Science.gov

Sample records for 3d display systems

  1. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  2. Panoramic, large-screen, 3-D flight display system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Henry; Larson, Brent; Johnson, Michael; Droessler, Justin; Reinhart, William F.

    1995-01-01

    The report documents and summarizes the results of the required evaluations specified in the SOW and the design specifications for the selected display system hardware. Also included are the proposed development plan and schedule as well as the estimated rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a flyable prototype research flight display system. The thrust of the effort was development of a complete understanding of the user/system requirements for a panoramic, collimated, 3-D flyable avionic display system and the translation of the requirements into an acceptable system design for fabrication and demonstration of a prototype display in the early 1997 time frame. Eleven display system design concepts were presented to NASA LaRC during the program, one of which was down-selected to a preferred display system concept. A set of preliminary display requirements was formulated. The state of the art in image source technology, 3-D methods, collimation methods, and interaction methods for a panoramic, 3-D flight display system were reviewed in depth and evaluated. Display technology improvements and risk reductions associated with maturity of the technologies for the preferred display system design concept were identified.

  3. Design of a single projector multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Multiview three-dimensional (3D) display is able to provide horizontal parallax to viewers with high-resolution and fullcolor images being presented to each view. Most multiview 3D display systems are designed and implemented using multiple projectors, each generating images for one view. Although this multi-projector design strategy is conceptually straightforward, implementation of such multi-projector design often leads to a very expensive system and complicated calibration procedures. Even for a multiview system with a moderate number of projectors (e.g., 32 or 64 projectors), the cost of a multi-projector 3D display system may become prohibitive due to the cost and complexity of integrating multiple projectors. In this article, we describe an optical design technique for a class of multiview 3D display systems that use only a single projector. In this single projector multiview (SPM) system design, multiple views for the 3D display are generated in a time-multiplex fashion by the single high speed projector with specially designed optical components, a scanning mirror, and a reflective mirror array. Images of all views are generated sequentially and projected via the specially design optical system from different viewing directions towards a 3D display screen. Therefore, the single projector is able to generate equivalent number of multiview images from multiple viewing directions, thus fulfilling the tasks of multiple projectors. An obvious advantage of the proposed SPM technique is the significant reduction of cost, size, and complexity, especially when the number of views is high. The SPM strategy also alleviates the time-consuming procedures for multi-projector calibration. The design method is flexible and scalable and can accommodate systems with different number of views.

  4. Computer-aided 3D display system and its application in 3D vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, XiaoYun; Ma, Lan; Hou, Chunping; Wang, Jiening; Tang, Da; Li, Chang

    1998-08-01

    The computer aided 3D display system, flicker-free field sequential stereoscopic image display system, is newly developed. This system is composed of personal computer, liquid crystal glasses driving card, stereoscopic display software and liquid crystal glasses. It can display field sequential stereoscopic images at refresh rate of 70 Hz to 120 Hz. A typical application of this system, 3D vision test system, is mainly discussed in this paper. This stereoscopic vision test system can test stereoscopic acuity, cross disparity, uncross disparity and dynamic stereoscopic vision quantitatively. We have taken the use of random-dot- stereograms as stereoscopic vision test charts. Through practical test experiment between Anaglyph Stereoscopic Vision Test Charts and this stereoscopic vision test system, the statistical figures and test result is given out.

  5. A 3D polarizing display system base on backlight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pu; Huang, Ziqiang

    2011-08-01

    In this paper a new three-dimensional (3D) liquid crystal display (LCD) display mode based on backlight control is presented to avoid the left and right eye images crosstalk in 3D display. There are two major issues in this new black frame 3D display mode. One is continuously playing every frame images twice. The other is controlling the backlight switch periodically. First, this paper explains the cause of the left and right eye images crosstalk, and presents a solution to avoid this problem. Then, we propose to play the entire frame images twice by repeating each frame image after it was played instead of playing the left images and the right images frame by frame alternately. Finally, the backlight is switched periodically instead of turned on all the time. The backlight is turned off while a frame of image is played for the first time, then turned on during the second time, after that it will be turned off again and run the next period with the next frame of image start to refresh. Controlling the backlight switch periodically like this is the key to achieve the black frame 3D display mode. This mode can not only achieve better 3D display effect by avoid the left and right image crosstalk, but also save the backlight power consumption. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our method is reasonable and efficient.

  6. Display of real-time 3D sensor data in a DVE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völschow, Philipp; Münsterer, Thomas; Strobel, Michael; Kuhn, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the implementation of displaying real-time processed LiDAR 3D data in a DVE pilot assistance system. The goal is to display to the pilot a comprehensive image of the surrounding world without misleading or cluttering information. 3D data which can be attributed, i.e. classified, to terrain or predefined obstacle classes is depicted differently from data belonging to elevated objects which could not be classified. Display techniques may be different for head-down and head-up displays to avoid cluttering of the outside view in the latter case. While terrain is shown as shaded surfaces with grid structures or as grid structures alone, respectively, classified obstacles are typically displayed with obstacle symbols only. Data from objects elevated above ground are displayed as shaded 3D points in space. In addition the displayed 3D points are accumulated over a certain time frame allowing on the one hand side a cohesive structure being displayed and on the other hand displaying moving objects correctly. In addition color coding or texturing can be applied based on known terrain features like land use.

  7. System crosstalk measurement of a time-sequential 3D display using ideal shutter glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fu-Hao; Huang, Kuo-Chung; Lin, Lang-Chin; Chou, Yi-Heng; Lee, Kuen

    2011-03-01

    The market of stereoscopic 3D TV grows up fast recently; however, for 3D TV really taking off, the interoperability of shutter glasses (SG) to view different TV sets must be solved, so we developed a measurement method with ideal shutter glasses (ISG) to separate time-sequential stereoscopic displays and SG. For measuring the crosstalk from time-sequential stereoscopic 3D displays, the influences from SG must be eliminated. The advantages are that the sources to crosstalk are distinguished, and the interoperability of SG is broadened. Hence, this paper proposed ideal shutter glasses, whose non-ideal properties are eliminated, as a platform to evaluate the crosstalk purely from the display. In the ISG method, the illuminance of the display was measured in time domain to analyze the system crosstalk SCT of the display. In this experiment, the ISG method was used to measure SCT with a high-speed-response illuminance meter. From the time-resolved illuminance signals, the slow time response of liquid crystal leading to SCT is visualized and quantified. Furthermore, an intriguing phenomenon that SCT measured through SG increases with shortening view distance was observed, and it may arise from LC leakage of the display and shutter leakage at large view angle. Thus, we measured how LC and shutter leakage depending on view angle and verified our argument. Besides, we used the ISG method to evaluate two displays.

  8. Color LCoS-based full-color electro-holographic 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jae-Woong; Lee, Dong-Whi; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a new color LCoS(liquid crystal on silicon)-based holographic full-color 3D display system is proposed. As the color LCoS SLM can produce a full-color image pattern using a color wheel, only one LCoS panel is required in this approach for full-color reconstruction of a 3D object. In the proposed method, each color fringe-pattern is generated and tinted with each color beam. R, G, B fringe-patterns are mixed up and displayed on the color LCoS SLM. And then, Red fringe-pattern can be diffracted at the red status of a color wheel and at the same manner Green/ Blue fringe-patterns can be diffracted at the green/ blue status of a color wheel, so that a full-color electro-holographic 3D image can be easily reconstructed by using some simple optics. From some experiments, a possibility of implementation of a new compact LCoS-based holographic full-color 3D video display system is suggested.

  9. Holographic full-color 3D display system using color-LCoS spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Moon, Jaw-Woong; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Son, Kwang-Chul; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a new color LCoS (liquid crystal on silicon)-based holographic full-color 3D display system is proposed. As the color LCoS SLM (spatial light modulator) can produce a full-color image pattern using a color wheel, only one LCoS panel is required for full-color reconstruction of a 3D object contrary to the conventional three-panel method. That is, in the proposed method, each color fringe-pattern is generated and tinted with each color beam. R, G, B fringe-patterns are mixed up and displayed on the color LCoS SLM. And then, the red, green and blue fringe patterns can be diffracted at the corresponding status of a color wheel, so that a full-color holographic image could be easily reconstructed with simple optics. From some experiments, a possibility of implementation of a new LCoS-based holographic full-color 3D video display system is suggested.

  10. Viewing zone duplication of multi-projection 3D display system using uniaxial crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Park, Soon-Gi; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    We propose a novel multiplexing technique for increasing the viewing zone of a multi-view based multi-projection 3D display system by employing double refraction in uniaxial crystal. When linearly polarized images from projector pass through the uniaxial crystal, two possible optical paths exist according to the polarization states of image. Therefore, the optical paths of the image could be changed, and the viewing zone is shifted in a lateral direction. The polarization modulation of the image from a single projection unit enables us to generate two viewing zones at different positions. For realizing full-color images at each viewing zone, a polarization-based temporal multiplexing technique is adopted with a conventional polarization switching device of liquid crystal (LC) display. Through experiments, a prototype of a ten-view multi-projection 3D display system presenting full-colored view images is implemented by combining five laser scanning projectors, an optically clear calcite (CaCO3) crystal, and an LC polarization rotator. For each time sequence of temporal multiplexing, the luminance distribution of the proposed system is measured and analyzed.

  11. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  12. Holographic display system for dynamic synthesis of 3D light fields with increased space bandwidth product.

    PubMed

    Agour, Mostafa; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B

    2016-06-27

    We present a new method for the generation of a dynamic wave field with high space bandwidth product (SBP). The dynamic wave field is generated from several wave fields diffracted by a display which comprises multiple spatial light modulators (SLMs) each having a comparably low SBP. In contrast to similar approaches in stereoscopy, we describe how the independently generated wave fields can be coherently superposed. A major benefit of the scheme is that the display system may be extended to provide an even larger display. A compact experimental configuration which is composed of four phase-only SLMs to realize the coherent combination of independent wave fields is presented. Effects of important technical parameters of the display system on the wave field generated across the observation plane are investigated. These effects include, e.g., the tilt of the individual SLM and the gap between the active areas of multiple SLMs. As an example of application, holographic reconstruction of a 3D object with parallax effects is demonstrated. PMID:27410593

  13. Study of a viewer tracking system with multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinn-Cherng; Wu, Chang-Shuo; Hsiao, Chuan-Heng; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Liu, Wen-Chieh; Hung, Yi-Ping

    2008-02-01

    An autostereoscopic display provides users great enjoyment of stereo visualization without uncomfortable and inconvenient drawbacks of wearing stereo glasses. However, bandwidth constraints of current multi-view 3D display severely restrict the number of views that can be simultaneously displayed without degrading resolution or increasing display cost unacceptably. An alternative to multiple view presentation is that the position of observer can be measured by using viewer-tracking sensor. It is a very important module of the viewer-tracking component for fluently rendering and accurately projecting the stereo video. In order to render stereo content with respect to user's view points and to optically project the content onto the left and right eyes of the user accurately, the real-time viewer tracking technique that allows the user to move around freely when watching the autostereoscopic display is developed in this study. It comprises the face detection by using multiple eigenspaces of various lighting conditions, fast block matching for tracking four motion parameters of the user's face region. The Edge Orientation Histogram (EOH) on Real AdaBoost to improve the performance of original AdaBoost algorithm is also applied in this study. The AdaBoost algorithm using Haar feature in OpenCV library developed by Intel to detect human face and enhance the accuracy performance with rotating image. The frame rate of viewer tracking process can achieve up to 15 Hz. Since performance of the viewer tracking autostereoscopic display is still influenced under variant environmental conditions, the accuracy, robustness and efficiency of the viewer-tracking system are evaluated in this study.

  14. 3D display and image processing system for metal bellows welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young

    2010-04-01

    Industrial welded metal Bellows is in shape of flexible pipeline. The most common form of bellows is as pairs of washer-shaped discs of thin sheet metal stamped from strip stock. Performing arc welding operation may cause dangerous accidents and bad smells. Furthermore, in the process of welding operation, workers have to observe the object directly through microscope adjusting the vertical and horizontal positions of welding rod tip and the bellows fixed on the jig, respectively. Welding looking through microscope makes workers feel tired. To improve working environment that workers sit in an uncomfortable position and productivity we introduced 3D display and image processing. Main purpose of the system is not only to maximize the efficiency of industrial productivity with accuracy but also to keep the safety standards with the full automation of work by distant remote controlling.

  15. Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Yong Moo; Son, Jung-Young

    2008-12-22

    Binocular disparity and monocular depth information are the principal functions of ideal 3D displays. 3D display systems such as stereoscopic or multi-view, super multi-view (SMV), and multi-focus (MF) displays were considered for the testing of the satisfaction level with the monocular accommodation of three different depths of 3D object points. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the MF 3D display gives a monocular depth cue. In addition, the experimental results of the monocular MF 3D display show clear monocular focus on four different depths. Therefore, we can apply the MF 3D display to monocular 3D displays.

  16. Development of a stereoscopic 3D display system to observe restored heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Mami; Kawai, Takashi; Ohya, Jun

    2004-05-01

    The authors have developed a binocular-type display system that allows digital archives of cultural assets to be viewed in their actual environment. The system is designed for installation in locations where such cultural assets were originally present. The viewer sees buildings and other heritage items as they existed historically by looking through the binoculars. Images of the cultural assets are reproduced by stereoscopic 3D CG in cyberspace, and the images are superimposed on actual images in real-time. This system consists of stereoscopic CCD cameras that capture a stereo view of the landscape and LCDs for presentation to the viewer. Virtual cameras, used to render CG images from digital archives, move in synchrony with the actual cameras, so the relative position of the CG images and the landscape on which they are superimposed is always fixed. The system has manual controls for digital zoom. Furthermore, the transparency of the CG images can be altered by the viewer. As a case study for the effectiveness of this system, the authors chose the Heijyoukyou ruins in Nara, Japan. The authors evaluate the sense of immersion, stereoscopic effect, and usability of the system.

  17. FELIX: a volumetric 3D laser display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Detlef; Langhans, Knut; Gerken, Martin; Vogt, Carsten; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, an innovative approach of a true 3D image presentation in a space filling, volumetric laser display will be described. The introduced prototype system is based on a moving target screen that sweeps the display volume. Net result is the optical equivalent of a 3D array of image points illuminated to form a model of the object which occupies a physical space. Wireframe graphics are presented within the display volume which a group of people can walk around and examine simultaneously from nearly any orientation and without any visual aids. Further to the detailed vector scanning mode, a raster scanned system and a combination of both techniques are under development. The volumetric 3D laser display technology for true reproduction of spatial images can tremendously improve the viewers ability to interpret data and to reliably determine distance, shape and orientation. Possible applications for this development range from air traffic control, where moving blips of light represent individual aircrafts in a true to scale projected airspace of an airport, to various medical applications (e.g. electrocardiography, computer-tomography), to entertainment and education visualization as well as imaging in the field of engineering and Computer Aided Design.

  18. Recent development of 3D display technology for new market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Sik

    2003-11-01

    A multi-view 3D video processor was designed and implemented with several FPGAs for real-time applications and a projection-type 3D display was introduced for low-cost commercialization. One high resolution projection panel and only one projection lens is capable of displaying multiview autostereoscopic images. It can cope with various arrangements of 3D camera systems (or pixel arrays) and resolutions of 3D displays. This system shows high 3-D image quality in terms of resolution, brightness, and contrast so it is well suited for the commercialization in the field of game and advertisement market.

  19. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  20. Wide-field-of-view image pickup system for multiview volumetric 3D displays using multiple RGB-D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuan; Kakeya, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    A real-time and wide-field-of-view image pickup system for coarse integral volumetric imaging (CIVI) is realized. This system is to apply CIVI display for live action videos generated by the real-time 3D reconstruction. By using multiple RGB-D cameras from different directions, a complete surface of the objects and a wide field of views can be shown in our CIVI displays. A prototype system is constructed and it works as follows. Firstly, image features and depth data are used for a fast and accurate calibration. Secondly, 3D point cloud data are obtained by each RGB-D camera and they are all converted into the same coordinate system. Thirdly, multiview images are constructed by perspective transformation from different viewpoints. Finally, the image for each viewpoint is divided depending on the depth of each pixel for a volumetric view. The experiments show a better result than using only one RGB-D camera and the whole system works on the real-time basis.

  1. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  2. 3D optical see-through head-mounted display based augmented reality system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue; Xiang, Li

    2015-07-01

    The combination of health and entertainment becomes possible due to the development of wearable augmented reality equipment and corresponding application software. In this paper, we implemented a fast calibration extended from SPAAM for an optical see-through head-mounted display (OSTHMD) which was made in our lab. During the calibration, the tracking and recognition techniques upon natural targets were used, and the spatial corresponding points had been set in dispersed and well-distributed positions. We evaluated the precision of this calibration, in which the view angle ranged from 0 degree to 70 degrees. Relying on the results above, we calculated the position of human eyes relative to the world coordinate system and rendered 3D objects in real time with arbitrary complexity on OSTHMD, which accurately matched the real world. Finally, we gave the degree of satisfaction about our device in the combination of entertainment and prevention of cervical vertebra diseases through user feedbacks.

  3. Light field display and 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwane, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Light field optics and its applications become rather popular in these days. With light field optics or light field thesis, real 3D space can be described in 2D plane as 4D data, which we call as light field data. This process can be divided in two procedures. First, real3D scene is optically reduced with imaging lens. Second, this optically reduced 3D image is encoded into light field data. In later procedure we can say that 3D information is encoded onto a plane as 2D data by lens array plate. This transformation is reversible and acquired light field data can be decoded again into 3D image with the arrayed lens plate. "Refocusing" (focusing image on your favorite point after taking a picture), light-field camera's most popular function, is some kind of sectioning process from encoded 3D data (light field data) to 2D image. In this paper at first I show our actual light field camera and our 3D display using acquired and computer-simulated light field data, on which real 3D image is reconstructed. In second I explain our data processing method whose arithmetic operation is performed not in Fourier domain but in real domain. Then our 3D display system is characterized by a few features; reconstructed image is of finer resolutions than density of arrayed lenses and it is not necessary to adjust lens array plate to flat display on which light field data is displayed.

  4. Depth-fused 3D imagery on an immaterial display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cha; Diverdi, Stephen; Höllerer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present an immaterial display that uses a generalized form of depth-fused 3D (DFD) rendering to create unencumbered 3D visuals. To accomplish this result, we demonstrate a DFD display simulator that extends the established depth-fused 3D principle by using screens in arbitrary configurations and from arbitrary viewpoints. The feasibility of the generalized DFD effect is established with a user study using the simulator. Based on these results, we developed a prototype display using one or two immaterial screens to create an unencumbered 3D visual that users can penetrate, examining the potential for direct walk-through and reach-through manipulation of the 3D scene. We evaluate the prototype system in formative and summative user studies and report the tolerance thresholds discovered for both tracking and projector errors.

  5. Recent developments in stereoscopic and holographic 3D display technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there is increasing interest in the development of high performance 3D display technologies to support a variety of applications including medical imaging, scientific visualization, gaming, education, entertainment, air traffic control and remote operations in 3D environments. In this paper we will review the attributes of the various 3D display technologies including stereoscopic and holographic 3D, human factors issues of stereoscopic 3D, the challenges in realizing Holographic 3D displays and the recent progress in these technologies.

  6. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  7. 2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.

    2008-01-01

    Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.

  8. In memoriam: Fumio Okano, innovator of 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Dr. Fumio Okano, a well-known pioneer and innovator of three-dimensional (3D) displays, passed away on 26 November 2013 in Kanagawa, Japan, at the age of 61. Okano joined Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) in Tokyo in 1978. In 1981, he began researching high-definition television (HDTV) cameras, HDTV systems, ultrahigh-definition television systems, and 3D televisions at NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories. His publications have been frequently cited by other researchers. Okano served eight years as chair of the annual SPIE conference on Three- Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display and another four years as co-chair. Okano's leadership in this field will be greatly missed and he will be remembered for his enduring contributions and innovations in the field of 3D displays. This paper is a summary of the career of Fumio Okano, as well as a tribute to that career and its lasting legacy.

  9. 3D display considerations for rugged airborne environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnidge, Tracy J.; Tchon, Joseph L.

    2015-05-01

    The KC-46 is the next generation, multi-role, aerial refueling tanker aircraft being developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force. Rockwell Collins has developed the Remote Vision System (RVS) that supports aerial refueling operations under a variety of conditions. The system utilizes large-area, high-resolution 3D displays linked with remote sensors to enhance the operator's visual acuity for precise aerial refueling control. This paper reviews the design considerations, trade-offs, and other factors related to the selection and ruggedization of the 3D display technology for this military application.

  10. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  11. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  12. Progress in 3D imaging and display by integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Saavedra, G.; Martinez-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Javidi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensionality is currently considered an important added value in imaging devices, and therefore the search for an optimum 3D imaging and display technique is a hot topic that is attracting important research efforts. As main value, 3D monitors should provide the observers with different perspectives of a 3D scene by simply varying the head position. Three-dimensional imaging techniques have the potential to establish a future mass-market in the fields of entertainment and communications. Integral imaging (InI), which can capture true 3D color images, has been seen as the right technology to 3D viewing to audiences of more than one person. Due to the advanced degree of development, InI technology could be ready for commercialization in the coming years. This development is the result of a strong research effort performed along the past few years by many groups. Since Integral Imaging is still an emerging technology, the first aim of the "3D Imaging and Display Laboratory" at the University of Valencia, has been the realization of a thorough study of the principles that govern its operation. Is remarkable that some of these principles have been recognized and characterized by our group. Other contributions of our research have been addressed to overcome some of the classical limitations of InI systems, like the limited depth of field (in pickup and in display), the poor axial and lateral resolution, the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion, the production of 3D images with continuous relief, or the limited range of viewing angles of InI monitors.

  13. Tangible holography: adding synthetic touch to 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, Wendy J.; Klug, Michael A.

    1997-04-01

    Just as we expect holographic technology to become a more pervasive and affordable instrument of information display, so too will high fidelity force-feedback devices. We describe a testbed system which uses both of these technologies to provide simultaneous, coincident visuo- haptic spatial display of a 3D scene. The system provides the user with a stylus to probe a geometric model that is also presented visually in full parallax. The haptics apparatus is a six degree-of-freedom mechanical device with servomotors providing active force display. This device is controlled by a free-running server that simulates static geometric models with tactile and bulk material properties, all under ongoing specification by a client program. The visual display is a full parallax edge-illuminated holographic stereogram with a wide angle of view. Both simulations, haptic and visual, represent the same scene. The haptic and visual displays are carefully scaled and aligned to provide coincident display, and together they permit the user to explore the model's 3D shape, texture and compliance.

  14. TransCAIP: A Live 3D TV system using a camera array and an integral photography display with interactive control of viewing parameters.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuichi; Koike, Takafumi; Takahashi, Keita; Naemura, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    The system described in this paper provides a real-time 3D visual experience by using an array of 64 video cameras and an integral photography display with 60 viewing directions. The live 3D scene in front of the camera array is reproduced by the full-color, full-parallax autostereoscopic display with interactive control of viewing parameters. The main technical challenge is fast and flexible conversion of the data from the 64 multicamera images to the integral photography format. Based on image-based rendering techniques, our conversion method first renders 60 novel images corresponding to the viewing directions of the display, and then arranges the rendered pixels to produce an integral photography image. For real-time processing on a single PC, all the conversion processes are implemented on a GPU with GPGPU techniques. The conversion method also allows a user to interactively control viewing parameters of the displayed image for reproducing the dynamic 3D scene with desirable parameters. This control is performed as a software process, without reconfiguring the hardware system, by changing the rendering parameters such as the convergence point of the rendering cameras and the interval between the viewpoints of the rendering cameras.

  15. Projection type transparent 3D display using active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoshita, Hiroki; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    Equipment to enjoy a 3D image, such as a movie theater, television and so on have been developed many. So 3D video are widely known as a familiar image of technology now. The display representing the 3D image are there such as eyewear, naked-eye, the HMD-type, etc. They has been used for different applications and location. But have not been widely studied for the transparent 3D display. If transparent large 3D display is realized, it is useful to display 3D image overlaid on real scene in some applications such as road sign, shop window, screen in the conference room etc. As a previous study, to produce a transparent 3D display by using a special transparent screen and number of projectors is proposed. However, for smooth motion parallax, many projectors are required. In this paper, we propose a display that has transparency and large display area by time multiplexing projection image in time-division from one or small number of projectors to active screen. The active screen is composed of a number of vertically-long small rotate mirrors. It is possible to realize the stereoscopic viewing by changing the image of the projector in synchronism with the scanning of the beam.3D vision can be realized by light is scanned. Also, the display has transparency, because it is possible to see through the display when the mirror becomes perpendicular to the viewer. We confirmed the validity of the proposed method by using simulation.

  16. Active and interactive floating image display using holographic 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morii, Tsutomu; Sakamoto, Kunio

    2006-08-01

    We developed a prototype tabletop holographic display system. This system consists of the object recognition system and the spatial imaging system. In this paper, we describe the recognition system using an RFID tag and the 3D display system using a holographic technology. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1,2,3. The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. In this paper, the authors describe the interactive tabletop 3D display system. The observer can view virtual images when the user puts the special object on the display table. The key technologies of this system are the object recognition system and the spatial imaging display.

  17. Stereoscopic display technologies for FHD 3D LCD TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Sik; Ko, Young-Ji; Park, Sang-Moo; Jung, Jong-Hoon; Shestak, Sergey

    2010-04-01

    Stereoscopic display technologies have been developed as one of advanced displays, and many TV industrials have been trying commercialization of 3D TV. We have been developing 3D TV based on LCD with LED BLU (backlight unit) since Samsung launched the world's first 3D TV based on PDP. However, the data scanning of panel and LC's response characteristics of LCD TV cause interference among frames (that is crosstalk), and this makes 3D video quality worse. We propose the method to reduce crosstalk by LCD driving and backlight control of FHD 3D LCD TV.

  18. True-Depth: a new type of true 3D volumetric display system suitable for CAD, medical imaging, and air-traffic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgoff, Eugene

    1998-04-01

    Floating Images, Inc. is developing a new type of volumetric monitor capable of producing a high-density set of points in 3D space. Since the points of light actually exist in space, the resulting image can be viewed with continuous parallax, both vertically and horizontally, with no headache or eyestrain. These 'real' points in space are always viewed with a perfect match between accommodation and convergence. All scanned points appear to the viewer simultaneously, making this display especially suitable for CAD, medical imaging, air-traffic control, and various military applications. This system has the potential to display imagery so accurately that a ruler could be placed within the aerial image to provide precise measurement in any direction. A special virtual imaging arrangement allows the user to superimpose 3D images on a solid object, making the object look transparent. This is particularly useful for minimally invasive surgery in which the internal structure of a patient is visible to a surgeon in 3D. Surgical procedures can be carried out through the smallest possible hole while the surgeon watches the procedure from outside the body as if the patient were transparent. Unlike other attempts to produce volumetric imaging, this system uses no massive rotating screen or any screen at all, eliminating down time due to breakage and possible danger due to potential mechanical failure. Additionally, it is also capable of displaying very large images.

  19. Will true 3d display devices aid geologic interpretation. [Mirage

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.R. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A description is given of true 3D display devices and techniques that are being evaluated in various research laboratories around the world. These advances are closely tied to the expected application of 3D display devices as interpretational tools for explorationists. 34 refs.

  20. Optical characterization and measurements of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmimaa, Marja; Järvenpää, Toni

    2008-04-01

    3D or autostereoscopic display technologies offer attractive solutions for enriching the multimedia experience. However, both characterization and comparison of 3D displays have been challenging when the definitions for the consistent measurement methods have been lacking and displays with similar specifications may appear quite different. Earlier we have investigated how the optical properties of autostereoscopic (3D) displays can be objectively measured and what are the main characteristics defining the perceived image quality. In this paper the discussion is extended to cover the viewing freedom (VF) and the definition for the optimum viewing distance (OVD) is elaborated. VF is the volume inside which the eyes have to be to see an acceptable 3D image. Characteristics limiting the VF space are proposed to be 3D crosstalk, luminance difference and color difference. Since the 3D crosstalk can be presumed to be dominating the quality of the end user experience and in our approach is forming the basis for the calculations of the other optical parameters, the reliability of the 3D crosstalk measurements is investigated. Furthermore the effect on the derived VF definition is evaluated. We have performed comparison 3D crosstalk measurements with different measurement device apertures and the effect of different measurement geometry on the results on actual 3D displays is reported.

  1. Evaluation of viewing experiences induced by curved 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2015-05-01

    As advanced display technology has been developed, much attention has been given to flexible panels. On top of that, with the momentum of the 3D era, stereoscopic 3D technique has been combined with the curved displays. However, despite the increased needs for 3D function in the curved displays, comparisons between curved and flat panel displays with 3D views have rarely been tested. Most of the previous studies have investigated their basic ergonomic aspects such as viewing posture and distance with only 2D views. It has generally been known that curved displays are more effective in enhancing involvement in specific content stories because field of views and distance from the eyes of viewers to both edges of the screen are more natural in curved displays than in flat panel ones. For flat panel displays, ocular torsions may occur when viewers try to move their eyes from the center to the edges of the screen to continuously capture rapidly moving 3D objects. This is due in part to differences in viewing distances from the center of the screen to eyes of viewers and from the edges of the screen to the eyes. Thus, this study compared S3D viewing experiences induced by a curved display with those of a flat panel display by evaluating significant subjective and objective measures.

  2. Dual-view 3D displays based on integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Deng, Huan; Wu, Fei

    2016-03-01

    We propose three dual-view integral imaging (DVII) three-dimensional (3D) displays. In the spatial-multiplexed DVII 3D display, each elemental image (EI) is cut into a left and right sub-EIs, and they are refracted to the left and right viewing zones by the corresponding micro-lens array (MLA). Different 3D images are reconstructed in the left and right viewing zones, and the viewing angle is decreased. In the DVII 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers, a polarizer parallax barrier is used in front of both the display panel and the MLA. The polarizer parallax barrier consists of two parts with perpendicular polarization directions. The elemental image array (EIA) is cut to left and right parts. The lights emitted from the left part are modulated by the left MLA and reconstruct a 3D image in the right viewing zone, whereas the lights emitted from the right part reconstruct another 3D image in the left viewing zone. The 3D resolution is decreased. In the time-multiplexed DVII 3D display, an orthogonal polarizer array is attached onto both the display panel and the MLA. The orthogonal polarizer array consists of horizontal and vertical polarizer units and the polarization directions of the adjacent units are orthogonal. In State 1, each EI is reconstructed by its corresponding micro-lens, whereas in State 2, each EI is reconstructed by its adjacent micro-lens. 3D images 1 and 2 are reconstructed alternately with a refresh rate up to 120HZ. The viewing angle and 3D resolution are the same as the conventional II 3D display.

  3. Optical display of magnified, real and orthoscopic 3-D object images by moving-direct-pixel-mapping in the scalable integral-imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao; Piao, Yongri; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for reconstruction of the magnified, real and orthoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) object images by using the moving-direct-pixel-mapping (MDPM) method in the MALT(moving-array-lenslet-technique)-based scalable integral-imaging system. In the proposed system, multiple sets of elemental image arrays (EIAs) are captured with the MALT, and these picked-up EIAs are computationally transformed into the depth-converted ones by using the proposed MDPM method. Then, these depth-converted EIAs are combined and interlaced together to form an enlarged EIA, from which a magnified, real and orthoscopic 3-D object images can be optically displayed without any degradation of resolution. Good experimental results finally confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. Format for Interchange and Display of 3D Terrain Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Powell, Mark; Vona, Marsette; Norris, Jeffrey; Morrison, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Visible Scalable Terrain (ViSTa) is a software format for production, interchange, and display of three-dimensional (3D) terrain data acquired by stereoscopic cameras of robotic vision systems. ViSTa is designed to support scalability of data, accuracy of displayed terrain images, and optimal utilization of computational resources. In a ViSTa file, an area of terrain is represented, at one or more levels of detail, by coordinates of isolated points and/or vertices of triangles derived from a texture map that, in turn, is derived from original terrain images. Unlike prior terrain-image software formats, ViSTa includes provisions to ensure accuracy of texture coordinates. Whereas many such formats are based on 2.5-dimensional terrain models and impose additional regularity constraints on data, ViSTa is based on a 3D model without regularity constraints. Whereas many prior formats require external data for specifying image-data coordinate systems, ViSTa provides for the inclusion of coordinate-system data within data files. ViSTa admits highspeed loading and display within a Java program. ViSTa is designed to minimize file sizes and maximize compressibility and to support straightforward reduction of resolution to reduce file size for Internet-based distribution.

  5. What is 3D good for? A review of human performance on stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    This work reviews the human factors-related literature on the task performance implications of stereoscopic 3D displays, in order to point out the specific performance benefits (or lack thereof) one might reasonably expect to observe when utilizing these displays. What exactly is 3D good for? Relative to traditional 2D displays, stereoscopic displays have been shown to enhance performance on a variety of depth-related tasks. These tasks include judging absolute and relative distances, finding and identifying objects (by breaking camouflage and eliciting perceptual "pop-out"), performing spatial manipulations of objects (object positioning, orienting, and tracking), and navigating. More cognitively, stereoscopic displays can improve the spatial understanding of 3D scenes or objects, improve memory/recall of scenes or objects, and improve learning of spatial relationships and environments. However, for tasks that are relatively simple, that do not strictly require depth information for good performance, where other strong cues to depth can be utilized, or for depth tasks that lie outside the effective viewing volume of the display, the purported performance benefits of 3D may be small or altogether absent. Stereoscopic 3D displays come with a host of unique human factors problems including the simulator-sickness-type symptoms of eyestrain, headache, fatigue, disorientation, nausea, and malaise, which appear to effect large numbers of viewers (perhaps as many as 25% to 50% of the general population). Thus, 3D technology should be wielded delicately and applied carefully; and perhaps used only as is necessary to ensure good performance.

  6. 3D display based on parallax barrier with multiview zones.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guo-Jiao; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Wang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    A 3D display based on a parallax barrier with multiview zones is proposed. This display consists of a 2D display panel and a parallax barrier. The basic element of the parallax barrier has three narrow slits. They can show three columns of subpixels on the 2D display panel and form 3D pixels. The parallax barrier can provide multiview zones. In these multiview zones, the proposed 3D display can use a small number of views to achieve a high density of views. Therefore, the distance between views is the same as the conventional ones with more views. Considering the proposed display has fewer views, which bring more 3D pixels in the 3D images, the resolution and brightness will be higher than the conventional ones. A 12-view prototype of the proposed 3D display is developed, and it provides the same density of views as a conventional one with 28 views. Experimental results show the proposed display has higher resolution and brightness than the conventional one. The cross talk is also limited at a low level.

  7. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  8. Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulators for 3d Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, N.

    An optically addressed spatial light modulator (OASLM) records the image on a write beam and transfers it to a read beam. Some example application areas are: image transduction; optical correlation; adaptive optics; and optical neural networks. Current interest in OASLMs has been generated by the work of Qinetiq on 3D display. This work is based on Active tiling, where an image can be recorded in one part of the device and is memorised, whilst the remainder of the device is updated with images. This paper will explain this system and survey the technological alternatives for this application.

  9. Cylindrical 3D video display observable from all directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Tomohiro; Kajiki, Yoshihiro; Honda, Toshio; Sato, Makoto

    2000-05-01

    We propose a 3D video displaying technique that multiple viewers can observe 3D images from 360 degrees of arc horizontally without 3D glasses. This technique uses a cylindrical parallax barrier and 1D light source array. We have developed an experimental display using this technique and have demonstrated 3D images observable form 360 degrees of arc horizontally without 3D glasses. Since this technique is based on the parallax panoramagram, the parallax number and resolution are limited by the diffraction at the parallax barrier. To avoid these limits, we improved the technique by revolving the parallax barrier. We have been developing a new experimental display using this improved technique. The display is capable of displaying cylindrical 3D video images within the diameter of 100 mm and the height of 128 mm. Images are described with the resolution of 1254 pixels circularly and 128 pixels vertically, and refreshed at 30Hz. Each pixel has the viewing angle of 60 degrees and that is divided into 70 views, therefore the angular parallax interval of each pixel is less than 1 degree. In such a case, observers may barely perceive parallax discretely. The pixels are arranged on a cylinder surface, therefore produced 3D images can be observed from all directions.

  10. GPS 3-D cockpit displays: Sensors, algorithms, and flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Andrew Kevin

    Tunnel-in-the-Sky 3-D flight displays have been investigated for several decades as a means of enhancing aircraft safety and utility. However, high costs have prevented commercial development and seriously hindered research into their operational benefits. The rapid development of Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS), inexpensive computing power, and ruggedized displays is now changing this situation. A low-cost prototype system was built and flight tested to investigate implementation and operational issues. The display provided an "out the window" 3-D perspective view of the world, letting the pilot see the horizon, runway, and desired flight path even in instrument flight conditions. The flight path was depicted as a tunnel through which the pilot flew the airplane, while predictor symbology provided guidance to minimize path-following errors. Positioning data was supplied, by various DGPS sources including the Stanford Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) testbed. A combination of GPS and low-cost inertial sensors provided vehicle heading, pitch, and roll information. Architectural and sensor fusion tradeoffs made during system implementation are discussed. Computational algorithms used to provide guidance on curved paths over the earth geoid are outlined along with display system design issues. It was found that current technology enables low-cost Tunnel-in-the-Sky display systems with a target cost of $20,000 for large-scale commercialization. Extensive testing on Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft demonstrated enhanced accuracy and operational flexibility on a variety of complex flight trajectories. These included curved and segmented approaches, traffic patterns flown on instruments, and skywriting by instrument reference. Overlays to existing instrument approaches at airports in California and Alaska were flown and compared with current instrument procedures. These overlays demonstrated improved utility and situational awareness for

  11. Development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataupsky, Mark; Turner, Timothy L.; Lane, Harold; Crittenden, Lucille

    1989-01-01

    Computer-generated displays are becoming increasingly popular in aerospace applications. The use of stereo 3-D technology provides an opportunity to present depth perceptions which otherwise might be lacking. In addition, the third dimension could also be used as an additional dimension along which information can be encoded. Historically, the stereo 3-D displays have been used in entertainment, in experimental facilities, and in the handling of hazardous waste. In the last example, the source of the stereo images generally has been remotely controlled television camera pairs. The development of a stereo 3-D pictorial primary flight display used in a flight simulation environment is described. The applicability of stereo 3-D displays for aerospace crew stations to meet the anticipated needs for 2000 to 2020 time frame is investigated. Although, the actual equipment that could be used in an aerospace vehicle is not currently available, the lab research is necessary to determine where stereo 3-D enhances the display of information and how the displays should be formatted.

  12. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  13. Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Ryota; Matsuda, Isamu; Kakeya, Hideki

    2006-02-01

    In the present paper the authors present a novel stereoscopic display method combining volumetric edge display technology and multiview display technology to realize presentation of natural 3D images where the viewers do not suffer from contradiction between binocular convergence and focal accommodation of the eyes, which causes eyestrain and sickness. We adopt volumetric display method only for edge drawing, while we adopt stereoscopic approach for flat areas of the image. Since focal accommodation of our eyes is affected only by the edge part of the image, natural focal accommodation can be induced if the edges of the 3D image are drawn on the proper depth. The conventional stereo-matching technique can give us robust depth values of the pixels which constitute noticeable edges. Also occlusion and gloss of the objects can be roughly expressed with the proposed method since we use stereoscopic approach for the flat area. We can attain a system where many users can view natural 3D objects at the consistent position and posture at the same time in this system. A simple optometric experiment using a refractometer suggests that the proposed method can give us 3-D images without contradiction between binocular convergence and focal accommodation.

  14. Latest developments in a multi-user 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surman, Phil; Sexton, Ian; Bates, Richard; Lee, Wing Kai; Hopf, Klaus; Koukoulas, Triantaffilos

    2005-11-01

    De Montfort University, in conjunction with the Heinrich Hertz Institute, is developing a 3D display that is targeted specifically at the television market. It is capable of supplying 3D to several viewers who do not have to wear special glasses, and who are able to move freely over a room-sized area. The display consists of a single liquid crystal display that presents the same stereo pair to every viewer by employing spatial multiplexing. This presents a stereo pair on alternate pixel rows, with the conventional backlight replaced by novel steering optics controlled by the output of a head position tracker. Illumination is achieved using arrays of coaxial optical elements in conjunction with high-density white light emitting diode arrays. The operation of the steering and multiplexing optics in the prototype display are explained. The results obtained from a prototype built under the European Union-funded ATTEST 3D television project are described. The performance of this model was not optimum, but was sufficient to prove that the principle of operation is viable for a 3D television display. A second prototype, incorporating improvements based on experience gained, is currently under construction and this is also described. The prototype is capable of being developed into a display appropriate for a production model that will enable 3D television to come to market within the next ten years. With the current widespread usage of flat panel displays it is likely that customer preference will be for a hang-on-the-wall 3D display, and this challenge will be met by reconfiguring the optics and incorporating novel optical addressing techniques.

