Science.gov

Sample records for 3d distribution calculations

  1. A coordinate transformation method for calculating the 3D light intensity distribution in ICF hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhili; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Kuixia; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Mingyu; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-06-01

    For an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, the light intensity distribution in the hohlraum is key to the initial plasma excitation and later laser-plasma interaction process. Based on the concept of coordinate transformation of spatial points and vector, we present a robust method with a detailed procedure that makes the calculation of the three dimensional (3D) light intensity distribution in hohlraum easily. The method is intuitive but powerful enough to solve the complex cases of random number of laser beams with arbitrary polarization states and incidence angles. Its application is exemplified in the Shenguang III Facility (SG-III) that verifies its effectiveness and it is useful for guiding the design of hohlraum structure parameter.

  2. The lithospheric-scale 3D structural configuration of the North Alpine Foreland Basin constrained by gravity modelling and the calculation of the 3D load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International

  3. 3-D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problems with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.

  4. Comparison of NSTX FIDA, Charge Exchange, and Neutron Fluxes with Calculated Signals Based on CQL3D-FOW Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Kinsey, J. E.; Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Taylor, G.; Bonoli, P. T.

    2014-10-01

    Ion distribution function calculations with CQL3D have been substantially advanced through implementation of guiding-center-orbit-based Fokker-Planck Coefficients. The resulting finite-orbit-width (FOW) calculations are carried out with a fast CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW option, and in a slower but neoclassically complete (except no Er yet) CQL3D-FOW option. Good comparison between time-dependent Fast Ion Diagnostic FIDA, NPA, and neutron signals resulting from neutral beaminjection(NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power injected into the NSTX spherical tokamak have been simulated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, using only the FOW effects on QL diffusion, and particle losses, direct and CX. Comparisons are also made with recent CQL3D-FOW results, as well as between the original FIDA calculation code and a recent fortran version. Supported by USDOE Grants SC0006614, ER54744, and ER44649.

  5. Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.

    PubMed

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-04-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

  6. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Basile, Chiara; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Coca Perez, Marco; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael; Vergara Gil, Alex; Cremonesi, Marta

    2015-03-01

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with 131I, 177Lu, 188Re or 90Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with 90Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D95%, D50% or Dmax (ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax) and dose profiles. For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD95%, ΔD50% and ΔDmax were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for 177Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D95% and D50% underestimations between 30-60% and 15-50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (-1.2%), AM (-3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED. The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by differences among the VSVs

  7. Time-Dependent Distribution Functions in C-Mod Calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA Full-Wave, and DC Lorentz Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W. (Bob); Petrov, Yu. V.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-11-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed ICRF power is made calculating minority hydrogen ion distribution functions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. ICRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code, and RF diffusion coefficients are obtained from these fields using the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, in general agreement with experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these effects on the the NPA synthetic diagnostic time-dependence. The new NPA results give increased agreement with experiment, particularly in the ramp-down time after the ICRF pulse. Funded, through subcontract with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by USDOE sponsored SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions.

  8. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  9. A graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit for the calculation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-phase biological effective dose (BED) distributions including statistical analyses.

    PubMed

    Kauweloa, Kevin I; Gutierrez, Alonso N; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Niko; Mavroidis, Panayiotis

    2016-07-01

    A toolkit has been developed for calculating the 3-dimensional biological effective dose (BED) distributions in multi-phase, external beam radiotherapy treatments such as those applied in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and in multi-prescription treatments. This toolkit also provides a wide range of statistical results related to dose and BED distributions. MATLAB 2010a, version 7.10 was used to create this GUI toolkit. The input data consist of the dose distribution matrices, organ contour coordinates, and treatment planning parameters from the treatment planning system (TPS). The toolkit has the capability of calculating the multi-phase BED distributions using different formulas (denoted as true and approximate). Following the calculations of the BED distributions, the dose and BED distributions can be viewed in different projections (e.g. coronal, sagittal and transverse). The different elements of this toolkit are presented and the important steps for the execution of its calculations are illustrated. The toolkit is applied on brain, head & neck and prostate cancer patients, who received primary and boost phases in order to demonstrate its capability in calculating BED distributions, as well as measuring the inaccuracy and imprecision of the approximate BED distributions. Finally, the clinical situations in which the use of the present toolkit would have a significant clinical impact are indicated.

  10. Production of Lightning NO(x) and its Vertical Distribution Calculated from 3-D Cloud-scale Chemical Transport Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lesley; Pickering, Kenneth; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Allen, Dale; DeCaria, Alex; Ridley, Brian; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lang, Steve; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D cloud scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NO(x), based on observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four field projects. Production per intracloud (P(sub IC) and cloud-to-ground (P(sub CG)) flash is estimated by assuming various values of P(sub IC) and P(sub CG) for each storm and determining which production scenario yields NO(x) mixing ratios that compare most favorably with in-cloud aircraft observations. We obtain a mean P(sub CG) value of 500 moles NO (7 kg N) per flash. The results of this analysis also suggest that on average, P(sub IC) may be nearly equal to P(sub CG), which is contrary to the common assumption that intracloud flashes are significantly less productive of NO than are cloud-to-ground flashes. This study also presents vertical profiles of the mass of lightning NO(x), after convection based on 3-D cloud-scale model simulations. The results suggest that following convection, a large percentage of lightning NO(x), remains in the middle and upper troposphere where it originated, while only a small percentage is found near the surface. The results of this work differ from profiles calculated from 2-D cloud-scale model simulations with a simpler lightning parameterization that were peaked near the surface and in the upper troposphere (referred to as a "C-shaped" profile). The new model results (a backward C-shaped profile) suggest that chemical transport models that assume a C-shaped vertical profile of lightning NO(x) mass may place too much mass neat the surface and too little in the middle troposphere.

  11. Application of DYNA3D in large scale crashworthiness calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.; Igarashi, M.; Shimomaki, K.; Mizuno, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an example of an automobile crashworthiness calculation. Based on our experiences with the example calculation, we make recommendations to those interested in performing crashworthiness calculations. The example presented in this paper was supplied by Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd., and provided a significant shakedown for the new large deformation shell capability of the DYNA3D code. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Multigrid calculations of 3-D turbulent viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Jeffrey W.

    1989-01-01

    Convergence properties of a multigrid algorithm, developed to calculate compressible viscous flows, are analyzed by a vector sequence eigenvalue estimate. The full 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated by an implicit multigrid scheme while a k-epsilon turbulence model is solved, uncoupled from the flow equations. Estimates of the eigenvalue structure for both single and multigrid calculations are compared in an attempt to analyze the process as well as the results of the multigrid technique. The flow through an annular turbine is used to illustrate the scheme's ability to calculate complex 3-D flows.

  13. 3D DIII-D Equilibrium Calculations with Magnetic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiman, Allan; Monticello, Don; Lazerson, Sam

    2012-10-01

    We discuss 3D equilibrium calculations for the DIII-D tokamak that have been performed using the PIES code, focusing particularly on a single shot that has been studied by a number of different codes in the context of the FY 2012 FES Theory Milestone. The shot was part of an experimental campaign to study the suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) using an externally imposed nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbation.

  14. Time-dependent distribution functions and resulting synthetic NPA spectra in C-Mod calculated with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW, AORSA full-wave, and DC Lorentz codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Yu.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Bader, A.

    2015-12-01

    A time-dependent simulation of C-Mod pulsed TCRF power is made obtaining minority hydrogen ion distributions with the CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW finite-orbit-width Fokker-Planck code. Cyclotron-resonant TCRF fields are calculated with the AORSA full wave code. The RF diffusion coefficients used in CQL3D are obtained with the DC Lorentz gyro-orbit code for perturbed particle trajectories in the combined equilibrium and TCRF electromagnetic fields. Prior results with a zero-banana-width simulation using the CQL3D/AORSA/DC time-cycles showed a pronounced enhancement of the H distribution in the perpendicular velocity direction compared to results obtained from Stix's quasilinear theory, and this substantially increased the rampup rate of the observed vertically-viewed neutral particle analyzer (NPA) flux, in general agreement with experiment. However, ramp down of the NPA flux after the pulse, remained long compared to the experiment. The present study compares the new FOW results, including relevant gyro-radius effects, to determine the importance of these new effects on the the NPA time-dependence.

