off the north coast of Papua New Guinea, mathematical modelling of which provides appropriate run-ups comparable with onshore measurements from field surveys. The regional bathymetry and seismic data acquired off the north coast of PNG images a deeply incised, sediment-starved convergent margin subsiding along the New Guinea Trench. An arcuate shaped feature off the Sissano Lagoon, termed the `amphitheatre', is identified as the source location of the failure that is located in the east of this feature. The presence of a slump in this eastern area is confirmed by seismic data and observations from Remote and Manned Submersibles, that show seabed features, such as fissures and fractured limestone, on the surface of the slump and interpreted as due to sediment movement. Absolute dating of slump failure is not possible with the present data set, but the relative, recent, age of failure is based on the fresher appearance of fissures in the slump area as well as a greater concentration of a chemosynthetic cold-water biota together with active fluid expulsion on the slump surface. The chemosynthetic biotas comprise mussels and tubeworms and bacterial mats. Laminar bedded chemosynthetic limestone was only observed on the slump surface and represents a low volume background sulphide and methane rich fluid seepage. The concentration of living cold-water faunas on the slump surface is interpreted as the result of an increased fluid expulsion rate associated with the slumping. This presentation uses new interactive software, Fledermaus, to image the northern PNG offshore area, including the amphitheatre, to show the seabed morphology in 3-D and the relationships between the regional geology and the slump area. Use

  8. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A.; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  9. 3D Vegetation Mapping Using UAVSAR, LVIS, and LIDAR Data Acquisition Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Denice

    2011-01-01

    The overarching objective of this ongoing project is to assess the role of vegetation within climate change. Forests capture carbon, a green house gas, from the atmosphere. Thus, any change, whether, natural (e.g. growth, fire, death) or due to anthropogenic activity (e.g. logging, burning, urbanization) may have a significant impact on the Earth's carbon cycle. Through the use of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) and NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), which are airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) remote sensing technologies, we gather data to estimate the amount of carbon contained in forests and how the content changes over time. UAVSAR and LVIS sensors were sent all over the world with the objective of mapping out terrain to gather tree canopy height and biomass data; This data is in turn used to correlate vegetation with the global carbon cycle around the world.

  10. Photocurrent mapping of 3D CdSe/CdTe windowless solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hangarter, Carlos M; Debnath, Ratan; Ha, Jong Y; Sahiner, Mehmet A; Reehil, Christopher J; Manners, William A; Josell, Daniel

    2013-09-25

    This paper details the use of scanning photocurrent microscopy to examine localized current collection efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic devices with in-plane patterning at a submicrometer length scale. The devices are based upon two interdigitated comb electrodes at the micrometer length scale prepatterned on a substrate, with CdSe electrodeposited on one electrode and CdTe deposited over the entire surface of the resulting structure by pulsed laser deposition. Photocurrent maps provide information on what limits the performance of the windowless CdSe/CdTe thin-film photovoltaic devices, revealing "dead zones" particularly above the electrodes contacting the CdTe which is interpreted as recombination over the back contact. Additionally, the impact of ammonium sulfide passivation is examined, which enables device efficiency to reach 4.3% under simulated air mass 1.5 illumination. PMID:23968397

  11. 3D mapping of stellar populations in galaxies as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a6-year SDSS-IV survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600A to 10300 A for a representative sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. MaNGA will allow the internal kinematics and spatially-resolved properties of stellar populations and gas inside galaxies to be studied as a function of local environment and halo mass for the very first time. I will present results from our analysis of the first year MaNGA data. The main focus is on the 3-dimensional distribution of stellar population properties in galaxies - formation age, element abundance, IMF slope - studying how these vary spatially in galaxies as a function of galaxy environment and dark matter halo mass.

  12. A 3D map of the islet routes throughout the healthy human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Gagniuc, Paul A; Gubceac, Elvira; Mardare, Liliana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona; Militaru, Manuella

    2015-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans are fundamental in understanding diabetes. A healthy human pancreas from a donor has been used to asses various islet parameters and their three-dimensional distribution. Here we show that islets are spread gradually from the head up to the tail section of the pancreas in the form of contracted or dilated islet routes. We also report a particular anatomical structure, namely the cluster of islets. Our observations revealed a total of 11 islet clusters which comprise of small islets that surround large blood vessels. Additional observations in the peripancreatic adipose tissue have shown lymphoid-like nodes and blood vessels captured in a local inflammatory process. Our observations are based on regional slice maps of the pancreas, comprising of 5,423 islets. We also devised an index of sphericity which briefly indicates various islet shapes that are dominant throughout the pancreas. PMID:26417671

  13. High-Resolution 3D Bathymetric Mapping for Small Streams Using Low-Altitude Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J. T.; Duffin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomorphic monitoring of river restoration projects is a critical component of measuring their success. In smaller streams, with depths less than 2 meters, one of the more difficult variables to map at high-resolution is bathymetry. In larger rivers, bathymetry can be measured with instruments like multi-beam sonar, bathymetric airborne LiDAR, or acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). However, these systems are often limited by their minimum operating depths, which makes them ineffective in shallow water. Remote sensing offers several potential solutions for collecting bathymetry, spectral depth mapping and photogrammetric measurement (e.g. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) multi-view photogrammetry). In this case study, we use SfM to produce both high-resolution above water topography and below water bathymetry for two reaches of a stream restoration project on the Middle Fork of the John Day River in eastern Oregon and one reach on the White River in Vermont. We collected low-allitude multispectral (RGB+NIR) aerial photography at all of the sites at altitudes of 30 to 50 meters. The SfM survey was georeferenced with RTK-GPS ground control points and the bathymetry was refraction-corrected using additional RTK-GPS sample points. The resulting raster data products have horizontal resolutions of ~4-8 centimeters for the topography and ~8-15 cm for the bathymetry. This methodology, like many fluvial remote sensing methods, will only work under ideal conditions (e.g. clear water), but it provides an additional tool for collecting high-resolution bathymetric datasets for geomorphic monitoring efforts.

  14. Wavelet analysis of electron-density maps.

    PubMed

    Main, P; Wilson, J

    2000-05-01

    The wavelet transform is a powerful technique in signal processing and image analysis and it is shown here that wavelet analysis of low-resolution electron-density maps has the potential to increase their resolution. Like Fourier analysis, wavelet analysis expresses the image (electron density) in terms of a set of orthogonal functions. In the case of the Fourier transform, these functions are sines and cosines and each one contributes to the whole of the image. In contrast, the wavelet functions (simply called wavelets) can be quite localized and may only contribute to a small part of the image. This gives control over the amount of detail added to the map as the resolution increases. The mathematical details are outlined and an algorithm which achieves a resolution increase from 10 to 7 A using a knowledge of the wavelet-coefficient histograms, electron-density histogram and the observed structure amplitudes is described. These histograms are calculated from the electron density of known structures, but it seems likely that the histograms can be predicted, just as electron-density histograms are at high resolution. The results show that the wavelet coefficients contain the information necessary to increase the resolution of electron-density maps. PMID:10771431

  15. Stardust Under a Microscope - 3D maps of Wild 2/81P Cometary Samples in Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Amanda J.; Ebel, Denton

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 returned to Earth in 2006 with cometary and interstellar material captured in aerogel. Cometary particles impacted an aerogel collector at a relative velocity of 6.1 km/s, creating three-dimensional (3D) impact tracks of melted and crushed aerogel, void space, and fragmented cometary material. Each track represents the history of a unique hypervelocity capture event. The nature of each impact, including the original state of the impactor, is recorded in track morphology and material distribution. Using a combination of 3D morphological data, chemical data, and microphysical models, it is possible to reconstruct track formation events and a model of the original impactor.The focus of this work is to fully characterize whole tracks both morphologically and chemically using solely non-destructive methods. To achieve this, we combine high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) 3D imaging with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) chemical mapping. We are also beginning to incorporate Raman spectroscopy to perform mineral phase analysis of fine track wall material. Using a Zeiss LSM 710 LSCM located in the American Museum of Natural History, we have imaged the morphology of over a dozen, whole Stardust tracks at high resolution (<80 nm/pixel in XY). We obtain the distribution of fine material along the track walls both quickly and without disturbing the sample. Complementary chemical data is acquired using the GSECARS X-ray microbe on beamline 13-IDE at the Advance Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. X-ray fluorescence maps of each track were collected with 100ms/pixel dwell time at a resolution of 1 or 2 micron/pixel. Many tracks were tilted and mapped a second time for stereo measurements.A thorough understanding of how cometary material and aerogel is distributed along tracks is required to understand the events which occurred after impact and to back-calculate properties of the original impactor

  16. Gravity data inversion to determine 3D topographycal density contrast of Banten area, Indonesia based on fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhari, Ayuty; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The 3D inversion gravity anomaly to estimate topographical density using a matlab source code from gridded data provided by Parker Oldenburg algorithm based on fast Fourier transform was computed. We extend and improved the source code of 3DINVERT.M invented by Gomez Ortiz and Agarwal (2005) using the relationship between Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform from the topography density. We gave density contrast between the two media to apply the inversion. FFT routine was implemented to construct amplitude spectrum to the given mean depth. The results were presented as new graphics of inverted topography density, the gravity anomaly due to the inverted topography and the difference between the input gravity data and the computed ones. It terminates when the RMS error is lower than pre-assigned value used as convergence criterion or until maximum of iterations is reached. As an example, we used the matlab program on gravity data of Banten region, Indonesia.

  17. Correlation Energy of 3D Spin-Polarized Electron Gas: A Single Interpolation Between High- and Low-Density Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John; Seidl, Michael

    2008-03-01

    We present an analytic model for the correlation energy per electron ec(rs,ζ) in the three-dimensional (3D) uniform electron gas, covering the full range 0<=rs<∞ and 0<=ζ<=1 of the density parameter rs and the relative spin polarization ζ. An interpolation is made between the exactly known high-density (rs->0) and low-density (rs->∞) limits, using a formula which (unlike previous ones) has the right analytic structures in both limits. We find that there is almost enough information available from these limits to determine the correlation energy over the full range. By minimal fitting to numerical quantum Monte Carlo data, we predict the value of b1(ζ) at ζ=0 close to the theoretical value [1], where b1(ζ) is the coefficient of the rsterm in the high-density expansion. The model finds correlation energies for the unpolarized (ζ=0) and fully polarized (ζ=1) cases in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo data. [1] T. Endo, M. Horiuchi, Y. Takada and H. Yasuhara, Phys. Rev. B 59, 7367 (1999)

  18. a Shared Database of Underground Utility Lines for 3d Mapping and GIS Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, N. E.; Carrion, D.; Migliaccio, F.; Barzaghi, R.

    2013-05-01

    For the purpose of facility management it is very important to have detailed and up-to-date databases of underground utility lines, but such data are not always available with adequate accuracy. Hence, the need of collecting and organizing suitable information on underground services is a fundamental issue when dealing with urban data. Besides, by analyzing the process of designing and laying new underground infrastructures it is possible to implement an efficient and cost-effective approach to integrate and update existing maps by exploiting the surveying required for the installation of new facilities. It is also important to underline that collecting all the data in a unique integrated database (and GIS) gives the possibility to share (at least at a local level) the cartographic and thematic information for an optimal management of underground networks. In this paper, a database (DB) model for archiving the underground lines data is presented. The structure of the DB has been designed by following the standard methodology for the modelling of a relational DB, going through successive phases and originating the external, conceptual and logical model. Finally, preliminary tests have been carried on for parts of the DB to verify quality parameters.

  19. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  20. Robot-Aided Mapping of Wrist Proprioceptive Acuity across a 3D Workspace

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Konczak, Jürgen; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors form the basis for bodily perception and are known to be essential for motor control. However we still have an incomplete understanding of how proprioception differs between joints, whether it differs among the various degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) within a particular joint, and how such differences affect motor control and learning. We here introduce a robot-aided method to objectively measure proprioceptive function: specifically, we systematically mapped wrist proprioceptive acuity across the three DoFs of the wrist/hand complex with the aim to characterize the wrist position sense. Thirty healthy young adults performed an ipsilateral active joint position matching task with their dominant wrist using a haptic robotic exoskeleton. Our results indicate that the active wrist position sense acuity is anisotropic across the joint, with the abduction/adduction DoF having the highest acuity (the error of acuity for flexion/extension is 4.64 ± 0.24°; abduction/adduction: 3.68 ± 0.32°; supination/pronation: 5.15 ± 0.37°) and they also revealed that proprioceptive acuity decreases for smaller joint displacements. We believe this knowledge is imperative in a clinical scenario when assessing proprioceptive deficits and for understanding how such sensory deficits relate to observable motor impairments. PMID:27536882

  1. Full circle: 3D femoral mapping demonstrates age-related changes that influence femoral implant positioning.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Damien; Surup, Timm; Petersik, Andreas; Kelly, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The geometry of the femur is important in the final position of an intramedullary implant; we hypothesised that the femoral geometry changes with age and this may predispose the elderly to anterior mal-positioning of these implants. We used CT DICOM data of 919 intact left femora and specialist software that allowed us to defined landmarks for measurement reference - such as the linea aspera - on a template bone that could be mapped automatically to the entire database. We found that older (>80 years) cortical bone is up to 1.5 mm thinner anteriorly and 2 mm thinner posteriorly than younger (<40 years) bone but the rate of change of posterior to anterior cortex thickness is greater in the older bone. We also found the isthmus in the elderly to be more distal and less substantial than in the younger bone. This study has demonstrated femoral geometry changes with age that may explain our perception that the elderly are at increased risk for anterior mal-positioning of intramedullary implants. PMID:26686594

  2. Laser electro-optic system for rapid three-dimensional /3-D/ topographic mapping of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, M. D.; Altschuler, B. R.; Taboada, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the generic utility of a robot in a factory/assembly environment could be substantially enhanced by providing a vision capability to the robot. A standard videocamera for robot vision provides a two-dimensional image which contains insufficient information for a detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of an object. Approaches which supply the additional information needed for the three-dimensional mapping of objects with complex surface shapes are briefly considered and a description is presented of a laser-based system which can provide three-dimensional vision to a robot. The system consists of a laser beam array generator, an optical image recorder, and software for controlling the required operations. The projection of a laser beam array onto a surface produces a dot pattern image which is viewed from one or more suitable perspectives. Attention is given to the mathematical method employed, the space coding technique, the approaches used for obtaining the transformation parameters, the optics for laser beam array generation, the hardware for beam array coding, and aspects of image acquisition.

  3. 3D Inversion of a Self-Potential Dataset for Contaminant Detection and Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Sogade, J.; Briggs, V.; Lambert, M.; Reppert, P.; Coles, D.; Morgan, F.; Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.; Shi, W.

    2003-12-01

    Due to the complicated nature of subsurface contaminant migration, it is difficult to determine the spatial extent and severity of contamination, which can provide essential information for efficient remediation efforts. Self-potential (SP) geophysics is employed to provide a minimally invasive, fast, and inexpensive method for remote in-situ detection and three-dimensional mapping of subsurface DNAPL (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) in conjunction with inverse methods. The self-potential method is commonly used to detect a variety of phenomena that are typically related to thermoelectric, electrochemical, or electrokinetic coupling processes. Surface self-potential surveys have been documented to show anomalies over areas known to be contaminated, but interpretation of these datasets is often mostly qualitative, and can be plagued with problems of non-uniqueness. In this study, oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, one of the mechanisms associated with the attenuation of chemicals released into the environment, provide an electrochemical source for the SP signal. Electrochemical potentials associated with subsurface zones of redox activity are analogous to localized 'batteries' buried within native earth materials, and produce an electric field that is remotely detected using electrodes placed at the surface and in nearby boreholes. Three-dimensional inversion of the self-potential data incorporating resistivity information is the necessary step in characterizing the source parameters, which are directly related to the redox activity, and therefore to the contaminant itself. Surface and borehole SP data are collected in order to help constrain the solution in depth, and resistivity information is taken from an induced polarization survey performed over the same area during this field excursion. Inversion results are correlated with contaminant concentration data sampled from a series of ground-truth boreholes within the region of interest.

  4. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of a 3D train-bridge system using the probability density evolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi-wu; Mao, Jian-feng; Guo, Feng-qi; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the main sources causing train-bridge random vibration. A new random vibration theory for the coupled train-bridge systems is proposed in this paper. First, number theory method (NTM) with 2N-dimensional vectors for the stochastic harmonic function (SHF) of rail irregularity power spectrum density was adopted to determine the representative points of spatial frequencies and phases to generate the random rail irregularity samples, and the non-stationary rail irregularity samples were modulated with the slowly varying function. Second, the probability density evolution method (PDEM) was employed to calculate the random dynamic vibration of the three-dimensional (3D) train-bridge system by a program compiled on the MATLAB® software platform. Eventually, the Newmark-β integration method and double edge difference method of total variation diminishing (TVD) format were adopted to obtain the mean value curve, the standard deviation curve and the time-history probability density information of responses. A case study was presented in which the ICE-3 train travels on a three-span simply-supported high-speed railway bridge with excitation of random rail irregularity. The results showed that compared to the Monte Carlo simulation, the PDEM has higher computational efficiency for the same accuracy, i.e., an improvement by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Additionally, the influences of rail irregularity and train speed on the random vibration of the coupled train-bridge system were discussed.

  5. Generating synthetic 3D density fluctuation data to verify two-point measurement of parallel correlation length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaewook; Ghim, Young-Chul; Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Lab Team

    2014-10-01

    A BES (beam emission spectroscopy) system and an MIR (Microwave Imaging Reflectometer) system installed in KSTAR measure 2D (radial and poloidal) density fluctuations at two different toroidal locations. This gives a possibility of measuring the parallel correlation length of ion-scale turbulence in KSTAR. Due to lack of measurement points in toroidal direction and shorter separation distance between the diagnostics compared to an expected parallel correlation length, it is necessary to confirm whether a conventional statistical method, i.e., using a cross-correlation function, is valid for measuring the parallel correlation length. For this reason, we generated synthetic 3D density fluctuation data following Gaussian random field in a toroidal coordinate system that mimic real density fluctuation data. We measure the correlation length of the synthetic data by fitting a Gaussian function to the cross-correlation function. We observe that there is disagreement between the measured and actual correlation lengths, and the degree of disagreement is a function of at least, correlation length, correlation time and advection velocity of synthetic data. We identify the cause of disagreement and propose an appropriate method to measure correct correlation length.

  6. Isolated tree 3D modeling: based on photographing leaf area density(LAD) calculation and L-system method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shengye; Tamura, Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we developed a 3D L-System tree model which expresses the leaf area density (LAD). As a key parameter, which conveys the thickness degree of the canopy and interaction capacity between a tree and the atmosphere, LAD is an important aspect in radiation transfer modeling within the vegetation canopy during the last decades. For modeling a tree, L-System is a good application which explains the internal canopy structure in detail. In the study, we developed the tree model in 3 steps. First we took photographs from eight directions using a commercial digital camera, and then extracted the canopy gap fraction. Secondly, we collected the sample camphor tree's leaf angles in the field for getting the leaf angle density function and computed the G-function from leaf angle density. We calculated the sample tree's LAD by Beer-Lambert's law. LAI-2000 instrument was the standard data source provider for evaluating the photographing method's LAD result. We set the L-System tree parameters in order to coincide with the real tree. The tree model visualization was performed by using POV-Ray v3.60. The eight directions photographing method's LAD result (0.54) was significantly close with the LAI-2000 adjusted data (0.52). Similarly the L-system tree models LAD mean value for 1000 samples was observed to be 0.54 which is close to the validation results.

  7. Comparative study of software techniques for 3D mapping of perforators in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap planning

    PubMed Central

    Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) is widely considered the gold standard imaging modality for preoperative planning autologous breast reconstruction with deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator (DIEP) flap. Improved anatomical understanding from CTA has translated to enhanced clinical outcomes. To achieve this, the use of appropriate CT hardware and software is vital. Various CT scanners and contrast materials have been demonstrated to consistently produce adequate scan data. However, the availability of affordable and easily accessible imaging software capable of generating 3D volume-rendered perforator images to clinically useful quality has been lacking. Osirix (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) is a free, readily available medical image processing software that shows promise. We have previously demonstrated in a case report the usefulness of Osirix in localizing perforators and their course. Methods In the current case series of 50 consecutive CTA scans, we compare the accuracy of Osirix to a commonly used proprietary 3D imaging software, Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), in identifying perforator number and location. Moreover, we compared both programs to intraoperative findings. Results We report a high rate of concordance with Osirix and Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D (99.6%). Both programs correlated closely with operative findings (92.2%). Most of the discrepancies were found in the lateral row perforators (90%). Conclusions In the current study, we report the accuracy of Osirix that is comparable to Siemens Syngo InSpace 4D, a proprietary software, in mapping perforators. However, it provides an added advantage of being free, easy-to-use, portable, and potentially a superior quality of 3D reconstructed image. PMID:27047778

  8. Mapping and characterizing endometrial implants by registering 2D transvaginal ultrasound to 3D pelvic magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Yavariabdi, Amir; Bartoli, Adrien; Samir, Chafik; Artigues, Maxime; Canis, Michel

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new deformable slice-to-volume registration method to register a 2D Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVUS) to a 3D Magnetic Resonance (MR) volume. Our main goal is to find a cross-section of the MR volume such that the endometrial implants and their depth of infiltration can be mapped from TVUS to MR. The proposed TVUS-MR registration method uses contour to surface correspondences through a novel variational one-step deformable Iterative Closest Point (ICP) method. Specifically, we find a smooth deformation field while establishing point correspondences automatically. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method by quantitative and qualitative tests on both semi-synthetic and clinical data. To generate semi-synthetic data sets, 3D surfaces are deformed with 4-40% degrees of deformation and then various intersection curves are obtained at 0-20° cutting angles. Results show an average mean square error of 5.7934±0.4615mm, average Hausdorff distance of 2.493±0.14mm, and average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.9750±0.0030. PMID:26241161

  9. C2SM: a mobile system for detecting and 3D mapping of chemical, radiological, and nuclear contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiobedzki, Piotr; Ng, Ho-Kong; Bondy, Michel; McDiarmid, C. H.