  15. Application of a 3D volumetric display for radiation therapy treatment planning I: quality assurance procedures.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xing; Kirk, Michael Collins; Napoli, Josh; Stutsman, Sandy; Zusag, Tom; Khelashvili, Gocha; Chu, James

    2009-07-17

    To design and implement a set of quality assurance tests for an innovative 3D volumetric display for radiation treatment planning applications. A genuine 3D display (Perspecta Spatial 3D, Actuality-Systems Inc., Bedford, MA) has been integrated with the Pinnacle TPS (Philips Medical Systems, Madison WI), for treatment planning. The Perspecta 3D display renders a 25 cm diameter volume that is viewable from any side, floating within a translucent dome. In addition to displaying all 3D data exported from Pinnacle, the system provides a 3D mouse to define beam angles and apertures and to measure distance. The focus of this work is the design and implementation of a quality assurance program for 3D displays and specific 3D planning issues as guided by AAPM Task Group Report 53. A series of acceptance and quality assurance tests have been designed to evaluate the accuracy of CT images, contours, beams, and dose distributions as displayed on Perspecta. Three-dimensional matrices, rulers and phantoms with known spatial dimensions were used to check Perspecta's absolute spatial accuracy. In addition, a system of tests was designed to confirm Perspecta's ability to import and display Pinnacle data consistently. CT scans of phantoms were used to confirm beam field size, divergence, and gantry and couch angular accuracy as displayed on Perspecta. Beam angles were verified through Cartesian coordinate system measurements and by CT scans of phantoms rotated at known angles. Beams designed on Perspecta were exported to Pinnacle and checked for accuracy. Dose at sampled points were checked for consistency with Pinnacle and agreed within 1% or 1 mm. All data exported from Pinnacle to Perspecta was displayed consistently. The 3D spatial display of images, contours, and dose distributions were consistent with Pinnacle display. When measured by the 3D ruler, the distances between any two points calculated using Perspecta agreed with Pinnacle within the measurement error.

  16. Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Akşit, Kaan; Niaki, Amir Hossein Ghanbari; Ulusoy, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2014-12-15

    Two well-known problems of stereoscopic displays are the accommodation-convergence conflict and the lack of natural blur for defocused objects. We present a new technique that we name Super Stereoscopy (SS3D) to provide a convenient solution to these problems. Regular stereoscopic glasses are replaced by SS3D glasses which deliver at least two parallax images per eye through pinholes equipped with light selective filters. The pinholes generate blur-free retinal images so as to enable correct accommodation, while the delivery of multiple parallax images per eye creates an approximate blur effect for defocused objects. Experiments performed with cameras and human viewers indicate that the technique works as desired. In case two, pinholes equipped with color filters per eye are used; the technique can be used on a regular stereoscopic display by only uploading a new content, without requiring any change in display hardware, driver, or frame rate. Apart from some tolerable loss in display brightness and decrease in natural spatial resolution limit of the eye because of pinholes, the technique is quite promising for comfortable and realistic 3D vision, especially enabling the display of close objects that are not possible to display and comfortably view on regular 3DTV and cinema. PMID:25503026

  17. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  18. Improvements of 3-D image quality in integral display by reducing distortion errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Masahiro; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Arai, Jun; Okano, Fumio; Suehiro, Koya; Haino, Yasuyuki; Yoshimura, Makoto; Sato, Masahito

    2008-02-01

    An integral three-dimensional (3-D) system based on the principle of integral photography can display natural 3-D images. We studied ways of improving the resolution and viewing angle of 3-D images by using extremely highresolution (EHR) video in an integral 3-D video system. One of the problems with the EHR projection-type integral 3-D system is that positional errors appear between the elemental image and the elemental lens when there is geometric distortion in the projected image. We analyzed the relationships between the geometric distortion in the elemental images caused by the projection lens and the spatial distortion of the reconstructed 3-D image. As a result, we clarified that 3-D images reconstructed far from the lens array were greatly affected by the distortion of the elemental images, and that the 3-D images were significantly distorted in the depth direction at the corners of the displayed images. Moreover, we developed a video signal processor that electrically compensated the distortion in the elemental images for an EHR projection-type integral 3-D system. Therefore, the distortion in the displayed 3-D image was removed, and the viewing angle of the 3-D image was expanded to nearly double that obtained with the previous prototype system.

  19. Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Juan; Han, Jian; Li, Xin

    2016-07-25

    The complex amplitude modulation (CAM) technique is applied to the design of the monocular three-dimensional see-through head-mounted display (3D-STHMD) for the first time. Two amplitude holograms are obtained by analytically dividing the wavefront of the 3D object to the real and the imaginary distributions, and then double amplitude-only spatial light modulators (A-SLMs) are employed to reconstruct the 3D images in real-time. Since the CAM technique can inherently present true 3D images to the human eye, the designed CAM-STHMD system avoids the accommodation-convergence conflict of the conventional stereoscopic see-through displays. The optical experiments further demonstrated that the proposed system has continuous and wide depth cues, which enables the observer free of eye fatigue problem. The dynamic display ability is also tested in the experiments and the results showed the possibility of true 3D interactive display. PMID:27464184

  20. Measuring visual discomfort associated with 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambooij, M.; Fortuin, M.; Ijsselsteijn, W. A.; Heynderickx, I.

    2009-02-01

    Some people report visual discomfort when watching 3D displays. For both the objective measurement of visual fatigue and the subjective measurement of visual discomfort, we would like to arrive at general indicators that are easy to apply in perception experiments. Previous research yielded contradictory results concerning such indicators. We hypothesize two potential causes for this: 1) not all clinical tests are equally appropriate to evaluate the effect of stereoscopic viewing on visual fatigue, and 2) there is a natural variation in susceptibility to visual fatigue amongst people with normal vision. To verify these hypotheses, we designed an experiment, consisting of two parts. Firstly, an optometric screening was used to differentiate participants in susceptibility to visual fatigue. Secondly, in a 2×2 within-subjects design (2D vs 3D and two-view vs nine-view display), a questionnaire and eight optometric tests (i.e. binocular acuity, fixation disparity with and without fusion lock, heterophoria, convergent and divergent fusion, vergence facility and accommodation response) were administered before and immediately after a reading task. Results revealed that participants found to be more susceptible to visual fatigue during screening showed a clinically meaningful increase in fusion amplitude after having viewed 3D stimuli. Two questionnaire items (i.e., pain and irritation) were significantly affected by the participants' susceptibility, while two other items (i.e., double vision and sharpness) were scored differently between 2D and 3D for all participants. Our results suggest that a combination of fusion range measurements and self-report is appropriate for evaluating visual fatigue related to 3D displays.

  1. Study on basic problems in real-time 3D holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Pan, Yijie; Li, Xin

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, real-time three-dimensional (3D) holographic display has attracted more and more attentions. Since a holographic display can entirely reconstruct the wavefront of an actual 3D scene, it can provide all the depth cues for human eye's observation and perception, and it is believed to be the most promising technology for future 3D display. However, there are several unsolved basic problems for realizing large-size real-time 3D holographic display with a wide field of view. For examples, commercial pixelated spatial light modulators (SLM) always lead to zero-order intensity distortion; 3D holographic display needs a huge number of sampling points for the actual objects or scenes, resulting in enormous computational time; The size and the viewing zone of the reconstructed 3D optical image are limited by the space bandwidth product of the SLM; Noise from the coherent light source as well as from the system severely degrades the quality of the 3D image; and so on. Our work is focused on these basic problems, and some initial results are presented, including a technique derived theoretically and verified experimentally to eliminate the zero-order beam caused by a pixelated phase-only SLM; a method to enlarge the reconstructed 3D image and shorten the reconstruction distance using a concave reflecting mirror; and several algorithms to speed up the calculation of computer generated holograms (CGH) for the display.

  2. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott

    1992-06-01

    Recent developments in virtual 3D audio and synthetic aural environments have produced a complex acoustical room simulation. The acoustical simulation models a room with walls, ceiling, and floor of selected sound reflecting/absorbing characteristics and unlimited independent localizable sound sources. This non-visual acoustic simulation, implemented with 4 audio ConvolvotronsTM by Crystal River Engineering and coupled to the listener with a Poihemus IsotrakTM, tracking the listener's head position and orientation, and stereo headphones returning binaural sound, is quite compelling to most listeners with eyes closed. This immersive effect should be reinforced when properly integrated into a full, multi-sensory virtual environment presentation. This paper discusses the design of an interactive, visual virtual environment, complementing the acoustic model and specified to: 1) allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; 2) reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence into the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; 3) enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and 4) serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations. The installed system implements a head-coupled, wide-angle, stereo-optic tracker/viewer and multi-computer simulation control. The portable demonstration system implements a head-mounted wide-angle, stereo-optic display, separate head and pointer electro-magnetic position trackers, a heterogeneous parallel graphics processing system, and object oriented C++ program code.

  3. 3-D Display Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan C.; Kim, Yongmin; Haralick, Robert M.; Anderson, Paul A.; Johnson, Roger H.; DeSoto, Larry A.

    1988-06-01

    The original data is produced through standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures with a surface coil applied to the lower back of a normal human subject. The 3-D spine image data consists of twenty-six contiguous slices with 256 x 256 pixels per slice. Two methods for visualization of the 3-D spine are explored. One method utilizes a verifocal mirror system which creates a true 3-D virtual picture of the object. Another method uses a standard high resolution monitor to simultaneously show the three orthogonal sections which intersect at any user-selected point within the object volume. We discuss the application of these systems in assessment of low back pain.

  4. Perceived crosstalk assessment on patterned retarder 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bochao; Liu, Yue; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-03-01

    CONTEXT: Nowadays, almost all stereoscopic displays suffer from crosstalk, which is one of the most dominant degradation factors of image quality and visual comfort for 3D display devices. To deal with such problems, it is worthy to quantify the amount of perceived crosstalk OBJECTIVE: Crosstalk measurements are usually based on some certain test patterns, but scene content effects are ignored. To evaluate the perceived crosstalk level for various scenes, subjective test may bring a more correct evaluation. However, it is a time consuming approach and is unsuitable for real­ time applications. Therefore, an objective metric that can reliably predict the perceived crosstalk is needed. A correct objective assessment of crosstalk for different scene contents would be beneficial to the development of crosstalk minimization and cancellation algorithms which could be used to bring a good quality of experience to viewers. METHOD: A patterned retarder 3D display is used to present 3D images in our experiment. By considering the mechanism of this kind of devices, an appropriate simulation of crosstalk is realized by image processing techniques to assign different values of crosstalk to each other between image pairs. It can be seen from the literature that the structures of scenes have a significant impact on the perceived crosstalk, so we first extract the differences of the structural information between original and distorted image pairs through Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) algorithm, which could directly evaluate the structural changes between two complex-structured signals. Then the structural changes of left view and right view are computed respectively and combined to an overall distortion map. Under 3D viewing condition, because of the added value of depth, the crosstalk of pop-out objects may be more perceptible. To model this effect, the depth map of a stereo pair is generated and the depth information is filtered by the distortion map. Moreover, human attention

  5. Crosstalk in automultiscopic 3-D displays: blessing in disguise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ashish; Konrad, Janusz

    2007-02-01

    Most of 3-D displays suffer from interocular crosstalk, i.e., the perception of an unintended view in addition to intended one. The resulting "ghosting" at high-contrast object boundaries is objectionable and interferes with depth perception. In automultiscopic (no glasses, multiview) displays using microlenses or parallax barrier, the effect is compounded since several unintended views may be perceived at once. However, we recently discovered that crosstalk in automultiscopic displays can be also beneficial. Since spatial multiplexing of views in order to prepare a composite image for automultiscopic viewing involves sub-sampling, prior anti-alias filtering is required. To date, anti-alias filter design has ignored the presence of crosstalk in automultiscopic displays. In this paper, we propose a simple multiplexing model that takes crosstalk into account. Using this model we derive a mathematical expression for the spectrum of single view with crosstalk, and we show that it leads to reduced spectral aliasing compared to crosstalk-free case. We then propose a new criterion for the characterization of ideal anti-alias pre-filter. In the experimental part, we describe a simple method to measure optical crosstalk between views using digital camera. We use the measured crosstalk parameters to find the ideal frequency response of anti-alias filter and we design practical digital filters approximating this response. Having applied the designed filters to a number of multiview images prior to multiplexing, we conclude that, due to their increased bandwidth, the filters lead to visibly sharper 3-D images without increasing aliasing artifacts.

  6. Misalignment effects in 3-D versions of Poggendorff displays.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1995-04-01

    Strong misalignment effects are found in three-dimensional (3-D) versions of Poggendorff displays viewed binocularly. The components of the standard 2-D Poggendorff figure--the parallels and the oblique segments--were presented in 3-D depth as a flat rectangular object with occluding edges and an oblique line situated behind the object. Three experiments investigated the misalignment effects under three different observation instructions: Subjects were told to look at the oblique (Experiment 1), at the rectangle (Experiment 2), or at the background (Experiment 3). Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effects on judgments of alignment of varying the distance in depth that separates the oblique from the rectangle. Experiment 3 examined the effects of varying the distance between the fixated background and the 3-D Poggendorff figure. Both standard and reversed misalignment effects were obtained. When the viewing condition produces crossed disparity for the oblique, perceived misalignment occurs in the usual Poggendorff direction, but it is reversed with uncrossed disparity. Moreover, the amount of misalignment is related to the amount of disparity, and it can be much stronger than is usual in the 2-D versions of the Poggendorff. The misalignment effects can be explained by binocular integration to produce a single cyclopean image.

  7. A 360-degree floating 3D display based on light field regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinxing; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zhenrong; Wang, Han; Peng, Yifan; Shen, Weidong

    2013-05-01

    Using light field reconstruction technique, we can display a floating 3D scene in the air, which is 360-degree surrounding viewable with correct occlusion effect. A high-frame-rate color projector and flat light field scanning screen are used in the system to create the light field of real 3D scene in the air above the spinning screen. The principle and display performance of this approach are investigated in this paper. The image synthesis method for all the surrounding viewpoints is analyzed, and the 3D spatial resolution and angular resolution of the common display zone are employed to evaluate display performance. The prototype is achieved and the real 3D color animation image has been presented vividly. The experimental results verified the representability of this method.

  8. Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity model manipulation and 3D-image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    In orthognathic surgery, the framing of 3D-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth model that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth model and the 3D-CT skeletal images (3D image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity model and the virtual 3D image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.

  9. Virtual environment display for a 3D audio room simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, William L.; Foster, Scott H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a virtual environment simulation system integrating a 3D acoustic audio model with an immersive 3D visual scene is discussed. The system complements the acoustic model and is specified to: allow the listener to freely move about the space, a room of manipulable size, shape, and audio character, while interactively relocating the sound sources; reinforce the listener's feeling of telepresence in the acoustical environment with visual and proprioceptive sensations; enhance the audio with the graphic and interactive components, rather than overwhelm or reduce it; and serve as a research testbed and technology transfer demonstration. The hardware/software design of two demonstration systems, one installed and one portable, are discussed through the development of four iterative configurations.

  10. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  11. 3D Display Using Conjugated Multiband Bandpass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam; White, Victor E.; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2012-01-01

    Stereoscopic display techniques are based on the principle of displaying two views, with a slightly different perspective, in such a way that the left eye views only by the left eye, and the right eye views only by the right eye. However, one of the major challenges in optical devices is crosstalk between the two channels. Crosstalk is due to the optical devices not completely blocking the wrong-side image, so the left eye sees a little bit of the right image and the right eye sees a little bit of the left image. This results in eyestrain and headaches. A pair of interference filters worn as an optical device can solve the problem. The device consists of a pair of multiband bandpass filters that are conjugated. The term "conjugated" describes the passband regions of one filter not overlapping with those of the other, but the regions are interdigitated. Along with the glasses, a 3D display produces colors composed of primary colors (basis for producing colors) having the spectral bands the same as the passbands of the filters. More specifically, the primary colors producing one viewpoint will be made up of the passbands of one filter, and those of the other viewpoint will be made up of the passbands of the conjugated filter. Thus, the primary colors of one filter would be seen by the eye that has the matching multiband filter. The inherent characteristic of the interference filter will allow little or no transmission of the wrong side of the stereoscopic images.

  12. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  13. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  15. Research on steady-state visual evoked potentials in 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Yi; Lee, Chia-Ying; Lin, Fang-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Pai; Ko, Li-Wei; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2015-05-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are intuitive systems for users to communicate with outer electronic devices. Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is one of the common inputs for BCI systems due to its easy detection and high information transfer rates. An advanced interactive platform integrated with liquid crystal displays is leading a trend to provide an alternative option not only for the handicapped but also for the public to make our lives more convenient. Many SSVEP-based BCI systems have been studied in a 2D environment; however there is only little literature about SSVEP-based BCI systems using 3D stimuli. 3D displays have potentials in SSVEP-based BCI systems because they can offer vivid images, good quality in presentation, various stimuli and more entertainment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two important 3D factors (disparity and crosstalk) on SSVEPs. Twelve participants participated in the experiment with a patterned retarder 3D display. The results show that there is a significant difference (p-value<0.05) between large and small disparity angle, and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of small disparity angles is higher than those of large disparity angles. The 3D stimuli with smaller disparity and lower crosstalk are more suitable for applications based on the results of 3D perception and SSVEP responses (SNR). Furthermore, we can infer the 3D perception of users by SSVEP responses, and modify the proper disparity of 3D images automatically in the future.

  16. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Luo, Cheng-Gao; Li, Da-Hai; Deng, Huan

    2014-04-01

    We propose a dual-view integral imaging (DVII) 3D display using polarizer parallax barriers (PPBs). The DVII 3D display consists of a display panel, a microlens array, and two PPBs. The elemental images (EIs) displayed on the left and right half of the display panel are captured from two different 3D scenes, respectively. The lights emitted from two kinds of EIs are modulated by the left and right half of the microlens array to present two different 3D images, respectively. A prototype of the DVII 3D display is developed, and the experimental results agree well with the theory.

  17. Full optical characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays using local viewing angle and imaging measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique

    2012-03-01

    Two commercial auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are characterized a using Fourier optics viewing angle system and an imaging video-luminance-meter. One display has a fixed emissive configuration and the other adapts its emission to the observer position using head tracking. For a fixed emissive condition, three viewing angle measurements are performed at three positions (center, right and left). Qualified monocular and binocular viewing spaces in front of the display are deduced as well as the best working distance. The imaging system is then positioned at this working distance and crosstalk homogeneity on the entire surface of the display is measured. We show that the crosstalk is generally not optimized on all the surface of the display. Display aspect simulation using viewing angle measurements allows understanding better the origin of those crosstalk variations. Local imperfections like scratches and marks generally increase drastically the crosstalk, demonstrating that cleanliness requirements for this type of display are quite critical.

  18. High-Performance 3D Articulated Robot Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    In the domain of telerobotic operations, the primary challenge facing the operator is to understand the state of the robotic platform. One key aspect of understanding the state is to visualize the physical location and configuration of the platform. As there is a wide variety of mobile robots, the requirements for visualizing their configurations vary diversely across different platforms. There can also be diversity in the mechanical mobility, such as wheeled, tracked, or legged mobility over surfaces. Adaptable 3D articulated robot visualization software can accommodate a wide variety of robotic platforms and environments. The visualization has been used for surface, aerial, space, and water robotic vehicle visualization during field testing. It has been used to enable operations of wheeled and legged surface vehicles, and can be readily adapted to facilitate other mechanical mobility solutions. The 3D visualization can render an articulated 3D model of a robotic platform for any environment. Given the model, the software receives real-time telemetry from the avionics system onboard the vehicle and animates the robot visualization to reflect the telemetered physical state. This is used to track the position and attitude in real time to monitor the progress of the vehicle as it traverses its environment. It is also used to monitor the state of any or all articulated elements of the vehicle, such as arms, legs, or control surfaces. The visualization can also render other sorts of telemetered states visually, such as stress or strains that are measured by the avionics. Such data can be used to color or annotate the virtual vehicle to indicate nominal or off-nominal states during operation. The visualization is also able to render the simulated environment where the vehicle is operating. For surface and aerial vehicles, it can render the terrain under the vehicle as the avionics sends it location information (GPS, odometry, or star tracking), and locate the vehicle

  19. Efficient fabrication method of nano-grating for 3D holographic display with full parallax views.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wenqiang; Qiao, Wen; Huang, Wenbin; Zhu, Ming; Fang, Zongbao; Pu, Donglin; Ye, Yan; Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Linsen

    2016-03-21

    Without any special glasses, multiview 3D displays based on the diffractive optics can present high resolution, full-parallax 3D images in an ultra-wide viewing angle. The enabling optical component, namely the phase plate, can produce arbitrarily distributed view zones by carefully designing the orientation and the period of each nano-grating pixel. However, such 3D display screen is restricted to a limited size due to the time-consuming fabricating process of nano-gratings on the phase plate. In this paper, we proposed and developed a lithography system that can fabricate the phase plate efficiently. Here we made two phase plates with full nano-grating pixel coverage at a speed of 20 mm2/mins, a 500 fold increment in the efficiency when compared to the method of E-beam lithography. One 2.5-inch phase plate generated 9-view 3D images with horizontal-parallax, while the other 6-inch phase plate produced 64-view 3D images with full-parallax. The angular divergence in horizontal axis and vertical axis was 1.5 degrees, and 1.25 degrees, respectively, slightly larger than the simulated value of 1.2 degrees by Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD). The intensity variation was less than 10% for each viewpoint, in consistency with the simulation results. On top of each phase plate, a high-resolution binary masking pattern containing amplitude information of all viewing zone was well aligned. We achieved a resolution of 400 pixels/inch and a viewing angle of 40 degrees for 9-view 3D images with horizontal parallax. In another prototype, the resolution of each view was 160 pixels/inch and the view angle was 50 degrees for 64-view 3D images with full parallax. As demonstrated in the experiments, the homemade lithography system provided the key fabricating technology for multiview 3D holographic display.

  20. 360 degree realistic 3D image display and image processing from real objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi

    2016-09-01

    A 360-degree realistic 3D image display system based on direct light scanning method, so-called Holo-Table has been introduced in this paper. High-density directional continuous 3D motion images can be displayed easily with only one spatial light modulator. Using the holographic screen as the beam deflector, 360-degree full horizontal viewing angle was achieved. As an accompany part of the system, CMOS camera based image acquisition platform was built to feed the display engine, which can take a full 360-degree continuous imaging of the sample at the center. Customized image processing techniques such as scaling, rotation, format transformation were also developed and embedded into the system control software platform. In the end several samples were imaged to demonstrate the capability of our system.

  1. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  2. Principle and characteristics of 3D display based on random source constructive interference.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyang

    2014-07-14

    The paper discusses the principle and characteristics of 3D display based on random source constructive interference (RSCI). The voxels of discrete 3D images are formed in the air via constructive interference of spherical light waves emitted by point light sources (PLSs) that are arranged at random positions to depress high order diffraction. The PLSs might be created by two liquid crystal panels sandwiched between two micro-lens arrays. The point spread function of the system revealed that it is able to reconstruct voxels with diffraction limited resolution over a large field width and depth. The high resolution was confirmed by the experiments. Theoretical analyses also shows that the system could provide a 3D image contrast and gray levels no less than that in liquid crystal panels. Compared with 2D display, it needs only additional depth information, which brings only about 30% data increment.

  3. Thin client performance for remote 3-D image display.

    PubMed

    Lai, Albert; Nieh, Jason; Laine, Andrew; Starren, Justin

    2003-01-01

    Several trends in biomedical computing are converging in a way that will require new approaches to telehealth image display. Image viewing is becoming an "anytime, anywhere" activity. In addition, organizations are beginning to recognize that healthcare providers are highly mobile and optimal care requires providing information wherever the provider and patient are. Thin-client computing is one way to support image viewing this complex environment. However little is known about the behavior of thin client systems in supporting image transfer in modern heterogeneous networks. Our results show that using thin-clients can deliver acceptable performance over conditions commonly seen in wireless networks if newer protocols optimized for these conditions are used.

  4. Benefits, limitations, and guidelines for application of stereo 3-D display technology to the cockpit environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Steven P.; Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of research results from a program initiated by NASA Langley Research Center is presented. The program addresses stereo 3-D pictorial displays from a comprehensive standpoint. Human factors issues, display technology aspects, and flight display applications are also considered. Emphasis is placed on the benefits, limitations, and guidelines for application of stereo 3-D display technology to the cockpit environment.

  5. Spatial 3D display based on DMD and swept-volume technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jianfang; Gong, Huajun; Pan, Wenping; Yue, Jian; Shen, Chunlin

    2011-08-01

    Display devices play important roles in the interaction between human and digital world of computer. Building devices which can display 3-D images in true 3-D space has aroused researchers' concern for many years. In this paper, we develop a novel spatial display by projecting 2D profile slices of the 3-D models in rapid succession onto a synchronous rotating double bladed helical screen periodically. It is a high speed light-addressed system base on Texas Instruments TM(TI TM) Digital Mirror Device TM (DMD TM) technology, and high frame fresh rate is achieved by accurate control over DMD micro-mirrors. When the rotation frequency of the screen higher than critical flicker fusion frequency, the stroboscopic time-varying slices are fused into a whole flicker-free 3-D spatial imagery because of persistence of vision. The display generate volume-fill 3-D imagery consist of an array of voxels that can be seen hovering in the swept volume. The design and manufacturing of prototype is performed. It has a resolution of 1024x768x132 voxels at a volume refresh rate of 10 Hz. The 3-D imagery occupies real physical space about 203 cm3, each voxel scatter visible light from the position in which it appears. It provides full parallax, not only enable 3-D imagery to be viewed without any eye wears or headsets, but also support "look around" function. Different viewers from practically any orientation can see different sides of the imagery, as if people watch sculptures.

  6. Integral imaging as a modality for 3D TV and displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Malcolm; Davies, Neil A.; Milnthorpe, Graham; Aggoun, Amar; Forman, Matthew C.

    2002-11-01

    The development of 3D TV systems and displays for public use require that several important criteria be satisfied. The criteria are that the perceived resolution is as good as existing 2D TV, the image must be in full natural colour, compatibility with current 2D systems in terms of frame rate and transmission data must be ensured, human-factors concerns must be satisfied and seamless autostereoscopic viewing provided. There are several candidate 3D technologies, for example stereoscopic multiview, holographic and integral imaging that endeavor to satisfy the technological and other conditions. The perceived advantages of integral imaging are that the 3D data can be captured by a single aperture camera, the display is a scaled 3D optical model, and in viewing accommodation and convergence are as in normal sighting (natural) thereby preventing possible eye strain. Consequently it appears to be ideal for prolonged human use. The technological factors that inhibited the possible use of integral imaging for TV display have been shown to be less intractable than at first thought. For example compression algorithms are available such that terrestrial bandwidth is perfectly suitable for transmission purposes. Real-time computer generation of integral images is feasible and the high-resolution LCD panels currently available are sufficient to enable high contrast and high quality image display.

  7. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  8. 3D brain MR angiography displayed by a multi-autostereoscopic screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Ribeiro, Fádua H.; Lima, Fabrício O.; Serra, Rolando L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) can be used to examine blood vessels in key areas of the body, including the brain. In the MRA, a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer produce the detailed images. Physicians use the procedure in brain images mainly to detect atherosclerosis disease in the carotid artery of the neck, which may limit blood flow to the brain and cause a stroke and identify a small aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation inside the brain. Multi-autostereoscopic displays provide multiple views of the same scene, rather than just two, as in autostereoscopic systems. Each view is visible from a different range of positions in front of the display. This allows the viewer to move left-right in front of the display and see the correct view from any position. The use of 3D imaging in the medical field has proven to be a benefit to doctors when diagnosing patients. For different medical domains a stereoscopic display could be advantageous in terms of a better spatial understanding of anatomical structures, better perception of ambiguous anatomical structures, better performance of tasks that require high level of dexterity, increased learning performance, and improved communication with patients or between doctors. In this work we describe a multi-autostereoscopic system and how to produce 3D MRA images to be displayed with it. We show results of brain MR angiography images discussing, how a 3D visualization can help physicians to a better diagnosis.

  9. A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-06-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

  10. IPMC actuator array as a 3D haptic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masanori; Mazzone, Andrea; Piffaretti, Filippo; Gassert, Roger; Nakao, Masayuki; Bleuler, Hannes

    2005-05-01

    Based on the concept of Mazzone et al., we have designed a novel system to be used simultaneously as an input and output device for designing, presenting, or recognizing objects in three-dimensional space. Unlike state of the art stereoscopic display technologies that generate a virtual image of a three-dimensional object, the proposed system, a "digital clay" like device, physically imitates the desired object. The object can not only be touched and explored intuitively but also deform itself physically. In order to succeed in developing such a deformable structure, self-actuating ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) materials are proposed. IPMC is a type of electro active polymer (EAP) and has recently been drawing much attention. It has high force to weight ratio and shape flexibility, making it ideal for robotic applications. This paper introduces the first steps and results in the attempt of developing such a structure. A strip consisting of four actuators arranged in line was fabricated and evaluated, showing promising capabilities in deforming two-dimensionally. A simple model to simulate the deformation of an IPMC actuator using finite element methods (FEM) is also proposed and compared with the experimental results. The model can easily be implemented into computer aided engineering (CAE) software. This will expand the application possibilities of IPMCs. Furthermore, a novel method for creating multiple actuators on one membrane with a laser machining tool is introduced.

  11. Integration of a 3D perspective view in the navigation display: featuring pilot's mental model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrecht, L.; Schmerwitz, S.

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic vision systems (SVS) appear as spreading technology in the avionic domain. Several studies prove enhanced situational awareness when using synthetic vision. Since the introduction of synthetic vision a steady change and evolution started concerning the primary flight display (PFD) and the navigation display (ND). The main improvements of the ND comprise the representation of colored ground proximity warning systems (EGPWS), weather radar, and TCAS information. Synthetic vision seems to offer high potential to further enhance cockpit display systems. Especially, concerning the current trend having a 3D perspective view in a SVS-PFD while leaving the navigational content as well as methods of interaction unchanged the question arouses if and how the gap between both displays might evolve to a serious problem. This issue becomes important in relation to the transition and combination of strategic and tactical flight guidance. Hence, pros and cons of 2D and 3D views generally as well as the gap between the egocentric perspective 3D view of the PFD and the exocentric 2D top and side view of the ND will be discussed. Further a concept for the integration of a 3D perspective view, i.e., bird's eye view, in synthetic vision ND will be presented. The combination of 2D and 3D views in the ND enables a better correlation of the ND and the PFD. Additionally, this supports the building of pilot's mental model. The authors believe it will improve the situational and spatial awareness. It might prove to further raise the safety margin when operating in mountainous areas.

  12. Flight tests of a hybrid-centered integrated 3D perspective-view primary flight display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wilson, Blake; Wyatt, Sandy; Engels, Jary

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes flight tests of a Honeywell Synthetic Vision System (SVS) prototype operating in a hybrid-centered mode on a Primus Epic TM large format display. This novel hybrid mode effectively resolves some cognitive and perceptual human factors issues associated with traditional heading-up or track-up display modes. By integrating synthetic 3D perspective view with advanced Head-Up Display (HUD) symbology in this mode, the test results demonstrate that the hybrid display mode provides clear indications of current track and crab conditions, and is effective in overcoming flight guidance symbology collision and resultant ambiguity. The hybrid-centering SVS display concept is shown to be effective in all phases of flight and is particularly valuable during landing operations with a strong cross-wind. The recorded flight test data from Honeywell's prototype SVS concept at Reno, Nevada on board Honeywell Citation V aircraft will be discussed.

  13. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  14. Special subpixel arrangement-based 3D display with high horizontal resolution.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guo-Jiao; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Wu, Fei

    2014-11-01

    A special subpixel arrangement-based 3D display is proposed. This display consists of a 2D display panel and a parallax barrier. On the 2D display panel, subpixels have a special arrangement, so they can redefine the formation of color pixels. This subpixel arrangement can bring about triple horizontal resolution for a conventional 2D display panel. Therefore, when these pixels are modulated by the parallax barrier, the 3D images formed also have triple horizontal resolution. A prototype of this display is developed. Experimental results show that this display with triple horizontal resolution can produce a better display effect than the conventional one.

  15. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. Clark (Inventor); Whitaker, Ross (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  16. Full-color 3D display using binary phase modulation and speckle reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoba, Osamu; Masuda, Kazunobu; Harada, Syo; Nitta, Kouichi

    2016-06-01

    One of the 3D display systems for full-color reconstruction by using binary phase modulation is presented. The improvement of reconstructed objects is achieved by optimizing the binary phase modulation and accumulating the speckle patterns by changing the random phase distributions. The binary phase pattern is optimized by the modified Frenel ping-pong algorithm. Numerical and experimental demonstrations of full color reconstruction are presented.

  17. Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Zhao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-07-28

    The multiplexing encoding method is proposed and demonstrated for reconstructing colorful images accurately by using single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). It will encode the light waves at different wavelengths into one pure-phase hologram at the same time based on the analytic formulas. The three-dimensional (3D) images can be reconstructed clearly when the light waves at different wavelengths are incident into the encoding hologram. Numerical simulations and optical experiments for 2D and 3D colorful images are performed. The results show that the colorful reconstructed images with high quality are achieved successfully. The proposed multiplexing method is a simple and fast encoding approach and the size of the system is small and compact. It is expected to be used for realizing full-color 3D holographic display in future.

  18. Computer-aided microtomography with true 3-D display in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A C

    1986-01-01

    A novel research system has been designed to permit three-dimensional (3-D) viewing of high resolution image data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The system consists of front-end primary data acquisition devices, such as TEM and SEM machines, which are equipped with computer-controlled specimen tilt stages. The output from these machines is in analogue form, where a video camera attached to the TEM provides the sequential analogue image output while the SEM direct video output is utilized. A 10 MHz digitizer transforms the video image to a digital array of 512 X 512 pixel units of 8 bits deep-stored in a frame buffer. Digital images from multiple projections are reconstructed into 3-D image boxes in a dedicated computer. Attached to the computer is a powerful true 3-D display device which has hardware for graphic manipulations including tilt and rotate on any axis and for probing the image with a 3-D cursor. Data editing and automatic contouring functions are used to enhance areas of interest, and specialized software is available for measurement of numbers, distances, areas, and volumes. With proper archiving of reconstructed image sequences, a dynamic 3-D presentation is possible. The microtomography system is highly versatile and can process image data on-line or from remote sites from which data records would typically be transported on computer tape, video tape, or floppy disk. PMID:3753610

  19. Single DMD time-multiplexed 64-views autostereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, Luigi

    2013-03-01

    Based on previous prototype of the Real time 3D holographic display developed last year, we developed a new concept of auto-stereoscopic multiview display (64 views), wide angle (90°) 3D full color display. The display is based on a RGB laser light source illuminating a DMD (Discovery 4100 0,7") at 24.000 fps, an image deflection system made with an AOD (Acoustic Optic Deflector) driven by a piezo-electric transducer generating a variable standing acoustic wave on the crystal that acts as a phase grating. The DMD projects in fast sequence 64 point of view of the image on the crystal cube. Depending on the frequency of the standing wave, the input picture sent by the DMD is deflected in different angle of view. An holographic screen at a proper distance diffuse the rays in vertical direction (60°) and horizontally select (1°) only the rays directed to the observer. A telescope optical system will enlarge the image to the right dimension. A VHDL firmware to render in real-time (16 ms) 64 views (16 bit 4:2:2) of a CAD model (obj, dxf or 3Ds) and depth-map encoded video images was developed into the resident Virtex5 FPGA of the Discovery 4100 SDK, thus eliminating the needs of image transfer and high speed links

  20. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  1. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images. PMID:27410090

  2. Integration of multiple view plus depth data for free viewpoint 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Yuko; Kawamoto, Tetsuya; Fujii, Toshiaki; Mase, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for constructing a reasonable scale of end-to-end free-viewpoint video system that captures multiple view and depth data, reconstructs three-dimensional polygon models of objects, and display them on virtual 3D CG spaces. This system consists of a desktop PC and four Kinect sensors. First, multiple view plus depth data at four viewpoints are captured by Kinect sensors simultaneously. Then, the captured data are integrated to point cloud data by using camera parameters. The obtained point cloud data are sampled to volume data that consists of voxels. Since volume data that are generated from point cloud data are sparse, those data are made dense by using global optimization algorithm. Final step is to reconstruct surfaces on dense volume data by discrete marching cubes method. Since accuracy of depth maps affects to the quality of 3D polygon model, a simple inpainting method for improving depth maps is also presented.

  3. 3D image display of fetal ultrasonic images by thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Roei; Sun, Yung-Nien; Chang, Fong-Ming; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    1999-05-01

    Due to the properties of convenience and non-invasion, ultrasound has become an essential tool for diagnosis of fetal abnormality during women pregnancy in obstetrics. However, the 'noisy and blurry' nature of ultrasound data makes the rendering of the data a challenge in comparison with MRI and CT images. In spite of the speckle noise, the unwanted objects usually occlude the target to be observed. In this paper, we proposed a new system that can effectively depress the speckle noise, extract the target object, and clearly render the 3D fetal image in almost real-time from 3D ultrasound image data. The system is based on a deformable model that detects contours of the object according to the local image feature of ultrasound. Besides, in order to accelerate rendering speed, a thin shell is defined to separate the observed organ from unrelated structures depending on those detected contours. In this way, we can support quick 3D display of ultrasound, and the efficient visualization of 3D fetal ultrasound thus becomes possible.

  4. Depth-of-Focus Affects 3D Perception in Stereoscopic Displays.

    PubMed

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Stereoscopic systems present binocular images on planar surface at a fixed distance. They induce cues to flatness, indicating that images are presented on a unique surface and specifying the relative depth of that surface. The center of interest of this study is on a second problem, arising when a 3D object distance differs from the display distance. As binocular disparity must be scaled using an estimate of viewing distance, object depth can thus be affected through disparity scaling. Two previous experiments revealed that stereoscopic displays can affect depth perception due to conflicting accommodation and vergence cues at near distances. In this study, depth perception is evaluated for farther accommodation and vergence distances using a commercially available 3D TV. In Experiment I, we evaluated depth perception of 3D stimuli at different vergence distances for a large pool of participants. We observed a strong effect of vergence distance that was bigger for younger than for older participants, suggesting that the effect of accommodation was reduced in participants with emerging presbyopia. In Experiment 2, we extended 3D estimations by varying both the accommodation and vergence distances. We also tested the hypothesis that setting accommodation open loop by constricting pupil size could decrease the contribution of focus cues to perceived distance. We found that the depth constancy was affected by accommodation and vergence distances and that the accommodation distance effect was reduced with a larger depth-of-focus. We discuss these results with regard to the effectiveness of focus cues as a distance signal. Overall, these results highlight the importance of appropriate focus cues in stereoscopic displays at intermediate viewing distances.

  5. A new approach of building 3D visualization framework for multimodal medical images display and computed assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenwei; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    As more and more CT/MR studies are scanning with larger volume of data sets, more and more radiologists and clinician would like using PACS WS to display and manipulate these larger data sets of images with 3D rendering features. In this paper, we proposed a design method and implantation strategy to develop 3D image display component not only with normal 3D display functions but also with multi-modal medical image fusion as well as compute-assisted diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. The 3D component has been integrated into the PACS display workstation of Shanghai Huadong Hospital, and the clinical practice showed that it is easy for radiologists and physicians to use these 3D functions such as multi-modalities' (e.g. CT, MRI, PET, SPECT) visualization, registration and fusion, and the lesion quantitative measurements. The users were satisfying with the rendering speeds and quality of 3D reconstruction. The advantages of the component include low requirements for computer hardware, easy integration, reliable performance and comfortable application experience. With this system, the radiologists and the clinicians can manipulate with 3D images easily, and use the advanced visualization tools to facilitate their work with a PACS display workstation at any time.

  6. 3D Navigation and Integrated Hazard Display in Advanced Avionics: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ability for pilots to estimate traffic location in an Integrated Hazard Display, and how such estimations should be measured. Twelve pilots viewed static images of traffic scenarios and then estimated the outside world locations of queried traffic represented in one of three display types (2D coplanar, 3D exocentric, and split-screen) and in one of four conditions (display present/blank crossed with outside world present/blank). Overall, the 2D coplanar display best supported both vertical (compared to 3D) and lateral (compared to split-screen) traffic position estimation performance. Costs of the 3D display were associated with perceptual ambiguity. Costs of the split screen display were inferred to result from inappropriate attention allocation. Furthermore, although pilots were faster in estimating traffic locations when relying on memory, accuracy was greatest when the display was available.

  7. Defragmented image based autostereoscopic 3D displays with dynamic eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Yoon, Ki-Hyuk; Yoon, Seon Kyu; Ju, Heongkyu

    2015-12-01

    We studied defragmented image based autostereoscopic 3D displays with dynamic eye tracking. Specifically, we examined the impact of parallax barrier (PB) angular orientation on their image quality. The 3D display system required fine adjustment of PB angular orientation with respect to a display panel. This was critical for both image color balancing and minimizing image resolution mismatch between horizontal and vertical directions. For evaluating uniformity of image brightness, we applied optical ray tracing simulations. The simulations took effects of PB orientation misalignment into account. The simulation results were then compared with recorded experimental data. Our optimal simulated system produced significantly enhanced image uniformity at around sweet spots in viewing zones. However this was contradicted by real experimental results. We offer quantitative treatment of illuminance uniformity of view images to estimate misalignment of PB orientation, which could account for brightness non-uniformity observed experimentally. Our study also shows that slight imperfection in the adjustment of PB orientation due to practical restrictions of adjustment accuracy can induce substantial non-uniformity of view images' brightness. We find that image brightness non-uniformity critically depends on misalignment of PB angular orientation, for example, as slight as ≤ 0.01 ° in our system. This reveals that reducing misalignment of PB angular orientation from the order of 10-2 to 10-3 degrees can greatly improve the brightness uniformity.