  15. Wavefront scanning method for minimum traveltime calculations in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, F.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.

    1994-12-31

    This paper proposes an efficient way to calculate the shortest travel-time and its correspondent ray-path in three dimension, by using point secondary approximation to depict the wavefront and propagate the travel-time computation along recursively expanding and contracting cubic boxes. Due to its following advantages: (1) the computation order is O(N), where N is the total number of discrete secondary nodes; (2) the memory occupation is relatively small; (3) the algorithm is robust even for high velocity contrast; (4) the minimum travel-time and raypath are computed accurately, this 3-D wavefront scanning raytracing method promises to be real tool for 3-D seismic prestack migration, velocity analysis as well as forward waveform modeling by Maslov asymptotic ray theory.

  16. Generalized poisson 3-D scatterer distributions.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Catherine; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a simple, yet powerful ultrasound scatterer distribution model. The model extends a 1-D generalized Poisson process to multiple dimensions using a Hilbert curve. The model is intuitively tuned by spatial density and regularity parameters which reliably predict the first and second-order statistics of varied synthetic imagery. PMID:19251530

  17. Distributed 3D Information Visualization - Towards Integration of the Dynamic 3D Graphics and Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucinic, Dean; Deen, Danny; Oanta, Emil; Batarilo, Zvonimir; Lacor, Chris

    This paper focuses on visualization and manipulation of graphical content in distributed network environments. The developed graphical middleware and 3D desktop prototypes were specialized for situational awareness. This research was done in the LArge Scale COllaborative decision support Technology (LASCOT) project, which explored and combined software technologies to support human-centred decision support system for crisis management (earthquake, tsunami, flooding, airplane or oil-tanker incidents, chemical, radio-active or other pollutants spreading, etc.). The performed state-of-the-art review did not identify any publicly available large scale distributed application of this kind. Existing proprietary solutions rely on the conventional technologies and 2D representations. Our challenge was to apply the "latest" available technologies, such Java3D, X3D and SOAP, compatible with average computer graphics hardware. The selected technologies are integrated and we demonstrate: the flow of data, which originates from heterogeneous data sources; interoperability across different operating systems and 3D visual representations to enhance the end-users interactions.

  18. Calculating Path-Dependent Travel Time Prediction Variance and Covariance for the SALSA3D Global Tomographic P-Velocity Model with a Distributed Parallel Multi-Core Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipp, J. R.; Encarnacao, A.; Ballard, S.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W. S.; Begnaud, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recently our combined SNL-LANL research team has succeeded in developing a global, seamless 3D tomographic P-velocity model (SALSA3D) that provides superior first P travel time predictions at both regional and teleseismic distances. However, given the variable data quality and uneven data sampling associated with this type of model, it is essential that there be a means to calculate high-quality estimates of the path-dependent variance and covariance associated with the predicted travel times of ray paths through the model. In this paper, we show a methodology for accomplishing this by exploiting the full model covariance matrix. Our model has on the order of 1/2 million nodes, so the challenge in calculating the covariance matrix is formidable: 0.9 TB storage for 1/2 of a symmetric matrix, necessitating an Out-Of-Core (OOC) blocked matrix solution technique. With our approach the tomography matrix (G which includes Tikhonov regularization terms) is multiplied by its transpose (GTG) and written in a blocked sub-matrix fashion. We employ a distributed parallel solution paradigm that solves for (GTG)-1 by assigning blocks to individual processing nodes for matrix decomposition update and scaling operations. We first find the Cholesky decomposition of GTG which is subsequently inverted. Next, we employ OOC matrix multiply methods to calculate the model covariance matrix from (GTG)-1 and an assumed data covariance matrix. Given the model covariance matrix we solve for the travel-time covariance associated with arbitrary ray-paths by integrating the model covariance along both ray paths. Setting the paths equal gives variance for that path. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. 3-D magnetic field calculations for wiggglers using MAGNUS-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pissanetzky, S.; Tompkins, P.

    1988-01-01

    The recent but steady trend toward increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of wigglers and undulators, of which tapered wigglers, hybrid structures, laced electromagnetic wigglers, magnetic cladding, twisters and magic structures are examples, has caused a need for reliable 3-D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic systems in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D Group of Programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3-D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of Magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, linear or nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors of any shape in space. The magnetic properties of permanent magnets are described by the complete nonlinear demagnetization curve as provided by the manufacturer, or, at the user's choice, by a simpler approximation involving the coercive force, the residual induction and the direction of magnetization. The ferromagnetic materials are described by a magnetization table and an accurate interpolation relation. An internal library with properties of common industrial steels is available. The conductors are independent of the mesh and are described in terms of conductor elements from an internal library.

  20. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  1. Optical-CT imaging of complex 3D dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark; Kim, Leonard; Hugo, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    The limitations of conventional dosimeters restrict the comprehensiveness of verification that can be performed for advanced radiation treatments presenting an immediate and substantial problem for clinics attempting to implement these techniques. In essence, the rapid advances in the technology of radiation delivery have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry is a relatively new technique with potential to address this imbalance by providing high resolution 3D dose maps in polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeters. We have constructed a 1st generation optical-CT scanner capable of high resolution 3D dosimetry and applied it to a number of simple and increasingly complex dose distributions including intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT). Prior to application to IMRT, the robustness of optical-CT gel dosimetry was investigated on geometry and variable attenuation phantoms. Physical techniques and image processing methods were developed to minimize deleterious effects of refraction, reflection, and scattered laser light. Here we present results of investigations into achieving accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry with optical-CT, and show clinical examples of 3D IMRT dosimetry verification. In conclusion, optical-CT gel dosimetry can provide high resolution 3D dose maps that greatly facilitate comprehensive verification of complex 3D radiation treatments. Good agreement was observed at high dose levels (>50%) between planned and measured dose distributions. Some systematic discrepancies were observed however (rms discrepancy 3% at high dose levels) indicating further work is required to eliminate confounding factors presently compromising the accuracy of optical-CT 3D gel-dosimetry.

  2. Computer simulation on reconstruction of 3-D flame temperature distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Yung, K. L.; Wu, Z.; Li, T.

    To measure non-symmetric unsteady three dimensional temperature distribution in flame by simple, economic, fast and accurate means, and to apply a priori information to the measurement both sufficiently and efficiently, we conducted computer simulations. Simulation results proved that finite series-expansion reconstruction method is more suitable for measurement of temperature distribution in flame than transform method which is widely used in medical scanning and nondestructive testing. By comparing errors of simulations with different numbers of views, different domain shapes, different numbers of projections per view, different angles of views and different grid shapes, etc., we find that circle domain, triangular grid and sufficient number of projections per view, can improve the accuracy in the reconstruction of 3-D temperature distribution with limited views. With six views, errors caused by reconstruction computation are reduced, they are smaller than those caused by measurement. Therefore, a comparatively better means of measuring 3-D temperature distribution in flame with limited projection views by emission tomography is achieved. Experimental results also showed that the method we used was appropriate for measurement of 3-D temperature distribution with limited number of views [1].

  3. Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the

  4. Eigenvalue Contributon Estimator for Sensitivity Calculations with TSUNAMI-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Williams, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Since the release of the Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) codes in SCALE [1], the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis techniques for criticality safety applications has greatly increased within the user community. In general, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is transitioning from a technique used only by specialists to a practical tool in routine use. With the desire to use the tool more routinely comes the need to improve the solution methodology to reduce the input and computational burden on the user. This paper reviews the current solution methodology of the Monte Carlo eigenvalue sensitivity analysis sequence TSUNAMI-3D, describes an alternative approach, and presents results from both methodologies.