    2009-05-01

    CBRN Crime Scene Modeler (C2SM) is a prototype mobile CBRN mapping system for First Responders in events where Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear agents where used. The prototype operates on board a small robotic platform, increases situational awareness of the robot operator by providing geo-located images and data, and current robot location. The sensor suite includes stereo and high resolution cameras, a long wave infra red (thermal) camera and gamma and chemical detectors. The system collects and sends geo-located data to a remote command post in near real-time and automatically creates 3D photorealistic model augmented with CBRN measurements. Two prototypes have been successfully tested in field trials and a fully ruggedised commercial version is expected in 2010.

  10. Combined interpretation of 3D seismic reflection attributes for geothermal exploration in the Polish Basin using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Klaus; Pussak, Marcin; Stiller, Manfred; Bujakowski, Wieslaw

    2014-05-01

    Self-organizing maps (SOM) are neural network techniques which can be used for the joint interpretation of multi-disciplinary data sets. In this investigation we apply SOM within a geothermal exploration project using 3D seismic reflection data. The study area is located in the central part of the Polish basin. Several sedimentary target horizons were identified at this location based on fluid flow rate measurements in the geothermal research well Kompina-2. The general objective is a seismic facies analysis and characterization of the major geothermal target reservoir. A 3D seismic reflection experiment with a sparse acquisition geometry was carried out around well Kompina-2. Conventional signal processing (amplitude corrections, filtering, spectral whitening, deconvolution, static corrections, muting) was followed by normal-moveout (NMO) stacking, and, alternatively, by common-reflection-surface (CRS) stacking. Different signal attributes were then derived from the stacked images including root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude, instantaneous frequency and coherency. Furthermore, spectral decomposition attributes were calculated based on the continuous wavelet transform. The resulting attribute maps along major target horizons appear noisy after the NMO stack and clearly structured after the CRS stack. Consequently, the following SOM-based multi-parameter signal attribute analysis was applied only to the CRS images. We applied our SOM work flow, which includes data preparation, unsupervised learning, segmentation of the trained SOM using image processing techniques, and final application of the learned knowledge. For the Lower Jurassic target horizon Ja1 we derived four different clusters with distinct seismic attribute signatures. As the most striking feature, a corridor parallel to a fault system was identified, which is characterized by decreased RMS amplitudes and low frequencies. In our interpretation we assume that this combination of signal properties can be

  11. Modeling 3-D density distribution in the upper mantle beneath the Yellowstone from inversion of geoid anomaly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Chaves, C. M.; Ussami, N.

    2011-12-01

    We developed a simple three-dimensional scheme to invert geoid anomalies, aiming to map density variations in the lower crust and the upper mantle. Using a flat-Earth approximation, the model space is represented by a finite set of rectangular prisms. The linear inversion algorithm is based on Tikhonov regularization and the convergence of the solution is controlled by the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Our linear inversion algorithm does not require an initial density model, allowing it to be used where geological constraints on density are not available. To analyze the quality of the model density obtained by the inversion algorithm, we used the resolution and the covariance matrices. In order to study the thermal and the composition state beneath the Yellowstone and to test our algorithm inversion, geoid anomalies were inverted and modeled. Yellowstone exhibits a high geoid anomaly (~13 m), with a topographic swell of about 500 km wide. Residual geoid anomalies were obtained using the EGM2008 [Pavlis et al., 2008] geopotential model expanded up to degree 2160 after removing the long-wavelength component (degree 10). Lower crust and mantle-related geoid anomalies with -80 m amplitude were obtained after removing crustal effects (topographic masses, sediments and crustal thickness variations). The center of the negative geoid anomaly coincides geographically with the low velocity body (Yuan and Dueker [2005] and Waite et al. [2006]) in the upper mantle and with a depression of 12 km of the 410 km discontinuity detected by Fee and Dueker [2004]. Our results show that the lower crust and the upper mantle of the Yellowstone have a predominantly negative density contrast (-10 to -75 kg/m3) relative to the surrounding mantle. The mass deficiency mapped beneath the Yellowstone suggests the mantle to be hotter (-200 to -300 °C) and buoyant to isostatically sustain the high topography of this province (> 3000 m above sea level). The density model shows that the negative

  12. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  13. Development of Inundation Map for Bantayan Island, Cebu Using Delft3D-Flow Storm Surge Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, Camille; Suarez, John Kenneth; Biton, Nophi Ian; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Lapidez, John Phillip; Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, making it vulnerable to different storm hazards. Apart from the frequency of tropical cyclones, the archipelagic nature of the country makes it particularly prone to storm surges. On 08 November 2013, Haiyan, a Category 5 Typhoon with maximum one-minute sustained wind speed of 315 kph, hit the central region of the Philippines. In its path, the howler devastated Bantayan Island, a popular tourist destination. The island is located north of Cebu City, the second largest metropolis of the Philippines in terms of populace. Having been directly hit by Typhoon Haiyan, Bantayan Island was severely damaged by strong winds and storm surges, with more than 11,000 houses totally destroyed while 5,000 more suffered minor damage. The adverse impacts of possible future storm surge events in the island can only be mitigated if hazard maps that depict inundation of the coastal areas of Bantayan are generated. To create such maps, Delft3D-Flow, a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate storm surges. These simulations were made over a 10-m per pixel resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) bathymetry. The results of the coastal inundation model for Typhoon Haiyan's storm surges were validated using data collected from field work and local government reports. The hydrodynamic model of Bantayan was then calibrated using the field data and further simulations were made with varying typhoon tracks. This was done to generate scenarios on the farthest possible inland incursion of storm surges. The output of the study is a detailed storm surge inundation map that depicts safe zones for development of infrastructure near coastal areas and for construction of coastal protection structures. The storm surge inundation map can also be used as basis for disaster preparedness plans of coastal communities threatened by approaching typhoons.

  14. Composite density maps for multivariate trajectories.

    PubMed

    Scheepens, Roeland; Willems, Niels; van de Wetering, Huub; Andrienko, Gennady; Andrienko, Natalia; van Wijk, Jarke J

    2011-12-01

    We consider moving objects as multivariate time-series. By visually analyzing the attributes, patterns may appear that explain why certain movements have occurred. Density maps as proposed by Scheepens et al. [25] are a way to reveal these patterns by means of aggregations of filtered subsets of trajectories. Since filtering is often not sufficient for analysts to express their domain knowledge, we propose to use expressions instead. We present a flexible architecture for density maps to enable custom, versatile exploration using multiple density fields. The flexibility comes from a script, depicted in this paper as a block diagram, which defines an advanced computation of a density field. We define six different types of blocks to create, compose, and enhance trajectories or density fields. Blocks are customized by means of expressions that allow the analyst to model domain knowledge. The versatility of our architecture is demonstrated with several maritime use cases developed with domain experts. Our approach is expected to be useful for the analysis of objects in other domains. PMID:22034373

  15. Monitoring and Simulating the 3-D Density Currents at the Confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2004-12-01

    Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater River, a major tributary to the Lower Snake River, and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional density currents at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was also applied. By utilizing both field data and a numerical model, a more holistic view of the 3-D density currents was discovered than by either method alone. During this process, it was discovered that several predictable stratification patterns would develop depending upon the discharge ratio and the thermal gradient between the two rivers. These results illustrate the complex hydrodynamic structure at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which has previously been shown by fish biologists to be a difficult passage zone for migrating salmonids of various life stages.

  16. Increase in the energy density of the pinch plasma in 3D implosion of quasi-spherical wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Gasilov, V. A.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N. Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Ol’khovskaya, O. G.; Sasorov, P. V.; Smirnov, V. P.; Frolov, I. N.; Shevel’ko, A. P.

    2014-12-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the characteristics of the soft X-ray (SXR) source formed in the implosion of quasi-spherical arrays made of tungsten wires and metalized kapron fibers. The experiments were carried out at the Angara-5-1 facility at currents of up to 3 MA. Analysis of the spatial distribution of hard X-ray emission with photon energies above 20 keV in the pinch images taken during the implosion of quasi-spherical tungsten wire arrays (QTWAs) showed that a compact quasi-spherical plasma object symmetric with respect to the array axis formed in the central region of the array. Using a diffraction grazing incidence spectrograph, spectra of SXR emission with wavelengths of 20–400 Å from the central, axial, and peripheral regions of the emission source were measured with spatial resolutions along the array radius and height in the implosion of QTWAs. It is shown that the emission spectra of the SXR sources formed under the implosion of quasi-spherical and cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at currents of up to 3 MA have a maximum in the wavelength range of 50–150 Å. It is found that, during the implosion of a QTWA with a profiled linear mass, a redistribution of energy in the emission spectrum takes place, which indicates that, during 3D implosion, the energy of longitudinal motion of the array material additionally contributes to the radiation energy. It is also found that, at close masses of the arrays and close values of the current in the range of 2.4{sup −3} MA, the average energy density in the emission source formed during the implosion of a quasi-spherical wire array is larger by a factor of 7 than in the source formed during the implosion of a cylindrical wire array. The experimental data were compared with results of 3D simulations of plasma dynamics and radiation generation during the implosion of quasi-spherical wire arrays with a profiled mass by using the MARPLE-3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic code, developed at the

  17. A Sensory 3D Map of the Odor Description Space Derived from a Comparison of Numeric Odor Profile Databases.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Many authors have proposed different schemes of odor classification, which are useful to aid the complex task of describing smells. However, reaching a consensus on a particular classification seems difficult because our psychophysical space of odor description is a continuum and is not clustered into well-defined categories. An alternative approach is to describe the perceptual space of odors as a low-dimensional coordinate system. This idea was first proposed by Crocker and Henderson in 1927, who suggested using numeric profiles based on 4 dimensions: "fragrant," "acid," "burnt," and "caprylic." In the present work, the odor profiles of 144 aroma chemicals were compared by means of statistical regression with comparable numeric odor profiles obtained from 2 databases, enabling a plausible interpretation of the 4 dimensions. Based on the results and taking into account comparable 2D sensory maps of odor descriptors from the literature, a 3D sensory map (odor cube) has been drawn up to improve understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the odor descriptors most frequently used in fragrance chemistry. PMID:25847969

  18. Density structure and geometry of the Costa Rican subduction zone from 3-D gravity modeling and local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-10-01

    The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry in Costa Rica is presented based on 3-D density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. Contrary to commonly assumed, to the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a maximum depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth (> 75 km) intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.

  19. Enhanced detection of 3D individual trees in forested areas using airborne full-waveform LiDAR data by combining normalized cuts with spatial density clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Heurich, M.

    2013-10-01

    A detailed understanding of the spatial distribution of forest understory is important but difficult. LiDAR remote sensing has been developing as a promising additional instrument to the conventional field work towards automated forest inventory. Unfortunately, understory (up to 50% of the top-tree height) in mixed and multilayered forests is often ignored due to a difficult observation scenario and limitation of the tree detection algorithm. Currently, the full-waveform (FWF) LiDAR with high penetration ability against overstory crowns can give us new hope to resolve the forest understory. Former approach based on 3D segmentation confirmed that the tree detection rates in both middle and lower forest layers are still low. Therefore, detecting sub-dominant and suppressed trees cannot be regarded as fully solved. In this work, we aim to improve the performance of the FWF laser scanner for the mapping of forest understory. The paper is to develop an enhanced methodology for detecting 3D individual trees by partitioning point clouds of airborne LiDAR. After extracting 3D coordinates of the laser beam echoes, the pulse intensity and width by waveform decomposition, the newly developed approach resolves 3D single trees are by an integrated approach, which delineates tree crowns by applying normalized cuts segmentation to the graph structure of local dense modes in point clouds constructed by mean shift clustering. In the context of our strategy, the mean shift clusters approximate primitives of (sub) single trees in LiDAR data and allow to define more significant features to reflect geometric and reflectional characteristics towards the single tree level. The developed methodology can be regarded as an object-based point cloud analysis approach for tree detection and is applied to datasets captured with the Riegl LMS-Q560 laser scanner at a point density of 25 points/m2 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany, respectively under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions

  20. Generation of 3D shape, density, cortical thickness and finite element mesh of proximal femur from a DXA image.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Sami P; Grassi, Lorenzo; Flivik, Gunnar; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-08-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), predicts hip fracture risk only moderately. Simulation of bone mechanics based on DXA imaging of the proximal femur, may help to improve the prediction accuracy. Therefore, we collected three (1-3) image sets, including CT images and DXA images of 34 proximal cadaver femurs (set 1, including 30 males, 4 females), 35 clinical patient CT images of the hip (set 2, including 27 males, 8 females) and both CT and DXA images of clinical patients (set 3, including 12 female patients). All CT images were segmented manually and landmarks were placed on both femurs and pelvises. Two separate statistical appearance models (SAMs) were built using the CT images of the femurs and pelvises in sets 1 and 2, respectively. The 3D shape of the femur was reconstructed from the DXA image by matching the SAMs with the DXA images. The orientation and modes of variation of the SAMs were adjusted to minimize the sum of the absolute differences between the projection of the SAMs and a DXA image. The mesh quality and the location of the SAMs with respect to the manually placed control points on the DXA image were used as additional constraints. Then, finite element (FE) models were built from the reconstructed shapes. Mean point-to-surface distance between the reconstructed shape and CT image was 1.0 mm for cadaver femurs in set 1 (leave-one-out test) and 1.4 mm for clinical subjects in set 3. The reconstructed volumetric BMD showed a mean absolute difference of 140 and 185 mg/cm(3) for set 1 and set 3 respectively. The generation of the SAM and the limitation of using only one 2D image were found to be the most significant sources of errors in the shape reconstruction. The noise in the DXA images had only small effect on the accuracy of the shape reconstruction. DXA-based FE simulation was able to explain 85% of the CT-predicted strength of the femur in stance loading. The present method can be used to

  1. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    utilities were mostly undetectable. Through a ground-truthing program of test holes to expose utilities, the depth values derived from the enhanced GPR were fairly consistent and within 15 cm of actual depth. The incomplete underground picture determined by the enhanced GPR reinforces previous studies that show that the mapping of existing underground utilities is a multi-tool effort that takes highly trained and skilled field technicians and data interpreters. The addition of a new GPR tool is valuable in determining continuous depth profiles of imaged utilities. A second and significant benefit is the interpretation of other geotechnical data that benefit project designers. This might include showing geometry, location, intensity, and depths of either areas of anomalies, or of known structures, such as paving thickness, substrate thickness, voids, water table, soil lenses, boulders, bedrock, and so forth. The Florida Department of Transportation has decided to take advantage of this new technology and has entered into an experimental contract with Cardno TBE to incorporate several enhanced GPR arrays with traditional utility detection tools. The goal of this contract will be to provide a 3-D model of existing underground utilities for use in automated construction. The GPR 3-D data model will be melded with conventional subsurface utility engineering and mapping practices and will be required to follow the ASCE 38 standard for utility data reliability.

  2. A study of 3D structure of nighttime electron density enhancement in the mid-latitude ionosphere by GPS tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Saito, A.

    2011-12-01

    The mid-latitude summer nighttime anomaly (MSNA) is a feature that the nighttime electron density larger than that in the daytime mid-latitude ionosphere. This anomaly was first detected in the southern hemisphere five decades ago and observed in the northern hemisphere recently by ionosondes and satellites. Previous studies presented the electron density structure of MSNA by using COSMIC occultation data and found that MSNA is clearly seen around 300 km altitude during local summer. However, due to lack of observation, the day-to-day variation of MSNA was not investigated. A GPS tomography method by SPEL of Kyoto University using the total electron content (TEC) data measured by the ground-based GPS receiver network is employed in this study. The wide coverage and continuous observation of GPS receivers are suitable for investigating the spatial and day-to-day variations of ionospheric electron densities. The algorithm of the GPS tomography developed by SPEL of Kyoto University use a constraint condition that the gradient of election density tends to be smooth in the horizontal direction and steep in the vicinity of the F2 peak, instead of inputting the initial conditions. Therefore, the algorithm is independent of any ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron density distribution models. The dense ground-based GPS receiver network around European region is used to study the three dimensional (3D) structure of MSNA with GPS tomography. Results show that the MSNA usually appear around the geomagnetic mid-latitude region during local summer nighttime. The feature of MSNA is most obvious at the ionospheric F2-peak altitudes. The result also shows a day-to-day variation in the formation of MSNA, in terms of the occurrence time, intensity, and spatial extent. The tomographic results are compared with the ionosondes, satellites, and radar measurements. A theoretical model simulation, SAMI2, is also used to further discuss the mechanism of MSNA. The comparison with other

  3. Screening Method for the Discovery of Potential Bioactive Cysteine-Containing Peptides Using 3D Mass Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosten, Luuk N.; Pieterse, Mervin; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Animal venoms and toxins are a valuable source of bioactive peptides with pharmacologic relevance as potential drug leads. A large subset of biologically active peptides discovered up till now contain disulfide bridges that enhance stability and activity. To discover new members of this class of peptides, we developed a workflow screening specifically for those peptides that contain inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds by means of three-dimensional (3D) mass mapping. Two intrinsic properties of the sulfur atom, (1) its relatively large negative mass defect, and (2) its isotopic composition, allow for differentiation between cysteine-containing peptides and peptides lacking sulfur. High sulfur content in a peptide decreases the normalized nominal mass defect (NMD) and increases the normalized isotopic shift (NIS). Hence in a 3D plot of mass, NIS, and NMD, peptides with sulfur appear in this plot with a distinct spatial localization compared with peptides that lack sulfur. In this study we investigated the skin secretion of two frog species; Odorrana schmackeri and Bombina variegata. Peptides from the crude skin secretions were separated by nanoflow LC, and of all eluting peptides high resolution zoom scans were acquired in order to accurately determine both monoisotopic mass and average mass. Both the NMD and the NIS were calculated from the experimental data using an in-house developed MATLAB script. Candidate peptides exhibiting a low NMD and high NIS values were selected for targeted de novo sequencing, and this resulted in the identification of several novel inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bond containing peptides.

  4. 3D-QSAR AND CONTOUR MAP ANALYSIS OF TARIQUIDAR ANALOGUES AS MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROTEIN-1 (MRP1) INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Kakarla, Prathusha; Inupakutika, Madhuri; Devireddy, Amith R.; Gunda, Shravan Kumar; Willmon, Thomas Mark; Ranjana, KC; Shrestha, Ugina; Ranaweera, Indrika; Hernandez, Alberto J.; Barr, Sharla; Varela, Manuel F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful chemotherapy towards several cancers is multidrug resistance of human cancer cells to anti-cancer drugs. An important contributor to multidrug resistance is the human multidrug resistance protein-1 transporter (MRP1), which is an efflux pump of the ABC (ATP binding cassette) superfamily. Thus, highly efficacious, third generation MRP1 inhibitors, like tariquidar analogues, are promising inhibitors of multidrug resistance and are under clinical trials. To maximize the efficacy of MRP1 inhibitors and to reduce systemic toxicity, it is important to limit the exposure of MRP1 inhibitors and anticancer drugs to normal tissues and to increase their co-localization with tumor cells. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) associated with 3D-Quantitiative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed on a series of tariquidar analogues, as selective MDR modulators. Best predictability was obtained with CoMFA model r2(non-cross-validated square of correlation coefficient) = 0.968, F value = 151.768 with five components, standard error of estimate = 0.107 while the CoMSIA yielded r2 = 0.982, F value = 60.628 with six components, and standard error of estimate = 0.154. These results indicate that steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic (lipophilic), and hydrogen bond donor substituents play significant roles in multidrug resistance modulation of tariquidar analogues upon MRP1. The tariquidar analogue and MRP1 binding and stability data generated from CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D–contour maps may further aid in study and design of tariquidar analogues as novel, potent and selective MDR modulator drug candidates. PMID:26913287

  5. Shadow of a Colossus: A z = 2.44 Galaxy Protocluster Detected in 3D Lyα Forest Tomographic Mapping of the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Schlegel, David J.; Rich, R. Michael; Suzuki, Nao; Stark, Casey W.; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Nugent, Peter E.; Salvato, Mara; Zamorani, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    Using moderate-resolution optical spectra from 58 background Lyman-break galaxies and quasars at z∼ 2.3{{{--}}}3 within a 11.‧5 × 13.‧5 area of the COSMOS field (∼ 1200 {{deg}}-2 projected area density or ∼ 2.4 {h}-1Mpc mean transverse separation), we reconstruct a 3D tomographic map of the foreground Lyα forest absorption at 2.2 < z < 2.5 with an effective smoothing scale of {ε }{{3D}}≈ 2.5 {h}-1Mpc comoving. Comparing with 61 coeval galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the same volume, we find that the galaxy positions are clearly biased toward regions with enhanced intergalactic medium (IGM) absorption in the tomographic map. We find an extended IGM overdensity with deep absorption troughs at z = 2.45 associated with a recently discovered galaxy protocluster at the same redshift. Based on simulations matched to our data, we estimate the enclosed dark matter mass within this IGM overdensity to be {M}{{dm}}(z=2.45)=(1.1+/- 0.6)× {10}14 {h}-1M⊙ , and argue based on this mass and absorption strength that it will form at least one z ∼ 0 galaxy cluster with M(z=0)=(3+/- 1.5)× {10}14 {h}-1M⊙ , although its elongated nature suggests that it will likely collapse into two separate clusters. We also point out a compact overdensity of six MOSDEF galaxies at z = 2.30 within a r∼ 1 {h}-1Mpc radius and Δz ∼ 0.006, which does not appear to have a large associated IGM overdensity. These results demonstrate the potential of Lyα forest tomography on larger volumes to study galaxy properties as a function of environment, as well as revealing the large-scale IGM overdensities associated with protoclusters or other features of large-scale structure.