  8. Display of travelling 3D scenes from single integral-imaging capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seok-Min; Sola-Pikabea, Jorge; Saavedra, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    Integral imaging (InI) is a 3D auto-stereoscopic technique that captures and displays 3D images. We present a method for easily projecting the information recorded with this technique by transforming the integral image into a plenoptic image, as well as choosing, at will, the field of view (FOV) and the focused plane of the displayed plenoptic image. Furthermore, with this method we can generate a sequence of images that simulates a camera travelling through the scene from a single integral image. The application of this method permits to improve the quality of 3D display images and videos.

  9. Evaluation of passive polarized stereoscopic 3D display for visual & mental fatigues.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Mumtaz, Wajid; Badruddin, Nasreen; Kamel, Nidal

    2015-01-01

    Visual and mental fatigues induced by active shutter stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display have been reported using event-related brain potentials (ERP). An important question, that is whether such effects (visual & mental fatigues) can be found in passive polarized S3D display, is answered here. Sixty-eight healthy participants are divided into 2D and S3D groups and subjected to an oddball paradigm after being exposed to S3D videos with passive polarized display or 2D display. The age and fluid intelligence ability of the participants are controlled between the groups. ERP results do not show any significant differences between S3D and 2D groups to find the aftereffects of S3D in terms of visual and mental fatigues. Hence, we conclude that passive polarized S3D display technology may not induce visual and/or mental fatigue which may increase the cognitive load and suppress the ERP components. PMID:26738049

  10. A guide for human factors research with stereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Pinkus, Alan R.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we provide some common methods, techniques, information, concepts, and relevant citations for those conducting human factors-related research with stereoscopic 3D (S3D) displays. We give suggested methods for calculating binocular disparities, and show how to verify on-screen image separation measurements. We provide typical values for inter-pupillary distances that are useful in such calculations. We discuss the pros, cons, and suggested uses of some common stereovision clinical tests. We discuss the phenomena and prevalence rates of stereoanomalous, pseudo-stereoanomalous, stereo-deficient, and stereoblind viewers. The problems of eyestrain and fatigue-related effects from stereo viewing, and the possible causes, are enumerated. System and viewer crosstalk are defined and discussed, and the issue of stereo camera separation is explored. Typical binocular fusion limits are also provided for reference, and discussed in relation to zones of comfort. Finally, the concept of measuring disparity distributions is described. The implications of these issues for the human factors study of S3D displays are covered throughout.

  11. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  12. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  13. Dual-view integral imaging 3D display by using orthogonal polarizer array and polarization switcher.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Ji, Chao-Chao; Li, Lei; Deng, Huan

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, a dual-view integral imaging three-dimensional (3D) display consisting of a display panel, two orthogonal polarizer arrays, a polarization switcher, and a micro-lens array is proposed. Two elemental image arrays for two different 3D images are presented by the display panel alternately, and the polarization switcher controls the polarization direction of the light rays synchronously. The two elemental image arrays are modulated by their corresponding and neighboring micro-lenses of the micro-lens array, and reconstruct two different 3D images in viewing zones 1 and 2, respectively. A prototype of the dual-view II 3D display is developed, and it has good performances.

  14. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  15. Development and evaluation of 2D and 3D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  17. Recent research results in stereo 3-D pictorial displays at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results from a NASA-Langley program which addressed stereo 3D pictorial displays from a comprehensive standpoint are reviewed. The program dealt with human factors issues and display technology aspects, as well as flight display applications. The human factors findings include addressing a fundamental issue challenging the application of stereoscopic displays in head-down flight applications, with the determination that stereoacuity is unaffected by the short-term use of stereo 3D displays. While stereoacuity has been a traditional measurement of depth perception abilities, it is a measure of relative depth, rather than actual depth (absolute depth). Therefore, depth perception effects based on size and distance judgments and long-term stereo exposure remain issues to be investigated. The applications of stereo 3D to pictorial flight displays within the program have repeatedly demonstrated increases in pilot situational awareness and task performance improvements. Moreover, these improvements have been obtained within the constraints of the limited viewing volume available with conventional stereo displays. A number of stereo 3D pictorial display applications are described, including recovery from flight-path offset, helicopter hover, and emulated helmet-mounted display.

  18. Depth-fused 3D (DFD) display with multiple viewing zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Munekazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Takada, Hideaki; Nakazawa, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    A new depth-fused 3-D (DFD) display for multiple users is presented. A DFD display, which consists of a stack of layered screens, is expected to be a visually comfortable 3-D display because it can satisfy not only binocular disparity, convergence, accommodation, but also motion parallax for a small observer displacement. However, the display cannot be observed from an oblique angle due to image doubling caused by the layered screen structure, so the display is applicable only for single-observer use. In this paper, we present a multi-viewing-zone DFD display using a stack of a see-through screen and a multi-viewing-zone 2-D display. We used a film, which causes polarization-selective scattering, as the front screen, and an anisotropic scattering film for the rear screen. The front screen was illuminated by one projector, and the screen displayed an image at all viewing angles. The rear screen was illuminated by multiple projectors from different directions. The displayed images on the rear screen were arranged to be well overlapped for each viewing direction to create multiple viewing zones without image doubling. This design is promising for a large-area 3-D display that does not require special glasses because the display uses projection and has a simple structure.

  19. Laboratory and in-flight experiments to evaluate 3-D audio display technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericson, Mark; Mckinley, Richard; Kibbe, Marion; Francis, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and in-flight experiments were conducted to evaluate 3-D audio display technology for cockpit applications. A 3-D audio display generator was developed which digitally encodes naturally occurring direction information onto any audio signal and presents the binaural sound over headphones. The acoustic image is stabilized for head movement by use of an electromagnetic head-tracking device. In the laboratory, a 3-D audio display generator was used to spatially separate competing speech messages to improve the intelligibility of each message. Up to a 25 percent improvement in intelligibility was measured for spatially separated speech at high ambient noise levels (115 dB SPL). During the in-flight experiments, pilots reported that spatial separation of speech communications provided a noticeable improvement in intelligibility. The use of 3-D audio for target acquisition was also investigated. In the laboratory, 3-D audio enabled the acquisition of visual targets in about two seconds average response time at 17 degrees accuracy. During the in-flight experiments, pilots correctly identified ground targets 50, 75, and 100 percent of the time at separation angles of 12, 20, and 35 degrees, respectively. In general, pilot performance in the field with the 3-D audio display generator was as expected, based on data from laboratory experiments.

  20. Standardization based on human factors for 3D display: performance characteristics and measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Shin-ichi; Ujike, Hiroyasu; Hamagishi, Goro; Taira, Kazuki; Koike, Takafumi; Kato, Chiaki; Nomura, Toshio; Horikoshi, Tsutomu; Mashitani, Ken; Yuuki, Akimasa; Izumi, Kuniaki; Hisatake, Yuzo; Watanabe, Naoko; Umezu, Naoaki; Nakano, Yoshihiko

    2010-02-01

    We are engaged in international standardization activities for 3D displays. We consider that for a sound development of 3D displays' market, the standards should be based on not only mechanism of 3D displays, but also human factors for stereopsis. However, we think that there is no common understanding on what the 3D display should be and that the situation makes developing the standards difficult. In this paper, to understand the mechanism and human factors, we focus on a double image, which occurs in some conditions on an autostereoscopic display. Although the double image is generally considered as an unwanted effect, we consider that whether the double image is unwanted or not depends on the situation and that there are some allowable double images. We tried to classify the double images into the unwanted and the allowable in terms of the display mechanism and visual ergonomics for stereopsis. The issues associated with the double image are closely related to performance characteristics for the autostereoscopic display. We also propose performance characteristics, measurement and analysis methods to represent interocular crosstalk and motion parallax.

  1. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  2. Color and brightness uniformity compensation of a multi-projection 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Park, Juyong; Nam, Dongkyung; Park, Du-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Light-field displays are good candidates in the field of glasses-free 3D display for showing real 3D images without decreasing the image resolution. Light-field displays can create light rays using a large number of projectors in order to express the natural 3D images. However, in light-field displays using multi-projectors, the compensation is very critical due to different characteristics and arrangement positions of each projector. In this paper, we present an enhanced 55- inch, 100-Mpixel multi-projection 3D display consisting of 96 micro projectors for immersive natural 3D viewing in medical and educational applications. To achieve enhanced image quality, color and brightness uniformity compensation methods are utilized along with an improved projector configuration design and a real-time calibration process of projector alignment. For color uniformity compensation, projected images from each projector are captured by a camera arranged in front of the screen, the number of pixels based on RGB color intensities of each captured image is analyzed, and the distributions of RGB color intensities are adjusted by using the respective maximum values of RGB color intensities. For brightness uniformity compensation, each light-field ray emitted from a screen pixel is modeled by a radial basis function, and compensating weights of each screen pixel are calculated and transferred to the projection images by the mapping relationship between the screen and projector coordinates. Finally, brightness compensated images are rendered for each projector. Consequently, the display shows improved color and brightness uniformity, and consistent, exceptional 3D image quality.

  3. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  4. Three-dimensional (3D) GIS-based coastline change analysis and display using LIDAR series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.

    This paper presents a method to visualize and analyze topography and topographic changes on coastline area. The study area, Assantage Island Nation Seashore (AINS), is located along a 37-mile stretch of Assateague Island National Seashore in Eastern Shore, VA. The DEMS data sets from 1996 through 2000 for various time intervals, e.g., year-to-year, season-to-season, date-to-date, and a four year (1996-2000) are created. The spatial patterns and volumetric amounts of erosion and deposition of each part on a cell-by-cell basis were calculated. A 3D dynamic display system using ArcView Avenue for visualizing dynamic coastal landforms has been developed. The system was developed into five functional modules: Dynamic Display, Analysis, Chart analysis, Output, and Help. The Display module includes five types of displays: Shoreline display, Shore Topographic Profile, Shore Erosion Display, Surface TIN Display, and 3D Scene Display. Visualized data include rectified and co-registered multispectral Landsat digital image and NOAA/NASA ATM LIDAR data. The system is demonstrated using multitemporal digital satellite and LIDAR data for displaying changes on the Assateague Island National Seashore, Virginia. The analyzed results demonstrated that a further understanding to the study and comparison of the complex morphological changes that occur naturally or human-induced on barrier islands is required.

  5. Stereoscopic 3D display with dynamic optical correction for recovering from asthenopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Otsuki, Masaki; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Tsuneto

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider a practical application of a newly developed stereoscopic 3-D display that solves the problem of discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. The display uses dynamic optical correction to reduce the discrepancy, and can present images as if they are actually remote objects. The authors thought the display may assist in recovery from asthenopia, which is often caused when the eyes focus on a nearby object for a long time, such as in VDT (Visual Display Terminal) work. In general, recovery from asthenopia, and especially accommodative asthenopia, is achieved by focusing on distant objects. In order to verify this hypothesis, the authors performed visual acuity tests using Landolt rings before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images, and evaluated the degree of recovery from asthenopia. The experiment led to three main conclusions: (1) Visual acuity rose after viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the developed display. (2) Recovery from asthenopia was particularly effective for the dominant eye in comparison with the other eye. (3) Interviews with the subjects indicated that the Landolt rings were particularly clear after viewing the stereoscopic 3-D images.

  6. Examination of asthenopia recovery using stereoscopic 3D display with dynamic optical correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Keiji; Lee, JaeLin; Otsuki, Masaki; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Tsuneto

    2006-02-01

    A common cause of asthenopia is viewing objects from a short distance, as is the case when working at a VDT (Visual Display Terminal). In general, recovery from asthenopia, especially accommodative asthenopia, is aided by looking into the distance. The authors have developed a stereoscopic 3-D display with dynamic optical correction that may reduce asthenopia. The display does this by reducing the discrepancy between accommodation and convergence, thereby presenting images as if they were actually in the distance. The results of visual acuity tests given before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images with this display show a tendency towards less asthenopia. In this study, the authors developed a refraction feedback function that makes the viewer's distance vision more effective when viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the this display. Using this function, refraction is fed back during viewing and the viewer gradually acquires distance vision. The results of the study suggest that stereoscopic 3-D images are more effective than 2-D images for recovery from asthenopia.

  7. Tool 3D geometry measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Ni, Jun; Sun, Yi; Lin, Xuewen

    2001-10-01

    A new non-contact tool 3D geometry measurement system based on machine vision is described. In this system, analytical and optimization methods are used respectively to achieve system calibration, which can determine the rotation center of the drill. The data merging method is fully studied which can translate the scattered different groups of raw data in sensor coordinates into drill coordinates and get 3-D topography of the drill body. Corresponding data processing methods for drill geometry are also studied. Statistical methods are used to remove the outliers. Laplacian of Gaussian operator are used to detect the boundary on drill cross-section and drill tip profile. The arithmetic method for calculating the parameters is introduced. The initial measurement results are presented. The cross-section profile, drill tips geometry are shown. Pictures of drill wear on drill tip are given. Parameters extracted from the cross-section are listed. Compared with the measurement results using CMM, the difference between this drill geometry measurement system and CMM is, Radius of drill: 0.020mm, Helix angle: 1.310, Web thickness: 0.034mm.

  8. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  9. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  10. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  11. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  12. Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-28

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) should be obtained with high accuracy and high speed in 3D holographic display, and most researches focus on the high speed. In this paper, a simple and effective computation method for CGH is proposed based on Fresnel diffraction theory and look up table. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to demonstrate its feasibility. The proposed method can obtain more accurate reconstructed images with lower memory usage compared with split look up table method and compressed look up table method without sacrificing the computational speed in holograms generation, so it is called accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT). It is believed that AC-LUT method is an effective method to calculate the CGH of 3D objects for real-time 3D holographic display where the huge information data is required, and it could provide fast and accurate digital transmission in various dynamic optical fields in the future.

  13. Accurate compressed look up table method for CGH in 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuan; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Jia, Jia; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-28

    Computer generated hologram (CGH) should be obtained with high accuracy and high speed in 3D holographic display, and most researches focus on the high speed. In this paper, a simple and effective computation method for CGH is proposed based on Fresnel diffraction theory and look up table. Numerical simulations and optical experiments are performed to demonstrate its feasibility. The proposed method can obtain more accurate reconstructed images with lower memory usage compared with split look up table method and compressed look up table method without sacrificing the computational speed in holograms generation, so it is called accurate compressed look up table method (AC-LUT). It is believed that AC-LUT method is an effective method to calculate the CGH of 3D objects for real-time 3D holographic display where the huge information data is required, and it could provide fast and accurate digital transmission in various dynamic optical fields in the future. PMID:26831987

  14. A dynamic 3D foot reconstruction system.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-01-01

    Foot problems are varied and range from simple disorders through to complex diseases and joint deformities. Wherever possible, the use of insoles, or orthoses, is preferred over surgery. Current insole design techniques are based on static measurements of the foot, despite the fact that orthoses are prevalently used in dynamic conditions while walking or running. This paper presents the design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion, and its use to show that foot measurements in dynamic conditions differ significantly from their static counterparts. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out for the validation of the system. The accuracy of the system was found to be 0.34 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.44 mm (static case) and 2.81 mm (dynamic case). Furthermore, a study was performed to compare the effective length of the foot between static and dynamic reconstructions using the 4D system. Results showed an average increase of 9 mm for the dynamic case. This increase is substantial for orthotics design, cannot be captured by a static system, and its subject-specific measurement is crucial for the design of effective foot orthoses.

  15. Development and evaluation of amusement machine using autostereoscopic 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Takashi; Shibata, Takashi; Shimizu, Yoichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Suto, Masahiro

    2004-05-01

    Pachinko is a pinball-like game peculiar to Japan, and is one of the most common pastimes around the country. Recently, with the videogame market contracting, various multimedia technologies have been introduced into Pachinko machines. The authors have developed a Pachinko machine incorporating an autostereoscopic 3D display, and evaluated its effect on the visual function. As of April 2003, the new Pachinko machine has been on sale in Japan. The stereoscopic 3D image is displayed using an LCD. Backlighting for the right and left images is separate, and passes through a polarizing filter before reaching the LCD, which is sandwiched with a micro polarizer. The content selected for display was ukiyoe pictures (Japanese traditional woodblocks). The authors intended to reduce visual fatigue by presenting 3D images with depth "behind" the display and switching between 3D and 2D images. For evaluation of the Pachinko machine, a 2D version with identical content was also prepared, and the effects were examined and compared by testing psycho-physiological responses.

  16. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    PubMed Central

    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work. PMID:25875189

  17. Dynamic lens and monovision 3D displays to improve viewer comfort.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paul V; Parnell, Jared Aq; Kim, Joohwan; Saunter, Christopher D; Love, Gordon D; Banks, Martin S

    2016-05-30

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) displays provide an additional sense of depth compared to non-stereoscopic displays by sending slightly different images to the two eyes. But conventional S3D displays do not reproduce all natural depth cues. In particular, focus cues are incorrect causing mismatches between accommodation and vergence: The eyes must accommodate to the display screen to create sharp retinal images even when binocular disparity drives the eyes to converge to other distances. This mismatch causes visual discomfort and reduces visual performance. We propose and assess two new techniques that are designed to reduce the vergence-accommodation conflict and thereby decrease discomfort and increase visual performance. These techniques are much simpler to implement than previous conflict-reducing techniques. The first proposed technique uses variable-focus lenses between the display and the viewer's eyes. The power of the lenses is yoked to the expected vergence distance thereby reducing the mismatch between vergence and accommodation. The second proposed technique uses a fixed lens in front of one eye and relies on the binocularly fused percept being determined by one eye and then the other, depending on simulated distance. We conducted performance tests and discomfort assessments with both techniques and compared the results to those of a conventional S3D display. The first proposed technique, but not the second, yielded clear improvements in performance and reductions in discomfort. This dynamic-lens technique therefore offers an easily implemented technique for reducing the vergence-accommodation conflict and thereby improving viewer experience. PMID:27410105

  18. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  19. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  20. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tong Young; Yoon, Kyoung-Hye; Lee, Jin Il

    2016-01-01

    The nematodeCaenorhabditiselegansis one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however,C. elegansis found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology ofC. elegansin a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory. PMID:26962047

  1. Coarse integral holography approach for real 3D color video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Smithwick, Q Y J; Chu, D P

    2016-03-21

    A colour holographic display is considered the ultimate apparatus to provide the most natural 3D viewing experience. It encodes a 3D scene as holographic patterns that then are used to reproduce the optical wavefront. The main challenge at present is for the existing technologies to cope with the full information bandwidth required for the computation and display of holographic video. We have developed a dynamic coarse integral holography approach using opto-mechanical scanning, coarse integral optics and a low space-bandwidth-product high-bandwidth spatial light modulator to display dynamic holograms with a large space-bandwidth-product at video rates, combined with an efficient rendering algorithm to reduce the information content. This makes it possible to realise a full-parallax, colour holographic video display with a bandwidth of 10 billion pixels per second, and an adequate image size and viewing angle, as well as all relevant 3D cues. Our approach is scalable and the prototype can achieve even better performance with continuing advances in hardware components. PMID:27136858

  2. Coarse integral holography approach for real 3D color video displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Smithwick, Q Y J; Chu, D P

    2016-03-21

    A colour holographic display is considered the ultimate apparatus to provide the most natural 3D viewing experience. It encodes a 3D scene as holographic patterns that then are used to reproduce the optical wavefront. The main challenge at present is for the existing technologies to cope with the full information bandwidth required for the computation and display of holographic video. We have developed a dynamic coarse integral holography approach using opto-mechanical scanning, coarse integral optics and a low space-bandwidth-product high-bandwidth spatial light modulator to display dynamic holograms with a large space-bandwidth-product at video rates, combined with an efficient rendering algorithm to reduce the information content. This makes it possible to realise a full-parallax, colour holographic video display with a bandwidth of 10 billion pixels per second, and an adequate image size and viewing angle, as well as all relevant 3D cues. Our approach is scalable and the prototype can achieve even better performance with continuing advances in hardware components.

  3. The hype cycle in 3D displays: inherent limits of autostereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2013-06-01

    Since a couple of years, a renaissance of 3dimensional cinema can be observed. Even though the stereoscopy was quite popular within the last 150 years, the 3d cinema has disappeared and re-established itself several times. The first boom in the late 19th century stagnated and vanished after a few years of success, the same happened again in 50's and 80's of the 20th century. With the commercial success of the 3d blockbuster "Avatar" in 2009, at the latest, it is obvious that the 3d cinema is having a comeback. How long will it last this time? There are already some signs of a declining interest in 3d movies, as the discrepancy between expectations and the results delivered becomes more evident. From the former hypes it is known: After an initial phase of curiosity (high expectations and excessive fault tolerance), a phase of frustration and saturation (critical analysis and subsequent disappointment) will follow. This phenomenon is known as "Hype Cycle" The everyday experienced evolution of technology has conditioned the consumers. The expectation "any technical improvement will preserve all previous properties" cannot be fulfilled with present 3d technologies. This is an inherent problem of stereoscopy and autostereoscopy: The presentation of an additional dimension caused concessions in relevant characteristics (i.e. resolution, brightness, frequency, viewing area) or leads to undesirable physical side effects (i.e. subjective discomfort, eye strain, spatial disorientation, feeling of nausea). It will be verified that the 3d apparatus (3d glasses or 3d display) is also the source for these restrictions and a reason for decreasing fascination. The limitations of present autostereoscopic technologies will be explained.

  4. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  5. 3D laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system for preclinical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Hernandez, Travis; Su, Richard; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Anis, Fatima; Anastasio, Mark A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel three-dimensional imaging system for in vivo high-resolution anatomical and functional whole-body visualization of small animal models developed for preclinical or other type of biomedical research. The system (LOUIS-3DM) combines a multi-wavelength optoacoustic and ultrawide-band laser ultrasound tomographies to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and acoustic properties, displayed within the skin outline of the studied animal. The most promising applications of the LOUIS-3DM include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distribution of optoacoustic contrast agents (carbon nanotubes, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, etc.).

  6. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  7. Characterizing the effects of droplines on target acquisition performance on a 3-D perspective display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Min-Ju; Johnson, Walter W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of droplines on target acquisition performance on a 3-D perspective display in which participants were required to move a cursor into a target cube as quickly as possible. Participants' performance and coordination strategies were characterized using both Fitts' law and acquisition patterns of the 3 viewer-centered target display dimensions (azimuth, elevation, and range). Participants' movement trajectories were recorded and used to determine movement times for acquisitions of the entire target and of each of its display dimensions. The goodness of fit of the data to a modified Fitts function varied widely among participants, and the presence of droplines did not have observable impacts on the goodness of fit. However, droplines helped participants navigate via straighter paths and particularly benefited range dimension acquisition. A general preference for visually overlapping the target with the cursor prior to capturing the target was found. Potential applications of this research include the design of interactive 3-D perspective displays in which fast and accurate selection and manipulation of content residing at multiple ranges may be a challenge.

  8. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  9. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  10. fVisiOn: glasses-free tabletop 3D display to provide virtual 3D media naturally alongside real media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2012-06-01

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display, named fVisiOn, floats virtual 3D objects on an empty, flat, tabletop surface and enables multiple viewers to observe raised 3D images from any angle at 360° Our glasses-free 3D image reproduction method employs a combination of an optical device and an array of projectors and produces continuous horizontal parallax in the direction of a circular path located above the table. The optical device shapes a hollow cone and works as an anisotropic diffuser. The circularly arranged projectors cast numerous rays into the optical device. Each ray represents a particular ray that passes a corresponding point on a virtual object's surface and orients toward a viewing area around the table. At any viewpoint on the ring-shaped viewing area, both eyes collect fractional images from different projectors, and all the viewers around the table can perceive the scene as 3D from their perspectives because the images include binocular disparity. The entire principle is installed beneath the table, so the tabletop area remains clear. No ordinary tabletop activities are disturbed. Many people can naturally share the 3D images displayed together with real objects on the table. In our latest prototype, we employed a handmade optical device and an array of over 100 tiny projectors. This configuration reproduces static and animated 3D scenes for a 130° viewing area and allows 5-cm-tall virtual characters to play soccer and dance on the table.

  11. Sound localization with head movement: implications for 3-d audio displays

    PubMed Central

    McAnally, Ken I.; Martin, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of sound localization is improved if listeners are allowed to move their heads during signal presentation. This study describes the function relating localization accuracy to the extent of head movement in azimuth. Sounds that are difficult to localize were presented in the free field from sources at a wide range of azimuths and elevations. Sounds remained active until the participants' heads had rotated through windows ranging in width of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64° of azimuth. Error in determining sound-source elevation and the rate of front/back confusion were found to decrease with increases in azimuth window width. Error in determining sound-source lateral angle was not found to vary with azimuth window width. Implications for 3-d audio displays: the utility of a 3-d audio display for imparting spatial information is likely to be improved if operators are able to move their heads during signal presentation. Head movement may compensate in part for a paucity of spectral cues to sound-source location resulting from limitations in either the audio signals presented or the directional filters (i.e., head-related transfer functions) used to generate a display. However, head movements of a moderate size (i.e., through around 32° of azimuth) may be required to ensure that spatial information is conveyed with high accuracy. PMID:25161605

  12. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  13. The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Pomplun, Marc; Garaas, Tyler W; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations. Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths. Here we analyze observers' eye movements in an "easy" conjunction search task and a "difficult" shape search task to study visual search strategies in stereoscopic search displays with virtual depth induced by binocular disparity. Standard eye-movement variables, such as fixation duration and initial saccade latency, as well as new measures proposed here, such as saccadic step size, relative saccadic selectivity, and x-y target distance, revealed systematic effects on search dynamics in the horizontal-vertical plane throughout the search process. We found that in the "easy" task, observers start with the processing of display items in the display center immediately after stimulus onset and subsequently move their gaze outwards, guided by extrafoveally perceived stimulus color. In contrast, the "difficult" task induced an initial gaze shift to the upper-left display corner, followed by a systematic left-right and top-down search process. The only consistent depth effect was a trend of initial saccades in the easy task with smallest displays to the items closest to the observer. The results demonstrate the utility of eye-movement analysis for understanding search strategies and provide a first step toward studying search strategies in actual 3D scenarios. PMID:23986539

  14. The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays.

    PubMed

    Pomplun, Marc; Garaas, Tyler W; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-08-28

    Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations. Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths. Here we analyze observers' eye movements in an "easy" conjunction search task and a "difficult" shape search task to study visual search strategies in stereoscopic search displays with virtual depth induced by binocular disparity. Standard eye-movement variables, such as fixation duration and initial saccade latency, as well as new measures proposed here, such as saccadic step size, relative saccadic selectivity, and x-y target distance, revealed systematic effects on search dynamics in the horizontal-vertical plane throughout the search process. We found that in the "easy" task, observers start with the processing of display items in the display center immediately after stimulus onset and subsequently move their gaze outwards, guided by extrafoveally perceived stimulus color. In contrast, the "difficult" task induced an initial gaze shift to the upper-left display corner, followed by a systematic left-right and top-down search process. The only consistent depth effect was a trend of initial saccades in the easy task with smallest displays to the items closest to the observer. The results demonstrate the utility of eye-movement analysis for understanding search strategies and provide a first step toward studying search strategies in actual 3D scenarios.

  15. Digital video display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Martin, W. L.; Engle, A.

    1973-01-01

    System displays image data in real time on 120,000-element raster scan with 2, 4, or 8 shades of grey. Designed for displaying planetary range Doppler data, system can be used for X-Y plotting, displaying alphanumerics, and providing image animation.

  16. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  17. A method of quantifying moirés on 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwangsoon; Lee, Eung-Don; Kim, Yang-Su; Hur, Namho; Son, Jung-Young

    2016-06-01

    A method of quantifying the amount of moirés in contact-type 3-D displays is described. The color moirés in the displays are induced by the periodic blocking of a part of each pixel on the panel by the boundary lines or the barrier lines consisting of the viewing zone forming optics. The method starts calculating the intensity of an image laden with moirés and that of the image with no moirés. The moirés contrast is defined as the intensity difference of the two images. The contrast values match well with those from the simulated moirés for the crossing angle range of 0° to 20°.

  18. Independent effects of 2-D and 3-D locations of stimuli in a 3-D display on response speed in a Simon task

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Simon Effect is a phenomenon in which reaction times are usually faster when the stimulus location and the response correspond, even if the stimulus location is irrelevant to the task. Recent studies have demonstrated the Simon effect in a three-dimensional (3-D) display. The present study examined whether two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D locations simultaneously affected the Simon effect for stimuli in which a target and fixation were located on the same plane (ground or ceiling) at different 3-D depths, and the perspective effect produced a difference in the 2-D vertical location of the target stimulus relative to the fixation. The presence of the ground and ceiling plane was controlled to examine the contextual effects of background. The results showed that the 2-D vertical location and 3-D depth simultaneously affected the speed of responses, and they did not interact. The presence of the background did not affect the magnitude of either the 2-D or the 3-D Simon effect. These results suggest that 2-D vertical location and 3-D depth are coded simultaneously and independently, and both affect response selection in which 2-D and 3-D representations overlap. PMID:26388807

  19. Random-profiles-based 3D face recognition system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joongrock; Yu, Sunjin; Lee, Sangyoun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D) face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D) face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation.

  20. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Joongrock, Kim; Sunjin, Yu; Sangyoun, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D) face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D) face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation. PMID:24691101

  1. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  2. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  3. Displaying 3D radiation dose on endoscopic video for therapeutic assessment and surgical guidance.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jimmy; Hope, Andrew J; Cho, B C John; Sharpe, Michael B; Dickie, Colleen I; DaCosta, Ralph S; Jaffray, David A; Weersink, Robert A

    2012-10-21

    We have developed a method to register and display 3D parametric data, in particular radiation dose, on two-dimensional endoscopic images. This registration of radiation dose to endoscopic or optical imaging may be valuable in assessment of normal tissue response to radiation, and visualization of radiated tissues in patients receiving post-radiation surgery. Electromagnetic sensors embedded in a flexible endoscope were used to track the position and orientation of the endoscope allowing registration of 2D endoscopic images to CT volumetric images and radiation doses planned with respect to these images. A surface was rendered from the CT image based on the air/tissue threshold, creating a virtual endoscopic view analogous to the real endoscopic view. Radiation dose at the surface or at known depth below the surface was assigned to each segment of the virtual surface. Dose could be displayed as either a colorwash on this surface or surface isodose lines. By assigning transparency levels to each surface segment based on dose or isoline location, the virtual dose display was overlaid onto the real endoscope image. Spatial accuracy of the dose display was tested using a cylindrical phantom with a treatment plan created for the phantom that matched dose levels with grid lines on the phantom surface. The accuracy of the dose display in these phantoms was 0.8-0.99 mm. To demonstrate clinical feasibility of this approach, the dose display was also tested on clinical data of a patient with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy, with estimated display accuracy of ∼2-3 mm. The utility of the dose display for registration of radiation dose information to the surgical field was further demonstrated in a mock sarcoma case using a leg phantom. With direct overlay of radiation dose on endoscopic imaging, tissue toxicities and tumor response in endoluminal organs can be directly correlated with the actual tissue dose, offering a more nuanced assessment of normal tissue

  4. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  5. Assessment of 3D Viewers for the Display of Interactive Documents in the Learning of Graphic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Mate, Esteban Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which 3D viewers should be used for the display of interactive graphic engineering documents, so that the visualization and manipulation of 3D models provide useful support to students of industrial engineering (mechanical, organizational, electronic engineering, etc). The technical features of 26 3D…

  6. D3D augmented reality imaging system: proof of concept in mammography

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to present images from simulated breast microcalcifications and assess the pattern of the microcalcifications with a technical development called “depth 3-dimensional (D3D) augmented reality”. Materials and methods A computer, head display unit, joystick, D3D augmented reality software, and an in-house script of simulated data of breast microcalcifications in a ductal distribution were used. No patient data was used and no statistical analysis was performed. Results The D3D augmented reality system demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception by presenting a unique image to each eye, focal point convergence, head position tracking, 3D cursor, and joystick fly-through. Conclusion The D3D augmented reality imaging system offers image viewing with depth perception and focal point convergence. The D3D augmented reality system should be tested to determine its utility in clinical practice. PMID:27563261

  7. Crosstalk minimization in autostereoscopic multiveiw 3D display by eye tracking and fusion (overlapping) of viewing zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Yoon, Seon-Kyu; Yoon, Ki-Hyuk

    2012-06-01

    An autostereoscopic 3D display provides the binocular perception without eye glasses, but induces the low 3D effect and dizziness due to the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk related problems give the deterioration of 3D effect, clearness, and reality of 3D image. A novel method of reducing the crosstalk is designed and tested; the method is based on the fusion of viewing zones and the real time eye position. It is shown experimentally that the crosstalk is effectively reduced at any position around the optimal viewing distance.

  8. Adaptive fuzzy system for 3-D vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, Sunanda

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy system using the concept of the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) type neural network architecture and incorporating fuzzy c-means (FCM) system equations for reclassification of cluster centers was developed. The Adaptive Fuzzy Leader Clustering (AFLC) architecture is a hybrid neural-fuzzy system which learns on-line in a stable and efficient manner. The system uses a control structure similar to that found in the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART-1) network to identify the cluster centers initially. The initial classification of an input takes place in a two stage process; a simple competitive stage and a distance metric comparison stage. The cluster prototypes are then incrementally updated by relocating the centroid positions from Fuzzy c-Means (FCM) system equations for the centroids and the membership values. The operational characteristics of AFLC and the critical parameters involved in its operation are discussed. The performance of the AFLC algorithm is presented through application of the algorithm to the Anderson Iris data, and laser-luminescent fingerprint image data. The AFLC algorithm successfully classifies features extracted from real data, discrete or continuous, indicating the potential strength of this new clustering algorithm in analyzing complex data sets. The hybrid neuro-fuzzy AFLC algorithm will enhance analysis of a number of difficult recognition and control problems involved with Tethered Satellite Systems and on-orbit space shuttle attitude controller.

  9. Quantitative data quality metrics for 3D laser radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R.; Lopez, Norman A.; Burton, Robin R.

    2011-06-01

    Several quantitative data quality metrics for three dimensional (3D) laser radar systems are presented, namely: X-Y contrast transfer function, Z noise, Z resolution, X-Y edge & line spread functions, 3D point spread function and data voids. These metrics are calculated from both raw and/or processed point cloud data, providing different information regarding the performance of 3D imaging laser radar systems and the perceptual quality attributes of 3D datasets. The discussion is presented within the context of 3D imaging laser radar systems employing arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors, but the metrics may generally be applied to linear mode systems as well. An example for the role of these metrics in comparison of noise removal algorithms is also provided.

  10. Fabrication of Large-Scale Microlens Arrays Based on Screen Printing for Integral Imaging 3D Display.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiongtu; Peng, Yuyan; Peng, Rong; Zeng, Xiangyao; Zhang, Yong-Ai; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-09-14

    The low-cost large-scale fabrication of microlens arrays (MLAs) with precise alignment, great uniformity of focusing, and good converging performance are of great importance for integral imaging 3D display. In this work, a simple and effective method for large-scale polymer microlens arrays using screen printing has been successfully presented. The results show that the MLAs possess high-quality surface morphology and excellent optical performances. Furthermore, the microlens' shape and size, i.e., the diameter, the height, and the distance between two adjacent microlenses of the MLAs can be easily controlled by modifying the reflowing time and the size of open apertures of the screen. MLAs with the neighboring microlenses almost tangent can be achieved under suitable size of open apertures of the screen and reflowing time, which can remarkably reduce the color moiré patterns caused by the stray light between the blank areas of the MLAs in the integral imaging 3D display system, exhibiting much better reconstruction performance. PMID:27540754

  11. An eliminating method of motion-induced vertical parallax for time-division 3D display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyuan; Hou, Chunping

    2015-10-01

    A time difference between the left image and right image of the time-division 3D display makes a person perceive alternating vertical parallax when an object is moving vertically on a fixed depth plane, which causes the left image and right image perceived do not match and makes people more prone to visual fatigue. This mismatch cannot eliminate simply rely on the precise synchronous control of the left image and right image. Based on the principle of time-division 3D display technology and human visual system characteristics, this paper establishes a model of the true vertical motion velocity in reality and vertical motion velocity on the screen, and calculates the amount of the vertical parallax caused by vertical motion, and then puts forward a motion compensation method to eliminate the vertical parallax. Finally, subjective experiments are carried out to analyze how the time difference affects the stereo visual comfort by comparing the comfort values of the stereo image sequences before and after compensating using the eliminating method. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method is reasonable and efficient.

  12. Education System Using Interactive 3D Computer Graphics (3D-CG) Animation and Scenario Language for Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shindo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) animation using a virtual actor's speaking is very effective as an educational medium. But it takes a long time to produce a 3D-CG animation. To reduce the cost of producing 3D-CG educational contents and improve the capability of the education system, we have developed a new education system using Virtual Actor.…

  13. Colorful holographic display of 3D object based on scaled diffraction by using non-uniform fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chenliang; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei

    2015-03-01

    We proposed a new method to calculate the color computer generated hologram of three-dimensional object in holographic display. The three-dimensional object is composed of several tilted planes which are tilted from the hologram. The diffraction from each tilted plane to the hologram plane is calculated based on the coordinate rotation in Fourier spectrum domains. We used the nonuniform fast Fourier transformation (NUFFT) to calculate the nonuniform sampled Fourier spectrum on the tilted plane after coordinate rotation. By using the NUFFT, the diffraction calculation from tilted plane to the hologram plane with variable sampling rates can be achieved, which overcomes the sampling restriction of FFT in the conventional angular spectrum based method. The holograms of red, green and blue component of the polygon-based object are calculated separately by using our NUFFT based method. Then the color hologram is synthesized by placing the red, green and blue component hologram in sequence. The chromatic aberration caused by the wavelength difference can be solved effectively by restricting the sampling rate of the object in the calculation of each wavelength component. The computer simulation shows the feasibility of our method in calculating the color hologram of polygon-based object. The 3D object can be displayed in color with adjustable size and no chromatic aberration in holographic display system, which can be considered as an important application in the colorful holographic three-dimensional display.

  14. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©. PMID:26921815

  15. Multi-camera system for 3D forensic documentation.

    PubMed

    Leipner, Anja; Baumeister, Rilana; Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dobler, Erika; Ebert, Lars C

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation is well established in forensic documentation. The most common systems include laser scanners and surface scanners with optical 3D cameras. An additional documentation tool is photogrammetry. This article introduces the botscan© (botspot GmbH, Berlin, Germany) multi-camera system for the forensic markerless photogrammetric whole body 3D surface documentation of living persons in standing posture. We used the botscan© multi-camera system to document a person in 360°. The system has a modular design and works with 64 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. The cameras were evenly distributed in a circular chamber. We generated 3D models from the photographs using the PhotoScan© (Agisoft LLC, St. Petersburg, Russia) software. Our results revealed that the botscan© and PhotoScan© produced 360° 3D models with detailed textures. The 3D models had very accurate geometries and could be scaled to full size with the help of scale bars. In conclusion, this multi-camera system provided a rapid and simple method for documenting the whole body of a person to generate 3D data with Photoscan©.

  16. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  17. Synthetic 3D multicellular systems for drug development.

    PubMed

    Rimann, Markus; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1970s, the limitations of two dimensional (2D) cell culture and the relevance of appropriate three dimensional (3D) cell systems have become increasingly evident. Extensive effort has thus been made to move cells from a flat world to a 3D environment. While 3D cell culture technologies are meanwhile widely used in academia, 2D culture technologies are still entrenched in the (pharmaceutical) industry for most kind of cell-based efficacy and toxicology tests. However, 3D cell culture technologies will certainly become more applicable if biological relevance, reproducibility and high throughput can be assured at acceptable costs. Most recent innovations and developments clearly indicate that the transition from 2D to 3D cell culture for industrial purposes, for example, drug development is simply a question of time.

  18. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  19. US-CT 3D dual imaging by mutual display of the same sections for depicting minor changes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryu; Ohto, Masao; Sakamoto, Akio; Otsuka, Masayuki; Togawa, Akira; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yamagata, Hitoshi

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound-computed tomography (US-CT) 3D dual imaging for the detection of small extranodular growths of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The clinical and pathological profiles of 10 patients with single nodular type HCC with extranodular growth (extranodular growth) who underwent a hepatectomy were evaluated using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography (US), three-dimensional (3D) US, 3D computed tomography (CT) and 3D US-CT dual images. Raw 3D data was converted to DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) data using Echo to CT (Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and the 3D DICOM data was directly transferred to the image analysis system (ZioM900, ZIOSOFT Inc., Tokyo, Japan). By inputting the angle number (x, y, z) of the 3D CT volume data into the ZioM900, multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images of the 3D CT data were displayed in a manner such that they resembled the conventional US images. Eleven extranodular growths were detected pathologically in 10 cases. 2D US was capable of depicting only 2 of the 11 extranodular growths. 3D CT was capable of depicting 4 of the 11 extranodular growths. On the other hand, 3D US was capable of depicting 10 of the 11 extranodular growths, and 3D US-CT dual images, which enable the dual analysis of the CT and US planes, revealed all 11 extranodular growths. In conclusion, US-CT 3D dual imaging may be useful for the detection of small extranodular growths.