  5. 3D Game Content Distributed Adaptation in Heterogeneous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morán, Francisco; Preda, Marius; Lafruit, Gauthier; Villegas, Paulo; Berretty, Robert-Paul

    2007-12-01

    Most current multiplayer 3D games can only be played on a single dedicated platform (a particular computer, console, or cell phone), requiring specifically designed content and communication over a predefined network. Below we show how, by using signal processing techniques such as multiresolution representation and scalable coding for all the components of a 3D graphics object (geometry, texture, and animation), we enable online dynamic content adaptation, and thus delivery of the same content over heterogeneous networks to terminals with very different profiles, and its rendering on them. We present quantitative results demonstrating how the best displayed quality versus computational complexity versus bandwidth tradeoffs have been achieved, given the distributed resources available over the end-to-end content delivery chain. Additionally, we use state-of-the-art, standardised content representation and compression formats (MPEG-4 AFX, JPEG 2000, XML), enabling deployment over existing infrastructure, while keeping hooks to well-established practices in the game industry.

  6. Calculation of the 3D density model of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskarev, A.; Butsenko, V.; Poselov, V.; Savin, V.

    2009-04-01

    The study of the Earth's crust is a part of investigation aimed at extension of the Russian Federation continental shelf in the Sea of Okhotsk Gathered data allow to consider the Sea of Okhotsk' area located outside the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation as the natural continuation of Russian territory. The Sea of Okhotsk is an Epi-Mesozoic platform with Pre-Cenozoic heterogeneous folded basement of polycyclic development and sediment cover mainly composed of Paleocene - Neocene - Quaternary deposits. Results of processing and complex interpretation of seismic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data along profile 2-DV-M, as well as analysis of available geological and geophysical information on the Sea of Okhotsk region, allowed to calculate of the Earth crust model. 4 layers stand out (bottom-up) in structure of the Earth crust: granulite-basic (density 2.90 g/cm3), granite-gneiss (limits of density 2.60-2.76 g/cm3), volcanogenic-sedimentary (2.45 g/cm3) and sedimentary (density 2.10 g/cm3). The last one is absent on the continent; it is observed only on the water area. Density of the upper mantle is taken as 3.30 g/cm3. The observed gravity anomalies are mostly related to the surface relief of the above mentioned layers or to the density variations of the granite-metamorphic basement. So outlining of the basement blocks of different constitution preceded to the modeling. This operation is executed after Double Fourier Spectrum analysis of the gravity and magnetic anomalies and following compilation of the synthetic anomaly maps, related to the basement density and magnetic heterogeneity. According to bathymetry data, the Sea of Okhotsk can be subdivided at three mega-blocks. Taking in consideration that central Sea of Okhotsk area is aseismatic, i.e. isostatic compensated, it is obvious that Earth crust structure of these three blocks is different. The South-Okhotsk depression is characteristics by 3200-3300 m of sea depths. Moho surface in this area is at

  7. 3D Hail Size Distribution Interpolation/Extrapolation Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    Radar data can usually detect hail; however, it is difficult for present day radar to accurately discriminate between hail and rain. Local ground-based hail sensors are much better at detecting hail against a rain background, and when incorporated with radar data, provide a much better local picture of a severe rain or hail event. The previous disdrometer interpolation/ extrapolation algorithm described a method to interpolate horizontally between multiple ground sensors (a minimum of three) and extrapolate vertically. This work is a modification to that approach that generates a purely extrapolated 3D spatial distribution when using a single sensor.

  8. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell impact ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3d-shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wavefunctions for the target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3d electrons, are widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to the Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  9. Elemental concentration distribution in human fingernails - A 3D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Mars, J. A.; Gihwala, D.

    2012-02-01

    The verification of pathologies has normally been based on analysis of blood (serum and plasma), and physiological tissue. Recently, nails and in particular human fingernails have become an important medium for pathological studies, especially those of environmental origin. The analytical technique of PIXE has been used extensively in the analysis of industrial samples and human tissue specimens. The application of the analytical technique to nails has been mainly to bulk samples. In this study we use micro-PIXE and -RBS, as both complementary and supplementary, to determine the elemental concentration distribution of human fingernails of individuals. We report on the 3D quantitative elemental concentration distributions (QECDs) of various elements that include C, N and O as major elements (10-20%), P, S, Cl, K and Ca as minor elements (1-10%) and Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, Na, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cr, Rb, Br, Sr and Se as trace elements (less than 1%). For PIXE and RBS the specimens were bombarded with a 3 MeV proton beam. To ascertain any correlations in the quantitative elemental concentration distributions, a linear traverse analysis was performed across the width of the nail. Elemental distribution correlations were also obtained.

  10. An efficient 3D traveltime calculation using coarse-grid mesh for shallow-depth source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Woohyun; Pyun, Sukjoon; Lee, Ho-Young; Koo, Nam-Hyung; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-10-01

    3D Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration requires an efficient algorithm to compute first-arrival traveltimes. In this paper, we exploited a wave-equation-based traveltime calculation algorithm, which is called the suppressed wave equation estimation of traveltime (SWEET), and the equivalent source distribution (ESD) algorithm. The motivation of using the SWEET algorithm is to solve the Laplace-domain wave equation using coarse grid spacing to calculate first-arrival traveltimes. However, if a real source is located at shallow-depth close to free surface, we cannot accurately calculate the wavefield using coarse grid spacing. So, we need an additional algorithm to correctly simulate the shallow source even for the coarse grid mesh. The ESD algorithm is a method to define a set of distributed nodal sources that approximate a point source at the inter-nodal location in a velocity model with large grid spacing. Thanks to the ESD algorithm, we can efficiently calculate the first-arrival traveltimes of waves emitted from shallow source point even when we solve the Laplace-domain wave equation using a coarse-grid mesh. The proposed algorithm is applied to the SEG/EAGE 3D salt model. From the result, we note that the combination of SWEET and ESD algorithms can be successfully used for the traveltime calculation under the condition of a shallow-depth source. We also confirmed that our algorithm using coarse-grid mesh requires less computational time than the conventional SWEET algorithm using relatively fine-grid mesh.

  11. Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Goozee, Gary; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, − 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing

  12. Axisymmetric and 3D calculations of melt flow during VCz growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bänsch, E.; Davis, D.; Langmach, H.; Miller, W.; Rehse, U.; Reinhardt, G.; Uhle, M.

    2004-05-01

    Axisymmetric and 3D calculations of melt flow have been performed for a configuration used at the vapour-pressure-controlled Czochalski growth of GaAs single crystals. Thermal boundary conditions were adapted from a global simulation of the temperature field. The axisymmetric calculations with the code NAVIER confirmed the ones previously perfomed with FIDAP TM. The 3D calculations showed that the flow exhibits an asymmetric transient behaviour beyond a certain critical Reynolds number.

  13. Distributed deformation and block rotation in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Oona; Nur, Amos; Estevez, Raul

    1990-01-01

    The authors address how block rotation and complex distributed deformation in the Earth's shallow crust may be explained within a stationary regional stress field. Distributed deformation is characterized by domains of sub-parallel fault-bounded blocks. In response to the contemporaneous activity of neighboring domains some domains rotate, as suggested by both structural and paleomagnetic evidence. Rotations within domains are achieved through the contemporaneous slip and rotation of the faults and of the blocks they bound. Thus, in regions of distributed deformation, faults must remain active in spite of their poor orientation in the stress field. The authors developed a model that tracks the orientation of blocks and their bounding faults during rotation in a 3D stress field. In the model, the effective stress magnitudes of the principal stresses (sigma sub 1, sigma sub 2, and sigma sub 3) are controlled by the orientation of fault sets in each domain. Therefore, adjacent fault sets with differing orientations may be active and may display differing faulting styles, and a given set of faults may change its style of motion as it rotates within a stationary stress regime. The style of faulting predicted by the model depends on a dimensionless parameter phi = (sigma sub 2 - sigma sub 3)/(sigma sub 1 - sigma sub 3). Thus, the authors present a model for complex distributed deformation and complex offset history requiring neither geographical nor temporal changes in the stress regime. They apply the model to the Western Transverse Range domain of southern California. There, it is mechanically feasible for blocks and faults to have experienced up to 75 degrees of clockwise rotation in a phi = 0.1 strike-slip stress regime. The results of the model suggest that this domain may first have accommodated deformation along preexisting NNE-SSW faults, reactivated as normal faults. After rotation, these same faults became strike-slip in nature.