  6. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system. PMID:26690174

  7. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system. PMID:26690174

  8. 3D imaging of flow patterns in an internally-pumped microfluidic device: redox magnetohydrodynamics and electrochemically-generated density gradients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Kreidermacher, Adam; Fritsch, Ingrid; Heyes, Colin D

    2013-05-01

    Redox magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a promising technique for developing new electrochemical-based microfluidic flow devices with unique capabilities, such as easily switching flow direction and adjusting flow speeds and flow patterns as well as avoiding bubble formation. However, a detailed description of all the forces involved and predicting flow patterns in confined geometries is lacking. In addition to redox-MHD, density gradients caused by the redox reactions also play important roles. Flow in these devices with small fluid volumes has mainly been characterized by following microbead motion by optical microscopy either by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or by processing the microbead images by particle image velocimetry (PIV) software. This approach has limitations in spatial resolution and dimensionality. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to quantitatively and accurately measure flow speeds and patterns in the ~5-50 μm/s range in redox-MHD-based microfluidic devices, from which 3D flow maps are obtained with a spatial resolution down to 2 μm. The 2 μm spatial resolution flow speeds map revealed detailed flow profiles during redox-MHD in which the velocity increases linearly from above the electrode and reaches a plateau across the center of the cell. By combining FCS and video-microscopy (with PTV and PIV processing approaches), we are able to quantify a vertical flow of ~10 μm/s above the electrodes as a result of density gradients caused by the redox reactions and follow convection flow patterns. Overall, combining FCS, PIV, and PTV analysis of redox-MHD is a powerful combination to more thoroughly characterize the underlying forces in these promising microfluidic devices. PMID:23537496

  9. 3D Imaging of Flow Patterns in an Internally-Pumped Microfluidic Device: Redox Magnetohydrodynamics and Electrochemically-Generated Density Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Kreidermacher, Adam; Fritsch, Ingrid; Heyes, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Redox magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a promising technique for developing new electrochemical-based microfluidic flow devices with unique capabilities, such as easily switching flow direction, adjusting flow speeds and flow patterns as well as avoiding bubble formation. However, a detailed description of all the forces involved and predicting flow patterns in confined geometries is lacking. In addition to redox-MHD, density gradients caused by the redox reactions also play important roles. Flow in these devices with small fluid volumes has mainly been characterized by following microbead motion by optical microscopy either by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or by processing the microbead images by particle image velocimetry (PIV) software. This approach has limitations in spatial resolution and dimensionality. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to quantitatively and accurately measure flow speeds and patterns in the ~5-50 μm/s range in redox-MHD-based microfluidic devices, from which 3D flow maps are obtained with a spatial resolution down to 2 μm. The 2 μm spatial resolution flow speeds map revealed detailed flow profiles during redox-MHD in which the velocity increases linearly from above the electrode, and reaches a plateau across the center of the channel. By combining FCS and video-microscopy (with PTV and PIV processing approaches), we are able to quantify a vertical flow of ~10 μm/s above the electrodes as a result of density gradients caused by the redox reactions and follow convection flow patterns. Overall, combining FCS, PIV and PTV analysis of redox-MHD is a powerful combination to more thoroughly characterize the underlying forces in these promising microfluidic devices. PMID:23537496

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 3D reddening map for stars from 2MASS phot. (Gontcharov, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    A three-dimensional reddening map for stars within 1100pc of the Sun are presented. Analysis of the distribution of 70 million stars from the 2MASS catalog with the most accurate photometry on the (J-Ks)-Ks diagram supplemented with Monte Carlo simulations has shown that one of the maxima of this distribution corresponds to F-type dwarfs and subgiants with a mean absolute magnitude MKs=2.5m. The shift of this maximum toward large (J-Ks) with increasing Ks reflects the reddening of these stars with increasing heliocentric distance. The distribution of the sample of stars over Ks, l, and b cells with a statistically significant number of stars in each cell corresponds to their distribution over three-dimensional spatial cells. As a result, the reddening E(J-Ks) has been determined with an accuracy of 0.03m for spatial cells with a side of 100pc. All of the known large absorbing clouds within 1100pc of the Sun have manifested themselves in the results obtained. The absorbing matter of the Gould Belt is shown to manifest itself at latitudes up to 40° and within 600pc of the Sun. The size and influence of the Gould Belt may have been underestimated thus far. The absorbing matter at latitudes up to 60° and within 1100pc of the Sun has been found to be distributed predominantly in the first and second quadrants in the southern hemisphere and in the third and fourth quadrants in the northern hemisphere. Also the data of the Rv (2012AstL...38...12G) and Av (2012AstL...38...87G) 3D maps are added. (1 data file).

  11. Improved 3D density modelling of the Central Andes from combining terrestrial datasets with satellite based datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Theresa; Sobiesiak, Monika; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Ebbing, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    As horizontal gravity gradients are proxies for large stresses, the uniquely high gravity gradients of the South American continental margin seem to be indicative for the frequently occurring large earthquakes at this plate boundary. It has been observed that these earthquakes can break repeatedly the same respective segment but can also combine to form M>9 earthquakes at the end of longer seismic cycles. A large seismic gap left behind by the 1877 M~9 earthquake existed in the northernmost part of Chile. This gap has partially been ruptured in the Mw 7.7 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and the Mw 8.2 2014 Pisagua earthquake. The nature of this seismological segmentation and the distribution of energy release in an earthquake is part of ongoing research. It can be assumed that both features are related to thickness variations of high density bodies located in the continental crust of the coastal area. These batholiths produce a clear maximum in the gravity signal. Those maxima also show a good spatial correlation with seismic asperity structures and seismological segment boundaries. Understanding of the tectonic situation can be improved through 3D forward density modelling of the gravity field. Problems arise in areas with less ground measurements. Especially in the high Andes severe gaps exist due to the inaccessibility of some regions. Also the transition zone between on and offshore date data displays significant problems, particularly since this is the area that is most interesting in terms of seismic hazard. We modelled the continental and oceanic crust and upper mantle using different gravity datasets. The first one includes terrestrial data measured at a station spacing of 5 km or less along all passable roads combined with satellite altimetry data offshore. The second data set is the newly released EIGEN-6C4 which combines the latest satellite data with ground measurements. The spherical harmonics maximum degree of EIGEN-6C4 is 2190 which corresponds to a

  12. Multigrid mapping and box relaxation for simulation of the whole process of flow transition in 3-D boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Liu, Z.

    1994-12-31

    A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.

  13. Assessing pyroclastic density current dynamics and hazard of Plinian events at Campi Flegrei (Italy) by using 3D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposti Ongaro, T.; Neri, A.; Todesco, M.

    2012-04-01

    Campi Flegrei is a densely populated widespread caldera located near the city of Naples. Current evaluation of volcanic hazard include the probable generation of pyroclastic density currents (PDC) produced by explosive events of variable size and uncertain vent location. In this study we investigate the dynamics and hazard of PDC produced by the partial collapse of the volcanic column by using the 3D transient multiphase flow model PDAC (Esposti Ongaro et al., Parallel Computing, 2007). The model allows to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of the stratified PDC by accounting for the multiparticle nature of the flow and the complex topography of the caldera. Employed eruptive intensity and pyroclast properties are representative of magmatic phases of the Agnano Monte Spina (AMS, 4100 BP) Plinian eruption, the largest explosive event of the last cycle of activity of the caldera. Eruptive centers are supposed to be located in the north-eastern part of the caldera, the area with the largest number of past vents. Several simulations were performed considering different collapsing regimes, flow conditions at the source and vent locations. Results illustrate the complex dynamics of flow propagation in the caldera settings and quantify the associated hazards. Fountain instabilities, recycling of collapsed material into the jet caused by the caldera walls, triggering of thermals and co-ignimbrite clouds by topographic reliefs, flow decoupling between dense and dilute streams, and generation of backflows are some of the processes simulated. The areas invaded by the PDC result affected by the inner topography of the caldera and therefore largely influenced by the assumed location of the vent. PDC result mostly confined by the outer caldera rims although they appear able to overcome Posillipo Hill and affect the eastern portions of the city of Naples. Comparisons with reconstructions of the AMS event are also discussed.

  14. 3D Lithosphere density structure of southern Indian shield from joint inversion of gravity, geoid and topography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Zeyen, Hermann; Singh, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    We present the 3D crustal and lithospheric structure and crustal average density distribution of southern Indian shield (south of 18°N), Sri Lanka and adjoining oceans. The model is based on the assumption of local isostatic equilibrium and is derived from joint inversion of free air gravity and geoid anomalies and topography data. The derived crustal thickness of 10-25 km in the oceanic region increases to 34-35 km along the coast. A crustal thickness of 34-38 km is obtained beneath the Eastern Dharwar Craton and 36-45 km beneath the Western Dharwar Craton and the Southern Granulite Terrain. Sri Lanka has a thinner crust of 30-35 km. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is located at depths of 70-120 km under oceanic regions and ∼150-180 km below the Dharwar Craton and the Northern block of Southern Granulite Terrain. A notably thinned lithosphere of ∼130 km near Bangalore in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, ∼140 km beneath the Southern block of Southern Granulite Terrain and ∼130 km in Sri Lanka is observed. The thickness of the lithosphere (∼130 km) near Bangalore is inferred as the frozen in signature of a small fossil mantle plume and/or tectono-compositional effect of a rifted margin and a suture. Considerable stretching and/or convective removal of pristine lithosphere in the Southern block of Southern Granulite Terrain and adjoining Sri Lanka, before disappearing completely in the Archaean Northern block of Southern Granulite Terrain and Dharwar Craton, is suggested.

  15. Mapping the 3-D extent of the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld layered mafic intrusion from geophysical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Carol A.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Cole, Janine; Khoza, Tshepo David; Webb, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Geophysical models image the 3D geometry of the mafic portion of the Bushveld Complex north of the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament (TML), critical for understanding the origin of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion and platinum group element deposits. The combination of the gravity and magnetic data with recent seismic, MT, borehole and rock property measurements powerfully constrains the models. The intrusion north of the TML is generally shallowly buried (generally <1500 m) with a modeled area of ∼160 km × ∼125 km. The modeled thicknesses are not well constrained but vary from ∼<1000 to >12,000 m, averaging ∼4000 m. A feeder, suggested by a large modeled thickness (>10,000 m) and funnel shape, for Lower Zone magmas could have originated near the intersection of NS and NE trending TML faults under Mokopane. The TML has been thought to be the feeder zone for the entire Bushveld Complex but the identification of local feeders and/or dikes in the TML in the models is complicated by uncertainties on the syn- and post-Bushveld deformation history. However, modeled moderately thick high density material near the intersection of faults within the central and western TML may represent feeders for parts of the Bushveld Complex if deformation was minimal. The correspondence of flat, high resistivity and density regions reflect the sill-like geometry of the Bushveld Complex without evidence for feeders north of Mokopane. Magnetotelluric models indicate that the Transvaal sedimentary basin underlies much of the Bushveld Complex north of the TML, further than previously thought and important because the degree of reaction and assimilation of the Transvaal rocks with the mafic magmas resulted in a variety of mineralization zones.

  16. Mapping the North Sea base-Quaternary: using 3D seismic to fill a gap in the geological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    The identification and mapping of the base-Quaternary boundary in the central parts of the North Sea is problematic due to the change from an unconformable transition between Pliocene and Pleistocene deltaic deposits in the southern North Sea to a conformable one further north (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). The best estimates of the transition use seismic reflection data to identify a 'crenulated reflector' (Buckley 2012), or rely on correlating sparse biostratigraphy (Cameron et al 1987). Recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) allows greater confidence in the correlation to a regional 3D seismic dataset and show that the base-Quaternary can be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The mapped horizon is presented here alongside the difference between this new interpretation and the previously interpreted base-Quaternary (Buckley 2012). The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT or approximately 1120 m (assuming average velocity of 1800 m/s) showing an elongate basin shape that follows the underlying structure of the Central Graben. The difference between the revised base-Quaternary and the traditional base-Quaternary reaches a maximum of over 600 ms TWT or approximately 540 m in the south-west with over 300 ms TWT or approximately 270 m at the Josephine well (56° 36.11'N, 2° 27.09'E) in the centre of the basin. Mapping this new base-Quaternary allows for the interpretation of the paleo-envionrment during the earliest Quaternary. Seismic attribute analysis indicates a deep water basin with sediment deposition from multiple deltas and redistribution by deep

  17. Comparison of radiotherapy dosimetry for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on electron density calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartutik, K.; Wibowo, W. E.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate calculation of dose distribution affected by inhomogeneity tissue is required in radiotherapy planning. This study was performed to determine the ratio between radiotherapy planning using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on a calibrated curve of CT-number in the lung for different target's shape in 3D-CRT, IMRT, and spinal cord for SBRT. Calibration curves of CT-number were generated under measurement basis and introduced into TPS, then planning was performed for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT with 7, and 15 radiation fields. Afterwards, planning evaluation was performed by comparing the DVH curve, HI, and CI. 3D-CRT and IMRT produced the lowest HI at calibration curve of CIRS 002LFC with the value 0.24 and 10. Whereas SBRT produced the lowest HI on a linear calibration curve with a value of 0.361. The highest CI in IMRT and SBRT technique achieved using a linear calibration curve was 0.97 and 1.77 respectively. For 3D-CRT, the highest CI was obtained by using calibration curve of CIRS 062M with the value of 0.45. From the results of CI and HI, it is concluded that the calibration curve of CT-number does not significantly differ with Schneider's calibrated curve, and inverse planning gives a better result than forward planning.

  18. Nhs: Network-based Hierarchical Segmentation for Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Virginia; Chennubhotla, Chakra

    2012-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) experiments yield low-resolution (3–30Å) 3D-density maps of macromolecules. These density maps are segmented to identify structurally distinct proteins, protein domains, and sub-units. Such partitioning aids the inference of protein motions and guides fitting of high-resolution atomistic structures. Cryo-EM density map segmentation has traditionally required tedious and subjective manual partitioning or semi-supervised computational methods, while validation of resulting segmentations has remained an open problem in this field. Our network-based bias-free segmentation method for cryo-EM density map segmentation, Nhs (Network-based hierarchical segmentation), provides the user with a multi-scale partitioning, reflecting local and global clustering, while requiring no user input. This approach models each map as a graph, where map voxels constitute nodes and edges connect neighboring voxels. Nhs initiates Markov diffusion (or random walk) on the weighted graph. As Markov probabilities homogenize through diffusion, an intrinsic segmentation emerges. We validate the segmentations with ground-truth maps based on atomistic models. When implemented on density maps in the 2010 Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge, Nhs efficiently and objectively partitions macromolecules into structurally and functionally relevant sub-regions at multiple scales. PMID:22696408

  19. Phenotypic transition maps of 3D breast acini obtained by imaging-guided agent-based modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jonathan; Enderling, Heiko; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Pham, Christopher; Polyzos, Aris; Chen, Chen-Yi; Costes, Sylvain V

    2011-02-18

    We introduce an agent-based model of epithelial cell morphogenesis to explore the complex interplay between apoptosis, proliferation, and polarization. By varying the activity levels of these mechanisms we derived phenotypic transition maps of normal and aberrant morphogenesis. These maps identify homeostatic ranges and morphologic stability conditions. The agent-based model was parameterized and validated using novel high-content image analysis of mammary acini morphogenesis in vitro with focus on time-dependent cell densities, proliferation and death rates, as well as acini morphologies. Model simulations reveal apoptosis being necessary and sufficient for initiating lumen formation, but cell polarization being the pivotal mechanism for maintaining physiological epithelium morphology and acini sphericity. Furthermore, simulations highlight that acinus growth arrest in normal acini can be achieved by controlling the fraction of proliferating cells. Interestingly, our simulations reveal a synergism between polarization and apoptosis in enhancing growth arrest. After validating the model with experimental data from a normal human breast line (MCF10A), the system was challenged to predict the growth of MCF10A where AKT-1 was overexpressed, leading to reduced apoptosis. As previously reported, this led to non growth-arrested acini, with very large sizes and partially filled lumen. However, surprisingly, image analysis revealed a much lower nuclear density than observed for normal acini. The growth kinetics indicates that these acini grew faster than the cells comprising it. The in silico model could not replicate this behavior, contradicting the classic paradigm that ductal carcinoma in situ is only the result of high proliferation and low apoptosis. Our simulations suggest that overexpression of AKT-1 must also perturb cell-cell and cell-ECM communication, reminding us that extracellular context can dictate cellular behavior.

  20. Advances in 3D soil mapping and water content estimation using multi-channel ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar systems have recently become widely available, thereby opening new possibilities for shallow imaging of the subsurface. One advantage of these systems is that they can significantly reduce survey times by simultaneously collecting multiple lines of GPR reflection data. As a result, it is becoming more practical to complete 3D surveys - particularly in situations where the subsurface undergoes rapid changes, e.g., when monitoring infiltration and redistribution of water in soils. While 3D and 4D surveys can provide a degree of clarity that significantly improves interpretation of the subsurface, an even more powerful feature of the new multi-channel systems for hydrologists is their ability to collect data using multiple antenna offsets. Central mid-point (CMP) surveys have been widely used to estimate radar wave velocities, which can be related to water contents, by sequentially increasing the distance, i.e., offset, between the source and receiver antennas. This process is highly labor intensive using single-channel systems and therefore such surveys are often only performed at a few locations at any given site. In contrast, with multi-channel GPR systems it is possible to physically arrange an array of antennas at different offsets, such that a CMP-style survey is performed at every point along a radar transect. It is then possible to process this data to obtain detailed maps of wave velocity with a horizontal resolution on the order of centimeters. In this talk I review concepts underlying multi-channel GPR imaging with an emphasis on multi-offset profiling for water content estimation. Numerical simulations are used to provide examples that illustrate situations where multi-offset GPR profiling is likely to be successful, with an emphasis on considering how issues like noise, soil heterogeneity, vertical variations in water content and weak reflection returns affect algorithms for automated analysis of the data. Overall

  1. 3D bone mineral density distribution and shape reconstruction of the proximal femur from a single simulated DXA image: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmarsh, Tristan; Humbert, Ludovic; De Craene, Mathieu; del Río Barquero, Luis M.; Fritscher, Karl; Schubert, Rainer; Eckstein, Felix; Link, Thomas; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2010-03-01

    Area Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is an established criterion in the evaluation of hip fracture risk. The evaluation from these planar images, however, is limited to 2D while it has been shown that proper 3D assessment of both the shape and the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) distribution improves the fracture risk estimation. In this work we present a method to reconstruct both the 3D bone shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from a single DXA image. A statistical model of shape and a separate statistical model of the BMD distribution were automatically constructed from a set of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans. The reconstruction method incorporates a fully automatic intensity based 3D-2D registration process, maximizing the similarity between the DXA and a digitally reconstructed radiograph of the combined model. For the construction of the models, an in vitro dataset of QCT scans of 60 anatomical specimens was used. To evaluate the reconstruction accuracy, experiments were performed on simulated DXA images from the QCT scans of 30 anatomical specimens. Comparisons between the reconstructions and the same subject QCT scans showed a mean shape accuracy of 1.2mm, and a mean density error of 81mg/cm3. The results show that this method is capable of accurately reconstructing both the 3D shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from DXA images used in clinical routine, potentially improving the diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessments at a low radiation dose and low cost.

  2. Shadow of a Colossus: A z = 2.44 Galaxy Protocluster Detected in 3D Ly Forest Tomographic Mapping of the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Schlegel, David J.; Rich, R. Michael; Suzuki, Nao; Stark, Casey W.; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Nugent, Peter E.; Salvato, Mara; Zamorani, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    Using moderate-resolution optical spectra from 58 background Lyman-break galaxies and quasars at z˜ 2.3{{{--}}}3 within a 11.‧5 × 13.‧5 area of the COSMOS field (˜ 1200 {{deg}}-2 projected area density or ˜ 2.4 {h}-1\\text{} {Mpc} mean transverse separation), we reconstruct a 3D tomographic map of the foreground Lyα forest absorption at 2.2 < z < 2.5 with an effective smoothing scale of {ɛ }{{3D}}≈ 2.5 {h}-1\\text{} {Mpc} comoving. Comparing with 61 coeval galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the same volume, we find that the galaxy positions are clearly biased toward regions with enhanced intergalactic medium (IGM) absorption in the tomographic map. We find an extended IGM overdensity with deep absorption troughs at z = 2.45 associated with a recently discovered galaxy protocluster at the same redshift. Based on simulations matched to our data, we estimate the enclosed dark matter mass within this IGM overdensity to be {M}{{dm}}(z=2.45)=(1.1+/- 0.6)× {10}14 {h}-1\\text{}{M}ȯ , and argue based on this mass and absorption strength that it will form at least one z ˜ 0 galaxy cluster with M(z=0)=(3+/- 1.5)× {10}14 {h}-1\\text{}{M}ȯ , although its elongated nature suggests that it will likely collapse into two separate clusters. We also point out a compact overdensity of six MOSDEF galaxies at z = 2.30 within a r˜ 1 {h}-1\\text{} {Mpc} radius and Δz ˜ 0.006, which does not appear to have a large associated IGM overdensity. These results demonstrate the potential of Lyα forest tomography on larger volumes to study galaxy properties as a function of environment, as well as revealing the large-scale IGM overdensities associated with protoclusters or other features of large-scale structure.