  20. A 3D visualization system for molecular structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Terry J.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of molecules derive in part from their structures. Because of the importance of understanding molecular structures various methodologies, ranging from first principles to empirical technique, were developed for computing the structure of molecules. For large molecules such as polymer model compounds, the structural information is difficult to comprehend by examining tabulated data. Therefore, a molecular graphics display system, called MOLDS, was developed to help interpret the data. MOLDS is a menu-driven program developed to run on the LADC SNS computer systems. This program can read a data file generated by the modeling programs or data can be entered using the keyboard. MOLDS has the following capabilities: draws the 3-D representation of a molecule using stick, ball and ball, or space filled model from Cartesian coordinates, draws different perspective views of the molecule; rotates the molecule on the X, Y, Z axis or about some arbitrary line in space, zooms in on a small area of the molecule in order to obtain a better view of a specific region; and makes hard copy representation of molecules on a graphic printer. In addition, MOLDS can be easily updated and readily adapted to run on most computer systems.

  1. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  2. a 3d Campus Information System - Initial Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, I.; Karas, I. R.; Alizadehasharfi, B.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-08-01

    This paper discusses the method of developing Campus Information System. The system can handle 3D spatial data within desktop and web environment. The method consists of texturing of building facades for 3D building models and modeling 3D Campus Information System. In this paper, some of these steps are carried out; modelling 3D buildings, toggling these models on the terrain and ortho-photo, integration with a geo-database, transferring to the CityServer3D environment by using CityGML format and designing the service, etc. In addition to this, a simple but novel method of texturing of building façades for 3D city modeling that is based on Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF) is used for synthetic and procedural texturing. DPF is very fast compared to other photo realistic texturing methods. Last but not least, it is aimed to present this project on web using web mapping services. This makes 3D analysis easy for decision makers.

  3. 3D X-Ray Luggage-Screening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) x-ray luggage- screening system has been proposed to reduce the fatigue experienced by human inspectors and increase their ability to detect weapons and other contraband. The system and variants thereof could supplant thousands of xray scanners now in use at hundreds of airports in the United States and other countries. The device would be applicable to any security checkpoint application where current two-dimensional scanners are in use. A conventional x-ray luggage scanner generates a single two-dimensional (2D) image that conveys no depth information. Therefore, a human inspector must scrutinize the image in an effort to understand ambiguous-appearing objects as they pass by at high speed on a conveyor belt. Such a high level of concentration can induce fatigue, causing the inspector to reduce concentration and vigilance. In addition, because of the lack of depth information, contraband objects could be made more difficult to detect by positioning them near other objects so as to create x-ray images that confuse inspectors. The proposed system would make it unnecessary for a human inspector to interpret 2D images, which show objects at different depths as superimposed. Instead, the system would take advantage of the natural human ability to infer 3D information from stereographic or stereoscopic images. The inspector would be able to perceive two objects at different depths, in a more nearly natural manner, as distinct 3D objects lying at different depths. Hence, the inspector could recognize objects with greater accuracy and less effort. The major components of the proposed system would be similar to those of x-ray luggage scanners now in use. As in a conventional x-ray scanner, there would be an x-ray source. Unlike in a conventional scanner, there would be two x-ray image sensors, denoted the left and right sensors, located at positions along the conveyor that are upstream and downstream, respectively (see figure). X-ray illumination

  4. Thermal 3D modeling system based on 3-view geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel thermal three-dimensional (3D) modeling system that includes 3D shape, visual, and thermal infrared information and solves a registration problem among these three types of information. The proposed system consists of a projector, a visual camera and, a thermal camera (PVT). To generate 3D shape information, we use a structured light technique, which consists of a visual camera and a projector. A thermal camera is added to the structured light system in order to provide thermal information. To solve the correspondence problem between the three sensors, we use three-view geometry. Finally, we obtain registered PVT data, which includes visual, thermal, and 3D shape information. Among various potential applications such as industrial measurements, biological experiments, military usage, and so on, we have adapted the proposed method to biometrics, particularly for face recognition. With the proposed method, we obtain multi-modal 3D face data that includes not only textural information but also data regarding head pose, 3D shape, and thermal information. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed face recognition system is not limited by head pose variation which is a serious problem in face recognition.

  5. Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.

  6. Progress in off-plane computer-generated waveguide holography for near-to-eye 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Sundeep; Savidis, Nickolaos; Datta, Bianca; Bove, V. Michael; Smalley, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Waveguide holography refers to the use of holographic techniques for the control of guided-wave light in integrated optical devices (e.g., off-plane grating couplers and in-plane distributed Bragg gratings for guided-wave optical filtering). Off-plane computer-generated waveguide holography (CGWH) has also been employed in the generation of simple field distributions for image display. We have previously depicted the design and fabrication of a binary-phase CGWH operating in the Raman-Nath regime for the purposes of near-to-eye 3-D display and as a precursor to a dynamic, transparent flat-panel guided-wave holographic video display. In this paper, we describe design algorithms and fabrication techniques for multilevel phase CGWHs for near-to-eye 3-D display.

  7. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  8. Revolving lantern display using holographic 3D images with 1/f fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Koji; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kunio

    2007-09-01

    The authors developed the revolving lantern using images of the holographic display. Our revolving lantern playbacks the virtual images which are floating in the air. These spatial images have unexpected motions and changes. The prototype imaging unit consists of the hologram, turn table and illumination system which can change the light with 1/f fluctuation so as to reconstruct various spatial images. In this paper, we describe the spatial imaging with a holographic technology and the reconstruction system which playbacks the rotating motion and various images. A hologram playbacks images. These reconstructions are generally static images. The rotating image like a revolving lantern can be produced when a hologram is spinning on the turn table. A hologram can record and reconstruct various images using the different illumination. When the illumination system changes the illumination light, a hologram reconstructs other images.

  9. Drivers license display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  10. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  11. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-12-31

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution.

  12. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  13. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  14. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  15. Systems biology in 3D space--enter the morphome.

    PubMed

    Lucocq, John M; Mayhew, Terry M; Schwab, Yannick; Steyer, Anna M; Hacker, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Systems-based understanding of living organisms depends on acquiring huge datasets from arrays of genes, transcripts, proteins, and lipids. These data, referred to as 'omes', are assembled using 'omics' methodologies. Currently a comprehensive, quantitative view of cellular and organellar systems in 3D space at nanoscale/molecular resolution is missing. We introduce here the term 'morphome' for the distribution of living matter within a 3D biological system, and 'morphomics' for methods of collecting 3D data systematically and quantitatively. A sampling-based approach termed stereology currently provides rapid, precise, and minimally biased morphomics. We propose that stereology solves the 'big data' problem posed by emerging wide-scale electron microscopy (EM) and can establish quantitative links between the newer nanoimaging platforms such as electron tomography, cryo-EM, and correlative microscopy.

  16. HMI aspects of the usage of ladar 3D data in pilot DVE support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Völschow, Philipp; Singer, Bernhard; Strobel, Michael; Kramper, Patrick; Bühler, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The paper discusses specifics of high resolution 3D sensor systems employed in helicopter DVE support systems and the consequences for the resulting HMI. 3D sensors have a number of specifics making them a cornerstone for helicopter pilot support or pilotage systems intended for use in DVE. Retrieving depth information gives specific advantages over 2D imagers. On the other hand certain technology and physics inherent specifics require a more elaborate visualization procedure compared to 2D image visualization. The goal of all displayed information has to be to reduce pilots workload in DVE operations. Therefore especially for displaying the processed information on an HMD as 3D conformal data requires thorough HMI considerations.

  17. Mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound guided prostate biopsy system.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Montreuil, Jacques; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-12-01

    There are currently limitations associated with the prostate biopsy procedure, which is the most commonly used method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. With the use of two-dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for needle-guidance in this procedure, the physician has restricted anatomical reference points for guiding the needle to target sites. Further, any motion of the physician's hand during the procedure may cause the prostate to move or deform to a prohibitive extent. These variations make it difficult to establish a consistent reference frame for guiding a needle. We have developed a 3D navigation system for prostate biopsy, which addresses these shortcomings. This system is composed of a 3D US imaging subsystem and a passive mechanical arm to minimize prostate motion. To validate our prototype, a series of experiments were performed on prostate phantoms. The 3D scan of the string phantom produced minimal geometric distortions, and the geometric error of the 3D imaging subsystem was 0.37 mm. The accuracy of 3D prostate segmentation was determined by comparing the known volume in a certified phantom to a reconstructed volume generated by our system and was shown to estimate the volume with less then 5% error. Biopsy needle guidance accuracy tests in agar prostate phantoms showed that the mean error was 2.1 mm and the 3D location of the biopsy core was recorded with a mean error of 1.8 mm. In this paper, we describe the mechanical design and validation of the prototype system using an in vitro prostate phantom. Preliminary results from an ongoing clinical trial show that prostate motion is small with an in-plane displacement of less than 1 mm during the biopsy procedure.

  18. A Fuzzy-Based Fusion Method of Multimodal Sensor-Based Measurements for the Quantitative Evaluation of Eye Fatigue on 3D Displays

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Choi, Jong-Suk; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of 3-dimensional (3D) content, considerable research related to the 3D human factor has been undertaken for quantitatively evaluating visual discomfort, including eye fatigue and dizziness, caused by viewing 3D content. Various modalities such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses have been investigated. However, the majority of the previous research has analyzed each modality separately to measure user eye fatigue. This cannot guarantee the credibility of the resulting eye fatigue evaluations. Therefore, we propose a new method for quantitatively evaluating eye fatigue related to 3D content by combining multimodal measurements. This research is novel for the following four reasons: first, for the evaluation of eye fatigue with high credibility on 3D displays, a fuzzy-based fusion method (FBFM) is proposed based on the multimodalities of EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and subjective evaluation (SE); second, to measure a more accurate variation of eye fatigue (before and after watching a 3D display), we obtain the quality scores of EEG signals, eye BR, FT and SE; third, for combining the values of the four modalities we obtain the optimal weights of the EEG signals BR, FT and SE using a fuzzy system based on quality scores; fourth, the quantitative level of the variation of eye fatigue is finally obtained using the weighted sum of the values measured by the four modalities. Experimental results confirm that the effectiveness of the proposed FBFM is greater than other conventional multimodal measurements. Moreover, the credibility of the variations of the eye fatigue using the FBFM before and after watching the 3D display is proven using a t-test and descriptive statistical analysis using effect size. PMID:25961382

  19. The influence of autostereoscopic 3D displays on subsequent task performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkowsky, Marcus; Le Callet, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    Viewing 3D content on an autostereoscopic is an exciting experience. This is partly due to the fact that the 3D effect is seen without glasses. Nevertheless, it is an unnatural condition for the eyes as the depth effect is created by the disparity of the left and the right view on a flat screen instead of having a real object at the corresponding location. Thus, it may be more tiring to watch 3D than 2D. This question is investigated in this contribution by a subjective experiment. A search task experiment is conducted and the behavior of the participants is recorded with an eyetracker. Several indicators both for low level perception as well as for the task performance itself are evaluated. In addition two optometric tests are performed. A verification session with conventional 2D viewing is included. The results are discussed in detail and it can be concluded that the 3D viewing does not have a negative impact on the task performance used in the experiment.

  20. The 3D laser radar vision processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebok, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Loral Defense Systems (LDS) developed a 3D Laser Radar Vision Processor system capable of detecting, classifying, and identifying small mobile targets as well as larger fixed targets using three dimensional laser radar imagery for use with a robotic type system. This processor system is designed to interface with the NASA Johnson Space Center in-house Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever robot program and provide to it needed information so it can fetch and grasp targets in a space-type scenario.

  1. A 3-D measurement system using object-oriented FORTH

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a system for storing 3-D measurements of points that relates the coordinate system of the measurement device to the global coordinate system. The program described here used object-oriented FORTH to store the measured points as sons of the measuring device location. Conversion of local coordinates to absolute coordinates is performed by passing messages to the point objects. Modifications to the object-oriented FORTH system are also described. 1 ref.

  2. The Maintenance Of 3-D Scene Databases Using The Analytical Imagery Matching System (Aims)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovey, Stanford T.

    1987-06-01

    The increased demand for multi-resolution displays of simulated scene data for aircraft training or mission planning has led to a need for digital databases of 3-dimensional topography and geographically positioned objects. This data needs to be at varying resolutions or levels of detail as well as be positionally accurate to satisfy close-up and long distance scene views. The generation and maintenance processes for this type of digital database requires that relative and absolute spatial positions of geographic and cultural features be carefully controlled in order for the scenes to be representative and useful for simulation applications. Autometric, Incorporated has designed a modular Analytical Image Matching System (AIMS) which allows digital 3-D terrain feature data to be derived from cartographic and imagery sources by a combination of automatic and man-machine techniques. This system provides a means for superimposing the scenes of feature information in 3-D over imagery for updating. It also allows for real-time operator interaction between a monoscopic digital imagery display, a digital map display, a stereoscopic digital imagery display and automatically detected feature changes for transferring 3-D data from one coordinate system's frame of reference to another for updating the scene simulation database. It is an advanced, state-of-the-art means for implementing a modular, 3-D scene database maintenance capability, where original digital or converted-to-digital analog source imagery is used as a basic input to perform accurate updating.

  3. 3D-Pathology: a real-time system for quantitative diagnostic pathology and visualisation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottrup, Christian; Beckett, Mark G.; Hager, Henrik; Locht, Peter

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the 3D-Pathology project conducted under the European EC Framework 5. The aim of the project was, through the application of 3D image reconstruction and visualization techniques, to improve the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of medical personnel when analyzing pathological specimens using transmitted light microscopy. A fully automated, computer-controlled microscope system has been developed to capture 3D images of specimen content. 3D image reconstruction algorithms have been implemented and applied to the acquired volume data in order to facilitate the subsequent 3D visualization of the specimen. Three potential application fields, immunohistology, cromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and cytology, have been tested using the prototype system. For both immunohistology and CISH, use of the system furnished significant additional information to the pathologist.

  4. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-07-29

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance.

  5. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C.; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants.This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance. PMID:26230701

  6. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3-D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental modeling community has a long-standing need for affordable, easy-to-use tools that support 3-D visualization of complex spatial and temporal model output. The Visualization of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effe...

  7. ProteinVista: a fast molecular visualization system using Microsoft Direct3D.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Yong; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Soo-Jun; Park, Sun-Hee; Hwang, Chi-Jung

    2008-09-01

    Many tools have been developed to visualize protein and molecular structures. Most high quality protein visualization tools use the OpenGL graphics library as a 3D graphics system. Currently, the performance of recent 3D graphics hardware has rapidly improved. Recent high-performance 3D graphics hardware support Microsoft Direct3D graphics library more than OpenGL and have become very popular in personal computers (PCs). In this paper, a molecular visualization system termed ProteinVista is proposed. ProteinVista is well-designed visualization system using the Microsoft Direct3D graphics library. It provides various visualization styles such as the wireframe, stick, ball and stick, space fill, ribbon, and surface model styles, in addition to display options for 3D visualization. As ProteinVista is optimized for recent 3D graphics hardware platforms and because it uses a geometry instancing technique, its rendering speed is 2.7 times faster compared to other visualization tools.

  8. Robust 3D reconstruction system for human jaw modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate 3D representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic models, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate 3D information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for 3D data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid 3D model is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.

  9. TIPS Placement in Swine, Guided by Electromagnetic Real-Time Needle Tip Localization Displayed on Previously Acquired 3-D CT

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Stephen B.; Magee, Carolyn; Acker, David E.; Venbrux, Anthony C.

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of guiding a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure with an electromagnetic real-time needle tip position sensor coupled to previously acquired 3-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: An electromagnetic position sensor was placed at the tip of a Colapinto needle. The real-time position and orientation of the needle tip was then displayed on previously acquired 3-D CT images which were registered with the five swine. Portal vein puncture was then attempted in all animals. Results: The computer calculated accuracy of the position sensor was on average 3 mm. Four of five portal vein punctures were successful. In the successes, only one or two attempts were necessary and success was achieved in minutes. Conclusion: A real-time position sensor attached to the tip of a Colapinto needle and coupled to previously acquired 3-D CT images may potentially aid in entering the portal vein during the TIPS procedure.

  10. HDTV single camera 3D system and its application in microsurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Ryo; Kobayashi, Shigeaki

    1994-04-01

    A 3D high-definition television (HDTV) system suitable for attachment to a stereoscopic operating microscope allowing 3D medical documentation using a single HDTV camera and monitor is described. The system provides 3D HDTV microneurosurgical recorded images suitable for viewing on a screen or monitor, or for printing. Visual documentation using a television and video system is very important in modern medical practice, especially for the eduction of medical students, the training of residents, and the display of records in medical conferences. For the documentation of microsurgery and endoscopic surgery, the video system is essential. The printed images taken from the recording by the HDTV system of the illustrative case clearly demonstrate the high quality and definition achieved, which are comparable to that of the 35 mm movie film. As the system only requires a single camera and recorder, the cost performance and size make it very suitable for microsurgical and endoscopic documentation.

  11. Mechanically assisted 3D prostate ultrasound imaging and biopsy needle-guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Williams, Jackie; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Karnik, Vaishali; Sherebrin, Shi; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are currently limited to using 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging to guide the biopsy needle. Being limited to 2D causes ambiguity in needle guidance and provides an insufficient record to allow guidance to the same suspicious locations or avoid regions that are negative during previous biopsy sessions. We have developed a mechanically assisted 3D ultrasound imaging and needle tracking system, which supports a commercially available TRUS probe and integrated needle guide for prostate biopsy. The mechanical device is fixed to a cart and the mechanical tracking linkage allows its joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting the weight of the ultrasound probe. The computer interface is provided in order to track the needle trajectory and display its path on a corresponding 3D TRUS image, allowing the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate. The system has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe in order to generate 3D image for 3D navigation. Using the system, 3D TRUS prostate images can be generated in approximately 10 seconds. The system reduces most of the user variability from conventional hand-held probes, which make them unsuitable for precision biopsy, while preserving some of the user familiarity and procedural workflow. In this paper, we describe the 3D TRUS guided biopsy system and report on the initial clinical use of this system for prostate biopsy.

  12. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  13. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  14. 3D vision system for intelligent milking robot automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhloufi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In a milking robot, the correct localization and positioning of milking teat cups is of very high importance. The milking robots technology has not changed since a decade and is based primarily on laser profiles for teats approximate positions estimation. This technology has reached its limit and does not allow optimal positioning of the milking cups. Also, in the presence of occlusions, the milking robot fails to milk the cow. These problems, have economic consequences for producers and animal health (e.g. development of mastitis). To overcome the limitations of current robots, we have developed a new system based on 3D vision, capable of efficiently positioning the milking cups. A prototype of an intelligent robot system based on 3D vision for real-time positioning of a milking robot has been built and tested under various conditions on a synthetic udder model (in static and moving scenarios). Experimental tests, were performed using 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGBD cameras. The proposed algorithms permit the online segmentation of teats by combing 2D and 3D visual information. The obtained results permit the teat 3D position computation. This information is then sent to the milking robot for teat cups positioning. The vision system has a real-time performance and monitors the optimal positioning of the cups even in the presence of motion. The obtained results, with both TOF and RGBD cameras, show the good performance of the proposed system. The best performance was obtained with RGBD cameras. This latter technology will be used in future real life experimental tests.

  15. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  16. Measurement system for 3-D foot coordinates and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhong; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi

    2008-12-01

    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system based on laser-line-scanning principle and the model of the measurement system were presented. Errors caused by nonlinearity of CCD cameras and caused by installation can be eliminated by using the global calibration method for CCD cameras, which based on nonlinear coordinate mapping function and the optimized method. A local foot coordinate system is defined with the Pternion and the Acropodion extracted from the boundaries of foot projections. The characteristic points can thus be located and foot parameters be extracted automatically by the local foot coordinate system and the related sections. Foot measurements for about 200 participants were conducted and the measurement results for male and female participants were presented. 3-D foot coordinates and parameters measurement makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization, and establishment of a feet database for consumers.

  17. Development of an advanced 3D cone beam tomographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sire, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Martin, M.; Grangeat, Pierre; Morisseau, P.

    Due to its high spatial resolution, the 3D X-ray cone-beam tomograph (CT) maximizes understanding of test object microstructure. In order for the present X-ray CT NDT system to control ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, its spatial resolution must exceed 50 microns. Attention is given to two experimental data reconstructions that have been conducted to illustrate system capabilities.

  18. Effective declutter of complex flight displays using stereoptic 3-D cueing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.; Nold, Dean E.

    1994-01-01

    The application of stereo technology to new, integrated pictorial display formats has been effective in situational awareness enhancements, and stereo has been postulated to be effective for the declutter of complex informational displays. This paper reports a full-factorial workstation experiment performed to verify the potential benefits of stereo cueing for the declutter function in a simulated tracking task. The experimental symbology was designed similar to that of a conventional flight director, although the format was an intentionally confused presentation that resulted in a very cluttered dynamic display. The subject's task was to use a hand controller to keep a tracking symbol, an 'X', on top of a target symbol, another X, which was being randomly driven. In the basic tracking task, both the target symbol and the tracking symbol were presented as red X's. The presence of color coding was used to provide some declutter, thus making the task more reasonable to perform. For this condition, the target symbol was coded red, and the tracking symbol was coded blue. Noise conditions, or additional clutter, were provided by the inclusion of randomly moving, differently colored X symbols. Stereo depth, which was hypothesized to declutter the display, was utilized by placing any noise in a plane in front of the display monitor, the tracking symbol at screen depth, and the target symbol behind the screen. The results from analyzing the performances of eight subjects revealed that the stereo presentation effectively offsets the cluttering effects of both the noise and the absence of color coding. The potential of stereo cueing to declutter complex informational displays has therefore been verified; this ability to declutter is an additional benefit from the application of stereoptic cueing to pictorial flight displays.

  19. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  20. Performance evaluation of medical LCD displays using 3D channelized Hotelling observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platiša, Ljiljana; Marchessoux, Cédric; Goossens, Bart; Philips, Wilfried

    2011-03-01

    High performance of the radiologists in the task of image lesion detection is crucial for successful medical practice. One relevant factor in clinical image reading is the quality of the medical display. With the current trends of stack-mode liquid crystal displays (LCDs), the slow temporal response of the display plays a significant role in image quality assurance. In this paper, we report on the experimental study performed to evaluate the quality of a novel LCD with advanced temporal response compensation, and compare it to an existing state-of-the-art display of the same category but with no temporal response compensation. The data in the study comprise clinical digital tomosynthesis images of the breast with added simulated mass lesions. The detectability for the two displays is estimated using the recent multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer (msCHO) model which is especially designed for multi-slice image data. Our results suggest that the novel LCD allows higher detectability than the existing one. Moreover, the msCHO results are used to advise on the parameters for the follow up image reading study with real medical doctors as observers. Finally, the main findings of the msCHO study were confirmed by a human reader study (details to be published in a separate paper).

  1. Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Sowmya; Akeley, Kurt; Banks, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    Focus cues are incorrect in conventional stereoscopic displays. This causes a dissociation of vergence and accommodation, which leads to visual fatigue and perceptual distortions. Multi-plane displays can minimize these problems by creating nearly correct focus cues. But to create the appearance of continuous depth in a multi-plane display, one needs to use depth-weighted blending: i.e., distribute light intensity between adjacent planes. Akeley et al. [ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004)] and Liu and Hua [Opt. Express 18, 11562 (2009)] described rather different rules for depth-weighted blending. We examined the effectiveness of those and other rules using a model of a typical human eye and biologically plausible metrics for image quality. We find that the linear blending rule proposed by Akeley and colleagues [ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 804 (2004)] is the best solution for natural stimuli. PMID:21997103

  2. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alverson, G.; Eulisse, G.; Muzaffar, S.; Osborne, I.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L. A.

    2004-11-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user.

  3. Spectral analysis of views interpolated by chroma subpixel downsampling for 3D autosteroscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson, Avishai; Stern, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    One of the main limitations of horizontal parallax autostereoscopic displays is the horizontal resolution loss due the need to repartition the pixels of the display panel among the multiple views. Recently we have shown that this problem can be alleviated by applying a color sub-pixel rendering technique1. Interpolated views are generated by down-sampling the panel pixels at sub-pixel level, thus increasing the number of views. The method takes advantage of lower acuity of the human eye to chromatic resolution. Here we supply further support of the technique by analyzing the spectra of the subsampled images.

  4. Precise Animated 3-D Displays Of The Heart Constructed From X-Ray Scatter Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, J. J.; Herr, M. D.; Copenhaver, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    A technique, based upon the interrogation of x-ray scatter, has been used to construct precise animated displays of the three-dimensional surface of the heart throughout the cardiac cycle. With the selection of motion amplification, viewing orientation, beat rate, and repetitive playbacks of isolated segments of the cardiac cycle, these displays are used to directly visualize epicardial surface velocity and displacement patterns, to construct regional maps of old or new myocardial infarction, and to visualize diastolic stiffening of the ventricle associated with acute ischemia. The procedure is non-invasive. Cut-downs or injections are not required.

  5. Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David

    2013-06-23

    Robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin, USA is a product of both anomalously high regional heat flow and active fault-controlled extension. Elevated permeability associated with some fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Constraining the local-scale 3D geometry of these structures and their roles as fluid flow conduits is crucial in order to mitigate both the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and to identify blind (no surface expression) geothermal resources. Ongoing studies have indicated that much of the robust geothermal activity in the Great Basin is associated with high density faulting at structurally complex fault intersection/interaction areas, such as accommodation/transfer zones between discrete fault systems, step-overs or relay ramps in fault systems, intersection zones between faults with different strikes or different senses of slip, and horse-tailing fault terminations. These conceptualized models are crucial for locating and characterizing geothermal systems in a regional context. At the local scale, however, pinpointing drilling targets and characterizing resource potential within known or probable geothermal areas requires precise 3D characterization of the system. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we have conducted detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems. Using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics Inc., Alameda, CA) we constructed 3D geologic models of both the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, NV. These 3D models allow spatial comparison of disparate data sets in 3D and are the basis for quantitative structural analyses that can aid geothermal resource assessment and be used to pinpoint discrete drilling targets. The relatively abundant data set at Brady’s, ~80 km NE of Reno, NV, includes 24 wells with lithologies interpreted from careful analysis of cuttings and core, a 1

  6. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  7. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Rosenberg, Alan H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  8. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  9. Laboratory 3D Micro-XRF/Micro-CT Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Liu, X.

    2011-09-01

    A prototype micro-XRF laboratory system based on pinhole imaging was developed to produce 3D elemental maps. The fluorescence x-rays are detected by a deep-depleted CCD camera operating in photon-counting mode. A charge-clustering algorithm, together with dynamically adjusted exposure times, ensures a correct energy measurement. The XRF component has a spatial resolution of 70 μm and an energy resolution of 180 eV at 6.4 keV. The system is augmented by a micro-CT imaging modality. This is used for attenuation correction of the XRF images and to co-register features in the 3D XRF images with morphological structures visible in the volumetric CT images of the object.

  10. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  11. 3D-LZ helicopter ladar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Harrington, Walter; McKinley, R. Andrew; Burns, H. N.; Braddom, Steven; Szoboszlay, Zoltan

    2010-04-01

    A joint-service team led by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Munitions and Sensors Directorates completed a successful flight test demonstration of the 3D-LZ Helicopter LADAR Imaging System. This was a milestone demonstration in the development of technology solutions for a problem known as "helicopter brownout", the loss of situational awareness caused by swirling sand during approach and landing. The 3D-LZ LADAR was developed by H.N. Burns Engineering and integrated with the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate's Brown-Out Symbology System aircraft state symbology aboard a US Army EH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The combination of these systems provided an integrated degraded visual environment landing solution with landing zone situational awareness as well as aircraft guidance and obstacle avoidance information. Pilots from the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps achieved a 77% landing rate in full brownout conditions at a test range at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper will focus on the LADAR technology used in 3D-LZ and the results of this milestone demonstration.

  12. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  13. Parameters of the human 3D gaze while observing portable autostereoscopic display: a model and measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boev, Atanas; Hanhela, Marianne; Gotchev, Atanas; Utirainen, Timo; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Hannuksela, Miska

    2012-02-01

    We present an approach to measure and model the parameters of human point-of-gaze (PoG) in 3D space. Our model considers the following three parameters: position of the gaze in 3D space, volume encompassed by the gaze and time for the gaze to arrive on the desired target. Extracting the 3D gaze position from binocular gaze data is hindered by three problems. The first problem is the lack of convergence - due to micro saccadic movements the optical lines of both eyes rarely intersect at a point in space. The second problem is resolution - the combination of short observation distance and limited comfort disparity zone typical for a mobile 3D display does not allow the depth of the gaze position to be reliably extracted. The third problem is measurement noise - due to the limited display size, the noise range is close to the range of properly measured data. We have developed a methodology which allows us to suppress most of the measurement noise. This allows us to estimate the typical time which is needed for the point-of-gaze to travel in x, y or z direction. We identify three temporal properties of the binocular PoG. The first is reaction time, which is the minimum time that the vision reacts to a stimulus position change, and is measured as the time between the event and the time the PoG leaves the proximity of the old stimulus position. The second is the travel time of the PoG between the old and new stimulus position. The third is the time-to-arrive, which is the time combining the reaction time, travel time, and the time required for the PoG to settle in the new position. We present the method for filtering the PoG outliers, for deriving the PoG center from binocular eye-tracking data and for calculating the gaze volume as a function of the distance between PoG and the observer. As an outcome from our experiments we present binocular heat maps aggregated over all observers who participated in a viewing test. We also show the mean values for all temporal

  14. FROMS3D: New Software for 3-D Visualization of Fracture Network System in Fractured Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Y. H.; Um, J. G.; Choi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A new software (FROMS3D) is presented to visualize fracture network system in 3-D. The software consists of several modules that play roles in management of borehole and field fracture data, fracture network modelling, visualization of fracture geometry in 3-D and calculation and visualization of intersections and equivalent pipes between fractures. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013, Visual Studio.NET 2010 and the open source VTK library were utilized as development tools to efficiently implement the modules and the graphical user interface of the software. The results have suggested that the developed software is effective in visualizing 3-D fracture network system, and can provide useful information to tackle the engineering geological problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  15. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  16. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  17. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  18. An approach to 3D model fusion in GIS systems and its application in a future ECDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Depeng; Pan, Mingyang

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics technology is widely used in various areas and causes profound changes. As an information carrier, 3D models are becoming increasingly important. The use of 3D models greatly helps to improve the cartographic expression and design. 3D models are more visually efficient, quicker and easier to understand and they can express more detailed geographical information. However, it is hard to efficiently and precisely fuse 3D models in local systems. The purpose of this study is to propose an automatic and precise approach to fuse 3D models in geographic information systems (GIS). It is the basic premise for subsequent uses of 3D models in local systems, such as attribute searching, spatial analysis, and so on. The basic steps of our research are: (1) pose adjustment by principal component analysis (PCA); (2) silhouette extraction by simple mesh silhouette extraction and silhouette merger; (3) size adjustment; (4) position matching. Finally, we implement the above methods in our system Automotive Intelligent Chart (AIC) 3D Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS). The fusion approach we propose is a common method and each calculation step is carefully designed. This approach solves the problem of cross-platform model fusion. 3D models can be from any source. They may be stored in the local cache or retrieved from Internet, or may be manually created by different tools or automatically generated by different programs. The system can be any kind of 3D GIS system.

  19. SU-E-T-154: Establishment and Implement of 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, S; Zhao, S; Chen, Y; Li, Z; Li, P; Huang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cannot observe the dose intuitionally is a limitation of the existing 2D pre-implantation dose planning. Meanwhile, a navigation module is essential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the implantation. Hence a 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System conducting dose planning and intra-operative navigation based on 3D multi-organs reconstruction is developed. Methods: Multi-organs including the tumor are reconstructed in one sweep of all the segmented images using the multiorgans reconstruction method. The reconstructed organs group establishs a three-dimensional visualized operative environment. The 3D dose maps of the three-dimentional conformal localized dose planning are calculated with Monte Carlo method while the corresponding isodose lines and isodose surfaces are displayed in a stereo view. The real-time intra-operative navigation is based on an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) and the fusion between MRI and ultrasound images. Applying Least Square Method, the coordinate registration between 3D models and patient is realized by the ETS which is calibrated by a laser tracker. The system is validated by working on eight patients with prostate cancer. The navigation has passed the precision measurement in the laboratory. Results: The traditional marching cubes (MC) method reconstructs one organ at one time and assembles them together. Compared to MC, presented multi-organs reconstruction method has superiorities in reserving the integrality and connectivity of reconstructed organs. The 3D conformal localized dose planning, realizing the 'exfoliation display' of different isodose surfaces, helps make sure the dose distribution has encompassed the nidus and avoid the injury of healthy tissues. During the navigation, surgeons could observe the coordinate of instruments real-timely employing the ETS. After the calibration, accuracy error of the needle position is less than 2.5mm according to the experiments. Conclusion: The speed and

  20. Large LED screen 3D television system without eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2004-10-01

    Since the development of high-brightness blue and green LEDs, the use of outdoor commercial LED displays has been increasing. Because of their high brightness, good visibility, and long-term durability to the weather, LED displays are a preferred technology for outdoor installations such as stadiums, street advertising, and billboards. This paper deals with a large stereoscopic full-color LED display by use of a parallax barrier. We discuss optimization of the viewing area, which depends on LED arrangements. An enlarged viewing area has been demonstrated by using a 3-in-1 chip LED panel that has wider black regions than ordinary LED lamp cluster panels. We have developed a real-time measurement system of a viewer's position and utilized the measurement system for evaluation of performance of the different designs of stereoscopic LED displays, including conventional designs to provide multiple perspective images and designs to eliminate pseudoscopic viewing areas. In order to show real-world images, it is necessary to capture stereo-images, to process them, and to show in real-time. We have developed an active binocular camera and demonstrated the real-time display of stereoscopic movies and real-time control of convergence.

  1. 3D in vitro modeling of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Amy M; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-01

    There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo models were improved. 3D, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of 3D in vitro neural systems are reviewed here.

  2. 3D in vitro modeling of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Amy M.; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo models were improved. 3D, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of 3D in vitro neural systems are reviewed here. PMID:25461688

  3. Rapid prototyping with optical 3D measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaessler, J.; Blount, G. N.; Jones, R. M.

    1994-11-01

    One of the important tools for speeding up the prototyping of an new industrial or consumer product is the rapid generation of CAD data from hand-made styling models and moulds. We present a new optical 3D digitizing system which produces in a fully automatic way non- ambiguous, absolute and complete surface coordinate data of very complex objects in a short time. The system named `OptoShape' is based on a projection of sinusoidal fringes with a true grey-level matrix projector. The system measures both non-ambiguous and absolute XYZ surface data with a pronounced robustness towards optical surface properties. By moving the 3D sensor head around the object to be digitized with a 3/5 axes manipulator, multiple range images are obtained and automatically merged into a unified cloud of point coordinates. This set of surface coordinates are transferred to a software package where interactive manipulation, sectioning and semi-automatic generation of CAD surface descriptions are performed. CNC data can also be directly generated from the point surface coordinate data set.

  4. Handheld camera 3D modeling system using multiple reference panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Kouta; Oue, Yasuhiro; Terauchi, Tomoya; Emi, Tetsuichi

    2002-03-01

    A novel 3D modeling system in which a target object is easily captured and modeled by using a hand-held camera with several reference panels is presented in this paper. The reference panels are designed to be able to obtain the camera position and discriminate between each other. A conventional 3D modeling system using a reference panel has several restrictions regarding the target object, specifically the size and its location. Our system uses multiple reference panels, which are set around the target object to remove these restrictions. The main features of this system are as follows: 1) The whole shape and photo-realistic textures of the target object can be digitized based on several still images or a movie captured by using a hand-held camera; as well as each location of the camera that can be calculated using the reference panels. 2) Our system can be provided as a software product only. That means there are no special requirements for hardware; even the reference panels , because they can be printed from image files or software. 3) This system can be applied to digitize a larger object. In the experiments, we developed and used an interactive region selection tool to detect the silhouette on each image instead of using the chroma -keying method. We have tested our system with a toy object. The calculation time is about 10 minutes (except for the capturing the images and extracting the silhouette by using our tool) on a personal computer with a Pentium-III processor (600MHz) and 320MB memory. However, it depends on how complex the images are and how many images you use. Our future plan is to evaluate the system with various kind of objects, specifically, large ones in outdoor environments.

  5. Toward 3D-IPTV: design and implementation of a stereoscopic and multiple-perspective video streaming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Goran; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.

    2008-02-01

    3D-Video systems allow a user to perceive depth in the viewed scene and to display the scene from arbitrary viewpoints interactively and on-demand. This paper presents a prototype implementation of a 3D-video streaming system using an IP network. The architecture of our streaming system is layered, where each information layer conveys a single coded video signal or coded scene-description data. We demonstrate the benefits of a layered architecture with two examples: (a) stereoscopic video streaming, (b) monoscopic video streaming with remote multiple-perspective rendering. Our implementation experiments confirm that prototyping 3D-video streaming systems is possible with today's software and hardware. Furthermore, our current operational prototype demonstrates that highly heterogeneous clients can coexist in the system, ranging from auto-stereoscopic 3D displays to resource-constrained mobile devices.

  6. Integrating eye tracking and motion sensor on mobile phone for interactive 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-Wei; Chiang, Chen-Kuo; Lai, Shang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an eye tracking and gaze estimation system for mobile phone. We integrate an eye detector, cornereye center and iso-center to improve pupil detection. The optical flow information is used for eye tracking. We develop a robust eye tracking system that integrates eye detection and optical-flow based image tracking. In addition, we further incorporate the orientation sensor information from the mobile phone to improve the eye tracking for accurate gaze estimation. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed eye tracking and gaze estimation system through experiments on some public video sequences as well as videos acquired directly from mobile phone.

  7. Tri-color composite volume H-PDLC grating and its application to 3D color autostereoscopic display.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangni; Zheng, Jihong; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Yin, Stuart; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-11-30

    A tri-color composite volume holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application to 3-dimensional (3D) color autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. The composite volume H-PDLC grating consists of three different period volume H-PDLC sub-gratings. The longer period diffracts red light, the medium period diffracts the green light, and the shorter period diffracts the blue light. To record three different period gratings simultaneously, two photoinitiators are employed. The first initiator consists of methylene blue and p-toluenesulfonic acid and the second initiator is composed of Rose Bengal and N-phenyglycine. In this case, the holographic recording medium is sensitive to entire visible wavelengths, including red, green, and blue so that the tri-color composite grating can be written simultaneously by harnessing three different color laser beams. In the experiment, the red beam comes from a He-Ne laser with an output wavelength of 632.8 nm, the green beam comes from a Verdi solid state laser with an output wavelength of 532 nm, and the blue beam comes from a He-Cd laser with an output wavelength of 441.6 nm. The experimental results show that diffraction efficiencies corresponding to red, green, and blue colors are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. Although this diffraction efficiency is not perfect, it is high enough to demonstrate the effect of 3D color autostereoscopic display. PMID:26698768

  8. Developmental neurotoxic effects of Malathion on 3D neurosphere system

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Mohamed; Lotfy, Ahmed; Fathy, Khaled; Makar, Maria; El-emam, Mona; El-gamal, Aya; El-gamal, Mohamed; Badawy, Ahmad; Mohamed, Wael M.Y.; Sobh, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) refers to the toxic effects induced by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood period. As human brains are vulnerable during this period, various chemicals would have significant effects on brains during early childhood. Some toxicants have been confirmed to induce developmental toxic effects on CNS; however, most of agents cannot be identified with certainty. This is because available animal models do not cover the whole spectrum of CNS developmental periods. A novel alternative method that can overcome most of the limitations of the conventional techniques is the use of 3D neurosphere system. This in-vitro system can recapitulate many of the changes during the period of brain development making it an ideal model for predicting developmental neurotoxic effects. In the present study we verified the possible DNT of Malathion, which is one of organophosphate pesticides with suggested possible neurotoxic effects on nursing children. Three doses of Malathion (0.25 μM, 1 μM and 10 μM) were used in cultured neurospheres for a period of 14 days. Malathion was found to affect proliferation, differentiation and viability of neurospheres, these effects were positively correlated to doses and time progress. This study confirms the DNT effects of Malathion on 3D neurosphere model. Further epidemiological studies will be needed to link these results to human exposure and effects data. PMID:27054080

  9. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Estefania Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  10. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care. PMID:25897501

  11. Dynamical Systems Analysis of Fully 3D Ocean Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamical systems analysis of transport and stirring processes has been developed most thoroughly for 2D flow fields. The calculation of manifolds, turnstile lobes, transport barriers, etc. based on observations of the ocean is most often conducted near the sea surface, whereas analyses at depth, usually carried out with model output, is normally confined to constant-z surfaces. At the meoscale and larger, ocean flows are quasi 2D, but smaller scale (submesoscale) motions, including mixed layer phenomena with significant vertical velocity, may be predominantly 3D. The zoology of hyperbolic trajectories becomes richer in such cases and their attendant manifolds are much more difficult to calculate. I will describe some of the basic geometrical features and corresponding Lagrangian Coherent Features expected to arise in upper ocean fronts, eddies, and Langmuir circulations. Traditional GFD models such as the rotating can flow may capture the important generic features. The dynamical systems approach is most helpful when these features are coherent and persistent and the implications and difficulties for this requirement in fully 3D flows will also be discussed.