  14. Calculation of Dose Deposition in 3D Voxels by Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The biological response to high-LET radiation is very different from low-LET radiation, and can be partly attributed to the energy deposition by the radiation. Several experiments, notably detection of gamma-H2AX foci by immunofluorescence, has revealed important differences in the nature and in the spatial distribution of double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by low- and high-LET radiations. Many calculations, most of which are based on amorphous track models with radial dose, have been combined with chromosome models to calculate the number and distribution of DSB within nuclei and chromosome aberrations. In this work, the Monte-Carlo track structure simulation code RITRACKS have been used to calculate directly the energy deposition in voxels (3D pixels). A cubic volume of 5 micrometers of side was irradiated by 1) 450 (1)H+ ions of 300 MeV (LET is approximately 0.3 keV/micrometer) and 2) by 1 (56)Fe26+ ion of 1 GeV/amu (LET is approximately 150 keV/micrometer). In both cases, the dose deposited in the volume is approximately 1 Gy. All energy deposition events are recorded and dose is calculated in voxels of 20 micrometers of side. The voxels are then visualized in 3D by using a color scale to represent the intensity of the dose in a voxel. This simple approach has revealed several important points which may help understand experimental observations. In both simulations, voxels which receive low dose are the most numerous, and those corresponding to electron track ends received a dose which is in the higher range. The dose voxels are distributed randomly and scattered uniformly within the volume irradiated by low-LET radiation. The distribution of the voxels shows major differences for the (56)Fe26+ ion. The track structure can still be seen, and voxels with much higher dose are found in the region corresponding to the track "core". These high-dose voxels are not found in the low-LET irradiation simulation and may be responsible for DSB that are more difficult to

  15. CARd-3D: Carbon Distribution in 3D Structure Program for Globular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ekambaram, Rajasekaran; Kannaiyan, Akila; Marimuthu, Vijayasarathy; Swaminathan, Vinobha Chinnaiah; Renganathan, Senthil; Perumal, Ananda Gopu

    2014-01-01

    Spatial arrangement of carbon in protein structure is analyzed here. Particularly, the carbon fractions around individual atoms are compared. It is hoped that it follows the principle of 31.45% carbon around individual atoms. The results reveal that globular protein's atoms follow this principle. A comparative study on monomer versus dimer reveal that carbon is better distributed in dimeric form than in its monomeric form. Similar study on solid versus liquid structures reveals that the liquid (NMR) structure has better carbon distribution over the corresponding solid (X-Ray) structure. The carbon fraction distributions in fiber and toxin protein are compared. Fiber proteins follow the principle of carbon fraction distribution. At the same time it has another broad spectrum of carbon distribution than in globular proteins. The toxin protein follows an abnormal carbon fraction distribution. The carbon fraction distribution plays an important role in deciding the structure and shape of proteins. It is hoped to help in understanding the protein folding and function. PMID:24748753

  16. Wall-touching kink mode calculations with the M3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Breslau, J. A. Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-06-15

    This paper seeks to address a controversy regarding the applicability of the 3D nonlinear extended MHD code M3D [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] and similar codes to calculations of the electromagnetic interaction of a disrupting tokamak plasma with the surrounding vessel structures. M3D is applied to a simple test problem involving an external kink mode in an ideal cylindrical plasma, used also by the Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) as a model case for illustrating the nature of transient vessel currents during a major disruption. While comparison of the results with those of the DSC is complicated by effects arising from the higher dimensionality and complexity of M3D, we verify that M3D is capable of reproducing both the correct saturation behavior of the free boundary kink and the “Hiro” currents arising when the kink interacts with a conducting tile surface interior to the ideal wall.

  17. The 3D Distribution of 44-Ti in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grefenstette, Brian; Boggs, Steven E.; Fryer, Chris; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms behind core-collapse supernovae represent one of the most important unsolved problems in stellar astrophysics and are of interest to many branches of physics and astronomy, such as nucleosynthesis, pulsar formation, gamma-ray bursts, and gravitational wave production. Few direct observational constraints exist that probe fundamental parameters such as the explosion asymmetries and dynamics. One of the most direct probes of the physics of the core-collapse supernova engine is 44Ti, which is producing near the "mass cut" in the collapsing star with material interior to the 44Ti accreting onto the nascent compact object the the 44Ti mostly ejected during the explosion.Here we present the results from the full NuSTAR observational campaign (over 2 Ms) of the famous Type II supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). NuSTAR is the first X-ray observatory capable of focusing the X-rays that are emitted during the radioactive decay of 44Ti to 44Ca. For a supernova remnant like Cas A, which is both young and nearby, we can to image the distribution of the 44Ti ejecta. Early results (using the first 1 Ms of data) produced the first 2D maps of the 44Ti in Cas A, revealing the asymmetry in the 44Ti ejecta and the striking discrepancy between the distributions of 44Ti and the ionized Fe emission seen by Chandra. With the additional exposure time we can perform spatially-resolved spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift of the 44Ti-emitting regions, giving us the ability to construct a 3D representation of the remnant. We can compare this to the excellent data from Chandra and Spitzer which have been used to perform similar studies of the ionized X-ray ejecta and IR emitting ejecta, respectively. We find an increasingly complex picture of the remnant, with 44Ti appearing wtih Fe in some regions on the remnant and other regions of Fe that are apparently 44Ti free. We will discuss our findings, and the implications of these results.

  18. A Cross-Benchmarking and Validation Initiative for Tokamak 3D Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiman, A.; Turnbull, A.; Evans, T.; Ferraro, N.; Lazarus, E.; Breslau, J.; Cerfon, A.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; King, J.; Lanctot, M.; Lazerson, S.; Liu, Y.; McFadden, G.; Monticello, D.; Nazikian, R.; Park, J. K.; Sovinec, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Zhu, P.

    2014-10-01

    We are pursuing a cross-benchmarking and validation initiative for tokamak 3D equilibrium calculations, with 11 codes participating: the linearized tokamak equilibrium codes IPEC and MARS-F, the time-dependent extended MHD codes M3D-C1, M3D, and NIMROD, the gyrokinetic code XGC, as well as the stellarator codes VMEC, NSTAB, PIES, HINT and SPEC. Dedicated experiments for the purpose of generating data for validation have been done on the DIII-D tokamak. The data will allow us to do validation simultaneously with cross-benchmarking. Initial cross-benchmarking calculations are finding a disagreement between stellarator and tokamak 3D equilibrium codes. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE under Contracts DE-ACO2-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04E854698, DE-FG02-95E854309 and DE-AC05-000R22725.

  19. Continuous-energy eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient calculations in TSUNAMI-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Perfetti, C. M.; Rearden, B. T.

    2013-07-01

    Two methods for calculating eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients in continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications were implemented in the KENO code within the SCALE code package. The methods were used to calculate sensitivity coefficients for several test problems and produced sensitivity coefficients that agreed well with both reference sensitivities and multigroup TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity coefficients. The newly developed CLUTCH method was observed to produce sensitivity coefficients with high figures of merit and a low memory footprint, and both continuous-energy sensitivity methods met or exceeded the accuracy of the multigroup TSUNAMI-3D calculations. (authors)

  20. Efficient calculation method for realistic deep 3D scene hologram using orthographic projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Tomoya; Matsushima, Kyoji; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    We propose a fast calculation method to synthesize a computer-generated hologram (CGH) of realistic deep three-dimensional (3D) scene. In our previous study, we have proposed a calculation method of CGH for reproducing such scene called ray-sampling-plane (RSP) method, in which light-ray information of a scene is converted to wavefront, and the wavefront is numerically propagated based on diffraction theory. In this paper, we introduce orthographic projection to the RSP method for accelerating calculation time. By numerical experiments, we verified the accelerated calculation with the ratio of 28-times compared to the conventional RSP method. The calculated CGH was fabricated by the printing system using laser lithography and demonstrated deep 3D image reconstruction in 52mm×52mm with realistic appearance effect such as gloss and translucent effect.