  3. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  4. Investigation of the 2p_{32}-3d_{52} line emission of Au;{53+}-Au;{69+} for diagnosing high energy density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Brown, G V; Hansen, S B; Träbert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Widmann, K; Chen, H; Chung, H K; Clementson, J H T; Gu, M F; Thorn, D B

    2008-06-01

    Measurements of the L -shell emission of highly charged gold ions were made under controlled laboratory conditions using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, allowing detailed spectral observations of lines from Fe-like Au53+ through Ne-like Au69+ . Using atomic data from the Flexible Atomic Code, we have identified strong 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features that can be used to diagnose the charge state distribution in high energy density plasmas, such as those found in the laser entrance hole of hot hohlraum radiation sources. We provide collisional-radiative calculations of the average ion charge Z as a function of temperature and density, which can be used to relate charge state distributions inferred from 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features to plasma conditions, and investigate the effects of plasma density on calculated L -shell Au emission spectra. PMID:18643382

  5. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  6. Increase in the Random Dopant Induced Threshold Fluctuations and Lowering in Sub 100 nm MOSFETs Due to Quantum Effects: A 3-D Density-Gradient Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asenov, Asen; Slavcheva, G.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed simulation study of the influence of quantum mechanical effects in the inversion layer on random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering in sub 100 nm MOSFETs. The simulations have been performed using a 3-D implementation of the density gradient (DG) formalism incorporated in our established 3-D atomistic simulation approach. This results in a self-consistent 3-D quantum mechanical picture, which implies not only the vertical inversion layer quantisation but also the lateral confinement effects related to current filamentation in the 'valleys' of the random potential fluctuations. We have shown that the net result of including quantum mechanical effects, while considering statistical dopant fluctuations, is an increase in both threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering. At the same time, the random dopant induced threshold voltage lowering partially compensates for the quantum mechanical threshold voltage shift in aggressively scaled MOSFETs with ultrathin gate oxides.

  7. Mapping 3D Strains with Ultrasound Speckle Tracking: Method Validation and Initial Results in Porcine Scleral Inflation.

    PubMed

    Cruz Perez, Benjamin; Pavlatos, Elias; Morris, Hugh J; Chen, Hong; Pan, Xueliang; Hart, Richard T; Liu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a high frequency ultrasound method for measuring distributive, 3D strains in the sclera during elevations of intraocular pressure. A 3D cross-correlation based speckle-tracking algorithm was implemented to compute the 3D displacement vector and strain tensor at each tracking point. Simulated ultrasound radiofrequency data from a sclera-like structure at undeformed and deformed states with known strains were used to evaluate the accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of strain estimation. An experimental high frequency ultrasound (55 MHz) system was built to acquire 3D scans of porcine eyes inflated from 15 to 17 and then 19 mmHg. Simulations confirmed good strain estimation accuracy and SNR (e.g., the axial strains had less than 4.5% error with SNRs greater than 16.5 for strains from 0.005 to 0.05). Experimental data in porcine eyes showed increasing tensile, compressive, and shear strains in the posterior sclera during inflation, with a volume ratio close to one suggesting near-incompressibility. This study established the feasibility of using high frequency ultrasound speckle tracking for measuring 3D tissue strains and its potential to characterize physiological deformations in the posterior eye. PMID:26563101

  8. A method for reconstructing the PDF of a 3D turbulent density field from 2D observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, Christopher M.; Federrath, Christoph; Price, Daniel J.

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a method for calculating the probability density function (PDF) of a turbulent density field in three dimensions using only information contained in the projected two-dimensional column density field. We test the method by applying it to numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds. To a good approximation, the PDF of log(normalized column density) is a compressed, shifted version of the PDF of log(normalized density). The degree of compression can be determined observationally from the column density power spectrum, under the assumption of statistical isotropy of the turbulence.

  9. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  10. A Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Network for Online 3-D Temperature and Neutron Fluence Mapping in a VHTR Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel; Dickerson, Bryan; French, Joseph; McEachern, Donald; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-04-30

    Robust sensing technologies allowing for 3D in-core performance monitoring in real time are of paramount importance for already established LWRs to enhance their reliability and availability per year, and therefore, to further facilitate their economic competitiveness via predictive assessment of the in-core conditions.

  11. A new high-performance 3D multiphase flow code to simulate volcanic blasts and pyroclastic density currents: example from the Boxing Day event, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, T. E.; Clarke, A.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.; Widiwijayanti, C.

    2005-12-01

    For the first time the dynamics of directed blasts from explosive lava-dome decompression have been investigated by means of transient, multiphase flow simulations in 2D and 3D. Multiphase flow models developed for the analysis of pyroclastic dispersal from explosive eruptions have been so far limited to 2D axisymmetric or Cartesian formulations which cannot properly account for important 3D features of the volcanic system such as complex morphology and fluid turbulence. Here we use a new parallel multiphase flow code, named PDAC (Pyroclastic Dispersal Analysis Code) (Esposti Ongaro et al., 2005), able to simulate the transient and 3D thermofluid-dynamics of pyroclastic dispersal produced by collapsing columns and volcanic blasts. The code solves the equations of the multiparticle flow model of Neri et al. (2003) on 3D domains extending up to several kilometres in 3D and includes a new description of the boundary conditions over topography which is automatically acquired from a DEM. The initial conditions are represented by a compact volume of gas and pyroclasts, with clasts of different sizes and densities, at high temperature and pressure. Different dome porosities and pressurization models were tested in 2D to assess the sensitivity of the results to the distribution of initial gas pressure, and to the total mass and energy stored in the dome, prior to 3D modeling. The simulations have used topographies appropriate for the 1997 Boxing Day directed blast on Montserrat, which eradicated the village of St. Patricks. Some simulations tested the runout of pyroclastic density currents over the ocean surface, corresponding to observations of over-water surges to several km distances at both locations. The PDAC code was used to perform 3D simulations of the explosive event on the actual volcano topography. The results highlight the strong topographic control on the propagation of the dense pyroclastic flows, the triggering of thermal instabilities, and the elutriation

  12. Chest wall segmentation in automated 3D breast ultrasound using rib shadow enhancement and multi-plane cumulative probability enhanced map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Kim, Hannah; Hong, Helen

    2015-03-01

    We propose an automatic segmentation method of chest wall in 3D ABUS images using rib shadow enhancement and multi-planar cumulative probability enhanced map. For the identification of individual dark rib shadows, each rib shadow is enhanced using intensity transfer function and 3D sheet-like enhancement filtering. Then, wrongly enhanced intercostal regions and small fatty tissues are removed using coronal and sagittal cumulative probability enhanced maps. The large fatty tissues with globular and sheet-like shapes at the top of rib shadow are removed using shape and orientation analysis based on moment matrix. Detected chest walls are connected with cubic B-spline interpolation. Experimental results show that the Dice similarity coefficient of proposed method as comparison with two manually outlining results provides over 90% in average.

  13. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  14. Reduction of Fluoroscopic Exposure Using a New Fluoroscopy Integrating Technology in a 3D-Mapping System During Pulmonary Vein Isolation With a Circular Multipolar Irrigated Catheter.

    PubMed

    Blockhaus, Christian; Schmidt, Jan; Kurt, Muhammed; Clasen, Lukas; Brinkmeyer, Christoph; Katsianos, Efstratios; Müller, Patrick; Gerguri, Shqipe; Kelm, Malte; Shin, Dong-In; Makimoto, Hisaki

    2016-05-25

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a cornerstone therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). With increasing numbers of PVI procedures, demand arises to reduce the cumulative fluoroscopic radiation exposure for both the physician and the patient. New technologies are emerging to address this issue. Here, we report our first experiences with a new fluoroscopy integrating technology in addition to a current 3D-mapping system. The new fluoroscopy integrating system (FIS) with 3D-mapping was used prospectively in 15 patients with AF. Control PVI cases (n = 37) were collected retrospectively as a complete series. Total procedure time (skin to skin), fluoroscopic time, and dose-area-product (DAP) data were analyzed. All PVI procedures were performed by one experienced physician using a commercially available circular multipolar irrigated ablation catheter. All PVI procedures were successfully undertaken without major complications. Baseline characteristics of the two groups showed no significant differences. In the group using the FIS, the fluoroscopic time and DAP were significantly reduced from 571 ± 187 seconds versus 1011 ± 527 seconds (P = 0.0029) and 4342 ± 2073 cGycm(2) versus 6208 ± 3314 cGycm(2) (P = 0.049), respectively. Mean procedure time was not significantly affected and was 114 ± 31 minutes versus 104 ± 24 minutes (P = 0.23) by the FIS.The use of the new FIS with the current 3D-mapping system enables a significant reduction of the total fluoroscopy time and DAP compared to the previous combination of 3D-mapping system plus normal fluoroscopy during PVI utilizing a circular multipolar irrigated ablation catheter. However, the concomitant total procedure time is not affected. Thus, the new system reduces the radiation exposure for both the physicians and patients. PMID:27181037

  15. SMEI 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION INTERACTING WITH A COROTATING SOLAR WIND DENSITY ENHANCEMENT: THE 2008 APRIL 26 CME

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Clover, J. M.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has recorded the brightness responses of hundreds of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the interplanetary medium. Using a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique that derives its perspective views from outward-flowing solar wind, analysis of SMEI data has revealed the shapes, extents, and masses of CMEs. Here, for the first time, and using SMEI data, we report on the 3D reconstruction of a CME that intersects a corotating region marked by a curved density enhancement in the ecliptic. Both the CME and the corotating region are reconstructed and demonstrate that the CME disrupts the otherwise regular density pattern of the corotating material. Most of the dense CME material passes north of the ecliptic and east of the Sun-Earth line: thus, in situ measurements in the ecliptic near Earth and at the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory Behind spacecraft show the CME as a minor density increase in the solar wind. The mass of the dense portion of the CME is consistent with that measured by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, and is comparable to the masses of many other three-dimensionally reconstructed solar wind features at 1 AU observed in SMEI 3D reconstructions.

  16. Web-based 3D digital pathology framework for large-mapping data scanned by FF-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, ChiaKai; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Chien, Meng-Ting; Li, Yu-I.; Shun, Chia-Tung; Huang, Sheng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is a high resolution instrument in 3 dimensional (3D) space, including lateral and longitudinal direction. With FF-OCT, we can perform 3D scanning for excised biopsy or cell culture sample to obtain cellular information. In this work, we have set up a high resolution FF-OCT scanning instrument that can perform cellular resolution tomography scanning of skin tissue for histopathology study. In a scan range of 1cm(x), 1cm(y), 106μm(z), for example, digital data occupies 253 GB capacity. Copying these materials is time consuming, not to mention efficient browsing and analyzing of these data. To solve the problem of information delivery, we have established a network service to browse and analyze the huge volume data.

  17. 3D Mapping of plasma effective areas via detection of cancer cell damage induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yueing; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for irradiation of oral cancer cells. Since cancer cells are very susceptible to plasma treatment, they can be used as a tool for detection of APPJ-effective areas, which extended much further than the visible part of the APPJ. An immunofluorescence assay was used for DNA damage identification, visualization and quantification. Thus, the effective damage area and damage level were determined and plotted as 3D images.

  18. Arctic Research Mapping Application 3D Geobrowser: Accessing and Displaying Arctic Information From the Desktop to the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. W.; Gonzalez, J.; Brady, J. J.; Gaylord, A.; Manley, W. F.; Cody, R.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Garcia-Lavigne, D.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    ARMAP 3D allows users to dynamically interact with information about U.S. federally funded research projects in the Arctic. This virtual globe allows users to explore data maintained in the Arctic Research & Logistics Support System (ARLSS) database providing a very valuable visual tool for science management and logistical planning, ascertaining who is doing what type of research and where. Users can “fly to” study sites, view receding glaciers in 3D and access linked reports about specific projects. Custom “Search” tasks have been developed to query by researcher name, discipline, funding program, place names and year and display results on the globe with links to detailed reports. ARMAP 3D was created with ESRI’s free ArcGIS Explorer (AGX) new build 900 providing an updated application from build 500. AGX applications provide users the ability to integrate their own spatial data on various data layers provided by ArcOnline (http://resources.esri.com/arcgisonlineservices). Users can add many types of data including OGC web services without any special data translators or costly software. ARMAP 3D is part of the ARMAP suite (http://armap.org), a collection of applications that support Arctic science tools for users of various levels of technical ability to explore information about field-based research in the Arctic. ARMAP is funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs Arctic Sciences Division and is a collaborative development effort between the Systems Ecology Lab at the University of Texas at El Paso, Nuna Technologies, the INSTAAR QGIS Laboratory, and CH2M HILL Polar Services.

  19. Stereo photography of neutral density He-filled bubbles for 3-D fluid motion studies in an engine cylinder.

    PubMed

    Kent, J C; Eaton, A R

    1982-03-01

    A new technique has been developed for studies of fluid motion within the cylinder of a reciprocating piston engine during the air induction process. Helium-filled bubbles, serving as neutrally buoyant flow tracer particles, enter the cylinder along with the inducted air charge. The bubble motion is recorded by stereo cine photography through the transparent cylinder of a specially designed research engine. Quantitative data on the 3-D velocity field generated during induction is obtained from frame-to-frame analysis of the stereo images, taking into account refraction of the rays due to the transparent cylinder. Other applications for which this technique appears suitable include measurements of velocity fields within intake ports and flow-field dynamics within intake manifolds of multicylinder engines. PMID:20372559

  20. Application of 3D Scanned Imaging Methodology for Volume, Surface Area, and Envelope Density Evaluation of Densified Biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of surface area, volume, and density is an essential for quantifying, evaluating, and designing the biomass densification, storage, and transport operations. Acquiring accurate and repeated measurements of these parameters for hygroscopic densified biomass are not straightforward and on...

  1. 3D density model of the western US lithosphere: Insights on chemistry, temperature, topography, and intraplate stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levandowski, W.; Jones, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although seismic velocity generally reflects material density, density models drawn solely from seismic interpretations suffer from the fact that temperature, melt-depletion, variations in quartz content, and in-situ melt—as well as myriad other factors—have different effects on the relationship between velocity and density. To wit, such models generally do not accurately recover gravity and/or topography variations. We have developed a probabilistic density modeling method that estimates density from seismic velocity and heat flow and refines these initial estimates in order to reproduce gravity and topography, accounting for lithospheric flexure. Both the input seismic velocity modeling and the refinement are Monte Carlo-type approaches, so the posterior distribution of models provides a direct measure of uncertainty. We leverage the aforementioned difference in sensitivity to separate density variations into thermal and compositional components, providing information on the chemistry and physical state of the crust and upper mantle. Using this approach and Transportable Array seismic data, we present a density model of the western US lithosphere (from central Kansas west) to a depth of 150 km that reveals: 1) remarkably uniform, near- to supra-solidus mantle temperatures beneath regions deformed in the Cenozoic--including the Colorado Plateau--that are ~400 °C higher than those beneath the nominally stable interior of North America; 2) crustal melt (~1%) beneath Miocene-Recent volcanic provinces; 3) depleted mantle lithosphere beneath the Wyoming craton and northern High Plains; 4) likely hydrated lower crust in the Colorado Plateau and Great Plains; and 5) that horizontal differences in lithostatic pressure create deviatoric extensional stress of ~10 MPa in the northern Basin and Range and along the margins of the Colorado Plateau. This density model is a rich source of information, shedding light on the causes and consequences of tectonism, crust

  2. High density resolution synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) for quantitative 3D-morphometrics in zoological sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Michael; Hammel, Jörg U.; Herzen, Julia; Bullinger, Eric; Beckmann, Felix

    2008-08-01

    Zoological sciences widely rely on morphological data to reconstruct and understand body structures of animals. The best suitable methods like tomography allow for a direct representation of 3D-structures. In recent years, synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) placed high resolutions to the disposal of morphologists. With the development of highly brilliant and collimated third generation synchrotron sources, phase contrast SR μCT became widely available. A number of scientific contributions stressed the superiority of phase contrast over absorption contrast. However, here we demonstrate the power of high density resolution methods based on absorption-contrast SRμCT for quantitative 3D-measurements of tissues and other delicate bio-structures in zoological sciences. We used beamline BW2 at DORIS III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) to perform microtomography on tissue and mineral skeletons of marine sponges (Porifera) which were shock frozen and/or fixed in a glutamate osmium tetroxide solution, followed by critical point drying. High density resolution tomographic reconstructions allowed running quantitative 3D-image analyses in Matlab and ImageJ. By applying contrast and shape rule based algorithms we semi-automatically extracted and measured sponge body structures like mineral spicules, elements of the canal system or tissue structures. This lead to a better understanding of sponge biology: from skeleton functional morphology and internal water flow regimes to body contractility. Our high density resolution based quantitative approach can be applied to a wide variety of biological structures. However, two prerequisites apply: (1) maximum density resolution is necessary; (2) edge effects as seen for example in phase outline contrast SR μCT must not be present. As a consequence, to allow biological sciences to fully exploit the power of SR μCT further increase of density resolution in absorption contrast methods is desirable.

  3. Impact of an Event-Specific Plasma Density Model for Modeling the October 8-9, 2012, Event with the LANL DREAM3D Diffusion Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, G.; Tu, W.; Morley, S.; Chen, Y.; Haidecuk, J.; De Pascuale, S.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Modeling the variation of the MeV electron phase space density in the inner magnetosphere during active times is sensitive to many parameters, including the initial and time-varying boundary conditions, VLF wave spectral properties, plasma density, and magnetic field. Historically, diffusion codes like LANL's DREAM3D have relied on the statistically-derived dependence of these parameters on geomagnetic indices, e.g. the wave intensity as a function of the AE index. However, the large number of satellites currently sampling the inner magnetosphere presents modelers with an unparalleled opportunity to create 'event-specific' models for many of these parameters. Toward this goal, we recently showed that using an event-specific model of the chorus wave intensity, built from proxy observations of low-energy electron precipitation observed by POES, along with a low-energy time-varying boundary condition informed by the Van Allen Probes, allows DREAM3D to reproduce the large enhancement of PSD for MeV electrons observed during the October 8-9, 2012, storm. One major limitation of this work is the fact that we used the static Sheeley plasma density model and a dipole magnetic field. Here we will discuss new results that use measurements of the plasma density inferred from the Van Allen Probes' EMFISIS instrument to build an event-specific, global, time-dependent model of the plasma density that we use in DREAM3D in combination with the Tsyganenko 2004 storm-time model of the magnetic field. We show that this combination of plasma density and magnetic field model reproduce the ratio of cyclotron frequency to plasma frequency reported by EMFISIS during the entirety of the October 8-9, 2012, storm at all L-shells of interest, whereas our earlier results did not use the correct ratio at most locations and times. Because this ratio is a key parameter governing the effectiveness of chorus waves in accelerating electrons to higher energy, our new DREAM3D results resolve several

  4. Stiffness of the microenvironment upregulates ERBB2 expression in 3D cultures of MCF10A within the range of mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qingsu; Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fonteney, Gerald; Chang, Hang; Henderson, Matthew; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the stiffness of the microenvironment on the molecular response of 3D colony organization, at the maximum level of mammographic density (MD), are investigated. Phenotypic profiling reveals that 3D colony formation is heterogeneous and increased stiffness of the microenvironment, within the range of the MD, correlates with the increased frequency of aberrant 3D colony formation. Further integrative analysis of the genome-wide transcriptome and phenotypic profiling hypothesizes overexpression of ERBB2 in the premalignant MCF10A cell lines at a stiffness value that corresponds to the collagen component at high mammographic density. Subsequently, ERBB2 overexpression has been validated in the same cell line. Similar experiments with a more genetically stable cell line of 184A1 also revealed an increased frequency of aberrant colony formation with the increased stiffness; however, 184A1 did not demonstrate overexpression of ERBB2 at the same stiffness value of the high MD. These results suggest that stiffness exacerbates premalignant cell line of MCF10A. PMID:27383056

  5. Stiffness of the microenvironment upregulates ERBB2 expression in 3D cultures of MCF10A within the range of mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qingsu; Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fonteney, Gerald; Chang, Hang; Henderson, Matthew; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the stiffness of the microenvironment on the molecular response of 3D colony organization, at the maximum level of mammographic density (MD), are investigated. Phenotypic profiling reveals that 3D colony formation is heterogeneous and increased stiffness of the microenvironment, within the range of the MD, correlates with the increased frequency of aberrant 3D colony formation. Further integrative analysis of the genome-wide transcriptome and phenotypic profiling hypothesizes overexpression of ERBB2 in the premalignant MCF10A cell lines at a stiffness value that corresponds to the collagen component at high mammographic density. Subsequently, ERBB2 overexpression has been validated in the same cell line. Similar experiments with a more genetically stable cell line of 184A1 also revealed an increased frequency of aberrant colony formation with the increased stiffness; however, 184A1 did not demonstrate overexpression of ERBB2 at the same stiffness value of the high MD. These results suggest that stiffness exacerbates premalignant cell line of MCF10A. PMID:27383056

  6. Electronic structure of trioxide, oxoperoxide, oxosuperoxide, and ozonide clusters of the 3d elements: density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Uzunova, Ellie L

    2011-03-01

    The trioxide clusters with stoichiometry MO3, and the structural isomers with side-on and end-on bonded oxygen atoms, are studied by DFT with the B1LYP functional. For the first half of the 3d elements row (Sc to Cr), pyramidal or distorted pyramidal structures dominate among the trioxide and oxoperoxide ground states, while the remaining elements form planar trioxides, oxoperoxides, oxosuperoxides, and ozonides. Low-lying trioxide clusters are formed by Ti, V, Cr, and Mn, among which the distorted pyramidal VO3 in the (2)A'' state, the pyramidal CrO3 in the (1)A1 state, and the planar MnO3 in the (2)A1' state are global minima. With the exception of the middle-row elements Mn, Fe, and Co, the magnetic moment of the ground-state clusters is formed with a major contribution from unpaired electrons located at the oxygen atoms. The stability of trioxides and oxoperoxides toward release of molecular oxygen is significantly higher for Sc, Ti, and V than for the remaining elements of the row. A trend of increasing the capability to dissociate one oxygen molecule is observed from Cr to Cu, with the exception of OFe(O2) being more reactive than OCo(O2). A gradual increase of reactivity from Ti to Cu is observed for the complete fragmentation reaction M + O + O2. PMID:21299242

  7. Characterization of 3D Trench PZT Capacitors for High Density FRAM Devices by Synchrotron X-ray Micro-diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sangmin; Han, Hee; Park, Yong Jun; Choi, Jae-Young; Park, Youngsoo; Baik, Sunggi

    2007-01-01

    3D trench PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) capacitors for 256 Mbit 1T-1C FRAM devices were characterized by synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction at Pohang Light Source. Three layes, Ir/PZT/Ir were deposited on SiO2 trench holes with different widths ranging from 180 nm to 810 nm and 400 nm in depth by ALD and MOCVD. Each hole is separated from neighboring holes by 200 nm. The cross sectional TEM analysis for the trenches revealed that the PZT layers were consisted of columnar grains at the trench entrance and changes to polycrystalline granular grains at the lower part of the trench. The transition from columnar to granular grains was dependent on the trench size. The smaller trenches were favorable to granular grain formation. High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystal structure of each region. The beam was focused to about 500 μm and the diffraction patterns were obtained from a single trench. Only the peaks corresponding to ferroelectric tetragonal phases are observed for the trenches larger than 670 nm, which consist of fully columnar grains. However, the trenches smaller than 670 nm showed the peaks corresponding the pyrochlore phases, which suggested that the granular grains are of pyrochlore phases and non-ferroelectric.