  12. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  13. Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D

    DOE PAGES

    Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.

    2015-12-04

    RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the acceleratingmore » frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.« less

  14. Modeling moving systems with RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.

    2015-12-04

    RELAP5-3D is typically used to model stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also model reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-3D can model reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to model reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the accelerating frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.

  15. 3D Additive Construction with Regolith for Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration on Asteroids, the Moon, Mars and Martian Moons will require the stabilization of loose, fine, dusty regolith to avoid the effects of vertical lander rocket plume impingement, to keep abrasive and harmful dust from getting lofted and for dust free operations. In addition, the same regolith stabilization process can be used for 3 Dimensional ( 3D) printing, additive construction techniques by repeating the 2D stabilization in many vertical layers. This will allow in-situ construction with regolith so that materials will not have to be transported from Earth. Recent work in the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Surface Systems Office (NE-S) Swamp Works and at the University of Southern California (USC) under two NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) awards have shown promising results with regolith (crushed basalt rock) materials for in-situ heat shields, bricks, landing/launch pads, berms, roads, and other structures that could be fabricated using regolith that is sintered or mixed with a polymer binder. The technical goals and objectives of this project are to prove the feasibility of 3D printing additive construction using planetary regolith simulants and to show that they have structural integrity and practical applications in space exploration.

  16. Hybrid additive manufacturing of 3D electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wasley, T.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ta, V. D.; Shephard, J. D.; Stringer, J.; Smith, P.; Esenturk, E.; Connaughton, C.; Kay, R.

    2016-10-01

    A novel hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) technology combining digital light projection (DLP) stereolithography (SL) with 3D micro-dispensing alongside conventional surface mount packaging is presented in this work. This technology overcomes the inherent limitations of individual AM processes and integrates seamlessly with conventional packaging processes to enable the deposition of multiple materials. This facilitates the creation of bespoke end-use products with complex 3D geometry and multi-layer embedded electronic systems. Through a combination of four-point probe measurement and non-contact focus variation microscopy, it was identified that there was no obvious adverse effect of DLP SL embedding process on the electrical conductivity of printed conductors. The resistivity maintained to be less than 4  ×  10-4 Ω · cm before and after DLP SL embedding when cured at 100 °C for 1 h. The mechanical strength of SL specimens with thick polymerized layers was also identified through tensile testing. It was found that the polymerization thickness should be minimised (less than 2 mm) to maximise the bonding strength. As a demonstrator a polymer pyramid with embedded triple-layer 555 LED blinking circuitry was successfully fabricated to prove the technical viability.

  17. Code System to Simulate 3D Tracer Dispersion in Atmosphere.

    2002-01-25

    Version 00 SHREDI is a shielding code system which executes removal-diffusion computations for bi-dimensional shields in r-z or x-y geometries. It may also deal with monodimensional problems (infinitely high cylinders or slabs). MESYST can simulate 3D tracer dispersion in the atmosphere. Three programs are part of this system: CRE_TOPO prepares the terrain data for MESYST. NOABL calculates three-dimensional free divergence windfields over complex terrain. PAS computes tracer concentrations and depositions on a given domain. Themore » purpose of this work is to develop a reliable simulation tool for pollutant atmospheric dispersion, which gives a realistic approach and allows one to compute the pollutant concentrations over complex terrains with good accuracy. The factional brownian model, which furnishes more accurate concentration values, is introduced to calculate pollutant atmospheric dispersion. The model was validated on SIESTA international experiments.« less

  18. An Efficient 3D Imaging using Structured Light Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deokwoo

    Structured light 3D surface imaging has been crucial in the fields of image processing and computer vision, particularly in reconstruction, recognition and others. In this dissertation, we propose the approaches to development of an efficient 3D surface imaging system using structured light patterns including reconstruction, recognition and sampling criterion. To achieve an efficient reconstruction system, we address the problem in its many dimensions. In the first, we extract geometric 3D coordinates of an object which is illuminated by a set of concentric circular patterns and reflected to a 2D image plane. The relationship between the original and the deformed shape of the light patterns due to a surface shape provides sufficient 3D coordinates information. In the second, we consider system efficiency. The efficiency, which can be quantified by the size of data, is improved by reducing the number of circular patterns to be projected onto an object of interest. Akin to the Shannon-Nyquist Sampling Theorem, we derive the minimum number of circular patterns which sufficiently represents the target object with no considerable information loss. Specific geometric information (e.g. the highest curvature) of an object is key to deriving the minimum sampling density. In the third, the object, represented using the minimum number of patterns, has incomplete color information (i.e. color information is given a priori along with the curves). An interpolation is carried out to complete the photometric reconstruction. The results can be approximately reconstructed because the minimum number of the patterns may not exactly reconstruct the original object. But the result does not show considerable information loss, and the performance of an approximate reconstruction is evaluated by performing recognition or classification. In an object recognition, we use facial curves which are deformed circular curves (patterns) on a target object. We simply carry out comparison between the

  19. A 3D Model Based Imdoor Navigation System for Hubei Provincial Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Kruminaite, M.; Onrust, B.; Liu, H.; Xiong, Q.; Zlatanova, S.

    2013-11-01

    3D models are more powerful than 2D maps for indoor navigation in a complicate space like Hubei Provincial Museum because they can provide accurate descriptions of locations of indoor objects (e.g., doors, windows, tables) and context information of these objects. In addition, the 3D model is the preferred navigation environment by the user according to the survey. Therefore a 3D model based indoor navigation system is developed for Hubei Provincial Museum to guide the visitors of museum. The system consists of three layers: application, web service and navigation, which is built to support localization, navigation and visualization functions of the system. There are three main strengths of this system: it stores all data needed in one database and processes most calculations on the webserver which make the mobile client very lightweight, the network used for navigation is extracted semi-automatically and renewable, the graphic user interface (GUI), which is based on a game engine, has high performance of visualizing 3D model on a mobile display.

  20. 3D KLT compression algorithm for camera security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Lukás; Páta, Petr

    2008-11-01

    This paper deals with an image compression algorithm based on the three- dimensional Karhunen- Loeve transform (3D KLT), whose task is to reduce time redundancy for an image data. There are many cases for which the reduction of time redundancy is very efficient and brings perceptible bitstream reduction. This is very desirable for transfering image data through telephone links, GSM networks etc. The time redundancy is very perceptible e.g. in camera security systems where relative unchanging frames are very conventional. The time evolution of grabbed scene is reviews according an energy content in eigenimages. These eigenimages are obtained in KLT for a suitable number of incoming frames. Required number of transfered eigenimages and eigenvectors is determined on the basis of the energy content in eigenimages.

  1. Multiplane binocular visual display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Electro-optic system is interfaced with digital computer in flight simulator to generate simultaneous multiple-image planes in real time. System may have applications with other display and remote-control systems.

  2. MIMO based 3D imaging system at 360 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschel, R.; Nowok, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Lang, S. A.; Pohl, N.

    2016-05-01

    A MIMO radar imaging system at 360 GHz is presented as a part of the comprehensive approach of the European FP7 project TeraSCREEN, using multiple frequency bands for active and passive imaging. The MIMO system consists of 16 transmitter and 16 receiver antennas within one single array. Using a bandwidth of 30 GHz, a range resolution up to 5 mm is obtained. With the 16×16 MIMO system 256 different azimuth bins can be distinguished. Mechanical beam steering is used to measure 130 different elevation angles where the angular resolution is obtained by a focusing elliptical mirror. With this system a high resolution 3D image can be generated with 4 frames per second, each containing 16 million points. The principle of the system is presented starting from the functional structure, covering the hardware design and including the digital image generation. This is supported by simulated data and discussed using experimental results from a preliminary 90 GHz system underlining the feasibility of the approach.

  3. A New Display Format Relating Azimuth-Scanning Radar Data and All-Sky Images in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Wesley E.; Seker, Ilgin; Mathews, John D.; Aponte, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Here we correlate features in a sequence of all-sky images of 630 nm airglow with the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of electron densities in the F region above Arecibo. Pairs of 180 azimuth scans (using the Gregorian and line feeds) of the two-beam incoherent scatter radar (ISR) have been plotted in cone pictorials of the line-of-sight electron densities. The plots include projections of the 630 nm airglow onto the ground using the same spatial scaling as for the ISR data. Selected sequential images from the night of 16-17 June 2004 correlate ionospheric plasma features with scales comparable to the ISR density-cone diameter. The entire set of over 100 images spanning about eight hours is available as a movie. The correlation between the airglow and the electron densities is not unexpected, but the new display format shows the 3-D structures better than separate 2-D plots in latitude and longitude for the airglow and in height and time for the electron densities. Furthermore, the animations help separate the bands of airglow from obscuring clouds and the star field.

  4. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  5. Optical 3D-coordinate measuring system using structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Wolfgang; Notni, Gunther; Kuehmstedt, Peter; Gerber, Joerg; Kowarschik, Richard M.

    1996-09-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of an optical shape measuring technique based on a consistent principle using fringe projection technique. We demonstrate a real 3D- coordinate measuring system where the sale of coordinates is given only by the illumination-structures. This method has the advantages that the aberration of the observing system and the depth-dependent imaging scale have no influence on the measuring accuracy and, moreover, the measurements are independent of the position of the camera with respect to the object under test. Furthermore, it is shown that the influence of specular effects of the surface on the measuring result can be eliminated. Moreover, we developed a very simple algorithm to calibrate the measuring system. The measuring examples show that a measuring accuracy of 10-4 (i.e. 10 micrometers ) within an object volume of 100 X 100 X 70 mm3 is achievable. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the set of coordinate values can be processed in CNC- and CAD-systems.

  6. 3D active stabilization system with sub-micrometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Kursu, Olli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Rahkonen, Timo; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Stable positioning between a measurement probe and its target from sub- to few micrometer scales has become a prerequisite in precision metrology and in cellular level measurements from biological tissues. Here we present a 3D stabilization system based on an optoelectronic displacement sensor and custom piezo-actuators driven by a feedback control loop that constantly aims to zero the relative movement between the sensor and the target. We used simulations and prototyping to characterize the developed system. Our results show that 95% attenuation of movement artifacts is achieved at 1 Hz with stabilization performance declining to ca. 70% attenuation at 10 Hz. Stabilization bandwidth is limited by mechanical resonances within the displacement sensor that occur at relatively low frequencies, and are attributable to the sensor's high force sensitivity. We successfully used brain derived micromotion trajectories as a demonstration of complex movement stabilization. The micromotion was reduced to a level of ∼1 µm with nearly 100 fold attenuation at the lower frequencies that are typically associated with physiological processes. These results, and possible improvements of the system, are discussed with a focus on possible ways to increase the sensor's force sensitivity without compromising overall system bandwidth. PMID:22900045

  7. Repositioning accuracy of two different mask systems-3D revisited: Comparison using true 3D/3D matching with cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit . E-mail: judit.boda-heggemann@radonk.ma.uni-heidelberg.de; Walter, Cornelia; Rahn, Angelika; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Loeb, Iris; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The repositioning accuracy of mask-based fixation systems has been assessed with two-dimensional/two-dimensional or two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) matching. We analyzed the accuracy of commercially available head mask systems, using true 3D/3D matching, with X-ray volume imaging and cone-beam CT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiotherapy (intracranial/head-and-neck tumors) were evaluated (14 patients with rigid and 7 with thermoplastic masks). X-ray volume imaging was analyzed online and offline separately for the skull and neck regions. Translation/rotation errors of the target isocenter were analyzed. Four patients were treated to neck sites. For these patients, repositioning was aided by additional body tattoos. A separate analysis of the setup error on the basis of the registration of the cervical vertebra was performed. The residual error after correction and intrafractional motility were calculated. Results: The mean length of the displacement vector for rigid masks was 0.312 {+-} 0.152 cm (intracranial) and 0.586 {+-} 0.294 cm (neck). For the thermoplastic masks, the value was 0.472 {+-} 0.174 cm (intracranial) and 0.726 {+-} 0.445 cm (neck). Rigid masks with body tattoos had a displacement vector length in the neck region of 0.35 {+-} 0.197 cm. The intracranial residual error and intrafractional motility after X-ray volume imaging correction for rigid masks was 0.188 {+-} 0.074 cm, and was 0.134 {+-} 0.14 cm for thermoplastic masks. Conclusions: The results of our study have demonstrated that rigid masks have a high intracranial repositioning accuracy per se. Given the small residual error and intrafractional movement, thermoplastic masks may also be used for high-precision treatments when combined with cone-beam CT. The neck region repositioning accuracy was worse than the intracranial accuracy in both cases. However, body tattoos and image guidance improved the accuracy. Finally, the combination of both mask

  8. Gel tomography for 3D acquisition of plant root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Kevin N.; Heyenga, Anthony G.

    1998-03-01

    A system for three-dimensional, non-destructive acquisition of the structure of plant root systems is described. The plants are grown in a transparent medium (a 'gel pack') and are then placed on a rotating stage. The stage is rotated in 5-degree increments while images are captured using either traditional photography or a CCD camera. The individual images are then used as input to a tomographic (backprojection) algorithm to recover the original volumetric data. This reconstructed volume is then used as input to a 3D-reconstruction system. The software performs segmentation and mesh generation to derive a tessellated mesh of the root structure. This mesh can then be visualized using computer graphics, or used to derive measurements of root thickness and length. For initial validation studies, a wire model of known length and gauge was used as a calibration sample. The use of the transparent gel- pack media, together with the gel tomography software, allows the plant biologist a method for non-destructive visualization and measurement of root structure that has previously been unattainable.

  9. GeoCube: A 3D mineral resources quantitative prediction and assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruixi; Wang, Gongwen; Carranza, Emmanuel John Muico

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a software system (GeoCube) for three dimensional (3D) extraction and integration of exploration criteria from spatial data. The software system contains four key modules: (1) Import and Export, supporting many formats from commercial 3D geological modeling software and offering various export options; (2) pre-process, containing basic statistics and fractal/multi-fractal methods (concentration-volume (C-V) fractal method) for extraction of exploration criteria from spatial data (i.e., separation of geological, geochemical and geophysical anomalies from background values in 3D space); (3) assessment, supporting five data-driven integration methods (viz., information entropy, logistic regression, ordinary weights of evidence, weighted weights of evidence, boost weights of evidence) for integration of exploration criteria; and (4) post-process, for classifying integration outcomes into several levels based on mineralization potentiality. The Nanihu Mo (W) camp (5.0 km×4.0 km×2.7 km) of the Luanchuan region was used as a case study. The results show that GeoCube can enhance the use of 3D geological modeling to store, retrieve, process, display, analyze and integrate exploration criteria. Furthermore, it was found that the ordinary weights of evidence, boost weights of evidence and logistic regression methods showed superior performance as integration tools for exploration targeting in this case study.

  10. Large TV display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A relatively small and low cost system is provided for projecting a large and bright television image onto a screen. A miniature liquid crystal array is driven by video circuitry to produce a pattern of transparencies in the array corresponding to a television image. Light is directed against the rear surface of the array to illuminate it, while a projection lens lies in front of the array to project the image of the array onto a large screen. Grid lines in the liquid crystal array are eliminated by a spacial filter which comprises a negative of the Fourier transform of the grid.

  11. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  12. A Clinical Information Display System

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Bruce J.; Lenhard, Raymond E.; Braine, Hayden; Kammer, Anne

    1977-01-01

    A clinical information display system has been implemented as part of a prototype Oncology Clinical Information System for the Johns Hopkins Oncology Center. The information system has been developed to support the management of patient therapy. Capabilities in the prototype include a patient data system, a patient abstract, a tumor registry, an appointment system, a census system, and a clinical information display system. This paper describes the clinical information display component of the prototype. It has the capability of supporting up to 10,000 patient records with online data entry and editing. At the present time, the system is being used only in the Oncology Center. There are plans, however, for trial use by other departments, and the system represents a tool with a potential for more general application.

  13. Virtual surgical operation system using volume scanning display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Ken-ichi; Ohtomi, Koichi; Ohhashi, Akinami; Iseki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Naotoshi; Takakura, Kintomo

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes an interactive 3-D display system for supporting image-guided surgery. Different from conventional CRT-based medical display systems, this one can provide true 3- D images of the patient's anatomical structures in a physical 3-D space. Furthermore, various tools for view control, target definition, and simple treatment simulation, have been developed and can be used for directly manipulating these images. This feature is very useful for a surgeon to intuitively recognize the precise position of a lesion and other structures and to plan a more accurate treatment. The hardware system is composed of a volume scanning 3-D display for 3-D real image presentation, a 3-D wireless mouse for direct manipulation in a 3-D space, and a workstation for the data control of these devices. The software is for analyzing X-CT, MRI, or SPECT images and for organizing the tools for treatment planning. The system is currently aimed at being used for stereotactic neurosurgical operations.

  14. 3D characterization of the Astor Pass geothermal system, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, Brett; Faulds, James E

    2013-10-19

    The Astor Pass geothermal system resides in the northwestern part of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation, on the margins of the Basin and Range and Walker Lane tectonic provinces in northwestern Nevada. Seismic reflection interpretation, detailed analysis of well cuttings, stress field analysis, and construction of a 3D geologic model have been used in the characterization of the stratigraphic and structural framework of the geothermal area. The area is primarily comprised of middle Miocene Pyramid sequence volcanic and sedimentary rocks, nonconformably overlying Mesozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Wells drilled at Astor Pass show a ~1 km thick section of highly transmissive Miocene volcanic reservoir with temperatures of ~95°C. Seismic reflection interpretation confirms a high fault density in the geothermal area, with many possible fluid pathways penetrating into the relatively impermeable Mesozoic basement. Stress field analysis using borehole breakout data reveals a complex transtensional faulting regime with a regionally consistent west-northwest-trending least principal stress direction. Considering possible strike-slip and normal stress regimes, the stress data were utilized in a slip and dilation tendency analysis of the fault model, which suggests two promising fault areas controlling upwelling geothermal fluids. Both of these fault intersection areas show positive attributes for controlling geothermal fluids, but hydrologic tests show the ~1 km thick volcanic section is highly transmissive. Thus, focused upwellings along discrete fault conduits may be confined to the Mesozoic basement before fluids diffuse into the Miocene volcanic reservoir above. This large diffuse reservoir in the faulted Miocene volcanic rocks is capable of sustaining high pump rates. Understanding this type of system may be helpful in examining large, permeable reservoirs in deep sedimentary basins of the eastern Basin and Range and the highly fractured volcanic geothermal

  15. Overestimation of heights in virtual reality is influenced more by perceived distal size than by the 2-D versus 3-D dimensionality of the display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Melissa W.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    One important aspect of the pictorial representation of a scene is the depiction of object proportions. Yang, Dixon, and Proffitt (1999 Perception 28 445-467) recently reported that the magnitude of the vertical-horizontal illusion was greater for vertical extents presented in three-dimensional (3-D) environments compared to two-dimensional (2-D) displays. However, because all of the 3-D environments were large and all of the 2-D displays were small, the question remains whether the observed magnitude differences were due solely to the dimensionality of the displays (2-D versus 3-D) or to the perceived distal size of the extents (small versus large). We investigated this question by comparing observers' judgments of vertical relative to horizontal extents on a large but 2-D display compared to the large 3-D and the small 2-D displays used by Yang et al (1999). The results confirmed that the magnitude differences for vertical overestimation between display media are influenced more by the perceived distal object size rather than by the dimensionality of the display.

  16. Multifunction display system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and construction of a multifunction display man/machine interface for use with a 4 pi IBM-360 System are described. The system is capable of displaying superimposed volatile alphanumeric and graphical data on a 512 x 512 element plasma panel, and holographically stored multicolor archival information. The volatile data may be entered from a keyboard or by means of an I/O interface to the 360 system. A 2-page memory local to the display is provided for storing the entered data. The archival data is stored as a phase hologram on a vinyl tape strip. This data is accessible by means of a rapid transport system which responds to inputs provided by the I/O channel on the keyboard. As many as 500 frames may be stored on a tape strip for access in under 6 seconds.

  17. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  18. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  19. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  20. Simulation and testing of a multichannel system for 3D sound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Edward Albert

    Three-dimensional (3D) audio involves the ability to localize sound anywhere in a three-dimensional space. 3D audio can be used to provide the listener with the perception of moving sounds and can provide a realistic listening experience for applications such as gaming, video conferencing, movies, and concerts. The purpose of this research is to simulate and test 3D audio by incorporating auditory localization techniques in a multi-channel speaker system. The objective is to develop an algorithm that can place an audio event in a desired location by calculating and controlling the gain factors of each speaker. A MATLAB simulation displays the location of the speakers and perceived sound, which is verified through experimentation. The scenario in which the listener is not equidistant from each of the speakers is also investigated and simulated. This research is envisioned to lead to a better understanding of human localization of sound, and will contribute to a more realistic listening experience.

  1. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and 3D exaggeration algorithm for the region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Kangsan; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We aslo comments on the GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of 3D exaggeraion algorithm for ROI by adjusting and synthesizing the disparity value of ROI (region of interest) in real time. We comment on the pattern of aperture for deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and clarify the reason why we can get more sharp and clear image by blocking some portion of aperture or geometric sampling. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  2. fVisiOn: 360-degree viewable glasses-free tabletop 3D display composed of conical screen and modular projector arrays.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2016-06-13

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display to float virtual objects on a flat tabletop surface is proposed. This method employs circularly arranged projectors and a conical rear-projection screen that serves as an anisotropic diffuser. Its practical implementation installs them beneath a round table and produces horizontal parallax in a circumferential direction without the use of high speed or a moving apparatus. Our prototype can display full-color, 5-cm-tall 3D characters on the table. Multiple viewers can share and enjoy its real-time animation from any angle of 360 degrees with appropriate perspectives as if the animated figures were present.

  3. fVisiOn: 360-degree viewable glasses-free tabletop 3D display composed of conical screen and modular projector arrays.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2016-06-13

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display to float virtual objects on a flat tabletop surface is proposed. This method employs circularly arranged projectors and a conical rear-projection screen that serves as an anisotropic diffuser. Its practical implementation installs them beneath a round table and produces horizontal parallax in a circumferential direction without the use of high speed or a moving apparatus. Our prototype can display full-color, 5-cm-tall 3D characters on the table. Multiple viewers can share and enjoy its real-time animation from any angle of 360 degrees with appropriate perspectives as if the animated figures were present. PMID:27410336

  4. System and method for 3D printing of aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Duoss, Eric; Kuntz, Joshua; Spadaccini, Christopher; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-03-08

    A method of forming an aerogel. The method may involve providing a graphene oxide powder and mixing the graphene oxide powder with a solution to form an ink. A 3D printing technique may be used to write the ink into a catalytic solution that is contained in a fluid containment member to form a wet part. The wet part may then be cured in a sealed container for a predetermined period of time at a predetermined temperature. The cured wet part may then be dried to form a finished aerogel part.

  5. Information retrieval and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  6. Multimodal 3-D reconstruction of human anatomical structures using SurLens Visualization System.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, A M; Hashim, R; Khalid, N E A; Abidin, S Z Z

    2013-03-01

    In the medical diagnosis and treatment planning, radiologists and surgeons rely heavily on the slices produced by medical imaging devices. Unfortunately, these image scanners could only present the 3-D human anatomical structure in 2-D. Traditionally, this requires medical professional concerned to study and analyze the 2-D images based on their expert experience. This is tedious, time consuming and prone to error; expecially when certain features are occluding the desired region of interest. Reconstruction procedures was earlier proposed to handle such situation. However, 3-D reconstruction system requires high performance computation and longer processing time. Integrating efficient reconstruction system into clinical procedures involves high resulting cost. Previously, brain's blood vessels reconstruction with MRA was achieved using SurLens Visualization System. However, adapting such system to other image modalities, applicable to the entire human anatomical structures, would be a meaningful contribution towards achieving a resourceful system for medical diagnosis and disease therapy. This paper attempts to adapt SurLens to possible visualisation of abnormalities in human anatomical structures using CT and MR images. The study was evaluated with brain MR images from the department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, United States and CT abdominal pelvic, from the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing. The MR images contain around 109 datasets each of T1-FLASH, T2-Weighted, DTI and T1-MPRAGE. Significantly, visualization of human anatomical structure was achieved without prior segmentation. SurLens was adapted to visualize and display abnormalities, such as an indication of walderstrom's macroglobulinemia, stroke and penetrating brain injury in the human brain using Magentic Resonance (MR) images. Moreover, possible abnormalities in abdominal pelvic was also visualized using Computed Tomography (CT) slices. The study shows SurLens' functionality as

  7. Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Shiba, Kensuke; Sotsuka, Koji; Matsushita, Kenji

    2006-12-25

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3D) scanning of an inclined image is reported. An optical image of a two-dimensional (2D) display, which is a vector-scan display monitor placed obliquely in an optical imaging system, is moved laterally by a galvanometric mirror scanner. Inclined cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed on the 2D display in accordance with the position of the image plane to form a 3D image. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision because they are real images formed in a 3D space. Experimental results of volumetric imaging from computed-tomography images and 3D animated images are presented.

  8. Automated simulation and evaluation of autostereoscopic multiview 3D display designs by time-sequential and wavelength-selective filter barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmey, Mathias; Jurk, Silvio; Duckstein, Bernd; de la Barré, René

    2015-09-01

    A novel simulation tool has been developed for spatial multiplexed 3D displays. Main purpose of our software is the 3D display design with optical image splitter in particular lenticular grids or wavelength-selective barriers. As a result of interaction of image splitter with ray emitting displays a spatial light-modulator generating the autostereoscopic image representation was modeled. Based on the simulation model the interaction of optoelectronic devices with the defined spatial planes is described. Time-sequential multiplexing enables increasing the resolution of such 3D displays. On that reason the program was extended with an intermediate data cumulating component. The simulation program represents a stepwise quasi-static functionality and control of the arrangement. It calculates and renders the whole display ray emission and luminance distribution on viewing distance. The degree of result complexity will increase by using wavelength-selective barriers. Visible images at the viewer's eye positon were determined by simulation after every switching operation of optical image splitter. The summation and evaluation of the resulting data is processed in correspondence to the equivalent time sequence. Hereby the simulation was expanded by a complex algorithm for automated search and validation of possible solutions in the multi-dimensional parameter space. For the multiview 3D display design a combination of ray-tracing and 3D rendering was used. Therefore the emitted light intensity distribution of each subpixel will be evaluated by researching in terms of color, luminance and visible area by using different content distribution on subpixel plane. The analysis of the accumulated data will deliver different solutions distinguished by standards of evaluation.

  9. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  10. Three-dimensional electro-floating display system based on integral imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Sung-Wook; Kim, Joohwan; Lee, Byoungho

    2005-03-01

    New three-dimensional (3D) display system which combines two different display techniques is proposed. One of the techniques is integral imaging. The integral imaging display system consists of a lens array and a 2D display device, and the 3D reconstructed images are integrated from the elemental images by the lens array. The other technique is image floating, which uses a big convex lens or a concave mirror to exhibit the image of a real object to the observer. The electro-floating display system which does not use the real object needs the volumetric 3D display part because the floating display system cannot make the 3D image, but only carries the image closer to the observer. The integral imaging display system can be adopted in the electro-floating display system, because the integrated image has the characteristics of the volumetric image within the viewing angle. Moreover, many methods to enhance the viewing angle of the integral imaging display system can be used for the proposed system directly. The proposed system can be successfully applied to many 3D applications such as 3D TV.

  11. Application issues when using optical 3D systems in place of CMMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    2002-02-01

    A primary application of optical 3D measurement systems has been in the replacement of mechanical coordinate measurement machines (CMMs). The advantage of optical 3D systems is typically greater speed and flexibility of operation over even the best CMMs. However, the two technologies are not necessarily one to one replacements, requiring new methods of use and in general proof of performance. This paper will present specific data that highlights the differences between CMMs and optical 3D systems and suggests a method to properly achieve CMM compatible results with an optical 3D system and the problems seen in this study.

  12. Statis omnidirectional stereoscopic display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, George G.; Feldman, Sidney; Beckstead, Jeffrey A.

    1999-11-01

    A unique three camera stereoscopic omnidirectional viewing system based on the periscopic panoramic camera described in the 11/98 SPIE proceedings (AM13). The 3 panoramic cameras are equilaterally combined so each leg of the triangle approximates the human inter-ocular spacing allowing each panoramic camera to view 240 degree(s) of the panoramic scene, the most counter clockwise 120 degree(s) being the left eye field and the other 120 degree(s) segment being the right eye field. Field definition may be by green/red filtration or time discrimination of the video signal. In the first instance a 2 color spectacle is used in viewing the display or in the 2nd instance LCD goggles are used to differentiate the R/L fields. Radially scanned vidicons or re-mapped CCDs may be used. The display consists of three vertically stacked 120 degree(s) segments of the panoramic field of view with 2 fields/frame. Field A being the left eye display and Field B the right eye display.

  13. Combination of Virtual Tours, 3d Model and Digital Data in a 3d Archaeological Knowledge and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.

    2012-08-01

    The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image

  14. Development of a Wireless and Near Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Strain Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaohong; Chen, Yongdong; Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an important medical imaging tool for characterization of lesions. In this paper, we present a wireless and near real-time 3D ultrasound strain imaging system. It uses a 3D translating device to control a commercial linear ultrasound transducer to collect pre-compression and post-compression radio-frequency (RF) echo signal frames. The RF frames are wirelessly transferred to a high-performance server via a local area network (LAN). A dynamic programming strain estimation algorithm is implemented with the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the graphic processing unit (GPU) in the server to calculate the strain image after receiving a pre-compression RF frame and a post-compression RF frame at the same position. Each strain image is inserted into a strain volume which can be rendered in near real-time. We take full advantage of the translating device to precisely control the probe movement and compression. The GPU-based parallel computing techniques are designed to reduce the computation time. Phantom and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that our system can generate strain volumes with good quality and display an incrementally reconstructed volume image in near real-time. PMID:26954841

  15. Arena3D: visualizing time-driven phenotypic differences in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elucidating the genotype-phenotype connection is one of the big challenges of modern molecular biology. To fully understand this connection, it is necessary to consider the underlying networks and the time factor. In this context of data deluge and heterogeneous information, visualization plays an essential role in interpreting complex and dynamic topologies. Thus, software that is able to bring the network, phenotypic and temporal information together is needed. Arena3D has been previously introduced as a tool that facilitates link discovery between processes. It uses a layered display to separate different levels of information while emphasizing the connections between them. We present novel developments of the tool for the visualization and analysis of dynamic genotype-phenotype landscapes. Results Version 2.0 introduces novel features that allow handling time course data in a phenotypic context. Gene expression levels or other measures can be loaded and visualized at different time points and phenotypic comparison is facilitated through clustering and correlation display or highlighting of impacting changes through time. Similarity scoring allows the identification of global patterns in dynamic heterogeneous data. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of the tool on two distinct biological problems of different scales. First, we analyze a medium scale dataset that looks at perturbation effects of the pluripotency regulator Nanog in murine embryonic stem cells. Dynamic cluster analysis suggests alternative indirect links between Nanog and other proteins in the core stem cell network. Moreover, recurrent correlations from the epigenetic to the translational level are identified. Second, we investigate a large scale dataset consisting of genome-wide knockdown screens for human genes essential in the mitotic process. Here, a potential new role for the gene lsm14a in cytokinesis is suggested. We also show how phenotypic patterning allows for extensive

  16. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  17. Novel low-cost 2D/3D switchable autostereoscopic system for notebook computers and other portable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    1995-03-01

    Mounting a lenticular lens in front of a flat panel display is a well known, inexpensive, and easy way to create an autostereoscopic system. Such a lens produces half resolution 3D images because half the pixels on the LCD are seen by the left eye and half by the right eye. This may be acceptable for graphics, but it makes full resolution text, as displayed by common software, nearly unreadable. Very fine alignment tolerances normally preclude the possibility of removing and replacing the lens in order to switch between 2D and 3D applications. Lenticular lens based displays are therefore limited to use as dedicated 3D devices. DTI has devised a technique which removes this limitation, allowing switching between full resolution 2D and half resolution 3D imaging modes. A second element, in the form of a concave lenticular lens array whose shape is exactly the negative of the first lens, is mounted on a hinge so that it can be swung down over the first lens array. When so positioned the two lenses cancel optically, allowing the user to see full resolution 2D for text or numerical applications. The two lenses, having complementary shapes, naturally tend to nestle together and snap into perfect alignment when pressed together--thus obviating any need for user operated alignment mechanisms. This system represents an ideal solution for laptop and notebook computer applications. It was devised to meet the stringent requirements of a laptop computer manufacturer including very compact size, very low cost, little impact on existing manufacturing or assembly procedures, and compatibility with existing full resolution 2D text- oriented software as well as 3D graphics. Similar requirements apply to high and electronic calculators, several models of which now use LCDs for the display of graphics.

  18. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients.

  19. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released <187μg/cm(2) within 3h. FPLA-salicylic acid filament was successfully printed as a nose-shape mask by FDM 3DP, but the PCL-salicylic acid filament was not. In the SLA printing process, the drug was dissolved in different mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) that were solidified by the action of a laser beam. SLA printing led to 3D printed devices (nose-shape) with higher resolution and higher drug loading (1.9% w/w) than FDM, with no drug degradation. The results of drug diffusion tests revealed that drug diffusion was faster than with the FDM devices, 229 and 291μg/cm(2) within 3h for the two formulations evaluated. In this study, SLA printing was the more appropriate 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. PMID:27189134

  20. Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Cross Sectional Images Displayed "In-Situ" versus "Ex-Situ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George

    2010-01-01

    The present research investigates how mental visualization of a 3D object from 2D cross sectional images is influenced by displacing the images from the source object, as is customary in medical imaging. Three experiments were conducted to assess people's ability to integrate spatial information over a series of cross sectional images in order to…

  1. A navigation system for flexible endoscopes using abdominal 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Kaar, M.; Bathia, Amon; Bathia, Amar; Lampret, A.; Birkfellner, W.; Hummel, J.; Figl, M.

    2014-09-01

    A navigation system for flexible endoscopes equipped with ultrasound (US) scan heads is presented. In contrast to similar systems, abdominal 3D-US is used for image fusion of the pre-interventional computed tomography (CT) to the endoscopic US. A 3D-US scan, tracked with an optical tracking system (OTS), is taken pre-operatively together with the CT scan. The CT is calibrated using the OTS, providing the transformation from CT to 3D-US. Immediately before intervention a 3D-US tracked with an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) is acquired and registered intra-modal to the preoperative 3D-US. The endoscopic US is calibrated using the EMTS and registered to the pre-operative CT by an intra-modal 3D-US/3D-US registration. Phantom studies showed a registration error for the US to CT registration of 5.1 mm ± 2.8 mm. 3D-US/3D-US registration of patient data gave an error of 4.1 mm compared to 2.8 mm with the phantom. From this we estimate an error on patient experiments of 5.6 mm.

  2. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for better visualization tools for environmental science is well documented, and the Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to both help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations and to determine which visualizatio...

  3. Snapshot 3D optical coherence tomography system using image mappingspectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuc-Uyen; Pierce, Mark C; Higgins, Laura; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2013-01-01

    A snapshot 3-Dimensional Optical Coherence Tomography system was developed using Image MappingSpectrometry. This system can give depth information (Z) at different spatial positions (XY) withinone camera integration time to potentially reduce motion artifact and enhance throughput. Thecurrent (x,y,λ) datacube of (85×356×117) provides a 3Dvisualization of sample with 400 μm depth and 13.4μm in transverse resolution. Axial resolution of 16.0μm can also be achieved in this proof-of-concept system. We present ananalysis of the theoretical constraints which will guide development of future systems withincreased imaging depth and improved axial and lateral resolutions. PMID:23736629

  4. Computational 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The model ...

  5. A 3-D Multilateration: A Precision Geodetic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Fliegel, H. F.; Jaffe, R. M.; Muller, P. M.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1972-01-01

    A system was designed with the capability of determining 1-cm accuracy station positions in three dimensions using pulsed laser earth satellite tracking stations coupled with strictly geometric data reduction. With this high accuracy, several crucial geodetic applications become possible, including earthquake hazards assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital determination.

  6. Animal testing using 3D microwave tomography system for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Moon; Son, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyuk Je; Kim, Bo Ra; Choi, Heyng Do; Jeon, Soon Ik

    2014-01-01

    The three dimensional microwave tomography (3D MT) system of the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) comprises an antenna array, transmitting receiving module, switch matrix module and a signal processing component. This system also includes a patient interface bed as well as a 3D reconstruction algorithm. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of image reconstruction results using the assembled system and MRI results, which is used to image the breasts of dogs. Microwave imaging reconstruction results (at 1,500 MHz) obtained using the ETRI 3D MT system are presented. The system provides computationally reliable diagnosis results from the reconstructed MT Image. PMID:25160233

  7. Annular beam shaping system for advanced 3D laser brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Kogel-Hollacher, Markus; Traub, Martin

    2012-10-01

    As laser brazing benefits from advantages such as smooth joints and small heat-affected zones, it has become established as a joining technology that is widely used in the automotive industry. With the processing of complex-shaped geometries, recent developed brazing heads suffer, however, from the need for continuous reorientation of the optical system and/or limited accessibility due to lateral wire feeding. This motivates the development of a laser brazing head with coaxial wire feeding and enhanced functionality. An optical system is designed that allows to generate an annular intensity distribution in the working zone. The utilization of complex optical components avoids obscuration of the optical path by the wire feeding. The new design overcomes the disadvantages of the state-of-the-art brazing heads with lateral wire feeding and benefits from the independence of direction while processing complex geometries. To increase the robustness of the brazing process, the beam path also includes a seam tracking system, leading to a more challenging design of the whole optical train. This paper mainly discusses the concept and the optical design of the coaxial brazing head, and also presents the results obtained with a prototype and selected application results.

  8. 3D two-photon lithographic microfabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-08

    An imaging system is provided that includes a optical pulse generator for providing an optical pulse having a spectral bandwidth and includes monochromatic waves having different wavelengths. A dispersive element receives a second optical pulse associated with the optical pulse and disperses the second optical pulse at different angles on the surface of the dispersive element depending on wavelength. One or more focal elements receives the dispersed second optical pulse produced on the dispersive element. The one or more focal element recombine the dispersed second optical pulse at a focal plane on a specimen where the width of the optical pulse is restored at the focal plane.

  9. 3d Modeling of cultural heritage objects with a structured light system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Devrim

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects is an expanding application area. The selection of the right technology is very important and strictly related to the project requirements, budget and user's experience. The triangulation based active sensors, e.g. structured light systems are used for many kinds of 3D object reconstruction tasks and in particular for 3D recording of cultural heritage objects. This study presents the experiences in the results of two such projects in which a close-range structured light system is used for the 3D digitization. The paper includes the essential steps of the 3D object modeling pipeline, i.e. digitization, registration, surface triangulation, editing, texture mapping and visualization. The capabilities of the used hardware and software are addressed. Particular emphasis is given to a coded structured light system as an option for data acquisition.

  10. Salt as a 3D element in structural modelling - example from the Central European Basin System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Y. P.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Bayer, U.

    2010-12-01

    The Central European Basin System (CEBS) covers the northern part of Central and Western Europe and contains up to 12 km of Permian to Cenozoic deposits. Initiated in the Early Permian, the Central European Basin System accumulated Lower Permian clastics overlain by significant amount of Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt. Post-Permian differentiation of the basin system was controlled by several phases of tectonic activity. These tectonic phases not only provoked regional shifts in subsidence and erosion but also triggered movements of the Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt. Salt rise strongly influenced the Meso-Cenozoic structural evolution in terms of mechanical decoupling of the sedimentary cover from its basement. As a result of several phases of salt tectonics, the CEBS displays a wide variety of salt structures (walls, diapirs and pillows). In order to investigate the interaction of salt movements, deposition and tectonics, the 3D structural model of the CEBS has been constructed covering the entire salt basin (Northern and Southern Permian basins). Seismic interpretation and 3D backstripping have been used to investigate both the present-day structure and the evolution of the CEBS. 3D backstripping includes 3D salt redistribution in response to the changing load conditions in the salt cover. The results of 3D modelling of salt movements and seismic data indicate that the primary initiation of salt movements occurred during the Triassic. The Triassic regional extensional event initiated a phase of salt movements within the coeval depocenters of the CEBS, such as the Glueckstadt Graben, the Horn Graben, the Fjerritslev Trough and the adjacent Himmerland Graben in Denmark, as well as the Polish Basin. The Early Triassic (Buntsandstein) and the Late Triassic (Middle-Late Keuper) extensional events triggered strongest salt movements within the central part of the Glueckstadt Graben. During the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, major erosion regionally truncated the study

  11. Characterization of 3D printing output using an optical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental design and initial testing of a system to characterize the progress and performance of a 3D printer. The system is based on five Raspberry Pi single-board computers. It collects images of the 3D printed object, which are compared to an ideal model. The system, while suitable for printers of all sizes, can potentially be produced at a sufficiently low cost to allow its incorporation into consumer-grade printers. The efficacy and accuracy of this system is presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits of being able to characterize 3D printer performance.