  1. Temperature distributions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell from 3-D numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rainey, E. S. G.; Kavner, A.; Hernlund, J. W.

    2013-11-28

    We present TempDAC, a 3-D numerical model for calculating the steady-state temperature distribution for continuous wave laser-heated experiments in the diamond anvil cell. TempDAC solves the steady heat conduction equation in three dimensions over the sample chamber, gasket, and diamond anvils and includes material-, temperature-, and direction-dependent thermal conductivity, while allowing for flexible sample geometries, laser beam intensity profile, and laser absorption properties. The model has been validated against an axisymmetric analytic solution for the temperature distribution within a laser-heated sample. Example calculations illustrate the importance of considering heat flow in three dimensions for the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. In particular, we show that a “flat top” input laser beam profile does not lead to a more uniform temperature distribution or flatter temperature gradients than a wide Gaussian laser beam.

  2. CONTINUOUS-ENERGY MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR CALCULATING GENERALIZED RESPONSE SENSITIVITIES USING TSUNAMI-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Perfetti, Christopher M; Rearden, Bradley T

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a new approach for calculating sensitivity coefficients for generalized neutronic responses to nuclear data uncertainties using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. The approach presented in this paper, known as the GEAR-MC method, allows for the calculation of generalized sensitivity coefficients for multiple responses in a single Monte Carlo calculation with no nuclear data perturbations or knowledge of nuclear covariance data. The theory behind the GEAR-MC method is presented here, and proof of principle is demonstrated by using the GEAR-MC method to calculate sensitivity coefficients for responses in several 3D, continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications.

  3. Experimental pencil beam kernels derivation for 3D dose calculation in flattening filter free modulated fields.

    PubMed

    Azcona, Juan Diego; Barbés, Benigno; Wang, Lilie; Burguete, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to obtain the pencil-beam kernels that characterize a megavoltage photon beam generated in a flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerator (linac) by deconvolution from experimental measurements at different depths. The formalism is applied to perform independent dose calculations in modulated fields. In our previous work a formalism was developed for ideal flat fluences exiting the linac's head. That framework could not deal with spatially varying energy fluences, so any deviation from the ideal flat fluence was treated as a perturbation. The present work addresses the necessity of implementing an exact analysis where any spatially varying fluence can be used such as those encountered in FFF beams. A major improvement introduced here is to handle the actual fluence in the deconvolution procedure. We studied the uncertainties associated to the kernel derivation with this method. Several Kodak EDR2 radiographic films were irradiated with a 10 MV FFF photon beam from two linacs from different vendors, at the depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm in polystyrene (RW3 water-equivalent phantom, PTW Freiburg, Germany). The irradiation field was a 50mm diameter circular field, collimated with a lead block. The 3D kernel for a FFF beam was obtained by deconvolution using the Hankel transform. A correction on the low dose part of the kernel was performed to reproduce accurately the experimental output factors. Error uncertainty in the kernel derivation procedure was estimated to be within 0.2%. Eighteen modulated fields used clinically in different treatment localizations were irradiated at four measurement depths (total of fifty-four film measurements). Comparison through the gamma-index to their corresponding calculated absolute dose distributions showed a number of passing points (3%, 3mm) mostly above 99%. This new procedure is more reliable and robust than the previous one. Its ability to perform accurate independent dose calculations was

  4. Experimental pencil beam kernels derivation for 3D dose calculation in flattening filter free modulated fields.

    PubMed

    Azcona, Juan Diego; Barbés, Benigno; Wang, Lilie; Burguete, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to obtain the pencil-beam kernels that characterize a megavoltage photon beam generated in a flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerator (linac) by deconvolution from experimental measurements at different depths. The formalism is applied to perform independent dose calculations in modulated fields. In our previous work a formalism was developed for ideal flat fluences exiting the linac's head. That framework could not deal with spatially varying energy fluences, so any deviation from the ideal flat fluence was treated as a perturbation. The present work addresses the necessity of implementing an exact analysis where any spatially varying fluence can be used such as those encountered in FFF beams. A major improvement introduced here is to handle the actual fluence in the deconvolution procedure. We studied the uncertainties associated to the kernel derivation with this method. Several Kodak EDR2 radiographic films were irradiated with a 10 MV FFF photon beam from two linacs from different vendors, at the depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm in polystyrene (RW3 water-equivalent phantom, PTW Freiburg, Germany). The irradiation field was a 50mm diameter circular field, collimated with a lead block. The 3D kernel for a FFF beam was obtained by deconvolution using the Hankel transform. A correction on the low dose part of the kernel was performed to reproduce accurately the experimental output factors. Error uncertainty in the kernel derivation procedure was estimated to be within 0.2%. Eighteen modulated fields used clinically in different treatment localizations were irradiated at four measurement depths (total of fifty-four film measurements). Comparison through the gamma-index to their corresponding calculated absolute dose distributions showed a number of passing points (3%, 3mm) mostly above 99%. This new procedure is more reliable and robust than the previous one. Its ability to perform accurate independent dose calculations was

  5. Experimental pencil beam kernels derivation for 3D dose calculation in flattening filter free modulated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego Azcona, Juan; Barbés, Benigno; Wang, Lilie; Burguete, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to obtain the pencil-beam kernels that characterize a megavoltage photon beam generated in a flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerator (linac) by deconvolution from experimental measurements at different depths. The formalism is applied to perform independent dose calculations in modulated fields. In our previous work a formalism was developed for ideal flat fluences exiting the linac’s head. That framework could not deal with spatially varying energy fluences, so any deviation from the ideal flat fluence was treated as a perturbation. The present work addresses the necessity of implementing an exact analysis where any spatially varying fluence can be used such as those encountered in FFF beams. A major improvement introduced here is to handle the actual fluence in the deconvolution procedure. We studied the uncertainties associated to the kernel derivation with this method. Several Kodak EDR2 radiographic films were irradiated with a 10 MV FFF photon beam from two linacs from different vendors, at the depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm in polystyrene (RW3 water-equivalent phantom, PTW Freiburg, Germany). The irradiation field was a 50mm diameter circular field, collimated with a lead block. The 3D kernel for a FFF beam was obtained by deconvolution using the Hankel transform. A correction on the low dose part of the kernel was performed to reproduce accurately the experimental output factors. Error uncertainty in the kernel derivation procedure was estimated to be within 0.2%. Eighteen modulated fields used clinically in different treatment localizations were irradiated at four measurement depths (total of fifty-four film measurements). Comparison through the gamma-index to their corresponding calculated absolute dose distributions showed a number of passing points (3%, 3mm) mostly above 99%. This new procedure is more reliable and robust than the previous one. Its ability to perform accurate independent dose calculations was

  6. Halo Formation in 3-D Bunches with Self-Consistent Stationary Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, A. V.; Gluckstern, R. L.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    1998-04-01

    We have constructed, analytically and numerically, a new class of self-consistent 6-D phase space stationary distributions. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3-D axisymmetric beam bunches. The longitudinal phase space clearly shows the typical "peanut" diagram observed in 2-D calculations. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches. Of particular importance is the coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion and its effect on halo formation.

  7. 3D calculation of Tucson-Melbourne 3NF effect in triton binding energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hadizadeh, M. R.; Tomio, L.; Bayegan, S.