  8. Galaxy bias from the DES Science Verification data: combining galaxy density maps and weak lensing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Pujol, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.; Bacon, D.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-04-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of galaxy bias for a magnitude-limited galaxy sample by combining the galaxy density maps and weak lensing shear maps for a ˜116 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. This method was first developed in Amara et al. (2012) and later re-examined in a companion paper (Pujol et al. 2016) with rigorous simulation tests and analytical treatment of tomographic measurements. In this work we apply this method to the DES SV data and measure the galaxy bias for a i < 22.5 galaxy sample. We find the galaxy bias and 1σ error bars in 4 photometric redshift bins to be 1.12 ± 0.19 (z = 0.2 - 0.4), 0.97 ± 0.15 (z = 0.4 - 0.6), 1.38 ± 0.39 (z = 0.6 - 0.8), and 1.45 ± 0.56 (z = 0.8 - 1.0). These measurements are consistent at the 2σ level with measurements on the same dataset using galaxy clustering and cross-correlation of galaxies with CMB lensing, with most of the redshift bins consistent within the 1σ error bars. In addition, our method provides the only σ8-independent constraint among the three. We forward-model the main observational effects using mock galaxy catalogs by including shape noise, photo-z errors and masking effects. We show that our bias measurement from the data is consistent with that expected from simulations. With the forthcoming full DES data set, we expect this method to provide additional constraints on the galaxy bias measurement from more traditional methods. Furthermore, in the process of our measurement, we build up a 3D mass map that allows further exploration of the dark matter distribution and its relation to galaxy evolution.

  9. A novel method for simultaneous 3D B(1) and T(1) mapping: the method of slopes (MoS).

    PubMed

    Chavez, Sofia; Stanisz, Greg J

    2012-09-01

    A novel three-dimensional simultaneous B(1) and T(1) mapping method is introduced: the method of slopes (MoS). The linearity of the spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) signal vs flip angle relation is exploited: B(1) mapping is achieved by a two-point extrapolation to signal null with a correction scheme while T(1) mapping uses the slopes of the SPGR signal vs flip angle curves near the origin and near the signal null. This new method improves upon the existing variable flip angle (VFA) T(1)-mapping method in that (i) consistency between B(1) and T(1) maps is ensured (ii) the sampling scheme is T(1)-independent (iii) the noise bias and singularity, associated with using a linear form for the SPGR signal equation, is eliminated by using the full equation. The method is shown to yield accurate and robust results via simulations. Initial estimates of B(1) and T(1) values are obtained from three data points via simple computations and straight line approximations. Initial estimates of B(1) values, for a range of values, are shown to be accurate due to the proposed B(1) correction scheme. The accuracy and robustness of T(1) values is achieved via a non-linear fitting algorithm which includes a fourth data point sampled at high SNR. The MoS was validated by comparing resulting B(1) and T(1) maps with those obtained using other standard methods. Finally, the ability to obtain brain B(1) and T(1) maps using the MoS was demonstrated by in vivo experiments. The MoS is expected to perform well on other motion-free anatomical regions as well. PMID:22368092

  10. 3-D density modeling of Mt. Paekdu (N Korea/China) stratovolcano and its evolution by a combination of EGM2008/terrestrial gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Choi, Sungchan

    2015-04-01

    We combined the global gravity dataset EGM2008 and a local terrestrial gravity data survey to conduct constrained 3-D crustal density modeling of a strato-volcanic complex and the surrounding area located close to the border of North Korea and China. The independent geophysical (seismic, seismology, geochemistry) and petrological constraints will be presented together with the preprocessing of data base by curvature analysis and Euler deconvolution. The multiple data base is used to assist a general interpretation of the investigated area, and the 3D density model (modelled by the in-house IGMAS+ software). Mt. Paekdu is characterized by a low of Bouguer anomaly of some -110 × 10-5 m/s2, which is caused by the combined gravity effects of (1) Moho depth of about 40 km, (2) a zone with both lower P-wave velocity and density than the surrounding, (3) low density volcanic rocks at the surface, and (4) the presence of a magma chamber that has not previously been identified. The terrestrial gravity field measured along the seismic profile shows a remarkable anomaly descending from the southern- to the northern flank of the Mt. Paekdu volcano, which should be a typical anomaly pattern generally observed over the active volcanic area in the world (e.g. the Yellow Stone volcano). The trend is interpreted to be caused by a prominent density difference between a serious of high density mid crustal sill beneath the southern flank and a predicted partial melted zone locating in the northern flank. With the help of several geoscientific observations (seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and geochemistry) and the 3D density model we conclude that a high density sill was formed in Pliocene and early Pleistocene after pre-shield plateau-forming eruption. Since the Pliocene, volcanic activity in the Mt. Paekdu region might be migrated from the southeastern of North Korea to the northwest, following the path of NW-SE-trending faults. Recently observed seismic tremors can be explained

  11. 3-D Density Modeling of the Combined EGM2008/Terrestrial Gravity Field over the Mt. Paekdu (N Korea/China) Stratovolcano and Its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetze, H. J.; Choi, S.

    2014-12-01

    In the presentation we get use of the global gravity dataset EGM2008 and a local terrestrial gravity data survey for a constrained 3-D crustal density modeling of a stratovolcano and its surrounding area located close to the border of North Korea and China. The independent geophysical (seismic, seismology, geochemistry) and petrological constraints will be presented together with the preprocessing of data base by curvature analysis and Euler deconvolution. The multiple data base is used to assist a general interpretation of the investigated area in time, and the 3D density model (modelled by the inhouse IGMAS+ software). Mt. Paekdu is characterized by a low of Bouguer anomaly of some -110 ´ 10-5 m/s2, which is caused by the combined gravity effects of (1) Moho depth of about 40 km, (2) a zone with both lower P-wave velocity and density than the surrounding, (3) low density volcanic rocks at the surface, and (4) the presence of a magma chamber that has not previously been identified. The terrestrial gravity field measured along the seismic profile shows a remarkable anomaly descending from the southern- to the northern flank of the Mt. Paekdu volcano, which should be a typical anomaly pattern generally obsered over the active volcanic area in the world (e.g. the Yellow Stone volcano). The trend is interpreted to be caused by a prominent density difference between a serious of high density mid crustal sill beneath the southern flank and a predicted partial melted zone locating in the northern flank. With the help of several geoscientific observations (seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and geochemistry) and the 3D density model we conclude that a high density sill was formed in Pliocene and early Pleistocene after pre-shield plateau-forming eruption. Since the Pliocene, volcanic activity in the Mt. Paekdu region might be migrated from the southeastern of North Korea to the northwest, following the path of NW-SE-trending faults. Recently observed seismic tremors can

  12. Immersed boundary Eulerian-Lagrangian 3D simulation of pyroclastic density currents: numerical scheme and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronzo, Domenico Maria; de Tullio, Marco; Pascazio, Giuseppe; Dellino, Pierfrancesco

    2010-05-01

    Pyroclastic density currents are ground hugging, hot, gas-particle flows representing the most hazardous events of explosive volcanism. Their impact on structures is a function of dynamic pressure, which expresses the lateral load that such currents exert over buildings. In this paper we show how analog experiments can be matched with numerical simulations for capturing the essential physics of the multiphase flow. We used an immersed boundary scheme for the mesh generation, which helped in reconstructing the steep velocity and particle concentration gradients near the ground surface. Results show that the calculated values of dynamic pressure agree reasonably with the experimental measurements. These outcomes encourage future application of our method for the assessment of the impact of pyroclastic density currents at the natural scale.

  13. Automatic Texture Mapping with AN Omnidirectional Camera Mounted on a Vehicle Towards Large Scale 3d City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, F.; Li, D.; Yan, L.; Fan, H.

    2012-07-01

    Today high resolution panoramic images with competitive quality have been widely used for rendering in some commercial systems. However the potential applications such as mapping, augmented reality and modelling which need accurate orientation information are still poorly studied. Urban models can be quickly obtained from aerial images or LIDAR, however with limited quality or efficiency due to low resolution textures and manual texture mapping work flow. We combine an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with the traditional Structure from Motion (SFM) method without any prior information based on a general camera model which can handle various kinds of omnidirectional and other kind of single perspective image sequences even with unconnected or weakly connected frames. The orientation results is then applied to mapping the textures from panoramas to the existing building models obtained from aerial photogrammetry. It turns out to largely improve the quality of the models and the efficiency of the modelling procedure.

  14. About Non-Line-Of-Sight Satellite Detection and Exclusion in a 3D Map-Aided Localization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Peyraud, Sébastien; Bétaille, David; Renault, Stéphane; Ortiz, Miguel; Mougel, Florian; Meizel, Dominique; Peyret, François

    2013-01-01

    Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results. PMID:23344379

  15. Predictive Modeling of Antioxidant Coumarin Derivatives Using Multiple Approaches: Descriptor-Based QSAR, 3D-Pharmacophore Mapping, and HQSAR.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Indrani; Saha, Achintya; Roy, Kunal

    2013-03-01

    The inability of the systemic antioxidants to alleviate the exacerbation of free radical formation from metabolic outputs and environmental pollutants claims an urgent demand for the identification and design of new chemical entities with potent antioxidant activity. In the present work, different QSAR approaches have been utilized for identifying the essential structural attributes imparting a potential antioxidant activity profile of the coumarin derivatives. The descriptor-based QSAR model provides a quantitative outline regarding the structural prerequisites of the molecules, while 3D pharmacophore and HQSAR models emphasize the favourable spatial arrangement of the various chemical features and the crucial molecular fragments, respectively. All the models infer that the fused benzene ring and the oxygen atom of the pyran ring constituting the parent coumarin nucleus capture the prime pharmacophoric features, imparting superior antioxidant activity to the molecules. The developed models may serve as indispensable query tools for screening untested molecules belonging to the class of coumarin derivatives. PMID:23641329

  16. About Non-Line-Of-Sight satellite detection and exclusion in a 3D map-aided localization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, Sébastien; Bétaille, David; Renault, Stéphane; Ortiz, Miguel; Mougel, Florian; Meizel, Dominique; Peyret, François

    2013-01-01

    Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue: actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results. PMID:23344379

  17. Development, Calibration and Evaluation of a Portable and Direct Georeferenced Laser Scanning System for Kinematic 3D Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Erik; Eling, Christian; Wieland, Markus; Klingbeil, Lasse; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, kinematic laser scanning has become increasingly popular because it offers many benefits compared to static laser scanning. The advantages include both saving of time in the georeferencing and a more favorable scanning geometry. Often mobile laser scanning systems are installed on wheeled platforms, which may not reach all parts of the object. Hence, there is an interest in the development of portable systems, which remain operational even in inaccessible areas. The development of such a portable laser scanning system is presented in this paper. It consists of a lightweight direct georeferencing unit for the position and attitude determination and a small low-cost 2D laser scanner. This setup provides advantages over existing portable systems that employ heavy and expensive 3D laser scanners in a profiling mode. A special emphasis is placed on the system calibration, i. e. the determination of the transformation between the coordinate frames of the direct georeferencing unit and the 2D laser scanner. To this end, a calibration field is used, which consists of differently orientated georeferenced planar surfaces, leading to estimates for the lever arms and boresight angles with an accuracy of mm and one-tenth of a degree. Finally, point clouds of the mobile laser scanning system are compared with georeferenced point clouds of a high-precision 3D laser scanner. Accordingly, the accuracy of the system is in the order of cm to dm. This is in good agreement with the expected accuracy, which has been derived from the error propagation of previously estimated variance components.

  18. Investigation of the 2p3/2-3d5/2 line emission of Au53+ -- Au69+ for diagnosing high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Hansen, S B; Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Widmann, K; Chen, H; Chung, H K; Clementson, J T; Gu, M F; Thorn, D B

    2008-01-29

    Measurements of the L-shell emission of highly charged gold ions were made under controlled laboratory conditions using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, allowing detailed spectral observations of lines from ironlike Au{sup 53+} through neonlike Au{sup 69+}. Using atomic data from the Flexible Atomic Code, we have identified strong 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features that can be used to diagnose the charge state distribution in high energy density plasmas, such as those found in the laser entrance hole of hot hohlraum radiation sources. We provide collisional-radiative calculations of the average ion charge as a function of temperature and density, which can be used to relate charge state distributions inferred from 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features to plasma conditions, and investigate the effects of plasma density on calculated L-shell Au emission spectra.

  19. The Geometry of Density States, Positive Maps and Tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.; Zaccaria, F.

    The positive and not completely positive maps of density matrices, which are contractive maps, are discussed as elements of a semigroup. A new kind of positive map (the purification map), which is nonlinear map, is introduced. The density matrices are considered as vectors, linear maps among matrices are represented by superoperators given in the form of higher dimensional matrices. Probability representation of spin states (spin tomography) is reviewed and U(N)-tomogram of spin states is presented. Properties of the tomograms as probability distribution functions are studied. Notion of tomographic purity of spin states is introduced. Entanglement and separability of density matrices are expressed in terms of properties of the tomographic joint probability distributions of random spin projections which depend also on unitary group parameters. A new positivity criterion for hermitian matrices is formulated. An entanglement criterion is given in terms of a function depending on unitary group paramete rs and semigroup of positive map parameters. The function is constructed as sum of moduli of U(N)- tomographic symbols of the hermitian matrix obtained after action on the density matrix of composite system by a positive but not completely positive map of the subsystem density matrix. Some two-qubit and two-qutritt states are considered as examples of entangled states. The connection with the star-product quantisation is discussed. The structure of the set of density matrices and their relation to unitary group and Lie algebra of the unitary group are studied. Nonlinear quantum evolution of state vector obtained by means of applying purification rule of density matrices evolving via dynamical maps is considered. Some connection of positive maps and entanglement with random matrices is discussed and used.

  20. Density structure and geometry of the Costa Rican subduction zone from 3-D gravity modeling and local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, O. H.; Arroyo, I. G.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern part of the oceanic Cocos Plate presents a heterogeneous crustal structure due to diverse origins and ages as well as plate-hot spot interactions which originated the Cocos Ridge, a structure that converges with the Caribbean Plate in southeastern Costa Rica. The complex structure of the oceanic plate directly influences the dynamics and geometry of the subduction zone along the Middle American Trench. In this paper an integrated interpretation of the slab geometry is presented based on three-dimensional density modeling of combined satellite and surface gravity data, constrained by available geophysical and geological data and seismological information obtained from local networks. The results show the continuation of steep subduction geometry from the Nicaraguan margin into Northwestern Costa Rica, followed by a moderate dipping slab under the Central Cordillera toward the end of the Central American Volcanic Arc. To the southeast end of the volcanic arc, our preferred model shows a steep, coherent slab that extends up to the landward projection of the Panama Fracture Zone. Overall, a gradual change in the depth of the intraplate seismicity is observed, reaching 220 km in the northwestern part, and becoming progressively shallower toward the southeast, where it reaches a terminal depth of 75 km. The changes in the terminal depth of the observed seismicity correlate with the increased density in the modeled slab. The absence of intermediate depth intraplate seismicity in the southeastern section and the higher densities for the subducted slab in this area, support a model in which dehydration reactions in the subducted slab cease at a shallower depth, originating an anhydrous and thus aseismic slab.

  1. Influence of critical current density on magnetic force of HTSC bulk above PMR with 3D-modeling numerical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Qin, Yujie

    2015-09-01

    Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk levitating over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of the H-method coupling with the classical description of the heat conduction equation. The numerical resolving codes are practiced with the help of the finite element program generation system (FEPG) platform using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of HTS bulk. The simulation results show that the heat conduction and the critical current density are tightly relative to the thermal effects of the HTS bulk over the PMG. The heat intensity which responds to the heat loss of the HTS bulk is mainly distributed at the two bottom-corners of the bulk sample.

  2. Automated Quantification of DNA Demethylation Effects in Cells via 3D Mapping of Nuclear Signatures and Population Homogeneity Assessment1

    PubMed Central

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Lindsley, Erik; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Farkas, Daniel L.; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Background Today’s advanced microscopic imaging applies to the preclinical stages of drug discovery that employ high-throughput and high-content three-dimensional (3D) analysis of cells to more efficiently screen candidate compounds. Drug efficacy can be assessed by measuring response homogeneity to treatment within a cell population. In this study topologically quantified nuclear patterns of methylated cytosine and global nuclear DNA are utilized as signatures of cellular response to the treatment of cultured cells with the demethylating anti-cancer agents: 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and octreotide (OCT). Methods Mouse pituitary folliculostellate TtT-GF cells treated with 5-AZA and OCT for 48 hours, and untreated populations, were studied by immunofluorescence with a specific antibody against 5-methylcytosine (MeC), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for delineation of methylated sites and global DNA in nuclei (n=163). Cell images were processed utilizing an automated 3D analysis software that we developed by combining seeded watershed segmentation to extract nuclear shells with measurements of Kullback-Leibler’s (K-L) divergence to analyze cell population homogeneity in the relative nuclear distribution patterns of MeC versus DAPI stained sites. Each cell was assigned to one of the four classes: similar, likely similar, unlikely similar and dissimilar. Results Evaluation of the different cell groups revealed a significantly higher number of cells with similar or likely similar MeC/DAPI patterns among untreated cells (~100%), 5-AZA-treated cells (90%), and a lower degree of same type of cells (64%) in the OCT-treated population. The latter group contained (28%) of unlikely similar or dissimilar (7%) cells. Conclusion Our approach was successful in the assessment of cellular behavior relevant to the biological impact of the applied drugs, i.e. the reorganization of MeC/DAPI distribution by demethylation. In a comparison with other metrics, K-L divergence has

  3. Electromechanical wave imaging for noninvasive mapping of the 3D electrical activation sequence in canines and humans in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Konofagou, Elisa E.; Provost, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases rank as America’s primary killer, claiming the lives of over 41% of more than 2.4 million Americans. One of the main reasons for this high death toll is the severe lack of effective imaging techniques for screening, early detection and localization of an abnormality detected on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The two most widely used imaging techniques in the clinic are CT angiography and echocardiography with limitations in speed of application and reliability, respectively. It has been established that the mechanical and electrical properties of the myocardium change dramatically as a result of ischemia, infarction or arrhythmia; both at their onset and after survival. Despite these findings, no imaging technique currently exists that is routinely used in the clinic and can provide reliable, non-invasive, quantitative mapping of the regional, mechanical and electrical function of the myocardium. Electromechanical Wave Imaging (EWI) is an ultrasound-based technique that utilizes the electromechanical coupling and its associated resulting strain to infer to the underlying electrical function of the myocardium. The methodology of EWI is first described and its fundamental performance is presented. Subsequent in vivo canine and human applications are provided that demonstrate the applicability of Electromechanical Wave Imaging in differentiating between sinus rhythm and induced pacing schemes as well as mapping arrhythmias. Preliminary validation with catheter mapping is also provided and transthoracic electromechanical mapping in all four chambers of the human heart is also presented demonstrating the potential of this novel methodology to noninvasively infer to both the normal and pathological electrical conduction of the heart. PMID:22284425

  4. A system for high resolution 3D mapping using laser radar and requiring no beam scanning mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, Paul

    1988-06-01

    The inherently high angular and range resolution capabilities associated with radar systems operating at optical frequencies are at once a blessing and a curse. Standard implementations consist of very narrow field of view optical receivers operating in conjunction with laser transmitters or even narrower illumination beamwidth. While high angular resolution is thus achieved, mechanical scanning is required to gather data over extended fields of view. The many laser pulse transmissions necessary to cover the entire field of view increase the detectability of the system by enemy sensors. A system concept is proposed which, through the use of a single laser transmitter and multiple optical receivers, largely eliminate these deficiencies. Complete 3D data over a broad angular field of view and depth of field can be gathered based upon the reflections from a single transmitted laser pulse. Covert operation is enhanced as a result of the sparse laser transmissions required. The eye safety characteristics of the system are also enhanced. Proprietary coding of optical shutters in each of the multiple optical receivers permits the number of such receivers to be reduced to a very practical few. An alternative configuration of the system reduces the number of receivers required to one, at the expense of increased data acquisition time. The multiple receiver configuration is simply a parallel processing implementation of the single receiver approach. While data rate is reduced by the single receiver configuration, it still greatly exceeds that of scanning systems, and hardware complexity is also reduced significantly.