  12. Wide angle holographic display system with spatiotemporal multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Kozacki, Tomasz; Finke, Grzegorz; Garbat, Piotr; Zaperty, Weronika; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a wide angle holographic display system with extended viewing angle in both horizontal and vertical directions. The display is constructed from six spatial light modulators (SLM) arranged on a circle and an additional SLM used for spatiotemporal multiplexing and a viewing angle extension in two perpendicular directions. The additional SLM, that is synchronized with the SLMs on the circle is placed in the image space. This method increases effective space bandwidth product of display system data from 12.4 to 50 megapixels. The software solution based on three Nvidia graphic cards is developed and implemented in order to achieve fast and synchronized displaying. The experiments presented for both synthetic and real 3D data prove the possibility to view binocularly having good quality images reconstructed in full FoV of the display. PMID:23262697

  13. [Initial research of one-beam pumping up-conversion 3D volumetric display based on Er:ZBLAN glass].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Li, Mei-xian; Wen, Ou; Zhang, Fu-chu; Song, Zeng-fu

    2003-06-01

    This paper investigates one-beam pumping up-conversion three-dimensional volumetric display, which is based on a Er:ZBLAN fluoride glass. The light-length of the facula of one-beam up-conversion luminescence was studied by a 966 nm semiconductor laser. The up-conversion luminescence spectrum was also obtained. It was found that the property of one-beam pumping three-dimensional volumetric display can be improved significantly by 1.52 microns LD laser multi-photon up-conversion, this finding has not been reported.

  14. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Lanzi, Alison M; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns. PMID:25484989

  15. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian K; Lanzi, Alison M; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A; Dai, Guohao

    2014-09-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns.

  16. Generation of Multi-Scale Vascular Network System within 3D Hydrogel using 3D Bio-Printing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vivian K.; Lanzi, Alison M.; Haygan, Ngo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Vincent, Peter A.; Dai, Guohao

    2014-01-01

    Although 3D bio-printing technology has great potential in creating complex tissues with multiple cell types and matrices, maintaining the viability of thick tissue construct for tissue growth and maturation after the printing is challenging due to lack of vascular perfusion. Perfused capillary network can be a solution for this issue; however, construction of a complete capillary network at single cell level using the existing technology is nearly impossible due to limitations in time and spatial resolution of the dispensing technology. To address the vascularization issue, we developed a 3D printing method to construct larger (lumen size of ~1mm) fluidic vascular channels and to create adjacent capillary network through a natural maturation process, thus providing a feasible solution to connect the capillary network to the large perfused vascular channels. In our model, microvascular bed was formed in between two large fluidic vessels, and then connected to the vessels by angiogenic sprouting from the large channel edge. Our bio-printing technology has a great potential in engineering vascularized thick tissues and vascular niches, as the vascular channels are simultaneously created while cells and matrices are printed around the channels in desired 3D patterns. PMID:25484989

  17. Quantitative wound healing measurement and monitoring system based on an innovative 3D imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Steven; Yang, Arthur; Yin, Gongjie; Wen, James

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report a novel three-dimensional (3D) wound imaging system (hardware and software) under development at Technest Inc. System design is aimed to perform accurate 3D measurement and modeling of a wound and track its healing status over time. Accurate measurement and tracking of wound healing enables physicians to assess, document, improve, and individualize the treatment plan given to each wound patient. In current wound care practices, physicians often visually inspect or roughly measure the wound to evaluate the healing status. This is not an optimal practice since human vision lacks precision and consistency. In addition, quantifying slow or subtle changes through perception is very difficult. As a result, an instrument that quantifies both skin color and geometric shape variations would be particularly useful in helping clinicians to assess healing status and judge the effect of hyperemia, hematoma, local inflammation, secondary infection, and tissue necrosis. Once fully developed, our 3D imaging system will have several unique advantages over traditional methods for monitoring wound care: (a) Non-contact measurement; (b) Fast and easy to use; (c) up to 50 micron measurement accuracy; (d) 2D/3D Quantitative measurements;(e) A handheld device; and (f) Reasonable cost (< $1,000).

  18. Kinematics of a growth fault/raft system on the West African margin using 3-D restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouby, Delphine; Raillard, Stéphane; Guillocheau, François; Bouroullec, Renaud; Nalpas, Thierry

    2002-04-01

    The ability to quantify the movement history associated with growth structures is crucial in the understanding of fundamental processes such as the growth of folds or faults in 3-D. In this paper, we present an application of an original approach to restore in 3-D a listric growth fault system resulting from gravity-induced extension located on the West African margin. Our goal is to establish the 3-D structural framework and kinematics of the study area. We construct a 3-D geometrical model of the fault system (from 3-D seismic data), then restore six stratigraphic surfaces and reconstruct the 3-D geometry of the system at six incremental steps of its history. The evolution of the growth fault/raft system corresponds to the progressive separation of two rafts by regional extension, resulting in the development of an intervening basin located between them that evolved in three main stages: (1) the rise of an evaporite wall, (2) the development of a symmetric basin as the elevation of the diapir is reduced and buried, and (3) the development of asymmetric basins related to two systems of listric faults (the main fault F1 and the graben located between the rollovers and the lower raft). Important features of the growth fault/raft system could only be observed in 3-D and with increments of deformation restored. The rollover anticline (associated with the listric fault F1) is composed of two sub-units separated by an E-W oriented transverse graben indicating that the displacement field was divergent in map view. The rollover units are located within the overlap area of two fault systems and displays a 'mock-turtle' anticline structure. The seaward translation of the lower raft is associated with two successive vertical axis rotations in the opposite sense (clockwise then counter-clockwise by about 10°). This results from the fact that the two main fault systems developed successively. Fault system F1 formed during the Upper Albian, and the graben during the Cenomanian

  19. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  20. Six-Message Electromechanical Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2007-01-01

    A proposed electromechanical display system would be capable of presenting as many as six distinct messages. In the proposed system, each display element would include a cylinder having a regular hexagonal cross section.

  1. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M.; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W.; Padgett, Miles J.; Edgar, Matthew P.

    2015-06-01

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  2. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W; Padgett, Miles J; Edgar, Matthew P

    2015-06-09

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object.

  3. Opti-acoustic stereo imaging: on system calibration and 3-D target reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Negahdaripour, Shahriar; Sekkati, Hicham; Pirsiavash, Hamed

    2009-06-01

    Utilization of an acoustic camera for range measurements is a key advantage for 3-D shape recovery of underwater targets by opti-acoustic stereo imaging, where the associated epipolar geometry of optical and acoustic image correspondences can be described in terms of conic sections. In this paper, we propose methods for system calibration and 3-D scene reconstruction by maximum likelihood estimation from noisy image measurements. The recursive 3-D reconstruction method utilized as initial condition a closed-form solution that integrates the advantages of two other closed-form solutions, referred to as the range and azimuth solutions. Synthetic data tests are given to provide insight into the merits of the new target imaging and 3-D reconstruction paradigm, while experiments with real data confirm the findings based on computer simulations, and demonstrate the merits of this novel 3-D reconstruction paradigm.

  4. A fast 3D reconstruction system with a low-cost camera accessory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiwei; Gibson, Graham M.; Hay, Rebecca; Bowman, Richard W.; Padgett, Miles J.; Edgar, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Photometric stereo is a three dimensional (3D) imaging technique that uses multiple 2D images, obtained from a fixed camera perspective, with different illumination directions. Compared to other 3D imaging methods such as geometry modeling and 3D-scanning, it comes with a number of advantages, such as having a simple and efficient reconstruction routine. In this work, we describe a low-cost accessory to a commercial digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera system allowing fast reconstruction of 3D objects using photometric stereo. The accessory consists of four white LED lights fixed to the lens of a commercial DSLR camera and a USB programmable controller board to sequentially control the illumination. 3D images are derived for different objects with varying geometric complexity and results are presented, showing a typical height error of <3 mm for a 50 mm sized object. PMID:26057407

  5. Opti-acoustic stereo imaging: on system calibration and 3-D target reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Negahdaripour, Shahriar; Sekkati, Hicham; Pirsiavash, Hamed

    2009-06-01

    Utilization of an acoustic camera for range measurements is a key advantage for 3-D shape recovery of underwater targets by opti-acoustic stereo imaging, where the associated epipolar geometry of optical and acoustic image correspondences can be described in terms of conic sections. In this paper, we propose methods for system calibration and 3-D scene reconstruction by maximum likelihood estimation from noisy image measurements. The recursive 3-D reconstruction method utilized as initial condition a closed-form solution that integrates the advantages of two other closed-form solutions, referred to as the range and azimuth solutions. Synthetic data tests are given to provide insight into the merits of the new target imaging and 3-D reconstruction paradigm, while experiments with real data confirm the findings based on computer simulations, and demonstrate the merits of this novel 3-D reconstruction paradigm. PMID:19380272

  6. Quality Analysis of 3d Surface Reconstruction Using Multi-Platform Photogrammetric Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the necessity of accurate 3D surface reconstruction has been more pronounced for a wide range of mapping, modelling, and monitoring applications. The 3D data for satisfying the needs of these applications can be collected using different digital imaging systems. Among them, photogrammetric systems have recently received considerable attention due to significant improvements in digital imaging sensors, emergence of new mapping platforms, and development of innovative data processing techniques. To date, a variety of techniques haven been proposed for 3D surface reconstruction using imagery collected by multi-platform photogrammetric systems. However, these approaches suffer from the lack of a well-established quality control procedure which evaluates the quality of reconstructed 3D surfaces independent of the utilized reconstruction technique. Hence, this paper aims to introduce a new quality assessment platform for the evaluation of the 3D surface reconstruction using photogrammetric data. This quality control procedure is performed while considering the quality of input data, processing procedures, and photo-realistic 3D surface modelling. The feasibility of the proposed quality control procedure is finally verified by quality assessment of the 3D surface reconstruction using images from different photogrammetric systems.

  7. Development of 3D Woven Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Ellerby, Don; Stackpoole, Mairead; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new class of thermal protection system (TPS) materials known as 3D Woven TPS led by the Entry Systems and Technology Division of NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) will be discussed. This effort utilizes 3D weaving and resin infusion technologies to produce heat shield materials that are engineered and optimized for specific missions and requirements. A wide range of architectures and compositions have been produced and preliminarily tested to prove the viability and tailorability of the 3D weaving approach to TPS.

  8. A 3D acquisition system combination of structured-light scanning and shape from silhouette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changku; Tao, Li; Wang, Peng; He, Li

    2006-05-01

    A robust and accurate three dimensional (3D) acquisition system is presented, which is a combination of structured-light scanning and shape from silhouette. Using common world coordinate system, two groups of point data can be integrated into the final complete 3D model without any integration and registration algorithm. The mathematics model of structured-light scanning is described in detail, and the shape from silhouette algorithm is introduced as well. The complete 3D model of a cup with a handle is obtained successfully by the proposed technique. At last the measurement on a ball bearing is performed, with the measurement precision better than 0.15 mm.

  9. Development of portable 3D optical measuring system using structured light projection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) scanners are becoming increasingly common in many industries. However most of these scanning technologies have drawbacks for practical use due to size, weight, accessibility, and ease-of-use. Depending on the application, speed, flexibility and portability can often be deemed more important than accuracy. We have developed a solution to address this market requirement and overcome the aforementioned limitations. To counteract shortcomings such as heavy weight and large size, an optical sensor is used that consists of a laser projector, a camera system, and a multi-touch screen. Structured laser light is projected onto the measured object with a newly designed laser projector employing a single Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirror. The optical system is optimized for the combination of a Laser Diode (LD), the MEMS mirror and the size of measurement area to secure the ideal contrast of structured light. Also, we developed a new calibration algorithm for this sensor with MEMS laser projector that uses an optical camera model for point cloud calculation. These technical advancements make the sensor compact, save power consumption, and reduce heat generation yet still allows for rapid calculation. Due to the principle of the measurement, structured light triangulation utilizing phase-shifting technology, resolution is improved. To meet requirements for practical applications, the optics, electronics, image processing, display and data management capabilities have been integrated into a single compact unit.

  10. Three-Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS). Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    3D-ICAS is being developed to support Decontamination and Decommissioning operations for DOE addressing Research Area 6 (characterization) of the Program Research and Development Announcement. 3D-ICAS provides in-situ 3-dimensional characterization of contaminated DOE facilities. Its multisensor probe contains a GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using noncontact infrared heating) sensor for organics, a molecular vibrational sensor for base material identification, and a radionuclide sensor for radioactive contaminants. It will provide real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides on bare materials (concrete, asbestos, transite); it will provide 3-D display of the fusion of all measurements; and it will archive the measurements for regulatory documentation. It consists of two robotic mobile platforms that operate in hazardous environments linked to an integrated workstation in a safe environment.

  11. Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip Simulation Using TRAC-BF1/COS3D, a Best-Estimate Coupled 3-D Core and Thermal-Hydraulic Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Ui, Atsushi; Miyaji, Takamasa

    2004-10-15

    The best-estimate coupled three-dimensional (3-D) core and thermal-hydraulic code system TRAC-BF1/COS3D has been developed. COS3D, based on a modified one-group neutronic model, is a 3-D core simulator used for licensing analyses and core management of commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) plants in Japan. TRAC-BF1 is a plant simulator based on a two-fluid model. TRAC-BF1/COS3D is a coupled system of both codes, which are connected using a parallel computing tool. This code system was applied to the OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip Benchmark. Since the two-group cross-section tables are provided by the benchmark team, COS3D was modified to apply to this specification. Three best-estimate scenarios and four hypothetical scenarios were calculated using this code system. In the best-estimate scenario, the predicted core power with TRAC-BF1/COS3D is slightly underestimated compared with the measured data. The reason seems to be a slight difference in the core boundary conditions, that is, pressure changes and the core inlet flow distribution, because the peak in this analysis is sensitive to them. However, the results of this benchmark analysis show that TRAC-BF1/COS3D gives good precision for the prediction of the actual BWR transient behavior on the whole. Furthermore, the results with the modified one-group model and the two-group model were compared to verify the application of the modified one-group model to this benchmark. This comparison shows that the results of the modified one-group model are appropriate and sufficiently precise.

  12. Microscale screening systems for 3D cellular microenvironments: platforms, advances, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Beebe, David J.; Sung, Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in studying cells using more in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments has created a need for advanced 3D screening platforms with enhanced functionalities and increased throughput. 3D screening platforms that better mimic in vivo microenvironments with enhanced throughput would provide more in-depth understanding of the complexity and heterogeneity of microenvironments. The platforms would also better predict the toxicity and efficacy of potential drugs in physiologically relevant conditions. Traditional 3D culture models (e.g. spinner flasks, gyratory rotation devices, non-adhesive surfaces, polymers) were developed to create 3D multicellular structures. However, these traditional systems require large volumes of reagents and cells, and are not compatible with high throughput screening (HTS) systems. Microscale technology offers the miniaturization of 3D cultures and allows efficient screening of various conditions. This review will discuss the development, most influential works, and current advantages and challenges of microscale culture systems for screening cells in 3D microenvironments. PMID:25274061

  13. Estimating 3D Leaf and Stem Shape of Nursery Paprika Plants by a Novel Multi-Camera Photography System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Teng, Poching; Shimizu, Yo; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    For plant breeding and growth monitoring, accurate measurements of plant structure parameters are very crucial. We have, therefore, developed a high efficiency Multi-Camera Photography (MCP) system combining Multi-View Stereovision (MVS) with the Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm. In this paper, we measured six variables of nursery paprika plants and investigated the accuracy of 3D models reconstructed from photos taken by four lens types at four different positions. The results demonstrated that error between the estimated and measured values was small, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for leaf width/length and stem height/diameter were 1.65 mm (R² = 0.98) and 0.57 mm (R² = 0.99), respectively. The accuracies of the 3D model reconstruction of leaf and stem by a 28-mm lens at the first and third camera positions were the highest, and the number of reconstructed fine-scale 3D model shape surfaces of leaf and stem is the most. The results confirmed the practicability of our new method for the reconstruction of fine-scale plant model and accurate estimation of the plant parameters. They also displayed that our system is a good system for capturing high-resolution 3D images of nursery plants with high efficiency. PMID:27314348

  14. Estimating 3D Leaf and Stem Shape of Nursery Paprika Plants by a Novel Multi-Camera Photography System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Teng, Poching; Shimizu, Yo; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2016-06-14

    For plant breeding and growth monitoring, accurate measurements of plant structure parameters are very crucial. We have, therefore, developed a high efficiency Multi-Camera Photography (MCP) system combining Multi-View Stereovision (MVS) with the Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm. In this paper, we measured six variables of nursery paprika plants and investigated the accuracy of 3D models reconstructed from photos taken by four lens types at four different positions. The results demonstrated that error between the estimated and measured values was small, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for leaf width/length and stem height/diameter were 1.65 mm (R² = 0.98) and 0.57 mm (R² = 0.99), respectively. The accuracies of the 3D model reconstruction of leaf and stem by a 28-mm lens at the first and third camera positions were the highest, and the number of reconstructed fine-scale 3D model shape surfaces of leaf and stem is the most. The results confirmed the practicability of our new method for the reconstruction of fine-scale plant model and accurate estimation of the plant parameters. They also displayed that our system is a good system for capturing high-resolution 3D images of nursery plants with high efficiency.

  15. Estimating 3D Leaf and Stem Shape of Nursery Paprika Plants by a Novel Multi-Camera Photography System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Teng, Poching; Shimizu, Yo; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    For plant breeding and growth monitoring, accurate measurements of plant structure parameters are very crucial. We have, therefore, developed a high efficiency Multi-Camera Photography (MCP) system combining Multi-View Stereovision (MVS) with the Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm. In this paper, we measured six variables of nursery paprika plants and investigated the accuracy of 3D models reconstructed from photos taken by four lens types at four different positions. The results demonstrated that error between the estimated and measured values was small, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for leaf width/length and stem height/diameter were 1.65 mm (R2 = 0.98) and 0.57 mm (R2 = 0.99), respectively. The accuracies of the 3D model reconstruction of leaf and stem by a 28-mm lens at the first and third camera positions were the highest, and the number of reconstructed fine-scale 3D model shape surfaces of leaf and stem is the most. The results confirmed the practicability of our new method for the reconstruction of fine-scale plant model and accurate estimation of the plant parameters. They also displayed that our system is a good system for capturing high-resolution 3D images of nursery plants with high efficiency. PMID:27314348

  16. GEO3D - Three-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file is the setup file for the computer program GEO3D. GEO3D is a computer program written by Jim Menart to simulate vertical wells in conjunction with a heat pump for ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. This is a very detailed three-dimensional computer model. This program produces detailed heat transfer and temperature field information for a vertical GSHP system.

  17. 3D scanning characteristics of an amorphous silicon position sensitive detector array system.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Javier; Gomes, Luis; Filonovich, Sergej; Correia, Nuno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Isabel

    2012-02-13

    The 3D scanning electro-optical characteristics of a data acquisition prototype system integrating a 32 linear array of 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD) were analyzed. The system was mounted on a platform for imaging 3D objects using the triangulation principle with a sheet-of-light laser. New obtained results reveal a minimum possible gap or simulated defect detection of approximately 350 μm. Furthermore, a first study of the angle for 3D scanning was also performed, allowing for a broad range of angles to be used in the process. The relationship between the scanning angle of the incident light onto the object and the image displacement distance on the sensor was determined for the first time in this system setup. Rendering of 3D object profiles was performed at a significantly higher number of frames than in the past and was possible for an incident light angle range of 15 ° to 85 °.

  18. Video display engineering and optimization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, James (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A video display engineering and optimization CAD simulation system for designing a LCD display integrates models of a display device circuit, electro-optics, surface geometry, and physiological optics to model the system performance of a display. This CAD system permits system performance and design trade-offs to be evaluated without constructing a physical prototype of the device. The systems includes a series of modules which permit analysis of design trade-offs in terms of their visual impact on a viewer looking at a display.

  19. SplitCore: An exceptionally versatile viral nanoparticle for native whole protein display regardless of 3D structure

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Andreas; Skamel, Claudia; Nassal, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles displaying native proteins are attractive for many applications, including vaccinology. Virus-based nanoparticles are easily tailored by genetic means, commonly by inserting heterologous sequences into surface-exposed loops. The strategy works well with short peptides but is incompatible with the structures of most native proteins, except those with closely juxtaposed termini. Here we overcome this constraint by splitting the capsid protein of hepatitis B virus, one of the most advanced and most immunogenic display platforms, inside the insertion loop (SplitCore). The split parts, coreN and coreC, efficiently form capsid-like particles (CLPs) in E. coli and so do numerous fusions to coreN and/or coreC of differently structured proteins, including human disease related antigens of >300 amino acids in length. These CLPs induced high-titer antibodies, including neutralizing ones, in mice. The concept was easily expanded to triple-layer CLPs carrying reporter plus targeting domains, and should be applicable to protein-based nanoparticle design in general. PMID:22355524

  20. Performance Analysis of a Low-Cost Triangulation-Based 3d Camera: Microsoft Kinect System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    . K. Chow, J. C.; Ang, K. D.; Lichti, D. D.; Teskey, W. F.

    2012-07-01

    Recent technological advancements have made active imaging sensors popular for 3D modelling and motion tracking. The 3D coordinates of signalised targets are traditionally estimated by matching conjugate points in overlapping images. Current 3D cameras can acquire point clouds at video frame rates from a single exposure station. In the area of 3D cameras, Microsoft and PrimeSense have collaborated and developed an active 3D camera based on the triangulation principle, known as the Kinect system. This off-the-shelf system costs less than 150 USD and has drawn a lot of attention from the robotics, computer vision, and photogrammetry disciplines. In this paper, the prospect of using the Kinect system for precise engineering applications was evaluated. The geometric quality of the Kinect system as a function of the scene (i.e. variation of depth, ambient light conditions, incidence angle, and object reflectivity) and the sensor (i.e. warm-up time and distance averaging) were analysed quantitatively. This system's potential in human body measurements was tested against a laser scanner and 3D range camera. A new calibration model for simultaneously determining the exterior orientation parameters, interior orientation parameters, boresight angles, leverarm, and object space features parameters was developed and the effectiveness of this calibration approach was explored.

  1. 3D-SoftChip: A Novel Architecture for Next-Generation Adaptive Computing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul; Rassau, Alex; Lachowicz, Stefan; Lee, Mike Myung-Ok; Eshraghian, Kamran

    2006-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel architecture for next-generation adaptive computing systems, which we term 3D-SoftChip. The 3D-SoftChip is a 3-dimensional (3D) vertically integrated adaptive computing system combining state-of-the-art processing and 3D interconnection technology. It comprises the vertical integration of two chips (a configurable array processor and an intelligent configurable switch) through an indium bump interconnection array (IBIA). The configurable array processor (CAP) is an array of heterogeneous processing elements (PEs), while the intelligent configurable switch (ICS) comprises a switch block, 32-bit dedicated RISC processor for control, on-chip program/data memory, data frame buffer, along with a direct memory access (DMA) controller. This paper introduces the novel 3D-SoftChip architecture for real-time communication and multimedia signal processing as a next-generation computing system. The paper further describes the advanced HW/SW codesign and verification methodology, including high-level system modeling of the 3D-SoftChip using SystemC, being used to determine the optimum hardware specification in the early design stage.

  2. SEISVIZ3D: Stereoscopic system for the representation of seismic data - Interpretation and Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Rilling, Stefan; Bogen, Manfred; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    The seismic method is a valuable tool for getting 3D-images from the subsurface. Seismic data acquisition today is not only a topic for oil and gas exploration but is used also for geothermal exploration, inspections of nuclear waste sites and for scientific investigations. The system presented in this contribution may also have an impact on the visualization of 3D-data of other geophysical methods. 3D-seismic data can be displayed in different ways to give a spatial impression of the subsurface.They are a combination of individual vertical cuts, possibly linked to a cubical portion of the data volume, and the stereoscopic view of the seismic data. By these methods, the spatial perception for the structures and thus of the processes in the subsurface should be increased. Stereoscopic techniques are e. g. implemented in the CAVE and the WALL, both of which require a lot of space and high technical effort. The aim of the interpretation system shown here is stereoscopic visualization of seismic data at the workplace, i.e. at the personal workstation and monitor. The system was developed with following criteria in mind: • Fast rendering of large amounts of data so that a continuous view of the data when changing the viewing angle and the data section is possible, • defining areas in stereoscopic view to translate the spatial impression directly into an interpretation, • the development of an appropriate user interface, including head-tracking, for handling the increased degrees of freedom, • the possibility of collaboration, i.e. teamwork and idea exchange with the simultaneous viewing of a scene at remote locations. The possibilities offered by the use of a stereoscopic system do not replace a conventional interpretation workflow. Rather they have to be implemented into it as an additional step. The amplitude distribution of the seismic data is a challenge for the stereoscopic display because the opacity level and the scaling and selection of the data have to

  3. Medical image retrieval system using multiple features from 3D ROIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Weiwei; Liao, Qimei; Zhang, Guopeng; Zhou, Zhiming

    2012-02-01

    Compared to a retrieval using global image features, features extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) that reflect distribution patterns of abnormalities would benefit more for content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) systems. Currently, most CBMIR systems have been designed for 2D ROIs, which cannot reflect 3D anatomical features and region distribution of lesions comprehensively. To further improve the accuracy of image retrieval, we proposed a retrieval method with 3D features including both geometric features such as Shape Index (SI) and Curvedness (CV) and texture features derived from 3D Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, which were extracted from 3D ROIs, based on our previous 2D medical images retrieval system. The system was evaluated with 20 volume CT datasets for colon polyp detection. Preliminary experiments indicated that the integration of morphological features with texture features could improve retrieval performance greatly. The retrieval result using features extracted from 3D ROIs accorded better with the diagnosis from optical colonoscopy than that based on features from 2D ROIs. With the test database of images, the average accuracy rate for 3D retrieval method was 76.6%, indicating its potential value in clinical application.

  4. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua

    2001-06-01

    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  5. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and <10 cm range accuracy through foliage in real-time. The 3D imaging flash ladar is designed for a STUAS with a complete system SWAP estimate of <9 kg, <0.2 m3 and <350 W power. The system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  6. Low-Cost 3D Systems: Suitable Tools for Plant Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor is able to replace an expensive laser scanner in many plant phenotyping scenarios. PMID:24534920

  7. Low-cost 3D systems: suitable tools for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor. PMID:24534920

  8. A novel 3D guidance system using augmented reality for percutaneous vertebroplasty: technical note.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuichiro; Sato, Shigenobu; Kato, Koji; Hyakumachi, Takahiko; Yanagibashi, Yasushi; Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is an imaging technology by which virtual objects are overlaid onto images of real objects captured in real time by a tracking camera. This study aimed to introduce a novel AR guidance system called virtual protractor with augmented reality (VIPAR) to visualize a needle trajectory in 3D space during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). The AR system used for this study comprised a head-mount display (HMD) with a tracking camera and a marker sheet. An augmented scene was created by overlaying the preoperatively generated needle trajectory path onto a marker detected on the patient using AR software, thereby providing the surgeon with augmented views in real time through the HMD. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by using a computer-generated simulation model in a spine phantom and also evaluated clinically in 5 patients. In the 40 spine phantom trials, the error of the insertion angle (EIA), defined as the difference between the attempted angle and the insertion angle, was evaluated using 3D CT scanning. Computed tomography analysis of the 40 spine phantom trials showed that the EIA in the axial plane significantly improved when VIPAR was used compared with when it was not used (0.96° ± 0.61° vs 4.34° ± 2.36°, respectively). The same held true for EIA in the sagittal plane (0.61° ± 0.70° vs 2.55° ± 1.93°, respectively). In the clinical evaluation of the AR system, 5 patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures underwent VIPAR-guided PVP from October 2011 to May 2012. The postoperative EIA was evaluated using CT. The clinical results of the 5 patients showed that the EIA in all 10 needle insertions was 2.09° ± 1.3° in the axial plane and 1.98° ± 1.8° in the sagittal plane. There was no pedicle breach or leakage of polymethylmethacrylate. VIPAR was successfully used to assist in needle insertion during PVP by providing the surgeon with an ideal insertion point and needle trajectory through the HMD. The findings indicate

  9. Developing tiled projection display systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Judson, I. R.; Paris, J.; Stevens, R. L.

    2000-06-08

    Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing high-resolution semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation [EVL, PowerWall]. In this way, they complement other technologies such as the CAVE [Cruz-Niera92] or ImmersaDesk, [Czernuszenko97], which by design give up pure resolution in favor of width of view and stereo. However, the largest impact may well be in using large-format tiled displays as one of possibly multiple displays in building ''information'' or ''active'' spaces that surround the user with diverse ways of interacting with data and multimedia information flows [IPSI, Childers00, Raskar98, ROME, Stanford, UNC]. These environments may prove to be the ultimate successor of the desktop metaphor for information technology work.

  10. 2D and 3D Mechanobiology in Human and Nonhuman Systems.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristin M; Islam, Md Mydul; LeDuc, Philip R; Steward, Robert

    2016-08-31

    Mechanobiology involves the investigation of mechanical forces and their effect on the development, physiology, and pathology of biological systems. The human body has garnered much attention from many groups in the field, as mechanical forces have been shown to influence almost all aspects of human life ranging from breathing to cancer metastasis. Beyond being influential in human systems, mechanical forces have also been shown to impact nonhuman systems such as algae and zebrafish. Studies of nonhuman and human systems at the cellular level have primarily been done in two-dimensional (2D) environments, but most of these systems reside in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Furthermore, outcomes obtained from 3D studies are often quite different than those from 2D studies. We present here an overview of a select group of human and nonhuman systems in 2D and 3D environments. We also highlight mechanobiological approaches and their respective implications for human and nonhuman physiology. PMID:27214883

  11. 2D and 3D Mechanobiology in Human and Nonhuman Systems.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristin M; Islam, Md Mydul; LeDuc, Philip R; Steward, Robert

    2016-08-31

    Mechanobiology involves the investigation of mechanical forces and their effect on the development, physiology, and pathology of biological systems. The human body has garnered much attention from many groups in the field, as mechanical forces have been shown to influence almost all aspects of human life ranging from breathing to cancer metastasis. Beyond being influential in human systems, mechanical forces have also been shown to impact nonhuman systems such as algae and zebrafish. Studies of nonhuman and human systems at the cellular level have primarily been done in two-dimensional (2D) environments, but most of these systems reside in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Furthermore, outcomes obtained from 3D studies are often quite different than those from 2D studies. We present here an overview of a select group of human and nonhuman systems in 2D and 3D environments. We also highlight mechanobiological approaches and their respective implications for human and nonhuman physiology.

  12. Structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on Scheimpflug condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Qing; Gao, Jian; Lin, Hui; Chen, Yun; Yunbo, He; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guanjin; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    We designed a new three-dimensional (3D) measurement system for micro components: a structure light telecentric stereoscopic vision 3D measurement system based on the Scheimpflug condition. This system creatively combines the telecentric imaging model and the Scheimpflug condition on the basis of structure light stereoscopic vision, having benefits of a wide measurement range, high accuracy, fast speed, and low price. The system measurement range is 20 mm×13 mm×6 mm, the lateral resolution is 20 μm, and the practical vertical resolution reaches 2.6 μm, which is close to the theoretical value of 2 μm and well satisfies the 3D measurement needs of micro components such as semiconductor devices, photoelectron elements, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this paper, we first introduce the principle and structure of the system and then present the system calibration and 3D reconstruction. We then present an experiment that was performed for the 3D reconstruction of the surface topography of a wafer, followed by a discussion. Finally, the conclusions are presented.

  13. System for conveyor belt part picking using structured light and 3D pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, J.; Skotheim, Ø.; Nygaard, J. O.; Vollset, T.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic picking of parts is an important challenge to solve within factory automation, because it can remove tedious manual work and save labor costs. One such application involves parts that arrive with random position and orientation on a conveyor belt. The parts should be picked off the conveyor belt and placed systematically into bins. We describe a system that consists of a structured light instrument for capturing 3D data and robust methods for aligning an input 3D template with a 3D image of the scene. The method uses general and robust pre-processing steps based on geometric primitives that allow the well-known Iterative Closest Point algorithm to converge quickly and robustly to the correct solution. The method has been demonstrated for localization of car parts with random position and orientation. We believe that the method is applicable for a wide range of industrial automation problems where precise localization of 3D objects in a scene is needed.

  14. A programmable display layer for virtual reality system architectures.

    PubMed

    Smit, Ferdi Alexander; van Liere, Robert; Froehlich, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Display systems typically operate at a minimum rate of 60 Hz. However, existing VR-architectures generally produce application updates at a lower rate. Consequently, the display is not updated by the application every display frame. This causes a number of undesirable perceptual artifacts. We describe an architecture that provides a programmable display layer (PDL) in order to generate updated display frames. This replaces the default display behavior of repeating application frames until an update is available. We will show three benefits of the architecture typical to VR. First, smooth motion is provided by generating intermediate display frames by per-pixel depth-image warping using 3D motion fields. Smooth motion eliminates various perceptual artifacts due to judder. Second, we implement fine-grained latency reduction at the display frame level using a synchronized prediction of simulation objects and the viewpoint. This improves the average quality and consistency of latency reduction. Third, a crosstalk reduction algorithm for consecutive display frames is implemented, which improves the quality of stereoscopic images. To evaluate the architecture, we compare image quality and latency to that of a classic level-of-detail approach. PMID:19910659

  15. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  16. Novel fully integrated computer system for custom footwear: from 3D digitization to manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Pascal-Simon; Beaulieu, Eric; Liu, Zhaoheng

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a recently developed custom footwear system, which integrates 3D digitization technology, range image fusion techniques, a 3D graphical environment for corrective actions, parametric curved surface representation and computer numerical control (CNC) machining. In this system, a support designed with the help of biomechanics experts can stabilize the foot in a correct and neutral position. The foot surface is then captured by a 3D camera using active ranging techniques. A software using a library of documented foot pathologies suggests corrective actions on the orthosis. Three kinds of deformations can be achieved. The first method uses previously scanned pad surfaces by our 3D scanner, which can be easily mapped onto the foot surface to locally modify the surface shape. The second kind of deformation is construction of B-Spline surfaces by manipulating control points and modifying knot vectors in a 3D graphical environment to build desired deformation. The last one is a manual electronic 3D pen, which may be of different shapes and sizes, and has an adjustable 'pressure' information. All applied deformations should respect a G1 surface continuity, which ensure that the surface can accustom a foot. Once the surface modification process is completed, the resulting data is sent to manufacturing software for CNC machining.

  17. Advanced resin systems and 3D textile preforms for low cost composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J. G.; Bayha, T. D.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced resin systems and 3D textile preforms are being evaluated at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company (LASC) under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program. This work is aimed towards the development of low-cost, damage-tolerant composite fuselage structures. Resin systems for resin transfer molding and powder epoxy towpreg materials are being evaluated for processability, performance and cost. Three developmental epoxy resin systems for resin transfer molding (RTM) and three resin systems for powder towpregging are being investigated. Various 3D textile preform architectures using advanced weaving and braiding processes are also being evaluated. Trials are being conducted with powdered towpreg, in 2D weaving and 3D braiding processes for their textile processability and their potential for fabrication in 'net shape' fuselage structures. The progress in advanced resin screening and textile preform development is reviewed here.

  18. Note: An improved 3D imaging system for electron-electron coincidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Herath, Thushani; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an improved imaging system that can achieve highly efficient 3D detection of two electrons in coincidence. The imaging system is based on a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed waveform digitizer. We have shown previously that this detection system is capable of 3D detection of ions and electrons with good temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we show that with a new timing analysis algorithm, this system can achieve an unprecedented dead-time (<0.7 ns) and dead-space (<1 mm) when detecting two electrons. A true zero dead-time detection is also demonstrated.

  19. Note: An improved 3D imaging system for electron-electron coincidence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Herath, Thushani; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an improved imaging system that can achieve highly efficient 3D detection of two electrons in coincidence. The imaging system is based on a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed waveform digitizer. We have shown previously that this detection system is capable of 3D detection of ions and electrons with good temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we show that with a new timing analysis algorithm, this system can achieve an unprecedented dead-time (<0.7 ns) and dead-space (<1 mm) when detecting two electrons. A true zero dead-time detection is also demonstrated.

  20. Moving from Batch to Field Using the RT3D Reactive Transport Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, T. P.; Gautam, T. R.

    2002-12-01

    The public domain reactive transport code RT3D (Clement, 1997) is a general-purpose numerical code for solving coupled, multi-species reactive transport in saturated groundwater systems. The code uses MODFLOW to simulate flow and several modules of MT3DMS to simulate the advection and dispersion processes. RT3D employs the operator-split strategy which allows the code solve the coupled reactive transport problem in a modular fashion. The coupling between reaction and transport is defined through a separate module where the reaction equations are specified. The code supports a versatile user-defined reaction option that allows users to define their own reaction system through a Fortran-90 subroutine, known as the RT3D-reaction package. Further a utility code, known as BATCHRXN, allows the users to independently test and debug their reaction package. To analyze a new reaction system at a batch scale, users should first run BATCHRXN to test the ability of their reaction package to model the batch data. After testing, the reaction package can simply be ported to the RT3D environment to study the model response under 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional transport conditions. This paper presents example problems that demonstrate the methods for moving from batch to field-scale simulations using BATCHRXN and RT3D codes. The first example describes a simple first-order reaction system for simulating the sequential degradation of Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products. The second example uses a relatively complex reaction system for describing the multiple degradation pathways of Tetrachloroethane (PCA) and its daughter products. References 1) Clement, T.P, RT3D - A modular computer code for simulating reactive multi-species transport in 3-Dimensional groundwater aquifers, Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Research Report, PNNL-SA-28967, September, 1997. Available at: http://bioprocess.pnl.gov/rt3d.htm.

  1. Implementation of a novel floating-image display system having a background of multiview integral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Suk-Pyo; Oh, Yong-Seok; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2007-09-01

    A floating-image display technique, which can project two-dimensional images into a real space through a convex lens or a concave mirror, has been studied as a new approach for implementation of the next-generation three-dimensional (3D) display system. However, the conventional floating-image display system was implemented just by using active display devices such as LCD panel and it could provide only a real plane image in space to an observer comparing with other 3D display systems having different perspectives. For practical application of a floating-image display system to 3D display systems, multi-layered display structure might be required to present multi-depth images in space. In this paper, a novel floating-image display system composed of two plane images with different depth by use of a half mirror is proposed. One plane image of an object is provided with the conventional floating-image display system to present and the other plane image of a background is provided with the integral imaging technique. Therefore, the proposed display system can provide high-resolution floating images with background images having different perspectives to observers. To show the usefulness of the proposed system, some experiments are carried out and the results are presented as well.

  2. Display system for imaging scientific telemetric information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabiyakin, G. I.; Rykovanov, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A system for imaging scientific telemetric information, based on the M-6000 minicomputer and the SIGD graphic display, is described. Two dimensional graphic display of telemetric information and interaction with the computer, in analysis and processing of telemetric parameters displayed on the screen is provided. The running parameter information output method is presented. User capabilities in the analysis and processing of telemetric information imaged on the display screen and the user language are discussed and illustrated.

  3. A Molecular Image-directed, 3D Ultrasound-guided Biopsy System for the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Baowei; Schuster, David M.; Master, Viraj; Akbari, Hamed; Fenster, Aaron; Nieh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this biopsy approach uses two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images to guide biopsy and can miss up to 30% of prostate cancers. We are developing a molecular image-directed, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image-guided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. The system consists of a 3D mechanical localization system and software workstation for image segmentation, registration, and biopsy planning. In order to plan biopsy in a 3D prostate, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed image registration methods to fuse TRUS and PET/CT images. The segmentation method was tested in ten patients with a DICE overlap ratio of 92.4% ± 1.1 %. The registration method has been tested in phantoms. The biopsy system was tested in prostate phantoms and 3D ultrasound images were acquired from two human patients. We are integrating the system for PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound-guided, targeted biopsy in human patients. PMID:22708023

  4. A web-based 3D medical image collaborative processing system with videoconference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sanbi; Han, Jun; Huang, Yonggang

    2013-07-01

    Three dimension medical images have been playing an irreplaceable role in realms of medical treatment, teaching, and research. However, collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical images on Internet is still one of the biggest challenges to support these activities. Consequently, we present a new application approach for web-based synchronized collaborative processing and visualization of 3D medical Images. Meanwhile, a web-based videoconference function is provided to enhance the performance of the whole system. All the functions of the system can be available with common Web-browsers conveniently, without any extra requirement of client installation. In the end, this paper evaluates the prototype system using 3D medical data sets, which demonstrates the good performance of our system.