    2010-08-04

    As an application of the new realistic three-dimensional (3D) formalism reported recently for three-nucleon (3N) bound states, an attempt is made to study the effect of three-nucleon forces (3NFs) in triton binding energy in a non partial wave (PW) approach. The spin-isospin dependent 3N Faddeev integral equations with the inclusion of 3NFs, which are formulated as function of vector Jacobi momenta, specifically the magnitudes of the momenta and the angle between them, are solved with Bonn-B and Tucson-Melbourne NN and 3N forces in operator forms which can be incorporated in our 3D formalism. The comparison with numerical results in both, novel 3D and standard PW schemes, shows that non PW calculations avoid the very involved angular momentum algebra occurring for the permutations and transformations and it is more efficient and less cumbersome for considering the 3NF.

  8. Highly accurate video coordinate generation for automatic 3-D trajectory calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macleod, A.; Morris, Julian R. W.; Lyster, M.

    1990-08-01

    Most TV-based motion analysis systems, including the original version of 1/ICON, produce 3D coordinates by combining pre-tracked 2D trajectories from each camera. The latest version of the system, VICON-VX, uses totally automatic 3D trajectory calculation using the Geometric Self Identification (GSI) technique. This is achieved by matching unsorted 2D image coordinates from all cameras, looking for intersecting marker 'rays', and matching intersections into 3D trajectories. Effective GSI, with low false-positive intersection rates is only possible with highly accurate 2D data, produced by stable, high-resolution coordinate generators, and incorporating appropriate compensation for lens distortions. Data capture software and hardware have been completely redesigned to achieve this accuracy, together with higher throughput rates and better resistance to errors. In addition, a new ADC facility has been incorporated to allow very high speed analog data acquisition, synchronised with video measurements.

  9. The Quantitative Measurement Of Temperature Distribution In 3-D Thermal Field With High-Speed Real-Time Holographic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji-zong, Wu; Wei-qiao, Fu; Qin, Wu

    1989-06-01

    The theory of using high-speed real-time holographic interferometry to measure quantitatively 3-D thermal field is discussed in thispaper. An experimental arrangement, and the holographic interference fringes of thermal field formed by the electrAc heating coil wires which were taken by the high-speed camera are given. With CONCEPT 32/2725 computer system and corresponding programms the distribution of 3-D thermal field is calculated and plotted Finally, the problems required to be improved and solved for the method of measuring quantitatively 3-D thermal field are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of 3D Gamma index calculation implemented in two commercial dosimetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Aitang; Arumugam, Sankar; Deshpande, Shrikant; George, Armia; Vial, Philip; Holloway, Lois; Goozee, Gary

    2015-01-01

    3D Gamma index is one of the metrics which have been widely used for clinical routine patient specific quality assurance for IMRT, Tomotherapy and VMAT. The algorithms for calculating the 3D Gamma index using global and local methods implemented in two software tools: PTW- VeriSoft® as a part of OCTIVIUS 4D dosimeter systems and 3DVHTM from Sun Nuclear were assessed. The Gamma index calculated by the two systems was compared with manual calculated for one data set. The Gamma pass rate calculated by the two systems was compared using 3%/3mm, 2%/2mm, 3%/2mm and 2%/3mm for two additional data sets. The Gamma indexes calculated by the two systems were accurate, but Gamma pass rates calculated by the two software tools for same data set with the same dose threshold were different due to the different interpolation of raw dose data by the two systems and different implementation of Gamma index calculation and other modules in the two software tools. The mean difference was -1.3%±3.38 (1SD) with a maximum difference of 11.7%.

  11. Tensor decomposition in electronic structure calculations on 3D Cartesian grids

    SciTech Connect

    Khoromskij, B.N. Khoromskaia, V.; Chinnamsetty, S.R.; Flad, H.-J.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a novel approach based on the combination of Tucker-type and canonical tensor decomposition techniques for the efficient numerical approximation of functions and operators in electronic structure calculations. In particular, we study applicability of tensor approximations for the numerical solution of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham equations on 3D Cartesian grids. We show that the orthogonal Tucker-type tensor approximation of electron density and Hartree potential of simple molecules leads to low tensor rank representations. This enables an efficient tensor-product convolution scheme for the computation of the Hartree potential using a collocation-type approximation via piecewise constant basis functions on a uniform nxnxn grid. Combined with the Richardson extrapolation, our approach exhibits O(h{sup 3}) convergence in the grid-size h=O(n{sup -1}). Moreover, this requires O(3rn+r{sup 3}) storage, where r denotes the Tucker rank of the electron density with r=O(logn), almost uniformly in n. For example, calculations of the Coulomb matrix and the Hartree-Fock energy for the CH{sub 4} molecule, with a pseudopotential on the C atom, achieved accuracies of the order of 10{sup -6} hartree with a grid-size n of several hundreds. Since the tensor-product convolution in 3D is performed via 1D convolution transforms, our scheme markedly outperforms the 3D-FFT in both the computing time and storage requirements.

  12. Simulation on an optimal combustion control strategy for 3-D temperature distributions in tangentially pc-fired utility boiler furnaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-fen; Zhou, Huai-chun

    2005-01-01

    The control of 3-D temperature distribution in a utility boiler furnace is essential for the safe, economic and clean operation of pc-fired furnace with multi-burner system. The development of the visualization of 3-D temperature distributions in pc-fired furnaces makes it possible for a new combustion control strategy directly with the furnace temperature as its goal to improve the control quality for the combustion processes. Studied in this paper is such a new strategy that the whole furnace is divided into several parts in the vertical direction, and the average temperature and its bias from the center in every cross section can be extracted from the visualization results of the 3-D temperature distributions. In the simulation stage, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code served to calculate the 3-D temperature distributions in a furnace, then a linear model was set up to relate the features of the temperature distributions with the input of the combustion processes, such as the flow rates of fuel and air fed into the furnaces through all the burners. The adaptive genetic algorithm was adopted to find the optimal combination of the whole input parameters which ensure to form an optimal 3-D temperature field in the furnace desired for the operation of boiler. Simulation results showed that the strategy could soon find the factors making the temperature distribution apart from the optimal state and give correct adjusting suggestions.

  13. Commissioning a CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Justus; Newton, Joseph; Yang Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark; Chino, Junzo; Craciunescu, Oana

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the geometric and dose attenuation characteristics of a new commercially available CT-compatible LDR tandem and ovoid (T and O) applicator using Monte Carlo calculation and 3D dosimetry. Methods: For geometric characterization, we quantified physical dimensions and investigated a systematic difference found to exist between nominal ovoid angle and the angle at which the afterloading buckets fall within the ovoid. For dosimetric characterization, we determined source attenuation through asymmetric gold shielding in the buckets using Monte Carlo simulations and 3D dosimetry. Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to simulate 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} photon histories from a {sup 137}Cs source placed in the bucket to achieve statistical uncertainty of 1% at a 6 cm distance. For 3D dosimetry, the distribution about an unshielded source was first measured to evaluate the system for {sup 137}Cs, after which the distribution was measured about sources placed in each bucket. Cylindrical PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} dosimeters (9.5 cm diameter, 9.2 cm height) with a central channel bored for source placement were supplied by Heuris Inc. The dosimeters were scanned with the Duke Large field of view Optical CT-Scanner before and after delivering a nominal dose at 1 cm of 5-8 Gy. During irradiation the dosimeter was placed in a water phantom to provide backscatter. Optical CT scan time lasted 15 min during which 720 projections were acquired at 0.5 Degree-Sign increments, and a 3D distribution was reconstructed with a (0.05 cm){sup 3} isotropic voxel size. The distributions about the buckets were used to calculate a 3D distribution of transmission rate through the bucket, which was applied to a clinical CT-based T and O implant plan. Results: The systematic difference in bucket angle relative to the nominal ovoid angle (105 Degree-Sign ) was 3.1 Degree-Sign -4.7 Degree-Sign . A systematic difference in bucket angle of 1 Degree-Sign , 5 Degree-Sign , and