  5. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K; Lemos, Jose A; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  6. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  7. The Performance Analysis of a 3d Map Embedded Ins/gps Fusion Algorithm for Seamless Vehicular Navigation in Elevated Highway Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Chiang, K. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a 3D Map Matching (3D MM) algorithm is embedded to current INS/GPS fusion algorithm for enhancing the sustainability and accuracy of INS/GPS integration systems, especially the height component. In addition, this study propose an effective solutions to the limitation of current commercial vehicular navigation systems where they fail to distinguish whether the vehicle is moving on the elevated highway or the road under it because those systems don't have sufficient height resolution. To validate the performance of proposed 3D MM embedded INS/GPS integration algorithms, in the test area, two scenarios were considered, paths under the freeways and streets between tall buildings, where the GPS signal is obstacle or interfered easily. The test platform was mounted on the top of a land vehicle and also systems in the vehicle. The IMUs applied includes SPAN-LCI (0.1 deg/hr gyro bias) from NovAtel, which was used as the reference system, and two MEMS IMUs with different specifications for verifying the performance of proposed algorithm. The preliminary results indicate the proposed algorithms are able to improve the accuracy of positional components in GPS denied environments significantly with the use of INS/GPS integrated systems in SPP mode.

  8. 3D chemical mapping: application of scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) in combination with angle-scan tomography in bio-, geo-, and environmental sciences.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Schmid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The identification of environmental processes and mechanisms often requires information on the organochemical and inorganic composition of specimens at high spatial resolution. X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) performed in the soft X-ray range (100-2,200 eV) provides chemical speciation information for elements that are of high biogeochemical relevance such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen but also includes transition metals such as iron, manganese, or nickel. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combines XAS with high resolution mapping on the 20-nm scale. This provides two-dimensional (2D) quantitative information about the distribution of chemical species such as organic macromolecules, metals, or mineral phases within environmental samples. Furthermore, the combination of STXM with angle-scan tomography allows for three-dimensional (3D) spectromicroscopic analysis of bio-, geo-, or environmental samples. For the acquisition of STXM tomography data, the sample is rotated around an axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. Various sample preparation approaches such as stripes cut from TEM grids or the preparation of wet cells allow for preparing environmentally relevant specimens in a dry or in a fully hydrated state for 2D and 3D STXM measurements. In this chapter we give a short overview about the principles of STXM, its application to environmental sciences, different preparation techniques, and the analysis and 3D reconstruction of STXM tomography data. PMID:24357389

  9. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Tony; Knopf, Antje

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on

  10. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  11. 3D QSAR Pharmacophore Modeling, in Silico Screening, and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Approaches for Identification of Human Chymase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Arooj, Mahreen; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; John, Shalini; Hwang, Swan; Park, Jong Keun; Lee, Keun Woo

    2011-01-01

    Human chymase is a very important target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Using a series of theoretical methods like pharmacophore modeling, database screening, molecular docking and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, an investigation for identification of novel chymase inhibitors, and to specify the key factors crucial for the binding and interaction between chymase and inhibitors is performed. A highly correlating (r = 0.942) pharmacophore model (Hypo1) with two hydrogen bond acceptors, and three hydrophobic aromatic features is generated. After successfully validating “Hypo1”, it is further applied in database screening. Hit compounds are subjected to various drug-like filtrations and molecular docking studies. Finally, three structurally diverse compounds with high GOLD fitness scores and interactions with key active site amino acids are identified as potent chymase hits. Moreover, DFT study is performed which confirms very clear trends between electronic properties and inhibitory activity (IC50) data thus successfully validating “Hypo1” by DFT method. Therefore, this research exertion can be helpful in the development of new potent hits for chymase. In addition, the combinational use of docking, orbital energies and molecular electrostatic potential analysis is also demonstrated as a good endeavor to gain an insight into the interaction between chymase and inhibitors. PMID:22272131

  12. Evolution of chemical bonding and electron density rearrangements during D(3h) → D(3d) reaction in monolayered TiS2: a QTAIM and ELF study.

    PubMed

    Ryzhikov, Maxim R; Slepkov, Vladimir A; Kozlova, Svetlana G; Gabuda, Svyatoslav P

    2014-08-15

    Monolayered titanium disulfide TiS2, a prospective nanoelectronic material, was previously shown to be subject to an exothermic solid-state D3h -D3d reaction that proceeds via a newly discovered transition state. Here, we study the reaction in detail using topological methods of quantum chemistry (quantum theory of atoms in molecules and electron localization function analysis) and show how electron density and chemical bonding between the atoms change in the course of the reaction. The reaction is shown to undergo a series of topological catastrophes, associated with elementary chemical events such as break and formation of bonds (including the unexpected formation of S-S bonding between sulfur layers), and rearrangement of electron density of outer valence and core shells. PMID:24943852

  13. Exact maps in density functional theory for lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Tanja; Appel, Heiko; Fuks, Johanna I.; Rubio, Angel

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we employ exact diagonalization for model systems on a real-space lattice to explicitly construct the exact density-to-potential and graphically illustrate the complete exact density-to-wavefunction map that underly the Hohenberg–Kohn theorem in density functional theory. Having the explicit wavefunction-to-density map at hand, we are able to construct arbitrary observables as functionals of the ground-state density. We analyze the density-to-potential map as the distance between the fragments of a system increases and the correlation in the system grows. We observe a feature that gradually develops in the density-to-potential map as well as in the density-to-wavefunction map. This feature is inherited by arbitrary expectation values as functional of the ground-state density. We explicitly show the excited-state energies, the excited-state densities, and the correlation entropy as functionals of the ground-state density. All of them show this exact feature that sharpens as the coupling of the fragments decreases and the correlation grows. We denominate this feature as intra-system steepening and discuss how it relates to the well-known inter-system derivative discontinuity. The inter-system derivative discontinuity is an exact concept for coupled subsystems with degenerate ground state. However, the coupling between subsystems as in charge transfer processes can lift the degeneracy. An important conclusion is that for such systems with a near-degenerate ground state, the corresponding cut along the particle number N of the exact density functionals is differentiable with a well-defined gradient near integer particle number.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pseudo-3D maps of DIB at 862nm (Kos+ 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, J.; Zwitter, T.; Wyse, R.; Bienayme, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Sharma, S.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M. E. K.

    2015-05-01

    Equivalent widths of DIB 8620 and reddening is presented as calculated from the RAVE survey. Data represent pseudo-3-dimensional map given as values in 1292 bins for the northern and 2212 bins for the southern galactic hemisphere, covering a wide range of galactic longitudes and distances up to 3kpc. Only two layers represent the dimension along the galactic latitude, thus the name pseudo. Perpendicular to the galactic plane a scale height is calculated. The value is 117.7+/-4.7pc for the dust absorption and 209.0+/-11.9pc for the DIB's equivalent width. The values of the equivalent width and reddening are not direct measurements, but are projected values into the galactic plane according to the exponential law with the mentioned scale height. The maps represent measurements made in spectra of stars at different galactic latitudes, so for the measurements to be comparable, the values must be rescaled. The mapped values are therefore the values one would measure if the observer and the source both lied in the galactic plane. Note that the observations do not cover the galactic plane and the measured values might not reflect the state of the ISM in the plane. Each bin represents a column stretching from the galactic plane, symetricaly to the south and to the north. The cross section of the bin has a shape of a slice of an annulus. The nearest annulus has 3 slices and the following ones so many that they have as equal area as possible. See paper for easier visualization. (2 data files).

  15. 3D full-waveform inversion of time-lapse horizontal borehole GPR data to map soil water content variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzsche, A.; Van Der Kruk, J.; Oberroehrmann, M.; Vanderborght, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key state variable that controls water and mass fluxes in soil-plant systems and is variable in space and time. Over the last year's, hydrogeophysical methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) have been used to determine electromagnetic properties as proxies for soil water content (SWC). Here, we combined zero-offset-profiles (ZOP) GPR measurements within multiple horizontal minirhizotubes at different depths to determine the spatial and temporal variability of SWC under a winter wheat stand at the Selhausen test site (Germany). We studied spatio-temporal variations of SWC under three different treatments: rainfed, irrigated and sheltered. We acquired 15 time-lapse ZOP GPR dataset during the growing season of the wheat in the rhizotron facility using horizontal boreholes with a separation of 0.75m and a length of 6m at six depths between 0.1-1.2m. The obtained radar velocities were converted to SWC using the 4-phase volumetric complex refractive index model. SWC values obtained using standard ray-based processing methods were not reliable close to the surface (0.1-0.2m depth) because of the inference of the critically refracted air wave and the direct wave through the subsurface. Therefore, we implemented a full-waveform inversion that uses accurate 3D forward modeling of GPRMax that incorporates the air and soil interactions. The shuffled complex evolution (SCE) method allowed us to retrieve quantitative medium properties that explained the measured data with a R² of at least 0.95, and improved SWC estimates at all depths. The final SWC distributions for wet and dry conditions showed that the vertical variability is significantly larger than the lateral variability caused by strong influence of precipitation and irrigation events.

  16. Mapping Faults from 3-D Tomographic Velocity Model using Image Processing / Computer Vision Algorithms: Application to Northern Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, K.

    2011-12-01

    Three dimensional velocity models constructed through seismic tomography are seldom digitally processed further for imaging structural features. A study conducted to evaluate the potential for imaging subsurface discontinuities in horizontal and vertical direction from three dimensional velocity models using image processing/computer vision techniques has provided significant results. Three-dimensional velocity models constructed through tomographic inversion of active source and/or earthquake traveltime data are generally built from an initial 1-D velocity model that varies only with depth. Regularized tomographic inversion algorithms impose constraints on the roughness of the model that help to stabilize the inversion process. Final velocity models obtained from regularized tomographic inversions have smooth three-dimensional structures that are required by the data. Final velocity models are usually analyzed and interpreted either as a perturbation velocity model or as an absolute velocity model. Compared to perturbation velocity model, absolute velocity model has an advantage of providing constraints on lithology. Both velocity models lack the ability to provide sharp constraints on subsurface faults. However, results from the analysis of the 3-D velocity model from northern Cascadia using Roberts, Prewitt, Sobel, and Canny operators show that subsurface faults that are not clearly interpretable from velocity model plots can be identified through this approach. This analysis resulted in inferring the locations of Tacoma Fault, Seattle Fault, Southern Whidbey Island Fault, and Darrington Devils Mountain fault much clearly. The Coast Range Boundary Fault, previously hypothesized on the basis of sedimentological and tectonic observations is inferred clearly from processed images. Many of the fault locations so imaged correlate with earthquake hypocenters indicating their seismogenic nature.

  17. 3D Mapping of Safe and Danger Zones in the Maxilla and Mandible for the Placement of Intermaxillary Fixation Screws

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Pohchi, Abdullah; Abdul Razak, Noor Hayati

    2013-01-01

    Intermaxillary (IMF) screws feature several advantages over other devices used for intermaxillary fixation, but using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to determine the safe and danger zones to place these devices for all patients can be expensive. This study aimed to determine the optimal interradicular and buccopalatal/buccolingual spaces for IMF screw placement in the maxilla and mandible. The CBCT volumetric data of 193 patients was used to generate transaxial slices between the second molar on the right to the second molar on the left in both arches. The mean interradicular and buccopalatal/buccolingual distances and standard deviation values were obtained at heights of 2, 5, 8 and 11 mm from the alveolar bone crest. An IMF screw with a diameter of 1.0 mm and length of 7 mm can be placed distal to the canines (2 - 11 mm from the alveolar crest) and less than 8 mm between the molars in the maxilla. In the mandible, the safest position is distal to the first premolar (more than 5 mm) and distal to the second premolar (more than 2 mm). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the right and left quadrants. The colour coding 3D template showed the safe and danger zones based on the mesiodistal, buccopalatal and buccolingual distances in the maxilla and mandible.The safest sites for IMF screw insertion in the maxilla were between the canines and first premolars and between the first and second molars. In the mandible, the safest sites were between the first and second premolars and between the second premolar and first molar. However, the IMF screw should not exceed 1.0 mm in diameter and 7 mm in length. PMID:24367643

  18. Alterations of Mass Density and 3D Osteocyte Lacunar Properties in Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrotic Human Jaw Bone, a Synchrotron µCT Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Bernhard; Langer, Max; Varga, Peter; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Dong, Pei; Schrof, Susanne; Männicke, Nils; Suhonen, Heikki; Olivier, Cecile; Maurer, Peter; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw, in association with bisphosphonates (BRONJ) used for treating osteoporosis or cancer, is a severe and most often irreversible side effect whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Osteocytes are involved in bone remodeling and mineralization where they orchestrate the delicate equilibrium between osteoclast and osteoblast activity and through the active process called osteocytic osteolysis. Here, we hypothesized that (i) changes of the mineralized tissue matrix play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BRONJ, and (ii) the osteocyte lacunar morphology is altered in BRONJ. Synchrotron µCT with phase contrast is an appropriate tool for assessing both the 3D morphology of the osteocyte lacunae and the bone matrix mass density. Here, we used this technique to investigate the mass density distribution and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties at the sub-micrometer scale in human bone samples from the jaw, femur and tibia. First, we compared healthy human jaw bone to human tibia and femur in order to assess the specific differences and address potential explanations of why the jaw bone is exclusively targeted by the necrosis as a side effect of BP treatment. Second, we investigated the differences between BRONJ and control jaw bone samples to detect potential differences which could aid an improved understanding of the course of BRONJ. We found that the apparent mass density of jaw bone was significantly smaller compared to that of tibia, consistent with a higher bone turnover in the jaw bone. The variance of the lacunar volume distribution was significantly different depending on the anatomical site. The comparison between BRONJ and control jaw specimens revealed no significant increase in mineralization after BP. We found a significant decrease in osteocyte-lacunar density in the BRONJ group compared to the control jaw. Interestingly, the osteocyte-lacunar volume distribution was not altered after BP treatment. PMID

  19. Co-incident 3D mapping of sea ice surface elevation and ice draft in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, M. J.; Forsberg, R.; Haas, C.; Hanson, S.; Hendriks, S.; Martin, T.; Skourup, H.; Wadhams, P.

    2007-12-01

    Co-incident measurements of sea ice freeboard, thickness and draft were made during the Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station (APLIS), in April 2007. The campaign was the first time that full three-dimensional mapping of sea ice freeboard and sea ice draft have been achieved simultaneously. Freeboard was measured across a swath width of 300 m at 1 m spatial resolution, using a laser profilometer flown aboard a Twin Otter aircraft. Ice draft was measured across a swath width of approximately 80 m at 0.5 m spatial resolution, using a Gavia AUV fitted with a GeoAcoustics phase-measuring swath sonar. Ice thickness was also measured along co-incident tracks using a helicopter-borne electromagnetic sounding instrument (HEM bird). The laser profilometer and AUV-mounted sonar rely on the assumption of isostatic balance when deriving ice thickness estimates from the ice surface and underside profiles, while the HEM bird records both surfaces simultaneously and independently, though averaging over a significant footprint (30 m) for the underside of the ice. Though the extent of the APLIS dataset was limited by the radius of AUV operations, the dataset will significantly improve our understanding of ice volume in deformed ice areas, particularly our understanding of the contribution of ridges and rubble fields to total Arctic ice volume, their isostatic balance and questions of block-scale porosity. The data will serve to better constrain the effects of porosity and footprint on the operational HEM measurements and, conversely, the HEM measurements will allow conclusions about the impact of the isostatic balance assumption on ice thickness estimates derived from mapping of one surface.

  20. Evolution of probability densities in stochastic coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losson, Jérôme; Mackey, Michael C.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes the statistical properties of coupled map lattices subjected to the influence of stochastic perturbations. The stochastic analog of the Perron-Frobenius operator is derived for various types of noise. When the local dynamics satisfy rather mild conditions, this equation is shown to possess either stable, steady state solutions (i.e., a stable invariant density) or density limit cycles. Convergence of the phase space densities to these limit cycle solutions explains the nonstationary behavior of statistical quantifiers at equilibrium. Numerical experiments performed on various lattices of tent, logistic, and shift maps with diffusivelike interelement couplings are examined in light of these theoretical results.

  1. Compositional Density Structure of the Upper Mantle from Constrained 3-D Inversion of Gravity Anomaly: A Case Study of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Chen, C.; Kaban, M. K.; Thomas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle density structure is a key for tectonics. The density variations in the upper mantle are affected by temperature and composition. Seismic tomography method has been widely applied to obtain the P- and S-wave velocity structure in the mantle, which is then used to calculate the density perturbation. However, the velocity model is mainly due to the thermal effects but not the compositional effects. A method of 3-D inversion of gravity anomaly developed in spherical coordinates is used to image the large-scale density structure of upper mantle in Southeast Asia. The mantle gravity anomalies used in inversion are calculated by removing the crustal effects from the observed gravity. With constraints of thermal density model from seismic tomography, the integrative density structure is estimated from gravity inversion. Consequently, we obtain the compositional density by subtracting the thermal density from the integrative structure. The result of inversion shows the anisotropic composition of subduction zones, Cratons and plates boundary in Southeast Asia. In the shallow depth, the compositional density anomalies of large scales present uniform features in oceanic and continental mantle. In depth of 75-175 km, there are differences between the thermal and the compositional variations. The density anomalies at these depths are both affected by temperature and composition of the upper mantle. Below 175-km depth, the density anomalies are dominated by the compositional variations. Furthermore, comparing with high seismicity occurred at moderate-depth (50-300 km), we found that the compositional density variations is one of the factor that inducing earthquakes. The constrained inversion of mantle gravity anomaly has possibility to reveal the subduction which is not clearly seen from low-resolution tomography data, and may reveal the relation of seismicity and composition in the upper mantle. This study is supported by the Program of International Science and

  2. 3D modeling of density and substratum topography effects in a heterogeneous aquifer: the case of the hundred year saline pollution in the Upper Rhine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Yann; Younes, Anis; Ackerer, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Knowing the distribution of fresh and saline groundwater is an important issue of the sustainable management of water resources. Here we deal with groundwater plume pollution coming from brines of salted waste heaps in the Upper Rhine aquifer, one of the most important groundwater resources for Western Europe. It has been contaminated in its upstream part by mining brine infiltration coming from potash extraction which started at the beginning of the twentieth century. The salty residues were stored in waste heaps near the mine shafts, and, due to rainwater percolation through the heaps, saline aqueous solutions mixed with groundwater and then progressed in the flow direction, forming high salinity plumes. In the present case, it is proved that density effects are all the more necessary to be considered in a modeling approach that brines density can reach high values just below waste heaps. For this purpose a 3D model is developed using the SEAWAT option of Modflow in a 30 layers model. Simulations are performed on about one hundred years, where chlorine concentration data on the last thirty years are used to constrain the model. In our case, conjugated to a heckled substratum topography, heterogeneous hydrodynamical conditions and the fact that pollution history alternates high pollution phases with relatively low pollution phases, density driven flows lead salted water into original directions downstream waste heaps. From a numerical point of view, it is also shown that discretization degree plays a major role in the density effect modeling.

  3. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  4. Order parameter re-mapping algorithm for 3D phase field model of grain growth using FEM

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Permann, Cody J.; Tonks, Michael R.; Fromm, Bradley; Gaston, Derek R.

    2016-01-14

    Phase field modeling (PFM) is a well-known technique for simulating microstructural evolution. To model grain growth using PFM, typically each grain is assigned a unique non-conserved order parameter and each order parameter field is evolved in time. Traditional approaches using a one-to-one mapping of grains to order parameters present a challenge when modeling large numbers of grains due to the computational expense of using many order parameters. This problem is exacerbated when using an implicit finite element method (FEM), as the global matrix size is proportional to the number of order parameters. While previous work has developed methods to reducemore » the number of required variables and thus computational complexity and run time, none of the existing approaches can be applied for an implicit FEM implementation of PFM. Here, we present a modular, dynamic, scalable reassignment algorithm suitable for use in such a system. Polycrystal modeling with grain growth and stress require careful tracking of each grain’s position and orientation which is lost when using a reduced order parameter set. In conclusion, the method presented in this paper maintains a unique ID for each grain even after reassignment, to allow the PFM to be tightly coupled to calculations of the stress throughout the polycrystal. Implementation details and comparative results of our approach are presented.« less

  5. Depth-varying density and organization of chondrocytes in immature and mature bovine articular cartilage assessed by 3d imaging and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jadin, Kyle D.; Wong, Benjamin L.; Bae, Won C.; Li, Kelvin W.; Williamson, Amanda K.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Sah, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a heterogeneous tissue, with cell density and organization varying with depth from the surface. The objectives of the present study were to establish a method for localizing individual cells in three-dimensional (3D) images of cartilage and quantifying depth-associated variation in cellularity and cell organization at different stages of growth. Accuracy of nucleus localization was high, with 99% sensitivity relative to manual localization. Cellularity (million cells per cm3) decreased from 290, 310, and 150 near the articular surface in fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, to 120, 110, and 50 at a depth of 1.0 mm. The distance/angle to the nearest neighboring cell was 7.9 microm/31 degrees , 7.1 microm/31 degrees , and 9.1 microm/31 degrees for cells at the articular surface of fetal, calf, and adult samples, respectively, and increased/decreased to 11.6 microm/31 degrees , 12.0 microm/30 degrees , and 19.2 microm/25 degrees at a depth of 0.7 mm. The methodologies described here may be useful for analyzing the 3D cellular organization of cartilage during growth, maturation, aging, degeneration, and regeneration.