  5. A Laser Line Auto-Scanning System for Underwater 3D Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Shukai; Xie, Zexiao; Chen, Wenzhu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a laser line auto-scanning system was designed to perform underwater close-range 3D reconstructions with high accuracy and resolution. The system changes the laser plane direction with a galvanometer to perform automatic scanning and obtain continuous laser strips for underwater 3D reconstruction. The system parameters were calibrated with the homography constraints between the target plane and image plane. A cost function was defined to optimize the galvanometer’s rotating axis equation. Compensation was carried out for the refraction of the incident and emitted light at the interface. The accuracy and the spatial measurement capability of the system were tested and analyzed with standard balls under laboratory underwater conditions, and the 3D surface reconstruction for a sealing cover of an underwater instrument was proved to be satisfactory. PMID:27657074

  6. Development of a 3D laser scanning system for the cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Yuan Sheng

    2013-06-01

    Serious geological hazard such as the roof fall-rib spalling-closure deformation of the cavity can exert bad influence to mine, even threaten human life. The traditional monitoring ways have some disadvantages, which are difficulties in obtaining data of the cavity, monitoring the unmanned cavity and calculating volume of the cavity accurately. To solve these problems, this paper describes how to develop a high precision 3D laser scanning system, which enables scanning the cavity rapidly, obtaining the same resolution point cloud, calculating volume of the cavity, marking the deformation area correctly and providing visualized environment. At the same time, this device has realized remote control functionality to avoid people to work on the underground. The measurement accuracy of the 3D laser scanning system is +/-2cm. The 3D laser scanning system can be combined with the mine microseism monitoring system to help with the estimation the cavity's stability and improve the effect of cavity monitoring.

  7. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  8. The virtual environment display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

  9. Morphological and Volumetric Assessment of Cerebral Ventricular System with 3D Slicer Software.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo Domínguez, Miguel; Hernández, Cristina; Ruisoto, Pablo; Juanes, Juan A; Prats, Alberto; Hernández, Tomás

    2016-06-01

    We present a technological process based on the 3D Slicer software for the three-dimensional study of the brain's ventricular system with teaching purposes. It values the morphology of this complex brain structure, as a whole and in any spatial position, being able to compare it with pathological studies, where its anatomy visibly changes. 3D Slicer was also used to obtain volumetric measurements in order to provide a more comprehensive and detail representation of the ventricular system. We assess the potential this software has for processing high resolution images, taken from Magnetic Resonance and generate the three-dimensional reconstruction of ventricular system. PMID:27147517

  10. A GUI visualization system for airborne lidar image data to reconstruct 3D city model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2015-10-01

    A visualization toolbox system with graphical user interfaces (GUIs) was developed for the analysis of LiDAR point cloud data, as a compound object oriented widget application in IDL (Interractive Data Language). The main features in our system include file input and output abilities, data conversion capability from ascii formatted LiDAR point cloud data to LiDAR image data whose pixel value corresponds the altitude measured by LiDAR, visualization of 2D/3D images in various processing steps and automatic reconstruction ability of 3D city model. The performance and advantages of our graphical user interface (GUI) visualization system for LiDAR data are demonstrated.

  11. Embodied collaboration support system for 3D shape evaluation in virtual space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Masashi; Watanabe, Tomio

    2005-12-01

    Collaboration mainly consists of two tasks; one is each partner's task that is performed by the individual, the other is communication with each other. Both of them are very important objectives for all the collaboration support system. In this paper, a collaboration support system for 3D shape evaluation in virtual space is proposed on the basis of both studies in 3D shape evaluation and communication support in virtual space. The proposed system provides the two viewpoints for each task. One is the viewpoint of back side of user's own avatar for the smooth communication. The other is that of avatar's eye for 3D shape evaluation. Switching the viewpoints satisfies the task conditions for 3D shape evaluation and communication. The system basically consists of PC, HMD and magnetic sensors, and users can share the embodied interaction by observing interaction between their avatars in virtual space. However, the HMD and magnetic sensors, which are put on the users, would restrict the nonverbal communication. Then, we have tried to compensate the loss of nodding of partner's avatar by introducing the speech-driven embodied interactive actor InterActor. Sensory evaluation by paired comparison of 3D shapes in the collaborative situation in virtual space and in real space and the questionnaire are performed. The result demonstrates the effectiveness of InterActor's nodding in the collaborative situation.

  12. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a research and development effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. U IATB impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology is exploited in the design and implementation of the prototype location and tracking system. A three-dimensional (3D) proximity tracking prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Time-Difference- Of-Arrival (TDOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. The TDOA tracking algorithm is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. Simulations show that the TDOA algorithm can achieve the fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA estimates for close-in tracking. Field tests demonstrated that this prototype UWB TDOA High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System is feasible for providing positioning-awareness information in a 3D space to a robotic control system. This 3D tracking system is developed for a robotic control system in a facility called "Moonyard" at Honeywell Defense & System in Arizona under a Space Act Agreement.

  13. The PLUNC 3D treatment planning system: a dynamic alternative to commercially available systems.

    PubMed

    Tewell, Marshall A; Adams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is an integral step in the treatment of various cancers when radiation is prescribed as either the primary or adjunctive modality, especially when the gross tumor volume lies in a difficult to reach area or is proximal to critical bodily structures. Today, 3D systems have made it possible to more precisely localize tumors in order to treat a higher ratio of cancer cells to normal tissue. Over the past 15 years, these systems have evolved into complex tools that utilize powerful computational algorithms that offer diverse functional capabilities, while simultaneously attempting to maintain a user-friendly quality. A major disadvantage of commercial systems is that users do not have access to the programming source code, resulting in significantly limited clinical and technological flexibility. As an alternative, in-house systems such as Plan-UNC (PLUNC) offer optimal flexibility that is vital to research institutions and important to treatment facilities. Despite this weakness, commercially available systems have become the norm because their commissioning time is significantly less and because many facilities do not have computer experts on-site.

  14. Three Dimensional Rover/Lander/Orbiter Mission-Planning (3D-ROMPS) System: A Modern Approach to Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfe, Nathan D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's current mission planning system is based on point design, two-dimensional display, spread sheets, and report technology. This technology does not enable engineers to analyze the results of parametric studies of missions plans. This technology will not support the increased observational complexity and data volume of missions like Cassini, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), and Mars Sample Return (MSR). The goal of the 3D-ROMPS task has been to establish a set of operational mission planning and analysis tools in the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL) Mission Support Area (MSA) that will respond to engineering requirements for planning future Solar System Exploration (SSE) missions using a three-dimensional display.

  15. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  16. 3D Optical Measuring Systems and Laser Technologies for Scientific and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yu.; Verkhoglyad, A.; Poleshchuk, A.; Korolkov, V.; Sysoev, E.; Zavyalov, P.

    2013-12-01

    Modern industry and science require novel 3D optical measuring systems and laser technologies with micro/nanometer resolution for solving actual problems. Such systems, including the 3D dimensional inspection of ceramic parts for electrotechnical industry, laser inspection of wheel pair diagnostic for running trains and 3D superresolution low-coherent micro- /nanoprofilometers are presented. The newest results in the field of laser technologies for high-precision synthesis of microstructures by updated image generator using the semiconductor laser are given. The measuring systems and the laser image generator developed and produced by TDI SIE and IAE SB RAS have been tested by customers and used in different branches of industry and science.

  17. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size—a few microns in diameter—and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  18. The in-situ 3D measurement system combined with CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Jiang, Hongzhi; Li, Xudong; Sui, Shaochun; Tang, Limin; Liang, Xiaoyue; Diao, Xiaochun; Dai, Jiliang

    2013-06-01

    With the development of manufacturing industry, the in-situ 3D measurement for the machining workpieces in CNC machine tools is regarded as the new trend of efficient measurement. We introduce a 3D measurement system based on the stereovision and phase-shifting method combined with CNC machine tools, which can measure 3D profile of the machining workpieces between the key machining processes. The measurement system utilizes the method of high dynamic range fringe acquisition to solve the problem of saturation induced by specular lights reflected from shiny surfaces such as aluminum alloy workpiece or titanium alloy workpiece. We measured two workpieces of aluminum alloy on the CNC machine tools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed measurement system.

  19. An optical system for detecting 3D high-speed oscillation of a single ultrasound microbubble.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    As contrast agents, microbubbles have been playing significant roles in ultrasound imaging. Investigation of microbubble oscillation is crucial for microbubble characterization and detection. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional (3D) observation of microbubble oscillation is challenging and costly because of the bubble size-a few microns in diameter-and the high-speed dynamics under MHz ultrasound pressure waves. In this study, a cost-efficient optical confocal microscopic system combined with a gated and intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera were developed to detect 3D microbubble oscillation. The capability of imaging microbubble high-speed oscillation with much lower costs than with an ultra-fast framing or streak camera system was demonstrated. In addition, microbubble oscillations along both lateral (x and y) and axial (z) directions were demonstrated. Accordingly, this system is an excellent alternative for 3D investigation of microbubble high-speed oscillation, especially when budgets are limited. PMID:24049677

  20. Second order superintegrable systems in conformally flat spaces. IV. The classical 3D Staeckel transform and 3D classification theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Miller, W. Jr.

    2006-04-15

    This article is one of a series that lays the groundwork for a structure and classification theory of second order superintegrable systems, both classical and quantum, in conformally flat spaces. In the first part of the article we study the Staeckel transform (or coupling constant metamorphosis) as an invertible mapping between classical superintegrable systems on different three-dimensional spaces. We show first that all superintegrable systems with nondegenerate potentials are multiseparable and then that each such system on any conformally flat space is Staeckel equivalent to a system on a constant curvature space. In the second part of the article we classify all the superintegrable systems that admit separation in generic coordinates. We find that there are eight families of these systems.

  1. Evaluation of the 3d Urban Modelling Capabilities in Geographical Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogru, A. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) Technology, which provides successful solutions to basic spatial problems, is currently widely used in 3 dimensional (3D) modeling of physical reality with its developing visualization tools. The modeling of large and complicated phenomenon is a challenging problem in terms of computer graphics currently in use. However, it is possible to visualize that phenomenon in 3D by using computer systems. 3D models are used in developing computer games, military training, urban planning, tourism and etc. The use of 3D models for planning and management of urban areas is very popular issue of city administrations. In this context, 3D City models are produced and used for various purposes. However the requirements of the models vary depending on the type and scope of the application. While a high level visualization, where photorealistic visualization techniques are widely used, is required for touristy and recreational purposes, an abstract visualization of the physical reality is generally sufficient for the communication of the thematic information. The visual variables, which are the principle components of cartographic visualization, such as: color, shape, pattern, orientation, size, position, and saturation are used for communicating the thematic information. These kinds of 3D city models are called as abstract models. Standardization of technologies used for 3D modeling is now available by the use of CityGML. CityGML implements several novel concepts to support interoperability, consistency and functionality. For example it supports different Levels-of-Detail (LoD), which may arise from independent data collection processes and are used for efficient visualization and efficient data analysis. In one CityGML data set, the same object may be represented in different LoD simultaneously, enabling the analysis and visualization of the same object with regard to different degrees of resolution. Furthermore, two CityGML data sets

  2. Optical design of wavelength selective CPVT system with 3D/2D hybrid concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ijiro, T.; Yamada, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Maemura, T.; Ohashi, H.

    2012-10-01

    Optical design of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) system is carried out. Using wavelength-selective optics, the system demonstrates 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. Characteristics of the two types of concentrator systems are examined with ray-tracing analysis. The first system is a glazed mirror-based concentrator system mounted on a 2-axis pedestal tracker. The size of the secondary optical element is minimized to decrease the cost of the system, and it has a wavelength-selective function for performing 3-D concentration onto a solar cell and 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver. The second system is a non-glazed beamdown concentrator system containing parabolic mirrors in the lower part. The beam-down selective mirror performs 3-D concentration onto a solar cell placed above the beam-down selective mirror, and 2-D concentration down to a thermal receiver placed at the bottom level. The system is mounted on a two-axis carousel tracker. A parametric study is performed for those systems with different geometrical 2-D/3-D concentration ratios. Wavelength-selective optics such as hot/cold mirrors and spectrum-splitting technologies are taken into account in the analysis. Results show reduced heat load on the solar cell and increased total system efficiency compared to a non-selective CPV system. Requirements for the wavelength-selective properties are elucidated. It is also shown that the hybrid concept with 2-D concentration onto a thermal receiver and 3-D concentration onto a solar cell has an advantageous geometry because of the high total system efficiency and compatibility with the piping arrangement of the thermal receiver.

  3. Dose Verification of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia with Presage 3D Dosimetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Thomas, A.; Newton, J.; Ibbott, G.; Deasy, J.; Oldham, M.

    2010-11-01

    Achieving adequate verification and quality-assurance (QA) for radiosurgery treatment of trigeminal-neuralgia (TGN) is particularly challenging because of the combination of very small fields, very high doses, and complex irradiation geometries (multiple gantry and couch combinations). TGN treatments have extreme requirements for dosimetry tools and QA techniques, to ensure adequate verification. In this work we evaluate the potential of Presage/Optical-CT dosimetry system as a tool for the verification of TGN distributions in high-resolution and in 3D. A TGN treatment was planned and delivered to a Presage 3D dosimeter positioned inside the Radiological-Physics-Center (RPC) head and neck IMRT credentialing phantom. A 6-arc treatment plan was created using the iPlan system, and a maximum dose of 80Gy was delivered with a Varian Trilogy machine. The delivered dose to Presage was determined by optical-CT scanning using the Duke Large field-of-view Optical-CT Scanner (DLOS) in 3D, with isotropic resolution of 0.7mm3. DLOS scanning and reconstruction took about 20minutes. 3D dose comparisons were made with the planning system. Good agreement was observed between the planned and measured 3D dose distributions, and this work provides strong support for the viability of Presage/Optical-CT as a highly useful new approach for verification of this complex technique.

  4. Investigation of Presage 3D Dosimetry as a Method of Clinically Intuitive Quality Assurance and Comparison to a Semi-3D Delta4 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Ethan Van

    The need for clinically intuitive metrics for patient-specific quality assurance in radiation therapy has been well-documented (Zhen, Nelms et al. 2011). A novel transform method has shown to be effective at converting full-density 3D dose measurements made in a phantom to dose values in the patient geometry, enabling comparisons using clinically intuitive metrics such as dose-volume histograms (Oldham et al. 2011). This work investigates the transform method and compares its calculated dose-volume histograms (DVHs) to DVH values calculated by a Delta4 QA device (Scandidos), marking the first comparison of a true 3D system to a semi-3D device using clinical metrics. Measurements were made using Presage 3D dosimeters, which were readout by an in-house optical-CT scanner. Three patient cases were chosen for the study: one head-and-neck VMAT treatment and two spine IMRT treatments. The transform method showed good agreement with the planned dose values for all three cases. Furthermore, the transformed DVHs adhered to the planned dose with more accuracy than the Delta4 DVHs. The similarity between the Delta4 DVHs and the transformed DVHs, however, was greater for one of the spine cases than it was for the head-and-neck case, implying that the accuracy of the Delta4 Anatomy software may vary from one treatment site to another. Overall, the transform method, which incorporates data from full-density 3D dose measurements, provides clinically intuitive results that are more accurate and consistent than the corresponding results from a semi-3D Delta 4 system.

  5. Low-cost structured-light based 3D capture system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jing; Bengtson, Kurt R.; Robinson, Barrett F.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-03-01

    Most of the 3D capture products currently in the market are high-end and pricey. They are not targeted for consumers, but rather for research, medical, or industrial usage. Very few aim to provide a solution for home and small business applications. Our goal is to fill in this gap by only using low-cost components to build a 3D capture system that can satisfy the needs of this market segment. In this paper, we present a low-cost 3D capture system based on the structured-light method. The system is built around the HP TopShot LaserJet Pro M275. For our capture device, we use the 8.0 Mpixel camera that is part of the M275. We augment this hardware with two 3M MPro 150 VGA (640 × 480) pocket projectors. We also describe an analytical approach to predicting the achievable resolution of the reconstructed 3D object based on differentials and small signal theory, and an experimental procedure for validating that the system under test meets the specifications for reconstructed object resolution that are predicted by our analytical model. By comparing our experimental measurements from the camera-projector system with the simulation results based on the model for this system, we conclude that our prototype system has been correctly configured and calibrated. We also conclude that with the analytical models, we have an effective means for specifying system parameters to achieve a given target resolution for the reconstructed object.

  6. The pulsed all fiber laser application in the high-resolution 3D imaging LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cunxiao; Zhu, Shaolan; Niu, Linquan; Feng, Li; He, Haodong; Cao, Zongying

    2014-05-01

    An all fiber laser with master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration at 1064nm/1550nm for the high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system was reported. The pulsewidth and the repetition frequency could be arbitrarily tuned 1ns~10ns and 10KHz~1MHz, and the peak power exceeded 100kW could be obtained with the laser. Using this all fiber laser in the high-resolution 3D imaging LIDAR system, the image resolution of 1024x1024 and the distance precision of +/-1.5 cm was obtained at the imaging distance of 1km.

  7. Unified framework for generation of 3D web visualization for mechatronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severa, O.; Goubej, M.; Konigsmarkova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with development of a unified framework for generation of 3D visualizations of complex mechatronic systems. It provides a high-fidelity representation of executed motion by allowing direct employment of a machine geometry model acquired from a CAD system. Open-architecture multi-platform solution based on latest web standards is achieved by utilizing a web browser as a final 3D renderer. The results are applicable both for simulations and development of real-time human machine interfaces. Case study of autonomous underwater vehicle control is provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  8. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery Using a 3D High-Definition Endoscopic System.

    PubMed

    Ruttkay, Tamas; Götte, Julia; Walle, Ulrike; Doll, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We describe a minimally invasive heart surgery application of the EinsteinVision 2.0 3D high-definition endoscopic system (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) in an 81-year-old man with severe tricuspid valve insufficiency. Fourteen years ago, he underwent a Ross procedure followed by a DDD pacemaker implantation 4 years later for tachy-brady-syndrome. His biventricular function was normal. We recommended minimally invasive tricuspid valve repair. The application of the aformentioned endoscopic system was simple, and the impressive 3D depth view offered an easy and precise manipulation through a minimal thoracotomy incision, avoiding the need for a rib spreading retractor.

  9. Global positioning system supported pilot's display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Erdogan, Temel; Schwalb, Andrew P.; Curley, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware, software, and operation of the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) Flight Inspection System Pilot's Display is discussed. The Pilot's Display is used in conjunction with flight inspection tests that certify the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System used at Space Shuttle landing facilities throughout the world. The Pilot's Display was developed for the pilot of test aircraft to set up and fly a given test flight path determined by the flight inspection test engineers. This display also aids the aircraft pilot when hazy or cloud cover conditions exist that limit the pilot's visibility of the Shuttle runway during the flight inspection. The aircraft position is calculated using the Global Positioning System and displayed in the cockpit on a graphical display.

  10. Three-dimensional integral imaging display system via off-axially distributed image sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Yongri; Qu, Hongjia; Zhang, Miao; Cho, Myungjin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional integral imaging display system with a multiple recorded images using off-axially distributed image sensing. First, the depth map of the 3D objects is extracted from the off-axially recorded multi-perspective 2D images by using profilometry technique. Then, the elemental image array is computationally synthesized using the extracted depth map based on ray mapping model. Finally, the 3D images are optically displayed in integral imaging system. To show the feasibility of the proposed method, the optical experiments for 3D objects are carried out and presented in this paper.

  11. Mobile 3d Mapping with a Low-Cost Uav System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, F.; Klonowski, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this contribution it is shown how an UAV system can be built at low costs. The components of the system, the equipment as well as the control software are presented. Furthermore an implemented programme for photogrammetric flight planning and its execution are described. The main focus of this contribution is on the generation of 3D point clouds from digital imagery. For this web services and free software solutions are presented which automatically generate 3D point clouds from arbitrary image configurations. Possibilities of georeferencing are described whereas the achieved accuracy has been determined. The presented workflow is finally used for the acquisition of 3D geodata. On the example of a landfill survey it is shown that marketable products can be derived using a low-cost UAV.

  12. PRIMAS: a real-time 3D motion-analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabel, Jan C.; van Veenendaal, Hans L. J.; Furnee, E. Hans

    1994-03-01

    The paper describes a CCD TV-camera-based system for real-time multicamera 2D detection of retro-reflective targets and software for accurate and fast 3D reconstruction. Applications of this system can be found in the fields of sports, biomechanics, rehabilitation research, and various other areas of science and industry. The new feature of real-time 3D opens an even broader perspective of application areas; animations in virtual reality are an interesting example. After presenting an overview of the hardware and the camera calibration method, the paper focuses on the real-time algorithms used for matching of the images and subsequent 3D reconstruction of marker positions. When using a calibrated setup of two cameras, it is now possible to track at least ten markers at 100 Hz. Limitations in the performance are determined by the visibility of the markers, which could be improved by adding a third camera.

  13. Dual use display systems for telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massimino, Michael J.; Meschler, Michael F.; Rodriguez, Alberto A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a telerobotics display system, the Multi-mode Manipulator Display System (MMDS), that has applications for a variety of remotely controlled tasks. Designed primarily to assist astronauts with the control of space robotics systems, the MMDS has applications for ground control of space robotics as well as for toxic waste cleanup, undersea, remotely operated vehicles, and other environments which require remote operations. The MMDS has three modes: (1) Manipulator Position Display (MPD) mode, (2) Joint Angle Display (JAD) mode, and (3) Sensory Substitution (SS) mode. These three modes are discussed in the paper.

  14. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  15. Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Sung-Wook; Hahn, Minsoo; Kim, Joohwan; Lee, Byoungho

    2005-06-01

    A new-type of three-dimensional (3D) display system based on two different techniques, image floating and integral imaging, is proposed. The image floating is an antiquated 3D display technique, in which a large convex lens or a concave mirror is used to display the image of a real object to observer. The electro-floating system, which does not use a real object, requires a volumetric display part in order to present 3D moving pictures. Integral imaging is an autostereoscopic technique consisting of a lens array and a two-dimensional display device. The integral imaging method can be adapted for use in an electro-floating display system because the integrated image has volumetric characteristics within the viewing angle. The proposed system combines the merits of the two techniques such as an impressive feel of depth and the facility to assemble. In this paper, the viewing characteristics of the two techniques are defined and analyzed for the optimal design of the proposed system. The basic experiments for assembling the proposed system were performed and the results are presented. The proposed system can be successfully applied to many 3D applications such as 3D television.

  16. Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method.

    PubMed

    Min, Sung-Wook; Hahn, Minsoo; Kim, Joohwan; Lee, Byoungho

    2005-06-13

    A new-type of three-dimensional (3D) display system based on two different techniques, image floating and integral imaging, is proposed. The image floating is an antiquated 3D display technique, in which a large convex lens or a concave mirror is used to display the image of a real object to observer. The electro-floating system, which does not use a real object, requires a volumetric display part in order to present 3D moving pictures. Integral imaging is an autostereoscopic technique consisting of a lens array and a two-dimensional display device. The integral imaging method can be adapted for use in an electro-floating display system because the integrated image has volumetric characteristics within the viewing angle. The proposed system combines the merits of the two techniques such as an impressive feel of depth and the facility to assemble. In this paper, the viewing characteristics of the two techniques are defined and analyzed for the optimal design of the proposed system. The basic experiments for assembling the proposed system were performed and the results are presented. The proposed system can be successfully applied to many 3D applications such as 3D television.

  17. A production peripheral vision display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinmiller, B.

    1984-01-01

    A small number of peripheral vision display systems in three significantly different configurations were evaluated in various aircraft and simulator situations. The use of these development systems enabled the gathering of much subjective and quantitative data regarding this concept of flight deck instrumentation. However, much was also learned about the limitations of this equipment which needs to be addressed prior to wide spread use. A program at Garrett Manufacturing Limited in which the peripheral vision display system is redesigned and transformed into a viable production avionics system is discussed. Modular design, interchangeable units, optical attenuators, and system fault detection are considered with respect to peripheral vision display systems.

  18. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Flexible System for Automated 3D Cell Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Gallert, C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-08-01

    The shift from 2D cultures to 3D cultures enables improvement in cell culture research due to better mimicking of in vivo cell behavior and environmental conditions. Different cell lines and applications require altered 3D constructs. The automation of the manufacturing and screening processes can advance the charge stability, quality, repeatability, and precision. In this study we integrated the automated production of three 3D cell constructs (alginate beads, spheroid cultures, pellet cultures) using the Biomek Cell Workstation and compared them with the traditional manual methods and their consequent bioscreening processes (proliferation, toxicity; days 14 and 35) using a high-throughput screening system. Moreover, the possible influence of antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin) on the production and screening processes was investigated. The cytotoxicity of automatically produced 3D cell cultures (with and without antibiotics) was mainly decreased. The proliferation showed mainly similar or increased results for the automatically produced 3D constructs. We concluded that the traditional manual methods can be replaced by the automated processes. Furthermore, the formation, cultivation, and screenings can be performed without antibiotics to prevent possible effects.

  19. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  20. A convolutional learning system for object classification in 3-D Lidar data.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Danil

    2010-05-01

    In this brief, a convolutional learning system for classification of segmented objects represented in 3-D as point clouds of laser reflections is proposed. Several novelties are discussed: (1) extension of the existing convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to direct processing of 3-D data in a multiview setting which may be helpful for rotation-invariant consideration, (2) improvement of CNN training effectiveness by employing a stochastic meta-descent (SMD) method, and (3) combination of unsupervised and supervised training for enhanced performance of CNN. CNN performance is illustrated on a two-class data set of objects in a segmented outdoor environment.

  1. An orthognathic simulation system integrating teeth, jaw and face data using 3D cephalometry.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, N; Tsuji, M; Shigematsu, M; Goto, M

    2007-07-01

    A method for simulating the movement of teeth, jaw and face caused by orthognathic surgery is proposed, characterized by the use of 3D cephalometric data for 3D simulation. Computed tomography data are not required. The teeth and facial data are obtained by a laser scanner and the data for the patient's mandible are reconstructed and integrated according to 3D cephalometry using a projection-matching technique. The mandibular form is simulated by transforming a generic model to match the patient's cephalometric data. This system permits analysis of bone movement at each individual part, while also helping in the choice of optimal osteotomy design considering the influences on facial soft-tissue form.

  2. A diffuser-based three-dimensional measurement of polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of optical films for 3D-display applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Yeon; Seo, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-26

    We propose an accurate and easy-to-use three-dimensional measurement method using a diffuser plate to analyze the scattering characteristics of optical films. The far-field radiation pattern of light scattered by the optical film is obtained from the illuminance pattern created on the diffuser plate by the light. A mathematical model and calibration methods were described, and the results were compared with those obtained by a direct measurement using a luminance meter. The new method gave very precise three-dimensional polarization-dependent scattering characteristics of scattering polarizer films, and it can play an effective role in developing high performance polarization-selective screens for 3D display applications. PMID:25835866

  3. A Comparison of the Perceptual Benefits of Linear Perspective and Physically-Based Illumination for Display of Dense 3D Streamtubes

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, David C

    2008-01-01

    Large datasets typically contain coarse features comprised of finer sub-features. Even if the shapes of the small structures are evident in a 3D display, the aggregate shapes they suggest may not be easily inferred. From previous studies in shape perception, the evidence has not been clear whether physically-based illumination confers any advantage over local illumination for understanding scenes that arise in visualization of large data sets that contain features at two distinct scales. In this paper we show that physically- based illumination can improve the perception for some static scenes of complex 3D geometry from flow fields. We perform human- subjects experiments to quantify the effect of physically-based illumination on participant performance for two tasks: selecting the closer of two streamtubes from a field of tubes, and identifying the shape of the domain of a flow field over different densities of tubes. We find that physically-based illumination influences participant performance as strongly as perspective projection, suggesting that physically-based illumination is indeed a strong cue to the layout of complex scenes. We also find that increasing the density of tubes for the shape identification task improved participant performance under physically-based illumination but not under the traditional hardware-accelerated illumination model.

  4. 3D Game-Based Learning System for Improving Learning Achievement in Software Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su,Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, such that students could better learn curriculum by 3-dimension virtual reality. To enhance software engineering learning, this paper develops a 3D game-based learning system to assist teaching and assess the students' motivation, satisfaction and learning…

  5. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system's trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  6. A framework for human spine imaging using a freehand 3D ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Ketut E; Wilkinson, Michael H F; Veldhuizen, Albert G; van Ooijen, Peter M A; Lubbers, Jaap; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Sardjono, Tri A; Verkerke, Gijbertus J

    2010-01-01

    The use of 3D ultrasound imaging to follow the progression of scoliosis, i.e., a 3D deformation of the spine, is described. Unlike other current examination modalities, in particular based on X-ray, its non-detrimental effect enables it to be used frequently to follow the progression of scoliosis which sometimes may develop rapidly. Furthermore, 3D ultrasound imaging provides information in 3D directly in contrast to projection methods. This paper describes a feasibility study of an ultrasound system to provide a 3D image of the human spine, and presents a framework of procedures to perform this task. The framework consist of an ultrasound image acquisition procedure to image a large part of the human spine by means of a freehand 3D ultrasound system and a volume reconstruction procedure which was performed in four stages: bin-filling, hole-filling, volume segment alignment, and volume segment compounding. The overall results of the procedures in this framework show that imaging of the human spine using ultrasound is feasible. Vertebral parts such as the transverse processes, laminae, superior articular processes, and spinous process of the vertebrae appear as clouds of voxels having intensities higher than the surrounding voxels. In sagittal slices, a string of transverse processes appears representing the curvature of the spine. In the bin-filling stage the estimated mean absolute noise level of a single measurement of a single voxel was determined. Our comparative study for the hole-filling methods based on rank sum statistics proved that the pixel nearest neighbour (PNN) method with variable radius and with the proposed olympic operation is the best method. Its mean absolute grey value error was less in magnitude than the noise level of a single measurement.

  7. a 3d Information System for the Documentation of Archaeologica L Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardissone, P.; Bornaz, L.; Degattis, G.; Domaine, R.

    2013-07-01

    these methodologies and procedures will be presented and described in the article. For the documentation of the archaeological excavations and for the management of the conservation activities (condition assessment, planning, and conservation work). Ad Hoc 3D solutions has costumized 2 special plug-ins of its own software platform Ad Hoc: Ad Hoc Archaeology and Ad Hoc Conservation. The software platform integrates a 3D database management system. All information (measurements, plotting, areas of interests…) are organized according to their correct 3D position. They can be queried using attributes, geometric characteristics or their spatial position. The Ad Hoc Archaeology plug-in allows archeologists to fill out UUSS sheets in an internal database, put them in the correct location within the 3D model of the site, define the mutual relations between the UUSS, divide the different archaeological phases. A simple interface will facilitate the construction of the stratigraphic chart (matrix), in a 3D environment as well (matrix 3D). The Ad Hoc Conservation plug-in permits conservators and restorers to create relationships between the different approaches and descriptions of the same parts of the monument, i.e.: between stratigraphyc units or historical phases and architectural components and/or decay pathologies. The 3D DBMS conservation module uses a codified terminology based on "ICOMOS illustrated glossary of stone deterioration" and other glossary. Specific tools permits restorers to compute correctly surfaces and volumes. In this way decay extension and intensity can be measured with high precision and with an high level of detail, for a correct time and costs estimation of each conservation step.

  8. High-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm x-ray system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansis, Eberhard; Carroll, John D.; Schaefer, Dirk; Doessel, Olaf; Grass, Michael

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the coronary arteries during a cardiac catheter-based intervention can be performed from a C-arm based rotational x-ray angiography sequence. It can support the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, treatment planning, and intervention guidance. 3-D reconstruction also enables quantitative vessel analysis, including vessel dynamics from a time-series of reconstructions. Methods: The strong angular undersampling and motion effects present in gated cardiac reconstruction necessitate the development of special reconstruction methods. This contribution presents a fully automatic method for creating high-quality coronary artery reconstructions. It employs a sparseness-prior based iterative reconstruction technique in combination with projection-based motion compensation. Results: The method is tested on a dynamic software phantom, assessing reconstruction accuracy with respect to vessel radii and attenuation coefficients. Reconstructions from clinical cases are presented, displaying high contrast, sharpness, and level of detail. Conclusions: The presented method enables high-quality 3-D coronary artery imaging on an interventional C-arm system.

  9. A 3D modeling and measurement system for cultural heritage preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guoguang; Zhou, Mingquan; Ren, Pu; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo; Wu, Zhongke

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Heritage reflects the human production, life style and environmental conditions of various historical periods. It exists as one of the major national carriers of national history and culture. In order to do better protection and utilization for these cultural heritages, a system of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and statistical measurement is proposed in this paper. The system solves the problems of cultural heritage's data storage, measurement and analysis. Firstly, for the high precision modeling and measurement problems, range data registration and integration algorithm used to achieve high precision 3D reconstruction. Secondly, multi-view stereo reconstruction method is used to solve the problem of rapid reconstruction by procedures such as the original image data pre-processing, camera calibration, point cloud modeling. At last, the artifacts' measure underlying database is established by calculating the measurements of the 3D model's surface. These measurements contain Euclidean distance between the points on the surface, geodesic distance between the points, normal and curvature in each point, superficial area of a region, volume of model's part and some other measurements. These measurements provide a basis for carrying out information mining of cultural heritage. The system has been applied to the applications of 3D modeling, data measurement of the Terracotta Warriors relics, Tibetan architecture and some other relics.

  10. 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chien-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency.

  11. Bore-Sight Calibration of Multiple Laser Range Finders for Kinematic 3D Laser Scanning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Sanghyun; Kim, Sangmin; Cho, Hyoungsig; Kim, Changjae; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique has been used for autonomous navigation of mobile systems; now, its applications have been extended to 3D data acquisition of indoor environments. In order to reconstruct 3D scenes of indoor space, the kinematic 3D laser scanning system, developed herein, carries three laser range finders (LRFs): one is mounted horizontally for system-position correction and the other two are mounted vertically to collect 3D point-cloud data of the surrounding environment along the system’s trajectory. However, the kinematic laser scanning results can be impaired by errors resulting from sensor misalignment. In the present study, the bore-sight calibration of multiple LRF sensors was performed using a specially designed double-deck calibration facility, which is composed of two half-circle-shaped aluminum frames. Moreover, in order to automatically achieve point-to-point correspondences between a scan point and the target center, a V-shaped target was designed as well. The bore-sight calibration parameters were estimated by a constrained least squares method, which iteratively minimizes the weighted sum of squares of residuals while constraining some highly-correlated parameters. The calibration performance was analyzed by means of a correlation matrix. After calibration, the visual inspection of mapped data and residual calculation confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed calibration approach. PMID:25946627

  12. 3D homogeneity study in PMMA layers using a Fourier domain OCT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briones-R., Manuel de J.; Torre-Ibarra, Manuel H. De La; Tavera, Cesar G.; Luna H., Juan M.; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Micro-metallic particles embedded in polymers are now widely used in several industrial applications in order to modify the mechanical properties of the bulk. A uniform distribution of these particles inside the polymers is highly desired for instance, when a biological backscattering is simulated or a bio-framework is designed. A 3D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography system to detect the polymer's internal homogeneity is proposed. This optical system has a 2D camera sensor array that records a fringe pattern used to reconstruct with a single shot the tomographic image of the sample. The system gathers the full 3D tomographic and optical phase information during a controlled deformation by means of a motion linear stage. This stage avoids the use of expensive tilting stages, which in addition are commonly controlled by piezo drivers. As proof of principle, a series of different deformations were proposed to detect the uniform or non-uniform internal deposition of copper micro particles. The results are presented as images coming from the 3D tomographic micro reconstruction of the samples, and the 3D optical phase information that identifies the in-homogeneity regions within the Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) volume.

  13. Angle extended linear MEMS scanning system for 3D laser vision sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yajun; Zhang, Yinxin; Yang, Huaidong; Zhu, Pan; Gai, Ye; Zhao, Jian; Huang, Zhanhua

    2016-09-01

    Scanning system is often considered as the most important part for 3D laser vision sensor. In this paper, we propose a method for the optical system design of angle extended linear MEMS scanning system, which has features of huge scanning degree, small beam divergence angle and small spot size for 3D laser vision sensor. The principle of design and theoretical formulas are derived strictly. With the help of software ZEMAX, a linear scanning optical system based on MEMS has been designed. Results show that the designed system can extend scanning angle from ±8° to ±26.5° with a divergence angle small than 3.5 mr, and the spot size is reduced for 4.545 times.

  14. Nondestructive optical testing of 3D disperse systems with micro- and nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukova, Alexandra G.

    2005-04-01

    Nondestructive testing and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) disperse systems (DS) with micro- and nano-particles of different nature by complex of optical compatible methods can provide further progress in on-line control of water and air. The simultaneous analysis of 3D-DS by refractometry, absorbency, fluorescence and by different types of light scattering can help to elaborate the sensing elements for specific impurity control. In our research we have investigated by complex of optical methods different 3D-DS such as: proteins, nucleoproteids, lipoproteids, liposomes, viruses, virosomes, lipid emulsions, blood substitutes, latexes, liquid crystals, biological cells with various form and size (including bacterial cells), metallic powders, clays, kimberlites, zeolites, oils, crude oils, etc., and mixtures -- proteins with nucleic acids, liposomes and viruses, liquid crystals with surfactants, mixtures of clay with bacterial cells, samples of natural and water-supply waters, etc. This experience suggests that the set of optical parameters of so called second class is unique for each 3D-DS. In another words each DS can be characterized by n-dimensional vector in n-dimensional space of optical parameters. Mixtures can be considered as polycomponent and polymodal 3D-DS (such as natural water and air). Due to the fusion of various optical data it is possible to indicate by information statistical theory the inverse physical problem on the presence of impurities in mixtures (viruses, bacteria, oil, metallic particles, etc.), and in this case polymodality of particle size distribution is not an obstacle. Bank of optical data for 3D-DS is the base for analysis by information-statistical method.

  15. Takeoff Performance Monitoring System display options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The development of displays for the Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TPMS) is described with attention given to the three concepts prepared for commercial applications. The TPMS algorithm is described and related to the display requirements for pilots of two-engine airplanes. Head-up and -down displays are considered for displaying the simple advisory data which indicate whether the takeoff is a 'Go' or 'No-go' based on engine failure, acceleration error, and runway length. Six pilots are shown the three display options which include: (1) basic information; (2) basic data with 'Go/No-go' advisory flags; and (3) basic data, advisory flags, and an abort-warning symbol. The pilots tended to select the option with the most advisory data available, but the inconclusive preference study led to the concept of presenting all three configurations as possible display options for the TPMS.

  16. Automatic 3D power line reconstruction of multi-angular imaging power line inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wuming; Yan, Guangjian; Wang, Ning; Li, Qiaozhi; Zhao, Wei

    2007-06-01

    We develop a multi-angular imaging power line inspection system. Its main objective is to monitor the relative distance between high voltage power line and around objects, and alert if the warning threshold is exceeded. Our multi-angular imaging power line inspection system generates DSM of the power line passage, which comprises ground surface and ground objects, for example trees and houses, etc. For the purpose of revealing the dangerous regions, where ground objects are too close to the power line, 3D power line information should be extracted at the same time. In order to improve the automation level of extraction, reduce labour costs and human errors, an automatic 3D power line reconstruction method is proposed and implemented. It can be achieved by using epipolar constraint and prior knowledge of pole tower's height. After that, the proper 3D power line information can be obtained by space intersection using found homologous projections. The flight experiment result shows that the proposed method can successfully reconstruct 3D power line, and the measurement accuracy of the relative distance satisfies the user requirement of 0.5m.

  17. CELSS-3D: a broad computer model simulating a controlled ecological life support system.

    PubMed

    Schneegurt, M A; Sherman, L A

    1997-01-01

    CELSS-3D is a dynamic, deterministic, and discrete computer simulation of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) focusing on biological issues. A series of linear difference equations within a graphic-based modeling environment, the IThink program, was used to describe a modular CELSS system. The overall model included submodels for crop growth chambers, food storage reservoirs, the human crew, a cyanobacterial growth chamber, a waste processor, fixed nitrogen reservoirs, and the atmospheric gases, CO, O2, and N2. The primary process variable was carbon, although oxygen and nitrogen flows were also modeled. Most of the input data used in CELSS-3D were from published sources. A separate linear optimization program, What'sBest!, was used to compare options for the crew's vegetarian diet. CELSS-3D simulations were run for the equivalent of 3 years with a 1-h time interval. Output from simulations run under nominal conditions was used to illustrate dynamic changes in the concentrations of atmospheric gases. The modular design of CELSS-3D will allow other configurations and various failure scenarios to be tested and compared.

  18. CELSS-3D: a broad computer model simulating a controlled ecological life support system.

    PubMed

    Schneegurt, M A; Sherman, L A

    1997-01-01

    CELSS-3D is a dynamic, deterministic, and discrete computer simulation of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) focusing on biological issues. A series of linear difference equations within a graphic-based modeling environment, the IThink program, was used to describe a modular CELSS system. The overall model included submodels for crop growth chambers, food storage reservoirs, the human crew, a cyanobacterial growth chamber, a waste processor, fixed nitrogen reservoirs, and the atmospheric gases, CO, O2, and N2. The primary process variable was carbon, although oxygen and nitrogen flows were also modeled. Most of the input data used in CELSS-3D were from published sources. A separate linear optimization program, What'sBest!, was used to compare options for the crew's vegetarian diet. CELSS-3D simulations were run for the equivalent of 3 years with a 1-h time interval. Output from simulations run under nominal conditions was used to illustrate dynamic changes in the concentrations of atmospheric gases. The modular design of CELSS-3D will allow other configurations and various failure scenarios to be tested and compared. PMID:11540449

  19. Pipeline inwall 3D measurement system based on the cross structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Da; Lin, Zhipeng; Xue, Lei; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to accurately realize the defect detection of pipeline inwall, this paper proposes a measurement system made up of cross structured light, single CCD camera and a smart car, etc. Based on structured light measurement technology, this paper mainly introduces the structured light measurement system, the imaging mathematical model, and the parameters and method of camera calibration. Using these measuring principles and methods, the camera in remote control car platform achieves continuous shooting of objects and real-time rebound processing as well as utilizing established model to extract 3D point cloud coordinate to reconstruct pipeline defects, so it is possible to achieve 3D automatic measuring, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of this system. It has been found that this system has great measurement accuracy in practice.