  14. SU-E-T-535: Preliminary 2D and 3D Gamma Calculation Comparison Using PRESAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lafratta, R; Yang, J; Sahoo, N; Tucker, S; Followill, D; Ibbott, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare gamma calculations from 2D and 3D dosimetry measurements for phantom quality assurance. Methods: An IROC Houston (RPC) head and neck phantom was irradiated with a 9 beam IMRT plan using two inserts: a TLD and film insert and a PRESAGE insert. Both inserts were irradiated 3 times. The film and PRESAGE doses were scaled to the TLD dose and 2D gamma calculations were made in the axial and sagittal planes bisecting the primary target. 3D gamma measurements were taken within the PRESAGE dosimeter volume. Gamma constraints of 3%/3mm distance to agreement (DTA), 5%/3mm DTA and 7%/4mm DTA were used in the study. The 3 irradiations for each insert were averaged together for comparison. Results: Film measurements for the 2D gamma showed 85% pixels passing at 3%/3mm in both planes. The 5%/3 mm constraint had 93% and 90% passing in the two planes. The 7%/4mm restraint resulted in 99% passing in both planes. The PRESAGE 2D gamma passed 66% and 61% of pixels in the both planes at 3%/3mm. At 5%/3mm 86% and 82% passed. For 7%/4mm, 94% of pixels passed in both planes. The 3D gamma resulted in a pass rate of 90% at 3%/3mm, 95% at 5%/3mm, and 99% at 7%/4mm. Conclusion: 2D gamma pass rates using film showed a higher pass rate than PRESAGE using the same criteria in the same planes. This may be due to poor 3D registration with the treatment plan compared to the 2D film registration system. The 3D gamma results had a higher pass rate (> 90% pass rate) possibly because it sampled many more pixels in noncritical volumes thus diluting the percent of pixels passing. 3D restraints should be more restrictive to be comparable to 2D results. Funding from NIH grant 5R01CA100835.

  15. Analysis of the 3D distribution of stacked self-assembled quantum dots by electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 3D distribution of self-assembled stacked quantum dots (QDs) is a key parameter to obtain the highest performance in a variety of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have measured this distribution in 3D using a combined procedure of needle-shaped specimen preparation and electron tomography. We show that conventional 2D measurements of the distribution of QDs are not reliable, and only 3D analysis allows an accurate correlation between the growth design and the structural characteristics. PMID:23249477

  16. 3D dose and TCP distribution for radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Valente, M.; Malano, F.; Perez, P.

    2010-08-04

    A common feature to any radiant therapy is that lesion and health tissue dosimetry provides relevant information for treatment optimization along with dose-efficacy and dose-complication correlation studies. Nowadays, different radionuclide therapies are commonly available, assessing both systemic and loco-regional approach and using different alfa-, beta-and gamma-emitting isotopes and binding molecules. It is well established, that specific dosimetric approaches become necessary according to each therapy modality. Sometimes, observed activity distribution can be satisfactory represented by simple geometrical models. However, Monte Carlo techniques are capable of better approaches, therefore becoming sometimes the only way to get dosimetric data since the patient-specific situation can not be adequately represented by conventional dosimetry techniques. Therefore, due to strong limitations of traditional and standard methods, this work concentrates on the development of a dedicated and novel calculation system in order to assess the dose distribution within the irradiated patient. However, physical dose may not be enough information in order to establish real deterministic biological/metabolic effects; therefore complementary radiobiological models have been suitably introduced with the aim of performing realistic 3D dose as well as corresponding Tumor Control Probability distribution calculation.

  17. Quasi-heterogeneous efficient 3-D discrete ordinates CANDU calculations using Attila

    SciTech Connect

    Preeti, T.; Rulko, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, 3-D quasi-heterogeneous large scale parallel Attila calculations of a generic CANDU test problem consisting of 42 complete fuel channels and a perpendicular to fuel reactivity device are presented. The solution method is that of discrete ordinates SN and the computational model is quasi-heterogeneous, i.e. fuel bundle is partially homogenized into five homogeneous rings consistently with the DRAGON code model used by the industry for the incremental cross-section generation. In calculations, the HELIOS-generated 45 macroscopic cross-sections library was used. This approach to CANDU calculations has the following advantages: 1) it allows detailed bundle (and eventually channel) power calculations for each fuel ring in a bundle, 2) it allows the exact reactivity device representation for its precise reactivity worth calculation, and 3) it eliminates the need for incremental cross-sections. Our results are compared to the reference Monte Carlo MCNP solution. In addition, the Attila SN method performance in CANDU calculations characterized by significant up scattering is discussed. (authors)

  18. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000{sup R} plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  19. First-principles calculations of the interaction between hydrogen and 3d alloying atom in nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenguan; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, Dongxun; Liu, Wei; Han, Han

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of hydrogen (H) in Ni-based alloy is essential for the prediction of Tritium behavior in Molten Salt Reactor. First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the interaction between H and 3d transition metal (TM) alloying atom in Ni-based alloy. H prefers the octahedral interstitial site to the tetrahedral interstitial site energetically. Most of the 3d TM elements (except Zn) attract H. The attraction to H in the Ni-TM-H system can be mainly attributed to the differences in electronegativity. With the large electronegativity, H and Ni gain electrons from the other TM elements, resulting in the enhanced Ni-H bonds which are the source of the attraction to H in the Ni-TM-H system. The obviously covalent-like Cr-H and Co-H bindings are also beneficial to the attraction to H. On the other hand, the repulsion to H in the Ni-Zn-H system is due to the stable electronic configuration of Zn. We mainly utilize the results calculated in 32-atom supercell which corresponds to the case of a relatively high concentration of hydrogen. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  20. TE/TM alternating direction scheme for wake field calculation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodnov, Igor; Weiland, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    In the future, accelerators with very short bunches will be used. It demands developing new numerical approaches for long-time calculation of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of relativistic bunches. The conventional FDTD scheme, used in MAFIA, ABCI and other wake and PIC codes, suffers from numerical grid dispersion and staircase approximation problem. As an effective cure of the dispersion problem, a numerical scheme without dispersion in longitudinal direction can be used as it was shown by Novokhatski et al. [Transition dynamics of the wake fields of ultrashort bunches, TESLA Report 2000-03, DESY, 2000] and Zagorodnov et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 191 (2003) 525]. In this paper, a new economical conservative scheme for short-range wake field calculation in 3D is presented. As numerical examples show, the new scheme is much more accurate on long-time scale than the conventional FDTD approach.

  1. SU-E-J-200: A Dosimetric Analysis of 3D Versus 4D Image-Based Dose Calculation for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, M; Rouabhi, O; Flynn, R; Xia, J; Bayouth, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric difference between 3D and 4Dweighted dose calculation using patient specific respiratory trace and deformable image registration for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumors. Methods: Two dose calculation techniques, 3D and 4D-weighed dose calculation, were used for dosimetric comparison for 9 lung cancer patients. The magnitude of the tumor motion varied from 3 mm to 23 mm. Breath-hold exhale CT was used for 3D dose calculation with ITV generated from the motion observed from 4D-CT. For 4D-weighted calculation, dose of each binned CT image from the ten breathing amplitudes was first recomputed using the same planning parameters as those used in the 3D calculation. The dose distribution of each binned CT was mapped to the breath-hold CT using deformable image registration. The 4D-weighted dose was computed by summing the deformed doses with the temporal probabilities calculated from their corresponding respiratory traces. Dosimetric evaluation criteria includes lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose. Results: Comparing with 3D calculation, lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose using 4D-weighted dose calculation were changed by −0.67% ± 2.13%, −4.11% ± 6.94% (−0.36 Gy ± 0.87 Gy), −1.16% ± 1.36%(−0.73 Gy ± 0.85 Gy) accordingly. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that conventional 3D dose calculation method may overestimate the lung V20, MLD, and MTD. The absolute difference between 3D and 4D-weighted dose calculation in lung tumor may not be clinically significant. This research is supported by Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc and Iowa Center for Research By Undergraduates.

  2. Optimizing radioimmunotherapy by matching dose distribution with tumor structure using 3D reconstructions of serial images.