  6. Turbulence computations with 3-D small-scale additive turbulent decomposition and data-fitting using chaotic map combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, S.

    1997-12-31

    Although the equations governing turbulent fluid flow, the Navier-Stokes (N.S.) equations, have been known for well over a century and there is a clear technological necessity in obtaining solutions to these equations, turbulence remains one of the principal unsolved problems in physics today. It is still not possible to make accurate quantitative predictions about turbulent flows without relying heavily on empirical data. In principle, it is possible to obtain turbulent solutions from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the N.-S. equations. The author first provides a brief introduction to the dynamics of turbulent flows. The N.-S. equations which govern fluid flow, are described thereafter. Then he gives a brief overview of DNS calculations and where they stand at present. He next introduces the two most popular approaches for doing turbulent computations currently in use, namely, the Reynolds averaging of the N.-S. equations (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Approximations, often ad hoc ones, are present in these methods because use is made of heuristic models for turbulence quantities (the Reynolds stresses) which are otherwise unknown. They then introduce a new computational method called additive turbulent decomposition (ATD), the small-scale version of which is the topic of this research. The rest of the thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 he describes the ATD procedure in greater detail; how dependent variables are split and the decomposition into large- and small-scale sets of equations. In Chapter 3 the spectral projection of the small-scale momentum equations are derived in detail. In Chapter 4 results of the computations with the small-scale ATD equations are presented. In Chapter 5 he describes the data-fitting procedure which can be used to directly specify the parameters of a chaotic-map turbulence model.

  7. Mapping 3D thin shale and permeability pathway within a reservoir system: Case study from the Sleipner Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponfa Bitrus, Roy; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Reservoir architecture plays an integral part of seismic reservoir characterization. The characteristics of a reservoir which includes its external and internal geometry are important as they influence the production and development strategy employed in the oil and gas sector. Reservoir architecture is defined by the interpretation of seismic data, thus identifying the basic structural and stratigraphic geometrical framework of a trapping and flow system for hydrocarbon and fluids. One major issue though is the interpretation of thin shales and identification of permeability pathways within the reservoir system. This paper employs a method using attributes to map thin shales and identify permeability pathways or transmissitives that exist within a reservoir taking into consideration the seismic resolution and available data. Case study is the Utsira Formation in the Sleipner field, Norwegian North sea. The Utsira formation presents a classic case of thin beds within a sandstone formation and transmissitives that exist as chimneys within the formation. A total of 10 intra reservoir horizon units of shales where interpreted using complex trace seismic attributes. These interpreted horizons where further analysed through spectral decomposition to reveal possible facies distribution and unit thickness within the horizon. Reservoir transmissitives identified as vertical curvilinear structures were also analysed using unique seismic attributes in other to delineate their extent and characterise their occurrence These interpreted shales and pathway transmissitives illuminate the geometry of the formation, the reservoir heterogeneities on a finer-scale and, in the long term, constrain the migration prediction of reservoir fluids, hydrocarbons and injected CO2 when matched across a 4D seismic data survey. As such, useful insights into the key elements operating within the reservoir can be provided, giving a good indication of the long and short term reservoir performance.

  8. Use of stereoscopic satellite imagery for 3D mapping of bedrock structure in West Antarctica: An example from the northern Ford Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Porter, C.; Gottfried, M.

    2012-12-01

    In coastal West Antarctica, crustal-scale faults have been minimally mapped using traditional ground-based methods but regional scale structures are inferred mainly on the basis of low resolution potential fields data from airborne geophysical surveys (15 km flightline spacing). We use a new approach to detailed mapping of faults, shear zones, and intrusive relationships using panchromatic and multispectral imagery draped upon a digital elevation model (DEM). Our work focuses on the Fosdick Mountains, a culmination of lower middle crustal rocks exhumed at c. 100 Ma by dextral oblique detachment faulting. Ground truth exists for extensive areas visited during field studies in 2005-2011, providing a basis for spectral analysis of 8-band WorldView-02 imagery for detailed mapping of complex granite- migmatite relationships on the north side of the Fosdick range. A primary aim is the creation of a 3D geological map using the results of spectral analysis merged with a DEM computed from a stereographic pair of high resolution panchromatic images (sequential scenes, acquired 45 seconds apart). DEMs were computed using ERDAS Imagine™ LPS eATE, refined by MATLAB-based interpolation scripts to remove artifacts in the terrain model according to procedures developed by the Polar Geospatial Center (U. Minnesota). Orthorectified satellite imagery that covers the area of the DEMs was subjected to principal component analysis in ESRI ArcGIS™ 10.1, then the different rock types were identified using various combinations of spectral bands in order to map the geology of rock exposures that could not be accessed directly from the ground. Renderings in 3D of the satellite scenes draped upon the DEMs were created using Global Mapper™. The 3D perspective views reveal structural and geological features that are not observed in either the DEM nor the satellite imagery alone. The detailed map is crucial for an ongoing petrological / geochemical investigation of Cretaceous crustal

  9. 3D mapping of chemical distribution from melting at lower mantle conditions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. M.; Nabiei, F.; Cantoni, M.; Badro, J.; Gaal, R.; Gillet, P.

    2014-12-01

    The laser-heated diamond anvil cell is a unique tool for subjecting materials to pressures over few hundreds of GPa and temperatures of thousands of Kelvins which enables us to experimentally simulate the inaccessible interiors of planets. However, small sample size, laser profile and thermally conductive diamonds cause temperature gradients of 1000s K over a few microns which also affects chemical and structural distribution of phases in the sample. We have examined samples of San Carlos olivine (Mg,Fe)2SiO3 powder melted in the diamond anvil cell by double-sided and single-sided laser heating for 3-6 minutes to ~3000 K at 35-37 GPa. Moreover, MgO is used as an insulating media in one of the sample. Recovered samples were analyzed by a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector. Images and chemical maps were acquired for ~300 slices with ~70 nm depth from each sample, comprising about half of the heated zone. Detailed chemical and structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of lamellas prepared from the remaining section of the samples will also be presented. In all samples the heated zone included (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite-structured bridgmanite (PV) phase and two (Mg, Fe)O phases, one of which, magnesiowüstite (MW), is richer in iron than the other one, ferropericlase (FP). In double-side heated samples we observe a Fe-rich quenched melt core surrounded by MW phase. Our results show that with increasing heating time, Fe migrates to the molten center of the sample. In the single-side heated sample, the Fe-rich MW phase is concentrated in the center of heated zone. In all samples a FP crust was observed around the heated zone. This crust, however, is broken in the upper part (colder part) of the single-side heated sample due the high asymmetrical temperature gradient within the sample. The results confirm the importance of double-side heating and insulating media

  10. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of São Miguel das Missões

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  11. Data Integration Acquired from Micro-Uav and Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the 3d Mapping of Jesuit Ruins of SÃO Miguel das MISSÕES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. L. L.; da Rocha, R. S.; Ferraz, R. S.; Cruz, V. C.; Morador, L. Q.; Yamawaki, M. K.; Rodrigues, E. L. S.; Cole, J. O.; Mezzomo, W.

    2016-06-01

    The Jesuit Missions the Guaranis were one of the great examples of cultural, social, and scientific of the eighteenth century, which had its decline from successive wars that followed the exchange of territories domain occupied by Portugal and Spain with the Madrid Treaty of January 13, 1750. One of the great examples of this development is materialized in the ruins of 30 churches and villages that remain in a territory that now comprises part of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. These Churches, São Miguel das Missões is among the Brazilian ruins, the best preserved. The ruins of São Miguel das Missões were declared a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage in 1983 and the Institute of National Historical Heritage (IPHAN) is the Brazilian Federal agency that manages and maintains this heritage. In order to produce a geographic database to assist the IPHAN in the management of the Ruins of São Miguel das Missões it was proposed a three-dimensional mapping of these ruins never performed in this location before. The proposal is integrated data acquired from multiple sensors: two micro-UAV, an Asctec Falcon 8 (rotary wing) and a Sensefly e-Bee (fixed wing); photos from terrestrial cameras; two terrestrial LIDAR sensors, one Faro Focus 3D S-120 and Optec 3D-HD ILRIS. With this abundance of sensors has been possible to perform comparisons and integration of the acquired data, and produce a 3D reconstruction of the church with high completeness and accuracy (better than 25 mm), as can be seen in the presentation of this work.

  12. Commissioning and Implementation of an EPID Based IMRT QA System "Dosimetry Check" for 3D Absolute Dose Measurements and Quantitative Comparisons to MapCheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jalpa A.

    The software package "Dosimetry Check" by MathResolutions, LLC, provides an absolute 3D volumetric dose measurement for IMRT QA using the existing Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) mounted on most linear accelerators. This package provides a feedback loop using the patient's treatment planning CT data as the phantom for dose reconstruction. The aim of this work is to study the difference between point, planar and volumetric doses with MapCheck and Dosimetry Check via the use of the EPID and the diode array respectively. Evaluating tools such as point doses at isocenter, 1-D profiles, gamma volume histograms, and dose volume histograms are used for IMRT dose comparison in three types of cases: head and neck, prostate, and lung. Dosimetry Check can be a valuable tool for IMRT QA as it uses patient specific attenuation corrections and the superiority of the EPID as compared to the MapCheck diode array. This helps reduce the uncertainty in dose for less variability in delivery and a more realistic measured vs computed dose verification system as compared to MapCheck.

  13. 3DINVER.M: a MATLAB program to invert the gravity anomaly over a 3D horizontal density interface by Parker Oldenburg's algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Agarwal, Bhrigu N. P.

    2005-05-01

    A MATLAB source code 3DINVER.M is described to compute 3D geometry of a horizontal density interface from gridded gravity anomaly by Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. This procedure is based on a relationship between the Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform of the interface topography. Given the mean depth of the density interface and the density contrast between the two media, the three-dimensional geometry of the interface is iteratively calculated. The iterative process is terminated when either the RMS error between two successive approximations is lower than a pre-assigned value—used as convergence criterion, or until a pre-assigned maximum number of iterations is reached. A high-cut filter in the frequency domain has been incorporated to enhance the convergence in the iterative process. The algorithm is capable of handling large data sets requiring direct and inverse Fourier transforms effectively. The inversion of a gravity anomaly over Brittany (France) is presented to compute the Moho depth as a practical example.

  14. Accurate and Fully Automatic Hippocampus Segmentation Using Subject-Specific 3D Optimal Local Maps Into a Hybrid Active Contour Model

    PubMed Central

    Gkontra, Polyxeni; Daras, Petros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the structural integrity of the hippocampus (HC) is an essential step toward prevention, diagnosis, and follow-up of various brain disorders due to the implication of the structural changes of the HC in those disorders. In this respect, the development of automatic segmentation methods that can accurately, reliably, and reproducibly segment the HC has attracted considerable attention over the past decades. This paper presents an innovative 3-D fully automatic method to be used on top of the multiatlas concept for the HC segmentation. The method is based on a subject-specific set of 3-D optimal local maps (OLMs) that locally control the influence of each energy term of a hybrid active contour model (ACM). The complete set of the OLMs for a set of training images is defined simultaneously via an optimization scheme. At the same time, the optimal ACM parameters are also calculated. Therefore, heuristic parameter fine-tuning is not required. Training OLMs are subsequently combined, by applying an extended multiatlas concept, to produce the OLMs that are anatomically more suitable to the test image. The proposed algorithm was tested on three different and publicly available data sets. Its accuracy was compared with that of state-of-the-art methods demonstrating the efficacy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27170866

  15. Accurate and Fully Automatic Hippocampus Segmentation Using Subject-Specific 3D Optimal Local Maps Into a Hybrid Active Contour Model.

    PubMed

    Zarpalas, Dimitrios; Gkontra, Polyxeni; Daras, Petros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the structural integrity of the hippocampus (HC) is an essential step toward prevention, diagnosis, and follow-up of various brain disorders due to the implication of the structural changes of the HC in those disorders. In this respect, the development of automatic segmentation methods that can accurately, reliably, and reproducibly segment the HC has attracted considerable attention over the past decades. This paper presents an innovative 3-D fully automatic method to be used on top of the multiatlas concept for the HC segmentation. The method is based on a subject-specific set of 3-D optimal local maps (OLMs) that locally control the influence of each energy term of a hybrid active contour model (ACM). The complete set of the OLMs for a set of training images is defined simultaneously via an optimization scheme. At the same time, the optimal ACM parameters are also calculated. Therefore, heuristic parameter fine-tuning is not required. Training OLMs are subsequently combined, by applying an extended multiatlas concept, to produce the OLMs that are anatomically more suitable to the test image. The proposed algorithm was tested on three different and publicly available data sets. Its accuracy was compared with that of state-of-the-art methods demonstrating the efficacy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:27170866

  16. Extending a Mobile Device with Low-Cost 3d Modeling and Building-Scale Mapping Capabilities, for Application in Architecture and Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, M.; Clini, P.; Dellacasa, A.; Falzone, P.; La Camera, A.; Quattrini, R.; Sommariva, E.; Stephens, J.

    2015-02-01

    One of the most challenging problem in architecture is the automated construction of 3D (and 4D) digital models of cultural objects with the aim of implementing open data repositories, scientifically authenticated and responding to well accepted standards of validation, evaluation, preservation, publication, updating and dissemination. The realization of such an ambitious objective requires the adoption of special technological instruments. In this paper we plan to use portable devices (i.e. smartphones, tablets or PDAs eventually extended to wearable ones), extended with a small plug-in, for automatically extracting 3D models of single objects and building-scale mapping of the surrounding environment. At the same time, the device will provide the capability of inserting notes and observations. Where the instrument cannot be directly applied, for example for exploring the top of a complex building, we consider mounting our device, or using equivalent existing equipment, on a drone, in a modular approach for obtaining data de-facto interchangeable. The approach based on the expansion packs has the advantage of anticipating (or even promoting) future extensions of new mobile devices, when the spectrum of possible applications justify the corresponding increased costs. In order to experiment and verify this approach we plan to test it in two specific scenarios of the cultural heritage domain in which such devices seem particularly promising: Strada Nuova in Genoa and Palazzo Ducale in Urbino, both located in Italy.

  17. Mapping strain gradients in the FIB-structured InGaN/GaN multilayered films with 3D x-ray microbeam.

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, R. I.; Gao, Y. F.; Ice, G. E.; Barabash, O. M.; Chung, J.; Liu, W.; Lohmeyer, H.; Sebald, K.; Gutowski, J.; Bottcher, T.; Hommel, D.; Kroger, R.

    2010-11-25

    This research presents a combined experimental-modeling study of lattice rotations and deviatoric strain gradients induced by focused-ion beam (FIB) milling in nitride heterostructures. 3D X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction (PXM) is used to map the local lattice orientation distribution in FIB-structured areas. Results are discussed in connection with microphotoluminescence ({mu}-PL), fluorescent analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data. It is demonstrated that FIB-milling causes both direct and indirect damage to the InGaN/GaN layers. In films subjected to direct ion beam impact, a narrow amorphidized top layer is formed. Near the milling area, FIB-induced stress relaxation and formation of complicated 3D strain fields are observed. The resulting lattice orientation changes are found to correlate with a decrease and/or loss of PL intensity, and agree well with finite element simulations of the three-dimensional strain fields near the relaxed trenches. Experimentally, it is found that the lattice surface normal has an in-plane rotation, which only appears in simulations when the GaN-substrate lattice mismatch annihilates the InGaN-substrate mismatch. This behavior further supports the notion that the film/substrate interface is incoherent.

  18. SNP-based high density genetic map and mapping of btwd1 dwarfing gene in barley

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Liu, Lipan; Sun, Genlou; Li, Chengdao; Luo, Hong; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for functional genomics and breeding. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, has been proven to be powerful for the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and for the high-density genetic map construction. The objective of this research was to construct a high-density genetic map of barley using RAD sequencing. 1894 high-quality SNP markers were developed and mapped onto all seven chromosomes together with 68 SSR markers. These 1962 markers constituted a total genetic length of 1375.8 cM and an average of 0.7 cM between adjacent loci. The number of markers within each linkage group ranged from 209 to 396. The new recessive dwarfing gene btwd1 in Huaai 11 was mapped onto the high density linkage maps. The result showed that the btwd1 is positioned between SNP marks 7HL_6335336 and 7_249275418 with a genetic distance of 0.9 cM and 0.7 cM on chromosome 7H, respectively. The SNP-based high-density genetic map developed and the dwarfing gene btwd1 mapped in this study provide critical information for position cloning of the btwd1 gene and molecular breeding of barley. PMID:27530597

  19. SNP-based high density genetic map and mapping of btwd1 dwarfing gene in barley.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Liu, Lipan; Sun, Genlou; Li, Chengdao; Luo, Hong; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-01-01

    A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for functional genomics and breeding. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, has been proven to be powerful for the rapid discovery and genotyping of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and for the high-density genetic map construction. The objective of this research was to construct a high-density genetic map of barley using RAD sequencing. 1894 high-quality SNP markers were developed and mapped onto all seven chromosomes together with 68 SSR markers. These 1962 markers constituted a total genetic length of 1375.8 cM and an average of 0.7 cM between adjacent loci. The number of markers within each linkage group ranged from 209 to 396. The new recessive dwarfing gene btwd1 in Huaai 11 was mapped onto the high density linkage maps. The result showed that the btwd1 is positioned between SNP marks 7HL_6335336 and 7_249275418 with a genetic distance of 0.9 cM and 0.7 cM on chromosome 7H, respectively. The SNP-based high-density genetic map developed and the dwarfing gene btwd1 mapped in this study provide critical information for position cloning of the btwd1 gene and molecular breeding of barley. PMID:27530597

  20. Using a modified 3D-printer for mapping the magnetic field of RF coils designed for fetal and neonatal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavoulas, Alexander; Vaiopoulos, Nicholas; Hedström, Erik; Xanthis, Christos G.; Sandalidis, Harilaos G.; Aletras, Anthony H.

    2016-08-01

    An experimental setup for characterizing the magnetic field of MRI RF coils was proposed and tested. The setup consisted of a specially configured 3D-printer, a network analyzer and a mid-performance desktop PC. The setup was tested on a single loop RF coil, part of a phased array for fetal imaging. Then, the setup was used for determining the magnetic field characteristics of a high-pass birdcage coil used for neonatal MR imaging with a vertical static field. The scattering parameter S21, converted into power ratio, was used for mapping the B1 magnetic field. The experimental measurements from the loop coil were close to the theoretical results (R = 0.924). A high degree of homogeneity was measured for the neonatal birdcage RF coil. The development of MR RF coils is time consuming and resource intensive. The proposed experimental setup provides an alternative method for magnetic field characterization of RF coils used in MRI.

  1. Using a modified 3D-printer for mapping the magnetic field of RF coils designed for fetal and neonatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Vavoulas, Alexander; Vaiopoulos, Nicholas; Hedström, Erik; Xanthis, Christos G; Sandalidis, Harilaos G; Aletras, Anthony H

    2016-08-01

    An experimental setup for characterizing the magnetic field of MRI RF coils was proposed and tested. The setup consisted of a specially configured 3D-printer, a network analyzer and a mid-performance desktop PC. The setup was tested on a single loop RF coil, part of a phased array for fetal imaging. Then, the setup was used for determining the magnetic field characteristics of a high-pass birdcage coil used for neonatal MR imaging with a vertical static field. The scattering parameter S21, converted into power ratio, was used for mapping the B1 magnetic field. The experimental measurements from the loop coil were close to the theoretical results (R=0.924). A high degree of homogeneity was measured for the neonatal birdcage RF coil. The development of MR RF coils is time consuming and resource intensive. The proposed experimental setup provides an alternative method for magnetic field characterization of RF coils used in MRI. PMID:27310429

  2. Storing a 3d City Model, its Levels of Detail and the Correspondences Between Objects as a 4d Combinatorial Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Ohori, K.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.

    2015-10-01

    3D city models of the same region at multiple LODs are encumbered by the lack of links between corresponding objects across LODs. In practice, this causes inconsistency during updates and maintenance problems. A radical solution to this problem is to model the LOD of a model as a dimension in the geometric sense, such that a set of connected polyhedra at a series of LODs is modelled as a single polychoron—the 4D analogue of a polyhedron. This approach is generally used only conceptually and then discarded at the implementation stage, losing many of its potential advantages in the process. This paper therefore shows that this approach can be instead directly realised using 4D combinatorial maps, making it possible to store all topological relationships between objects.

  3. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, M.A.; De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T.; De Schutter, G.; Vontobel, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic

  4. Seafloor surface processes and subsurface paleo-channel unconformities mapped using multi-channel seismic and multi-beam sonar data from the Galicia 3D seismic experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. C.; Shillington, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Morgan, J. K.; Ranero, C.; Reston, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we use geophysical methods, stratigraphic relationships, and coring/drilling leg results to assess possible controls on deep-sea channel formation in order to further constrain paleo-channel (PC) and associated unconformity timing/source processes. A series of cut and fill PC are mapped in 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) data and compared with multi-beam (MB) sonar bathymetry/backscatter data collected during the Galicia 3D survey with the R/V Marcus G. Langseth (2013). The MCS data were collected using four 6 km streamers spaced at 200 m resulting in 25 m x 25 m common mid-point bins within the ~67 km x 20 km 3D volume. The MB data were collected at an average depth of ~4900 m with a constrained swath width of 4.5 km resulting in 11.25x overlap while enabling 25-m bathymetry and 10-m backscatter grids. The PC lie below the mouth of a submarine canyon at the edge of the Galicia abyssal plain and cut pre/syn-rift sediments; they are bound by a rift block to the north and paleo-levees to the south (maximum height of ~180m). From drilling results, the most recent PC is late Miocene in age. In this study, four PC are traced into the basin as unconformities. Several of the PC/unconformities are tentatively correlated with previously interpreted Pyrenean orogeny/compressional Miocene/Oligocene tectonic events. However, one PC/unconformity within this interval has not been previously interpreted. In order test the hypothesis that the unconformities are the result of a significant change in base level indicated by a low shale/sand (SS) ratio, we use seismic surface attributes to calculate the SS ratio and trace the horizontal extent of the unconformities. Additionally, the MB/MCS seafloor morphology reveals sedimentary waves outboard of the canyon mouth. We use backscatter data to compare the extent of recent processes (e.g., Pleistocene glaciation/de-glaciation) with the unconformities by mapping the surface/shallow subsurface SS ratio (volume scattering).