  20. Prediction of parallel NIKE3D performance on the KSR1 system

    SciTech Connect

    Su, P.S.; Zacharia, T.; Fulton, R.E.

    1995-05-01

    Finite element method is one of the bases for numerical solutions to engineering problems. Complex engineering problems using finite element analysis typically imply excessively large computational time. Parallel supercomputers have the potential for significantly increasing calculation speeds in order to meet these computational requirements. This paper predicts parallel NIKE3D performance on the Kendall Square Research (KSR1) system. The first part of the prediction is based on the implementation of parallel Cholesky (U{sup T}DU) matrix decomposition algorithm through actual computations on the KSRI multiprocessor system, with 64 processors, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The other predictions are based on actual computations for parallel element matrix generation, parallel global stiffness matrix assembly, and parallel forward/backward substitution on the BBN TC2000 multiprocessor system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The preliminary results indicate that parallel NIKE3D performance can be attractive under local/shared-memory multiprocessor system environments.

  1. Hydra 1 data display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgkins, R. L.; Osgood, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    System, named Hydra, generates charts, graphs, and printed matter on slides or conventional negatives and positives, and combines these media with a capability of storage on magnetic tape for future updating to accommodate engineering changes or contract modifications to be readily added to basic data.

  2. Micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing for complex tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Koch, Alia; Jun, Yena; Chou, Conrad; Awadallah, Mary R; Lee, Chang H

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as an efficient tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, given its advantages for constructing custom-designed scaffolds with tunable microstructure/physical properties. Here we developed a micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffolds. PLGA microspheres (μS) were encapsulated with growth factors (GFs) and then embedded inside PCL microfibers that constitute custom-designed 3D scaffolds. Given the substantial difference in the melting points between PLGA and PCL and their low heat conductivity, μS were able to maintain its original structure while protecting GF's bioactivities. Micro-precise spatial control of multiple GFs was achieved by interchanging dispensing cartridges during a single printing process. Spatially controlled delivery of GFs, with a prolonged release, guided formation of multi-tissue interfaces from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs). To investigate efficacy of the micro-precise delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffold, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc scaffolds were fabricated with micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery of CTGF and TGFβ3, mimicking native-like multiphase fibrocartilage. In vitro, TMJ disc scaffolds spatially embedded with CTGF/TGFβ3-μS resulted in formation of multiphase fibrocartilaginous tissues from MSCs. In vivo, TMJ disc perforation was performed in rabbits, followed by implantation of CTGF/TGFβ3-μS-embedded scaffolds. After 4 wks, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly improved healing of the perforated TMJ disc as compared to the degenerated TMJ disc in the control group with scaffold embedded with empty μS. In addition, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly prevented arthritic changes on TMJ condyles. In conclusion, our micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing may serve as an efficient tool to regenerate complex and inhomogeneous tissues. PMID

  3. Micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing for complex tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Koch, Alia; Jun, Yena; Chou, Conrad; Awadallah, Mary R; Lee, Chang H

    2016-04-25

    Three dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as an efficient tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, given its advantages for constructing custom-designed scaffolds with tunable microstructure/physical properties. Here we developed a micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffolds. PLGA microspheres (μS) were encapsulated with growth factors (GFs) and then embedded inside PCL microfibers that constitute custom-designed 3D scaffolds. Given the substantial difference in the melting points between PLGA and PCL and their low heat conductivity, μS were able to maintain its original structure while protecting GF's bioactivities. Micro-precise spatial control of multiple GFs was achieved by interchanging dispensing cartridges during a single printing process. Spatially controlled delivery of GFs, with a prolonged release, guided formation of multi-tissue interfaces from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs). To investigate efficacy of the micro-precise delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffold, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc scaffolds were fabricated with micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery of CTGF and TGFβ3, mimicking native-like multiphase fibrocartilage. In vitro, TMJ disc scaffolds spatially embedded with CTGF/TGFβ3-μS resulted in formation of multiphase fibrocartilaginous tissues from MSCs. In vivo, TMJ disc perforation was performed in rabbits, followed by implantation of CTGF/TGFβ3-μS-embedded scaffolds. After 4 wks, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly improved healing of the perforated TMJ disc as compared to the degenerated TMJ disc in the control group with scaffold embedded with empty μS. In addition, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly prevented arthritic changes on TMJ condyles. In conclusion, our micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing may serve as an efficient tool to regenerate complex and inhomogeneous tissues.

  4. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilárd S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-03-15

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydrodynamic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydrodynamics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as the first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydrodynamic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydrodynamic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of

  5. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilárd S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-03-15

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydrodynamic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydrodynamics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as the first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydrodynamic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydrodynamic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of

  6. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p < 0.05). Comparisons between ventricle volumes from 3D US and MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  7. A 3D human neural cell culture system for modeling Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; D’Avanzo, Carla; Hebisch, Matthias; Sliwinski, Christopher; Bylykbashi, Enjana; Washicosky, Kevin J.; Klee, Justin B.; Brüstle, Oliver; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell technologies have facilitated the development of human cellular disease models that can be used to study pathogenesis and test therapeutic candidates. These models hold promise for complex neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) because existing animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate all aspects of pathology. We recently reported the characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) culture system that exhibits key events in AD pathogenesis, including extracellular aggregation of β-amyloid and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here we provide instructions for the generation and analysis of 3D human neural cell cultures, including the production of genetically modified human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) with familial AD mutations, the differentiation of the hNPCs in a 3D matrix, and the analysis of AD pathogenesis. The 3D culture generation takes 1–2 days. The aggregation of β-amyloid is observed after 6-weeks of differentiation followed by robust tau pathology after 10–14 weeks. PMID:26068894

  8. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values. PMID:24371468

  9. First 3D reconstruction of the rhizocephalan root system using MicroCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noever, Christoph; Keiler, Jonas; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic barnacles (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) are highly specialized parasites of crustaceans. Instead of an alimentary tract for feeding they utilize a system of roots, which infiltrates the body of their hosts to absorb nutrients. Using X-ray micro computer tomography (MicroCT) and computer-aided 3D-reconstruction, we document the spatial organization of this root system, the interna, inside the intact host and also demonstrate its use for morphological examinations of the parasites reproductive part, the externa. This is the first 3D visualization of the unique root system of the Rhizocephala in situ, showing how it is related to the inner organs of the host. We investigated the interna from different parasitic barnacles of the family Peltogastridae, which are parasitic on anomuran crustaceans. Rhizocephalan parasites of pagurid hermit crabs and lithodid crabs were analysed in this study.

  10. Coupled Neutron-Photon, 3-D, Combinatorial Geometry, Time Dependent, Monte Carlo Transport Code System.

    2013-06-24

    Version 07 TART2012 is a coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code designed to use three-dimensional (3-D) combinatorial geometry. Neutron and/or photon sources as well as neutron induced photon production can be tracked. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART2012 is also incredibly FAST; if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared tomore » other similar codes. Use of the entire system can save you a great deal of time and energy. TART2012 extends the general utility of the code to even more areas of application than available in previous releases by concentrating on improving the physics, particularly with regard to improved treatment of neutron fission, resonance self-shielding, molecular binding, and extending input options used by the code. Several utilities are included for creating input files and displaying TART results and data. TART2012 uses the latest ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, data. New for TART2012 is the use of continuous energy neutron cross sections, in addition to its traditional multigroup cross sections. For neutron interaction, the data are derived using ENDF-ENDL2005 and include both continuous energy cross sections and 700 group neutron data derived using a combination of ENDF/B-VI, Release 8, and ENDL data. The 700 group structure extends from 10-5 eV up to 1 GeV. Presently nuclear data are only available up to 20 MeV, so that only 616 of the groups are currently used. For photon interaction, 701 point photon data were derived using the Livermore EPDL97 file. The new 701 point structure extends from 100 eV up to 1 GeV, and is currently used over this entire energy range. TART2012 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that one use only the most recent version of TART2012 and its data files. Check author’s homepage for related information: http

  11. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  12. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  13. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    PubMed

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed.

  14. 3D Image Acquisition System Based on Shape from Focus Technique

    PubMed Central

    Billiot, Bastien; Cointault, Frédéric; Journaux, Ludovic; Simon, Jean-Claude; Gouton, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a 3D image acquisition system dedicated to natural complex scenes composed of randomly distributed objects with spatial discontinuities. In agronomic sciences, the 3D acquisition of natural scene is difficult due to the complex nature of the scenes. Our system is based on the Shape from Focus technique initially used in the microscopic domain. We propose to adapt this technique to the macroscopic domain and we detail the system as well as the image processing used to perform such technique. The Shape from Focus technique is a monocular and passive 3D acquisition method that resolves the occlusion problem affecting the multi-cameras systems. Indeed, this problem occurs frequently in natural complex scenes like agronomic scenes. The depth information is obtained by acting on optical parameters and mainly the depth of field. A focus measure is applied on a 2D image stack previously acquired by the system. When this focus measure is performed, we can create the depth map of the scene. PMID:23591964

  15. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  16. Three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic X windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safier, Scott A.; Siegel, Mel

    1995-03-01

    All known technologies for displaying 3D-stereoscopic images are more or less incompatible with the X Window System. Applications that seek to be portable must support the 3D-display paradigms of multiple hardware implementations of 3D-stereoscopy. We have succeeded in modifying the functionality of X to construct generic tools for displaying 3D-stereoscopic imagery. Our approach allows for experimentation with visualization techniques and techniques for interacting with these synthetic worlds. Our methodology inherits the extensibility and portability of X. We have demonstrated its applicability in two display hardware paradigms that are specifically discussed.

  17. The Backlight Control System Aimed at Reducing Crosstalk in Autostereoscopic Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yalan; Wang, Yuanqing; Cao, Liqun; Han, Lei; Zhou, Biye; Li, Minggao

    2014-06-01

    In order to realize auto-stereoscopic display, a new directional optic structure was proposed in this article, by providing only a pair of parallax images time-sequentially, aided with the human eye tracking system, a multi-user stereo-parallax 3D displayer with full resolution was invented. Meanwhile, the backlight control system of this displayer based on the simple microcontroller was mainly focused, in view of the crosstalk existed in 3D displays, three effective methods to reduce crosstalk were put forward: reduced lit time ratio of the directional backlight, faster refresh LCD and the application of Kalman prediction interpolation. As the experimental results shows, these methods achieve a good performance in reducing crosstalk, and finally a strong 3D visual effect without loss of resolution is achieved.

  18. Three-Dimensional Stereographic Pictorial Visual Interfaces And Display Systems In Flight Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Alan L.; Reising, John M.

    1987-06-01

    By combining stereoscopic aspects of vision with other optical clues, the pilot of a flight simulator is able to perceive true three-dimensional representations of pictorial display formats or simulated visual scenes. Three-dimensional (3-D) stereographic pictorial formats and their corresponding display systems are being developed and evaluated in order to determine the payoffs of the 3-D computer-generated display formats in the cockpit. The objectives of this research in true three-dimensional cockpit imagery are 1) to determine whether a pilot can better interpret complex pictorial display formats or visual scenes when the third dimension is added and 2) to determine how motion and depth cues can be used to tightly couple the human responses of the pilot to the aircraft control systems. This paper reviews current research, development, and evaluation of easily modifiable 3-D stereo-graphic pictorial display systems being used at the Advanced Cockpit Display Laboratory (ACDL), Lockheed-Georgia Company and at the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB. This research includes the analysis and development of true 3-D pictorial formats representing the entire 3-D flight profile; e.g., displays for terrain following/terrain avoidance/threat avoidance and air-to-air and air-to-surface weapon delivery. Electro-optical shuttering systems; e.g., active and passive liquid crystal shutters (LCSs), stereographic display systems, and high-performance pseudo 3-D computer graphics workstations (Silicon Graphics IRIS), are being used to generate stereo pairs. Sidestick and throttle controllers are used to fly through the visual database. These near real-time simulations will be performed in realistic fighter and transport cockpit shells, which may evolve into 1995 designs.

  19. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  20. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE∕optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    PubMed Central

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5× scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1×3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5× commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to ∼2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in opaqueness

  1. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Sakhalkar, H S; Adamovics, J; Ibbott, G; Oldham, M

    2009-01-01

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5x scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H&N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1 x 3 cm2) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5x commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to approximately 2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in

  2. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M.

    2009-01-15

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5x scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H and N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1x3 cm{sup 2}) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5x commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to {approx}2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in

  3. An innovative system for 3D clinical photography in the resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is the most frequently occurring cancer in Mozambique among men and the second most frequently occurring cancer among women. Effective therapeutic treatments for KS are poorly understood in this area. There is an unmet need to develop a simple but accurate tool for improved monitoring and diagnosis in a resource-limited setting. Standardized clinical photographs have been considered to be an essential part of the evaluation. Methods When a therapeutic response is achieved, nodular KS often exhibits a reduction of the thickness without a change in the base area of the lesion. To evaluate the vertical space along with other characters of a KS lesion, we have created an innovative imaging system with a consumer light-field camera attached to a miniature “photography studio” adaptor. The image file can be further processed by computational methods for quantification. Results With this novel imaging system, each high-quality 3D image was consistently obtained with a single camera shot at bedside by minimally trained personnel. After computational processing, all-focused photos and measurable 3D parameters were obtained. More than 80 KS image sets were processed in a semi-automated fashion. Conclusions In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility to use a simple, low-cost and user-friendly system has been established for future clinical study to monitor KS therapeutic response. This 3D imaging system can be also applied to obtain standardized clinical photographs for other diseases. PMID:24929434

  4. Tree root systems competing for soil moisture in a 3D soil-plant model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Bonetti, Sara; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Putti, Mario; Katul, Gabriel; Marani, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Competition for water among multiple tree rooting systems is investigated using a soil-plant model that accounts for soil moisture dynamics and root water uptake (RWU), whole plant transpiration, and leaf-level photosynthesis. The model is based on a numerical solution to the 3D Richards equation modified to account for a 3D RWU, trunk xylem, and stomatal conductances. The stomatal conductance is determined by combining a conventional biochemical demand formulation for photosynthesis with an optimization hypothesis that selects stomatal aperture so as to maximize carbon gain for a given water loss. Model results compare well with measurements of soil moisture throughout the rooting zone, of total sap flow in the trunk xylem, as well as of leaf water potential collected in a Loblolly pine forest. The model is then used to diagnose plant responses to water stress in the presence of competing rooting systems. Unsurprisingly, the overlap between rooting zones is shown to enhance soil drying. However, the 3D spatial model yielded transpiration-bulk root-zone soil moisture relations that do not deviate appreciably from their proto-typical form commonly assumed in lumped eco-hydrological models. The increased overlap among rooting systems primarily alters the timing at which the point of incipient soil moisture stress is reached by the entire soil-plant system.

  5. Development and application of 3-D foot-shape measurement system under different loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhong; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi

    2008-03-01

    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system under different loads based on laser-line-scanning principle was designed and the model of the measurement system was developed. 3-D foot-shape measurements without blind areas under different loads and the automatic extraction of foot-parameter are achieved with the system. A global calibration method for CCD cameras using a one-axis motion unit in the measurement system and the specialized calibration kits is presented. Errors caused by the nonlinearity of CCD cameras and other devices and caused by the installation of the one axis motion platform, the laser plane and the toughened glass plane can be eliminated by using the nonlinear coordinate mapping function and the Powell optimized method in calibration. Foot measurements under different loads for 170 participants were conducted and the statistic foot parameter measurement results for male and female participants under non-weight condition and changes of foot parameters under half-body-weight condition, full-body-weight condition and over-body-weight condition compared with non-weight condition are presented. 3-D foot-shape measurement under different loads makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization, and establishment of a feet database for consumers and athletes.

  6. Design of virtual display and testing system for moving mass electromechanical actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhigang; Geng, Keda; Zhou, Jun; Li, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the problem of control, measurement and movement virtual display of moving mass electromechanical actuator(MMEA), the virtual testing system of MMEA was developed based on the PC-DAQ architecture and the software platform of LabVIEW, and the comprehensive test task such as drive control of MMEA, tests of kinematic parameter, measurement of centroid position and virtual display of movement could be accomplished. The system could solve the alignment for acquisition time between multiple measurement channels in different DAQ cards, then on this basis, the researches were focused on the dynamic 3D virtual display by the LabVIEW, and the virtual display of MMEA were realized by the method of calling DLL and the method of 3D graph drawing controls. Considering the collaboration with the virtual testing system, including the hardware drive, the measurement software of data acquisition, and the 3D graph drawing controls method was selected, which could obtained the synchronization measurement, control and display. The system can measure dynamic centroid position and kinematic position of movable mass block while controlling the MMEA, and the interface of 3D virtual display has realistic effect and motion smooth, which can solve the problem of display and playback about MMEA in the closed shell.

  7. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  8. 3D real-time measurement system of seam with laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min-shuang; Huang, Jun-fen

    2014-02-01

    3-D Real-time Measurement System of seam outline based on Moiré Projection is proposed and designed. The system is composed of LD, grating, CCD, video A/D, FPGA, DSP and an output interface. The principle and hardware makeup of high-speed and real-time image processing circuit based on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are introduced. Noise generation mechanism in poor welding field conditions is analyzed when Moiré stripes are projected on a welding workpiece surface. Median filter is adopted to smooth the acquired original laser image of seam, and then measurement results of a 3-D outline image of weld groove are provided.

  9. An efficient solid modeling system based on a hand-held 3D laser scan device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The hand-held 3D laser scanner sold in the market is appealing for its port and convenient to use, but price is expensive. To develop such a system based cheap devices using the same principles as the commercial systems is impossible. In this paper, a simple hand-held 3D laser scanner is developed based on a volume reconstruction method using cheap devices. Unlike convenient laser scanner to collect point cloud of an object surface, the proposed method only scan few key profile curves on the surface. Planar section curve network can be generated from these profile curves to construct a volume model of the object. The details of design are presented, and illustrated by the example of a complex shaped object.

  10. Remote measurement methods for 3-D modeling purposes using BAE Systems' Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Stewart; Pietrzak, Arleta

    2015-06-01

    Efficient, accurate data collection from imagery is the key to an economical generation of useful geospatial products. Incremental developments of traditional geospatial data collection and the arrival of new image data sources cause new software packages to be created and existing ones to be adjusted to enable such data to be processed. In the past, BAE Systems' digital photogrammetric workstation, SOCET SET®, met fin de siècle expectations in data processing and feature extraction. Its successor, SOCET GXP®, addresses today's photogrammetric requirements and new data sources. SOCET GXP is an advanced workstation for mapping and photogrammetric tasks, with automated functionality for triangulation, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) extraction, orthorectification and mosaicking, feature extraction and creation of 3-D models with texturing. BAE Systems continues to add sensor models to accommodate new image sources, in response to customer demand. New capabilities added in the latest version of SOCET GXP facilitate modeling, visualization and analysis of 3-D features.

  11. Implementation of parallel matrix decomposition for NIKE3D on the KSR1 system

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Philip S.; Fulton, R.E.; Zacharia, T.

    1995-06-01

    New massively parallel computer architecture has revolutionized the design of computer algorithms and promises to have significant influence on algorithms for engineering computations. Realistic engineering problems using finite element analysis typically imply excessively large computational requirements. Parallel supercomputers that have the potential for significantly increasing calculation speeds can meet these computational requirements. This report explores the potential for the parallel Cholesky (U{sup T}DU) matrix decomposition algorithm on NIKE3D through actual computations. The examples of two- and three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic finite element problems are presented on the Kendall Square Research (KSR1) multiprocessor system, with 64 processors, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The numerical results indicate that the parallel Cholesky (U{sup T}DU) matrix decomposition algorithm is attractive for NIKE3D under multi-processor system environments.

  12. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.

    2004-09-19

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  13. Display-management system for MFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is controlled by 65 local control microcomputers which are supervised by a local network of nine 32-bit minicomputers. Associated with seven of the nine computers are state-of-the-art graphics devices, each with extensive local processing capability. These devices provide the means for an operator to interact with the control software running on the minicomputers. It is critical that the information the operator views accurately reflects the current state of the experiment. This information is integrated into dynamically changing pictures called displays. The primary organizational component of the display system is the software-addressable segment. The segments created by the display creation software are managed by display managers associated with each graphics device. Each display manager uses sophisticated storage management mechanisms to keep the proper segments resident in the local graphics device storage.

  14. A 3D-elastography-guided system for laparoscopic partial nephrectomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolka, Philipp J.; Keil, Matthias; Sakas, Georgios; McVeigh, Elliot; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Taylor, Russell H.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2010-02-01

    We present an image-guided intervention system based on tracked 3D elasticity imaging (EI) to provide a novel interventional modality for registration with pre-operative CT. The system can be integrated in both laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomies scenarios, where this new use of EI makes exact intra-operative execution of pre-operative planning possible. Quick acquisition and registration of 3D-B-Mode and 3D-EI volume data allows intra-operative registration with CT and thus with pre-defined target and critical regions (e.g. tumors and vasculature). Their real-time location information is then overlaid onto a tracked endoscopic video stream to help the surgeon avoid vessel damage and still completely resect tumors including safety boundaries. The presented system promises to increase the success rate for partial nephrectomies and potentially for a wide range of other laparoscopic and robotic soft tissue interventions. This is enabled by the three components of robust real-time elastography, fast 3D-EI/CT registration, and intra-operative tracking. With high quality, robust strain imaging (through a combination of parallelized 2D-EI, optimal frame pair selection, and optimized palpation motions), kidney tumors that were previously unregistrable or sometimes even considered isoechoic with conventional B-mode ultrasound can now be imaged reliably in interventional settings. Furthermore, this allows the transformation of planning CT data of kidney ROIs to the intra-operative setting with a markerless mutual-information-based registration, using EM sensors for intraoperative motion tracking. Overall, we present a complete procedure and its development, including new phantom models - both ex vivo and synthetic - to validate image-guided technology and training, tracked elasticity imaging, real-time EI frame selection, registration of CT with EI, and finally a real-time, distributed software architecture. Together, the system allows the surgeon to concentrate

  15. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon; Niu, Guo-Yue; Gochis, David

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM).

  16. Template protection and its implementation in 3D face recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuebing

    2007-04-01

    As biometric recognition systems are widely applied in various application areas, security and privacy risks have recently attracted the attention of the biometric community. Template protection techniques prevent stored reference data from revealing private biometric information and enhance the security of biometrics systems against attacks such as identity theft and cross matching. This paper concentrates on a template protection algorithm that merges methods from cryptography, error correction coding and biometrics. The key component of the algorithm is to convert biometric templates into binary vectors. It is shown that the binary vectors should be robust, uniformly distributed, statistically independent and collision-free so that authentication performance can be optimized and information leakage can be avoided. Depending on statistical character of the biometric template, different approaches for transforming biometric templates into compact binary vectors are presented. The proposed methods are integrated into a 3D face recognition system and tested on the 3D facial images of the FRGC database. It is shown that the resulting binary vectors provide an authentication performance that is similar to the original 3D face templates. A high security level is achieved with reasonable false acceptance and false rejection rates of the system, based on an efficient statistical analysis. The algorithm estimates the statistical character of biometric templates from a number of biometric samples in the enrollment database. For the FRGC 3D face database, the small distinction of robustness and discriminative power between the classification results under the assumption of uniquely distributed templates and the ones under the assumption of Gaussian distributed templates is shown in our tests.

  17. Ultra-Compact, High-Resolution LADAR System for 3D Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jing; Gutierrez, Roman

    2009-01-01

    An eye-safe LADAR system weighs under 500 grams and has range resolution of 1 mm at 10 m. This laser uses an adjustable, tiny microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror that was made in SiWave to sweep laser frequency. The size of the laser device is small (70x50x13 mm). The LADAR uses all the mature fiber-optic telecommunication technologies in the system, making this innovation an efficient performer. The tiny size and light weight makes the system useful for commercial and industrial applications including surface damage inspections, range measurements, and 3D imaging.

  18. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  19. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  20. A complete system for 3D reconstruction of roots for phenotypic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cai, Jinhai; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a complete system for 3D reconstruction of roots grown in a transparent gel medium or washed and suspended in water. The system is capable of being fully automated as it is self calibrating. The system starts with detection of root tips in root images from an image sequence generated by a turntable motion. Root tips are detected using the statistics of Zernike moments on image patches centred on high curvature points on root boundary and Bayes classification rule. The detected root tips are tracked in the image sequence using a multi-target tracking algorithm. Conics are fitted to the root tip trajectories using a novel ellipse fitting algorithm which weighs the data points by its eccentricity. The conics projected from the circular trajectory have a complex conjugate intersection which are image of the circular points. Circular points constraint the image of the absolute conics which are directly related to the internal parameters of the camera. The pose of the camera is computed from the image of the rotation axis and the horizon. The silhouettes of the roots and camera parameters are used to reconstruction the 3D voxel model of the roots. We show the results of real 3D reconstruction of roots which are detailed and realistic for phenotypic analysis. PMID:25381112

  1. Estimation of 3D reconstruction errors in a stereo-vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaoua, A.; Kohler, S.; Hirsch, E.

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents an approach for error estimation for the various steps of an automated 3D vision-based reconstruction procedure of manufactured workpieces. The process is based on a priori planning of the task and built around a cognitive intelligent sensory system using so-called Situation Graph Trees (SGT) as a planning tool. Such an automated quality control system requires the coordination of a set of complex processes performing sequentially data acquisition, its quantitative evaluation and the comparison with a reference model (e.g., CAD object model) in order to evaluate quantitatively the object. To ensure efficient quality control, the aim is to be able to state if reconstruction results fulfill tolerance rules or not. Thus, the goal is to evaluate independently the error for each step of the stereo-vision based 3D reconstruction (e.g., for calibration, contour segmentation, matching and reconstruction) and then to estimate the error for the whole system. In this contribution, we analyze particularly the segmentation error due to localization errors for extracted edge points supposed to belong to lines and curves composing the outline of the workpiece under evaluation. The fitting parameters describing these geometric features are used as quality measure to determine confidence intervals and finally to estimate the segmentation errors. These errors are then propagated through the whole reconstruction procedure, enabling to evaluate their effect on the final 3D reconstruction result, specifically on position uncertainties. Lastly, analysis of these error estimates enables to evaluate the quality of the 3D reconstruction, as illustrated by the shown experimental results.

  2. Three-Dimensional Display System with Dual-Frequency Liquid-Crystal Varifocal Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Date, Munekazu; Takada, Hideaki

    2000-02-01

    A new volumetric three-dimensional (3-D) display system that provides all the visual cues to depth perception has been developed. This system provides flicker-free, large 3-D images of 250 mm in both diameter and depth with a viewing cone from {-}10\\circ to {+}10\\circ. The system is simply composed of a dual-frequency liquid-crystal (LC) varifocal lens (the key device), a two-dimensional display, and two fixed lens. The focal length of the LC varifocal lens can be continuously varied from {-}1.2 to {+}1.5 diopters (1/m) by changing the effective refractive index of LC@. Using a dual-frequency LC for the varifocal lens achieves sufficiently fast operation of at least 60 Hz for flicker-free moving 3-D images. The simple structure of our varifocal lens facilitates the fabrication of a large-diameter lens, resulting in large 3-D images with a sufficient viewing cone.

  3. 3D ultrasound system to investigate intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, J.; de Ribaupierre, S.; Lee, D. S. C.; Mehta, R.; St. Lawrence, K.; Fenster, A.

    2013-11-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common disorder among preterm neonates that is routinely diagnosed and monitored by 2D cranial ultrasound (US). The cerebral ventricles of patients with IVH often have a period of ventricular dilation (ventriculomegaly). This initial increase in ventricle size can either spontaneously resolve, which often shows clinically as a period of stabilization in ventricle size and eventual decline back towards a more normal size, or progressive ventricular dilation that does not stabilize and which may require interventional therapy to reduce symptoms relating to increased intracranial pressure. To improve the characterization of ventricle dilation, we developed a 3D US imaging system that can be used with a conventional clinical US scanner to image the ventricular system of preterm neonates at risk of ventriculomegaly. A motorized transducer housing was designed specifically for hand-held use inside an incubator using a transducer commonly used for cranial 2D US scans. This system was validated using geometric phantoms, US/MRI compatible ventricle volume phantoms, and patient images to determine 3D reconstruction accuracy and inter- and intra-observer volume estimation variability. 3D US geometric reconstruction was found to be accurate with an error of <0.2%. Measured volumes of a US/MRI compatible ventricle-like phantom were within 5% of gold standard water displacement measurements. Intra-class correlation for the three observers was 0.97, showing very high agreement between observers. The coefficient of variation was between 1.8-6.3% for repeated segmentations of the same patient. The minimum detectable difference was calculated to be 0.63 cm3 for a single observer. Results from ANOVA for three observers segmenting three patients of IVH grade II did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) for the measured ventricle volumes between observers. This 3D US system can reliably produce 3D US images of the neonatal ventricular

  4. Design of 3D measurement system based on multi-sensor data fusion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiguang; Han, Jun; Yu, Xun

    2009-05-01

    With the rapid development of shape measurement technique, multi-sensor approach becomes one of valid way to improve the accuracy, to expend measuring range, to reduce occlusion, to realize multi-resolution measurement, and to increase measuring speed simultaneously. Sensors in multi-sensor system can have different system parameters, and they may have different measuring range and different precision. Light sectioning method is one of useful measurement technique for 3D profile measurement. It is insensitive to the surface optical property of 3D object, has scarcely any demand on surrounding. A multi-sensor system scheme, which uses light sectioning method and multi-sensor data fusion techniques, is presented for blade of aviation engine and spiral bevel gear measurement. The system model is developed to build the relationship between measuring range & precision and system parameters. The system parameters were set according to system error analysis, measuring range and precision. The result shows that the system is more universal than it's ancestor, and that the accuracy of the system is about 0.05mm for the 60× 60mm2 measuring range, and that the system is successful for the aero-dynamical data curve of blade of aviation engine and tooth profile of spiral bevel gear measurement with 3600 multi-resolution measuring character.

  5. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  6. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  7. Bucknell Automated Retrieval and Display System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivoire, Helena; Lozoski, Laurene

    This report describes the development and operation of BARDS, the Bucknell Automated Retrieval and Display System, an online bibliographic access system for a selected section of the collection at the Ellen Clarke Bertrand Library. This system was used by the Bucknell University community from June 1974 through January 1975; further development…

  8. A web-based 3D visualisation and assessment system for urban precinct scenario modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubka, Roman; Glackin, Stephen; Lade, Oliver; Pettit, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing number of spatial tools and technologies for enabling better decision-making in the urban environment. They have largely arisen because of the need for cities to be more efficiently planned to accommodate growing populations while mitigating urban sprawl, and also because of innovations in rendering data in 3D being well suited for visualising the urban built environment. In this paper we review a number of systems that are better known and more commonly used in the field of urban planning. We then introduce Envision Scenario Planner (ESP), a web-based 3D precinct geodesign, visualisation and assessment tool, developed using Agile and Co-design methods. We provide a comprehensive account of the tool, beginning with a discussion of its design and development process and concluding with an example use case and a discussion of the lessons learned in its development.

  9. Genetically Encoded Sender–Receiver System in 3D Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Engineering spatial patterning in mammalian cells, employing entirely genetically encoded components, requires solving several problems. These include how to code secreted activator or inhibitor molecules and how to send concentration-dependent signals to neighboring cells, to control gene expression. The Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line is a potential engineering scaffold as it forms hollow spheres (cysts) in 3D culture and tubulates in response to extracellular hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We first aimed to graft a synthetic patterning system onto single developing MDCK cysts. We therefore developed a new localized transfection method to engineer distinct sender and receiver regions. A stable reporter line enabled reversible EGFP activation by HGF and modulation by a secreted repressor (a truncated HGF variant, NK4). By expanding the scale to wide fields of cysts, we generated morphogen diffusion gradients, controlling reporter gene expression. Together, these components provide a toolkit for engineering cell–cell communication networks in 3D cell culture. PMID:24313393

  10. A novel sensor system for 3D face scanning based on infrared coded light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrow, Daniel; Laloni, Claudio; Doemens, Guenter; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we present a novel sensor system for three-dimensional face scanning applications. Its operating principle is based on active triangulation with a color coded light approach. As it is implemented in the near infrared band, the used light is invisible for human perception. Though the proposed sensor is primarily designed for face scanning and biometric applications, its performance characteristics are beneficial for technical applications as well. The acquisition of 3d data is real-time capable, provides accurate and high resolution depthmaps and shows high robustness against ambient light. Hence most of the limiting factors of other sensors for 3d and face scanning applications are eliminated, such as blinding and annoying light patterns, motion constraints and highly restricted scenarios due to ambient light constraints.

  11. Multi-camera sensor system for 3D segmentation and localization of multiple mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Losada, Cristina; Mazo, Manuel; Palazuelos, Sira; Pizarro, Daniel; Marrón, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for obtaining the motion segmentation and 3D localization of multiple mobile robots in an intelligent space using a multi-camera sensor system. The set of calibrated and synchronized cameras are placed in fixed positions within the environment (intelligent space). The proposed algorithm for motion segmentation and 3D localization is based on the minimization of an objective function. This function includes information from all the cameras, and it does not rely on previous knowledge or invasive landmarks on board the robots. The proposed objective function depends on three groups of variables: the segmentation boundaries, the motion parameters and the depth. For the objective function minimization, we use a greedy iterative algorithm with three steps that, after initialization of segmentation boundaries and depth, are repeated until convergence.

  12. Design of a 3D Magnetic Diagnostic System for DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Boivin, R. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Lao, L. L.; Battaglia, D. J.; Logan, N. C.; Hanson, J. M.; Lanctot, M. J.; Sontag, A. C.

    2012-10-01

    A new set of magnetic sensors has been designed to diagnose the 3D plasma response due to applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). The system will also allow for detailed investigation of locked modes and the effects of error fields. This upgrade adds more than 100 co-located radial and poloidal field sensors positioned on the high and low field sides of the tokamak. The sensors are arranged in toroidal and poloidal arrays. Their dimensions and spacing are determined using MARS-F and IPEC model predictions to maximize sensitivity to expected 3D field perturbations. Irregular toroidal spacing is used to minimize the condition numbers for simultaneous recovery of toroidal mode numbers n<=4. A subset of closely spaced sensors will also be installed to measure short wavelength MHD such as ELM precursors and TAEs.

  13. A novel 3D constellation-masked method for physical security in hierarchical OFDMA system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Deming

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel 3D constellation-masked method to ensure the physical security in hierarchical optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access (OFDMA) system. The 3D constellation masking is executed on the two levels of hierarchical modulation and among different OFDM subcarriers, which is realized by the masking vectors. The Lorenz chaotic model is adopted for the generation of masking vectors in the proposed scheme. A 9.85 Gb/s encrypted hierarchical QAM OFDM signal is successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The performance of illegal optical network unit (ONU) with different masking vectors is also investigated. The proposed method is demonstrated to be secure and efficient against the commonly known attacks in the experiment.

  14. Stereovision-based 3D field recognition for automatic guidance system of off-road vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangming; Ying, Yibin; Shen, Chuan; Jiang, Huanyu; Zhang, Qin

    2005-11-01

    A stereovision-based disparity evaluation algorithm was developed for rice crop field recognition. The gray level intensities and the correlation relation were integrated to produce the disparities of stereo-images. The surface of ground and rice were though as two rough planes, but their disparities waved in a narrow range. The cut/uncut edges of rice crops were first detected and track through the images. We used a step model to locate those edge positions. The points besides the edges were matched respectively to get disparity values using area correlation method. The 3D camera coordinates were computed based on those disparities. The vehicle coordinates were obtained by multiplying the 3D camera coordinates with a transform formula. It has been implemented on an agricultural robot and evaluated in rice crop field with straight rows. The results indicated that the developed stereovision navigation system is capable of reconstructing the field image.

  15. Multi-Camera Sensor System for 3D Segmentation and Localization of Multiple Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Losada, Cristina; Mazo, Manuel; Palazuelos, Sira; Pizarro, Daniel; Marrón, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for obtaining the motion segmentation and 3D localization of multiple mobile robots in an intelligent space using a multi-camera sensor system. The set of calibrated and synchronized cameras are placed in fixed positions within the environment (intelligent space). The proposed algorithm for motion segmentation and 3D localization is based on the minimization of an objective function. This function includes information from all the cameras, and it does not rely on previous knowledge or invasive landmarks on board the robots. The proposed objective function depends on three groups of variables: the segmentation boundaries, the motion parameters and the depth. For the objective function minimization, we use a greedy iterative algorithm with three steps that, after initialization of segmentation boundaries and depth, are repeated until convergence. PMID:22319297

  16. In vivo 3D visualization of peripheral circulatory system using linear optoacoustic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, Andre; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we modified light illumination of the laser optoacoustic (OA) imaging system to improve the 3D visualization of human forearm vasculature. The computer modeling demonstrated that the new illumination design that features laser beams converging on the surface of the skin in the imaging plane of the probe provides superior OA images in comparison to the images generated by the illumination with parallel laser beams. We also developed the procedure for vein/artery differentiation based on OA imaging with 690 nm and 1080 nm laser wavelengths. The procedure includes statistical analysis of the intensities of OA images of the neighboring blood vessels. Analysis of the OA images generated by computer simulation of a human forearm illuminated at 690 nm and 1080 nm resulted in successful differentiation of veins and arteries. In vivo scanning of a human forearm provided high contrast 3D OA image of a forearm skin and a superficial blood vessel. The blood vessel image contrast was further enhanced after it was automatically traced using the developed software. The software also allowed evaluation of the effective blood vessel diameter at each step of the scan. We propose that the developed 3D OA imaging system can be used during preoperative mapping of forearm vessels that is essential for hemodialysis treatment.

  17. Dense point-cloud creation using superresolution for a monocular 3D reconstruction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-05-01

    We present an enhanced 3D reconstruction algorithm designed to support an autonomously navigated unmanned aerial system (UAS). The algorithm presented focuses on the 3D reconstruction of a scene using only a single moving camera. In this way, the system can be used to construct a point cloud model of its unknown surroundings. The original reconstruction process, resulting with a point cloud was computed based on feature matching and depth triangulation analysis. Although dense, this original model was hindered due to its low disparity resolution. As feature points were matched from frame to frame, the resolution of the input images and the discrete nature of disparities limited the depth computations within a scene. With the recent addition of the preprocessing steps of nonlinear super resolution, the accuracy of the point cloud which relies on precise disparity measurement has significantly increased. Using a pixel by pixel approach, the super resolution technique computes the phase congruency of each pixel's neighborhood and produces nonlinearly interpolated high resolution input frames. Thus, a feature point travels a more precise discrete disparity. Also, the quantity of points within the 3D point cloud model is significantly increased since the number of features is directly proportional to the resolution and high frequencies of the input image. The contribution of the newly added preprocessing steps is measured by evaluating the density and accuracy of the reconstructed point cloud for autonomous navigation and mapping tasks within unknown environments.

  18. 3D cell culture systems modeling tumor growth determinants in cancer target discovery.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Claudio R; Zimmermann, Miriam; Agarkova, Irina; Kelm, Jens M; Krek, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity of cancer cells, cell biological context, heterotypic crosstalk and the microenvironment are key determinants of the multistep process of tumor development. They sign responsible, to a significant extent, for the limited response and resistance of cancer cells to molecular-targeted therapies. Better functional knowledge of the complex intra- and intercellular signaling circuits underlying communication between the different cell types populating a tumor tissue and of the systemic and local factors that shape the tumor microenvironment is therefore imperative. Sophisticated 3D multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) systems provide an emerging tool to model the phenotypic and cellular heterogeneity as well as microenvironmental aspects of in vivo tumor growth. In this review we discuss the cellular, chemical and physical factors contributing to zonation and cellular crosstalk within tumor masses. On this basis, we further describe 3D cell culture technologies for growth of MCTS as advanced tools for exploring molecular tumor growth determinants and facilitating drug discovery efforts. We conclude with a synopsis on technological aspects for on-line analysis and post-processing of 3D MCTS models.

  19. Electronic data generation and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetekamm, Jules

    1988-01-01

    The Electronic Data Generation and Display System (EDGADS) is a field tested paperless technical manual system. The authoring provides subject matter experts the option of developing procedureware from digital or hardcopy inputs of technical information from text, graphics, pictures, and recorded media (video, audio, etc.). The display system provides multi-window presentations of graphics, pictures, animations, and action sequences with text and audio overlays on high resolution color CRT and monochrome portable displays. The database management system allows direct access via hierarchical menus, keyword name, ID number, voice command or touch of a screen pictoral of the item (ICON). It contains operations and maintenance technical information at three levels of intelligence for a total system.

  20. Information Display System for Atypical Flight Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inv