  5. Pushing the Limits of Geological Mapping Outside the Earth: 3D Modeling of Strike-Slip and Extensional Fault Systems in Meridiani Planum Region, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Royo, O.

    2014-12-01

    GIS and geological modeling software have radically changed the means by which geological mapping is produced, published and visualized. This type of software environment normally requires a spatially aware reference system to position data and interpretation, often referred as georeferenced data (i.e. geographic data referenced on the Earth). However, for this study we coin the term areoreferenced data (i.e. Mars-referenced "geographic" data). Thanks to the wealth of areoreferenced data made available by the NASA and the HiRise at University of Arizona it is now possible to carry out 3D areographic and areologic (i.e. related to the topography and geology of Mars, respectively) reconstructions in great detail. The present work benefits from the availability of software and areographic data, and presents the results of an areologic map and 3D model of the fault systems in the Meridiani Planum of Mars. The work has been carried out in Move™ (developed by Midland Valley Exploration), a geological modeling toolkit that allows for easy data loading in a wide range of formats as well as straightforward 2D/3D model building tools of geological bodies. Initial data consisted of Digital Terrain Model and orthoimages (NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/USGS). From these we have interpreted several structural domains: right-lateral strike-slip systems with associated releasing bends, which gave room to an extensional event causing a horizontal-axis rotation of the bedding. Bedding ranges from subhorizontal in the southern domain where strike-slip prevails to nearly 40º in the central and northern domains, where a more complex interaction between strike-slip and extensional faults is described. The stratigraphic sequence is mainly composed by moderately rounded well laminated basaltic sandstones (Squyres et al., 2004) in which a high component of sulfurs (e.g. sulfate anhydrate, hexahydrite, epsomite, gypsum) and salts (e.g. halite) has been described (Squyres et al., 2004

  6. SUTRA: A model for 2D or 3D saturated-unsaturated, variable-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Provost, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Transport) is a computer program that simulates fluid movement and the transport of either energy or dissolved substances in a subsurface environment. This upgraded version of SUTRA adds the capability for three-dimensional simulation to the former code (Voss, 1984), which allowed only two-dimensional simulation. The code employs a two- or three-dimensional finite-element and finite-difference method to approximate the governing equations that describe the two interdependent processes that are simulated: 1) fluid density-dependent saturated or unsaturated ground-water flow; and 2) either (a) transport of a solute in the ground water, in which the solute may be subject to: equilibrium adsorption on the porous matrix, and both first-order and zero-order production or decay; or (b) transport of thermal energy in the ground water and solid matrix of the aquifer. SUTRA may also be used to simulate simpler subsets of the above processes. A flow-direction-dependent dispersion process for anisotropic media is also provided by the code and is introduced in this report. As the primary calculated result, SUTRA provides fluid pressures and either solute concentrations or temperatures, as they vary with time, everywhere in the simulated subsurface system. SUTRA flow simulation may be employed for two-dimensional (2D) areal, cross sectional and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of saturated ground-water flow systems, and for cross sectional and 3D modeling of unsaturated zone flow. Solute-transport simulation using SUTRA may be employed to model natural or man-induced chemical-species transport including processes of solute sorption, production, and decay. For example, it may be applied to analyze ground-water contaminant transport problems and aquifer restoration designs. In addition, solute-transport simulation with SUTRA may be used for modeling of variable-density leachate movement, and for cross sectional modeling of saltwater intrusion in

  7. Cognitive MMN and P300 in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A high density EEG-3D vector field tomography approach.

    PubMed

    Papadaniil, Chrysa D; Kosmidou, Vasiliki E; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Tsolaki, Magda; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis Yiannis; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2016-10-01

    Precise preclinical detection of dementia for effective treatment and stage monitoring is of great importance. Miscellaneous types of biomarkers, e.g., biochemical, genetic, neuroimaging, and physiological, have been proposed to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD), the usual suspect behind manifested cognitive decline, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a neuropathology prior to AD that does not affect cognitive functions. Event related potential (ERP) methods constitute a non-invasive, inexpensive means of analysis and have been proposed as sensitive biomarkers of cognitive impairment; besides, various ERP components are strongly linked with working memory, attention, sensory processing and motor responses. In this study, an auditory oddball task is employed, to acquire high density electroencephalograhy recordings from healthy elderly controls, MCI and AD patients. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P300 ERP components are then extracted and their relationship with neurodegeneration is examined. Then, the neural activation at these components is reconstructed using the 3D vector field tomography (3D-VFT) inverse solution. The results reveal a decline of both ERPs amplitude, and a statistically significant prolongation of their latency as cognitive impairment advances. For the MMN, higher brain activation is usually localized in the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri in the controls. However, in AD, parietal sites exhibit strong activity. Stronger P300 generators are mostly found in the frontal lobe for the controls, but in AD they often shift to the temporal lobe. Reduction in inferior frontal source strength and the switch of the maximum intensity area to parietal and superior temporal sites suggest that these areas, especially the former, are of particular significance when neurodegenerative disorders are investigated. The modulation of MMN and P300 can serve to produce biomarkers of dementia and its progression, and brain imaging can further contribute

  8. Identification of novel histone deacetylase 1 inhibitors by combined pharmacophore modeling, 3D-QSAR analysis, in silico screening and Density Functional Theory (DFT) approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sanjay K.; Mariadasse, Richard; Rajendran, Santhosh; Jeyaraman, Jeyakanthan

    2016-12-01

    Overexpression of HDAC1, a member of Class I histone deacetylase is reported to be implicated in breast cancer. Epigenetic alteration in carcinogenesis has been the thrust of research for few decades. Increased deacetylation leads to accelerated cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis and invasion. HDAC1 is pronounced as the potential drug target towards the treatment of breast cancer. In this study, the biochemical potential of 6-aminonicotinamide derivatives was rationalized. Five point pharmacophore model with one hydrogen-bond acceptor (A3), two hydrogen-bond donors (D5, D6), one ring (R12) and one hydrophobic group (H8) was developed using 6-aminonicotinamide derivatives. The pharmacophore hypothesis yielded a 3D-QSAR model with correlation-coefficient (r2 = 0.977, q2 = 0.801) and it was externally validated with (r2pred = 0.929, r2cv = 0.850 and r2m = 0.856) which reveals the statistical significance of the model having high predictive power. The model was then employed as 3D search query for virtual screening against compound libraries (Zinc, Maybridge, Enamine, Asinex, Toslab, LifeChem and Specs) in order to identify novel scaffolds which can be experimentally validated to design future drug molecule. Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G* level was employed to explore the electronic features of the ligands involved in charge transfer reaction during receptor ligand interaction. Binding free energy (ΔGbind) calculation was done using MM/GBSA which defines the affinity of ligands towards the receptor.

  9. High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitor Based on NiOOH/Ni3S2/3D Graphene and Fe3O4/Graphene Composite Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsung-Wu; Dai, Chao-Shuan; Hung, Kuan-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The application of the composite of Ni3S2 nanoparticles and 3D graphene as a novel cathode material for supercapacitors is systematically investigated in this study. It is found that the electrode capacitance increases by up to 111% after the composite electrode is activated by the consecutive cyclic voltammetry scanning in 1 M KOH. Due to the synergistic effect, the capacitance and the diffusion coefficient of electrolyte ions of the activated composite electrode are ca. 3.7 and 6.5 times higher than those of the Ni3S2 electrode, respectively. Furthermore, the activated composite electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 3296 F/g and great cycling stability at a current density of 16 A/g. To obtain the reasonable matching of cathode/anode electrodes, the composite of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and chemically reduced graphene oxide (Fe3O4/rGO) is synthesized as the anode material. The Fe3O4/rGO electrode exhibits the specific capacitance of 661 F/g at 1 A/g and excellent rate capability. More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by two different composite electrodes can be operated reversibly between 0 and 1.6 V and obtain a high specific capacitance of 233 F/g at 5 mV/s, which delivers a maximum energy density of 82.5 Wh/kg at a power density of 930 W/kg. PMID:25449978

  10. Relative surface charge density mapping with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, W F; Hoh, J H

    1999-01-01

    An experimental approach for producing relative charge density maps of biological surfaces using the atomic force microscope is presented. This approach, called D minus D (D-D) mapping, uses isoforce surfaces collected at different salt concentrations to remove topography and isolate electrostatic contributions to the tip-sample interaction force. This approach is quantitative for surface potentials below 25 mV, and does not require prior knowledge of the cantilever spring constant, tip radius, or tip charge. In addition, D-D mapping does not require tip-sample contact. The performance of D-D mapping is demonstrated on surfaces of constant charge and varying topography (mechanically roughened mica and stacked bilayers of dipalmitolphosphatidylserine), a surface of varying charge and varying topography (patches of dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine on mica), and bacteriorhopsin membranes adsorbed to mica. PMID:9876166

  11. 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation and density functional theory investigation of the role of water in the aggregation of model asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L M; Hayaki, S; Stoyanov, S R; Gusarov, S; Tan, X; Gray, M R; Stryker, J M; Tykwinski, R; Carneiro, J Walkimar de M; Sato, H; Seidl, P R; Kovalenko, A

    2012-03-21

    We applied a multiscale modeling approach that involves the statistical-mechanical three-dimensional reference interaction site model with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation (3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation) as well as density functional theory (DFT) of electronic structure to study the role of water in aggregation of the asphaltene model compound 4,4'-bis(2-pyren-1-yl-ethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine (PBP) [X. Tan, H. Fenniri and M. R. Gray, Energy Fuels, 2008, 22, 715]. The solvation free energy and potential of mean force predicted by 3D-RISM-KH reveal favorable pathways for disaggregation of PBP dimers in pure versus water-saturated chloroform solvent. The water density distribution functions elucidate hydrogen bonding preferences and water bridge formation between PBP monomers. The ΔG(298) values of -5 to -7 kcal mol(-1) for transfer of water molecules in chloroform to a state interacting with PBP molecules are in agreement with experimental results. Geometry optimization and thermochemistry analysis of PBP dimers with and without water bridges using WB97Xd/6-31G(d,p) predict that both PBP dimerization and dimer stabilization by water bridges are spontaneous (ΔG(298) < 0). The (1)H NMR chemical shifts of PBP monomers and dimers predicted using the gauge-independent atomic orbital method and polarizable continuum model for solvation in chloroform are in an excellent agreement with the experimental results for dilute and concentrated PBP solutions in chloroform, respectively [X. Tan, H. Fenniri and M. R. Gray, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23, 3687]. The DFT calculations of PBP dimers with explicit water show that bridges containing 1-3 water molecules lead to stabilization of PBP dimers. Additional water molecules form hydrogen bonds with these bridges and de-shield the PBP protons, negating the effect of water on the (1)H(C3) NMR chemical shift of PBP, in agreement with experiment. The ΔG(298) results show that hydrogen bonding to water and water

  12. The ATLAS3D project - VII. A new look at the morphology of nearby galaxies: the kinematic morphology-density relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-09-01

    In Paper I of this series we introduced a volume-limited parent sample of 871 galaxies from which we extracted the ATLAS3D sample of 260 early-type galaxies (ETGs). In Papers II and III we classified the ETGs using their stellar kinematics, in a way that is nearly insensitive to the projection effects, and we separated them into fast and slow rotators. Here we look at galaxy morphology and note that the edge-on fast rotators generally are lenticular galaxies. They appear like spiral galaxies with the gas and dust removed, and in some cases are flat ellipticals (E5 or flatter) with discy isophotes. Fast rotators are often barred and span the same full range of bulge fractions as spiral galaxies. The slow rotators are rounder (E4 or rounder, except for counter-rotating discs) and are generally consistent with being genuine, namely spheroidal-like, elliptical galaxies. We propose a revision to the tuning-fork diagram by Hubble as it gives a misleading description of ETGs by ignoring the large variation in the bulge sizes of fast rotators. Motivated by the fact that only one third (34 per cent) of the ellipticals in our sample are slow rotators, we study for the first time the kinematic morphology-density T-Σ relation using fast and slow rotators to replace lenticulars and ellipticals. We find that our relation is cleaner than using classic morphology. Slow rotators are nearly absent at the lowest density environments [? per cent] and generally constitute a small fraction [f(SR) ≈ 4 per cent] of the total galaxy population in the relatively low-density environments explored by our survey, with the exception of the densest core of the Virgo cluster [f(SR) ≈ 20 per cent]. This contrasts with the classic studies that invariably find significant fractions of (misclassified) ellipticals down to the lowest environmental densities. We find a clean log-linear relation between the fraction f(Sp) of spiral galaxies and the local galaxy surface density Σ3, within a cylinder

  13. Characterizing uncertainty in high-density maps from multiparental populations.

    PubMed

    Ahfock, Daniel; Wood, Ian; Stephen, Stuart; Cavanagh, Colin R; Huang, B Emma

    2014-09-01

    Multiparental populations are of considerable interest in high-density genetic mapping due to their increased levels of polymorphism and recombination relative to biparental populations. However, errors in map construction can have significant impact on QTL discovery in later stages of analysis, and few methods have been developed to quantify the uncertainty attached to the reported order of markers or intermarker distances. Current methods are computationally intensive or limited to assessing uncertainty only for order or distance, but not both simultaneously. We derive the asymptotic joint distribution of maximum composite likelihood estimators for intermarker distances. This approach allows us to construct hypothesis tests and confidence intervals for simultaneously assessing marker-order instability and distance uncertainty. We investigate the effects of marker density, population size, and founder distribution patterns on map confidence in multiparental populations through simulations. Using these data, we provide guidelines on sample sizes necessary to map markers at sub-centimorgan densities with high certainty. We apply these approaches to data from a bread wheat Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) population genotyped using the Illumina 9K SNP chip to assess regions of uncertainty and validate them against the recently released pseudomolecule for the wheat chromosome 3B. PMID:25236453

  14. Characterizing Uncertainty in High-Density Maps from Multiparental Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ahfock, Daniel; Wood, Ian; Stephen, Stuart; Cavanagh, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Multiparental populations are of considerable interest in high-density genetic mapping due to their increased levels of polymorphism and recombination relative to biparental populations. However, errors in map construction can have significant impact on QTL discovery in later stages of analysis, and few methods have been developed to quantify the uncertainty attached to the reported order of markers or intermarker distances. Current methods are computationally intensive or limited to assessing uncertainty only for order or distance, but not both simultaneously. We derive the asymptotic joint distribution of maximum composite likelihood estimators for intermarker distances. This approach allows us to construct hypothesis tests and confidence intervals for simultaneously assessing marker-order instability and distance uncertainty. We investigate the effects of marker density, population size, and founder distribution patterns on map confidence in multiparental populations through simulations. Using these data, we provide guidelines on sample sizes necessary to map markers at sub-centimorgan densities with high certainty. We apply these approaches to data from a bread wheat Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) population genotyped using the Illumina 9K SNP chip to assess regions of uncertainty and validate them against the recently released pseudomolecule for the wheat chromosome 3B. PMID:25236453

  15. Mapping neutral, ion, and electron number densities within laser-ablated plasma plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, I.; Doyle, Liam A.; Martin, G. W.; Riley, Dave; Lamb, M. J.; Graham, William G.; Morrow, Tom; Lewis, Ciaran L. S.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially and temporally varying neutral, ion and electron number densities have been mapped out within laser ablated plasma plumes expanding into vacuum. Ablation of a magnesium target was performed using a KrF laser, 30 ns pulse duration and 248 nm wavelength. During the initial stage of plasma expansion (t densities, for laser power densities on target in the range 1.3 - 3.0 X 108 W/cm2. Later in the plasma expansion (t equals 1 microsecond(s) ) simultaneous absorption and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to determine 3D neutral and ion number densities, for a power density equal to 6.7 X 107 W/cm2. Two distinct regions within the plume were identified. One is a fast component (approximately 106 cm-1) consisting of ions and neutrals with maximum number densities observed to be approximately 30 and 4 X 1012 cm-3 respectively, and the second consists of slow moving neutral material at a number density of up to 1015 cm-3. Additionally a Langmuir probe has been used to obtain ion and electron number densities at very late times in the plasma expansion (1 microsecond(s) density on target equal to 6 X 108 W/cm2. Two regions within the plume with different velocities were observed. Within a fast component (approximately 3 X 106 cms-1) electron and ion number densities of the order 5 X 1012 cm-3 were observed and within the second slower component (approximately 106 cms-1) electron and ion number densities of the order 1 - 2 X 1013 cm-3 were determined.

  16. Spatial and Spectral Characterization, Mapping, and 3D Reconstructing of Ice-wedge Polygons Using High Resolution LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangodagamage, C.; Rowland, J. C.; Skurikhin, A. N.; Wilson, C. J.; Brumby, S. P.; Painter, S. L.; Gable, C. W.; Bui, Q.; Short, L. S.; Liljedahl, A.; Hubbard, S. S.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dafflon, B.; Tweedie, C. E.; Kumar, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    In landscapes with ice-wedge polygons, fine-scale land surface characterization is critically important because the processes that govern the carbon cycle and hydrological dynamics are controlled by features on the order of a few to tens of meters. To characterize the fine-scale features in polygonal ground in Barrow, Alaska, we use high-resolution LiDAR-derived topographic data (such as elevation, slope, curvature, and a novel 'directed distance (DD)') to develop quantitative metrics that allow for the discretization and characterization of polygons (formed by seasonal freeze and thaw processes). First, we used high resolution (0.25 m) LiDAR to show that the high and low centered polygon features exhibit a unique signature in the Fourier power spectrum where the landscape signature on freeze and thaw process (~ 5 to 100 m) is super imposed on the coarse scale fluvial eroded landscape (rudimentary river network) signature. We next convolve LiDAR elevations with multiscale wavelets and objectively choose appropriate scales to map interconnected troughs of high- and low-centered polygons. For the ice wedges where LiDAR surface expressions (troughs) are not well developed, we used a Delaunay triangulation to connect the ice-wedge network and map the topologically connected polygons. This analysis allows us to explore the 3D morphometry of these high- and low-centered polygons and develop a supervised set of ensemble characteristic templates for each polygon type as a function of directed distance (DD). These templates are used to classify the ice-wedge polygon landscape into low-centered polygons with limited troughs, and high- and low-centered polygons with well-developed trough network. We further extend the characteristic templates to polygon ensemble slopes and curvatures as a function of DD and develop a classification scheme for microtopographic features including troughs, rims, elevated ridges, and centers for both high-centered and low-centered polygon

  17. A 3D density-dependent model for assessment and optimization of water management policy in a coastal carbonate aquifer exploited for water supply and fish farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocchi, M.; Salleolini, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Ansedonia promontory (southern Tuscany, Italy) is characterized by the presence of fish farms that pump thermal saline groundwater. The water is extracted from a carbonate aquifer with high permeability due to fracturing and karstification that is also exploited for irrigation purposes and domestic use. Such exploitation has led to the degradation of groundwater quality, producing conflict among the different users. The conceptualization of the aquifer allowed the development of a 3D finite element density-dependent numerical model using the FEFLOW code. The slightly negative freshwater budget in the very humid hydrologic year of 2004-2005 revealed that the aquifer was overexploited, especially due to the extraction of freshwater (along with seawater) from fish farm wells and pumping from public supply wells. The model was also used to forecast the quantitative and qualitative evolution of resources over time, thus testing the effects of different management hypotheses. Results demonstrate that the sustainable management of the aquifer mostly depends on withdrawals from public supply wells; the quantity extracted by fish farms only significantly affects the freshwater/saltwater interface and, locally, the salinity of groundwater. Actions to counteract seawater intrusion are proposed.

  18. Numerical Solution of 3D Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations Coupled with Classical Density Functional Theory for Modeling Ion and Electron Transport in a Confined Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Da; Zheng, Bin; Lin, Guang; Sushko, Maria L.

    2014-08-29

    We have developed efficient numerical algorithms for the solution of 3D steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) with excess chemical potentials described by the classical density functional theory (cDFT). The coupled PNP equations are discretized by finite difference scheme and solved iteratively by Gummel method with relaxation. The Nernst-Planck equations are transformed into Laplace equations through the Slotboom transformation. Algebraic multigrid method is then applied to efficiently solve the Poisson equation and the transformed Nernst-Planck equations. A novel strategy for calculating excess chemical potentials through fast Fourier transforms is proposed which reduces computational complexity from O(N2) to O(NlogN) where N is the number of grid points. Integrals involving Dirac delta function are evaluated directly by coordinate transformation which yields more accurate result compared to applying numerical quadrature to an approximated delta function. Numerical results for ion and electron transport in solid electrolyte for Li ion batteries are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data and the results from previous studies.

  19. Correlation of peripheral innervation density and dorsal horn map scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Millecchia, R; Brown, P B

    1997-08-01

    Dorsal horn