    PubMed

    Flynn, A A; Pedley, R B; Green, A J; Boxer, G M; Boden, R; Begent, R H

    2001-10-01

    The biological effect of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is most commonly assessed in terms of the absorbed radiation dose. In tumor, conventional dosimetry methods assume a uniform radionuclide and calculate a mean dose throughout the tumor. However, the vasculature of solid tumors tends to be highly irregular and the systemic delivery of antibodies is therefore heterogeneous. Tumor-specific antibodies preferentially localize in the viable, radiosensitive parts of the tumor whereas non-specific antibodies can penetrate into the necrosis where the dose is wasted. As a result, the observed biological effect can be very different to the predicted effect from conventional dose estimates. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential for optimizing the biological effect of RIT by matching the dose-distribution with tumor structure through the selection of appropriate antibodies and radionuclides. Storage phosphor plate technology was used to acquire images of the antibody distribution in serial tumor sections. Images of the distributions of a trivalent (TFM), bivalent (A5B7-IgG), monovalent (MFE-23) and a non-specific antibody (MOPC) were obtained. These images were registered with corresponding images showing tumor morphology. Serial images were reconstructed to form 3D maps of the antibody distribution and tumor structure. Convolution of the image of antibody distribution with beta dose point kernals generated dose-rate distributions for 14C, 131I and 90Y. These were statistically compared with the tumor structure. The highest correlation was obtained for the multivalent antibodies combined with 131I, due to specific retention in viable areas of tumor coupled with the fact that much of the dose was deposted locally. With decreasing avidity the correlation also decreased and with the non-specific antibody this correlation was negative, indicating higher concentrations in the necrotic regions. In conclusion, the dose distribution can be optimized in tumor by selecting

  3. Precise time-of-flight calculation for 3-D synthetic aperture focusing.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Henrik; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-09-01

    Conventional linear arrays can be used for 3-D ultrasound imaging by moving the array in the elevation direction and stacking the planes in a volume. The point-spread function is larger in the elevation plane, because the aperture is smaller and has a fixed elevation focus. Resolution improvements in elevation can be achieved by applying synthetic aperture focusing to the beamformed-in-plane RF data. The proposed method uses a virtual source placed at the elevation focus for postbeamforming. This has previously been done in 2 steps, in-plane focusing followed by synthetic aperture postfocusing in elevation, due to lack of a simple expression for the exact time of flight. This paper presents a new single step method for calculating the time of flight for a 3-D case using a linear array. The new method is more flexible and is able to beamform a fewer number of points much more efficiently. The method is evaluated using both simulated data and phantom measurements using the RASMUS experimental scanner. Computational cost of the method is higher than the 2-step method for a full volume beamforming, but it allows for a reduction of an order-of-magnitude if 3 planes are used for real-time visualization. In addition, the need for a temporary storage of beamformed data is removed.

  4. An approach to 3D magnetic field calculation using numerical and differential algebra methods

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.; Brady, V.O.

    1992-07-17

    Motivated by the need for new means for specification and determination of 3D fields that are produced by electromagnetic lens elements in the region interior to coil windings and seeking to obtain techniques that will be convenient for accurate conductor placement and dynamical study of particle motion, we have conveniently gene the representation of a 2D magnetic field to 3D. We have shown that the 3 dimensioal magnetic field components of a multipole magnet in the curl-fire divergence-fire region near the axis r=0 can be derived from one dimensional functions A{sub n}(z) and their derivatives (part 1). In the region interior to coil windings of accelerator magnets the three spatial components of magnet fields can be expressed in terms of harmonic components'' proportional to functions sin (n{theta}) or cos (n{theta}) of the azimuthal angle. The r,z dependence of any such component can then be expressed in terms of powers of r times functions A{sub n}(z) and their derivatives. For twodimensional configurations B{sub z} of course is identically zero, the derivatives of A{sub n}(z) vanish, and the harmonic components of the transverse field then acquire a simple proportionality B{sub r,n} {proportional to} r{sup n-1} sin (n{theta}),B{sub {theta},n} {proportional to} r{sup n-1} cos (n{theta}), whereas in a 3-D configuration the more complex nature of the field gives rise to additional so-called psuedomultipole'' components as judged by additional powers of r required in the development of the field. Computation of the 3-D magnetic field arising at a sequence of field points, as a direct result of a specified current configuration or coil geometry, can be calculated explicitly through use of the Biot-Savart law and from such data the coefficients can then be derived for a general development of the type indicated above. We indicate, discuss, and illustrate two means by which this development may be performed.

  5. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, Mark; CGG Persoon, Lucas; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors. The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation

  6. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-21

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors.The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation fields

  7. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  8. PFLOW: A 3-D Numerical Modeling Tool for Calculating Fluid-Pressure Diffusion from Coulomb Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Meir, A.; Dyer, G.; Ma, K.; Chan, C.

    2009-12-01

    A new 3D time-dependent pore-pressure diffusion model PFLOW is developed to investigate the response of pore fluids to the crustal deformation generated by strong earthquakes in heterogeneous geologic media. Given crustal strain generated by changes in Coulomb stress, this MATLAB-based code uses Skempton's coefficient to calculate resulting changes fluid pressure. Pore-pressure diffusion can be tracked over time in a user-defined model space with user-prescribed Neumann or Dirchilet boundary conditions and with spatially variable values of permeability. PFLOW employs linear or quadratic finite elements for spatial discretization and first order or second order, explicit or implicit finite difference discretization in time. PFLOW is easily interfaced with output from deformation modeling programs such as Coulomb (Toda et al., 2007) or 3D-DEF (Gomberg and Ellis, 1994). The code is useful for investigating to first-order the evolution of pore pressure changes induced by changes in Coulomb stress and their possible relation to water-level changes in wells or changes in stream discharge. It can also be used for student research and classroom instruction. As an example application, we calculate the coseismic pore pressure changes and diffusion induced by volumetric strain associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan. The Chi-Chi earthquake provides an unique opportunity to investigate the spatial and time-dependent poroelastic response of near-field rocks and sediments because there exist extensive observational data of water-level changes and crustal deformation. The integrated model allows us to explore whether changes in Coulomb stress can adequately explain hydrologic anomalies observed in areas such as Taiwan’s western foothills and the Choshui River alluvial plain. To calculate coseismic strain, we use the carefully calibrated finite fault-rupture model of Ma et al. (2005) and the deformation modeling code Coulomb 3.1 (Toda et al., 2007

  9. Modeling 3D soil and sediment distributions for assessing catchment structure and hydrological feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Thomas; Brück, Yasemine; Hinz, Christoph; Gerke, Horst H.

    2015-04-01

    Structural heterogeneity, namely the spatial distribution of soils and sediments (represented by mineral particles), characterizes catchment hydrological behavior. In natural catchments, local geology and the specific geomorphic processes determine the characteristics and spatial distribution of structures. In constructed catchments, structural features are determined primarily by the construction processes and the geological origin of the parent material. Objectives are scenarios of 3D catchment structures in form of complete 3D description of soil hydraulic properties generated from the knowledge of the formation processes. The constructed hydrological catchment 'Hühnerwasser' (Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, Germany) was used for the calibration and validation of model results due to its well-known conditions. For the modelling of structural features, a structure generator was used to model i) quasi-deterministic sediment distributions using input data from a geological model of the parent material excavation site; ii) sediment distributions that are conditioned to measurement data from soil sampling; and iii) stochastic component sediment distributions. All three approaches allow a randomization within definable limits. Furthermore, the spoil cone / spoil ridge orientation, internal layering, surface compaction and internal spoil cone compaction were modified. These generated structural models were incorporated in a gridded 3D volume model constructed with the GOCAD software. For selected scenarios, the impact of structure variation was assessed by hydrological modelling with HYDRUS 2D/3D software. For that purpose, 3D distributions of soil hydraulic properties were estimated based on generated sediment properties using adapted pedotransfer functions. Results from the hydrological model were compared them to measured discharges from the catchment. The impact of structural feature variation on flow behaviour was analysed by comparing different simulation scenarios

  10. PARC3D calculations of the F/A-18A HARV inlet vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podleski, Steve D.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is currently engaged in a research effort as a team member of the High Alpha Technology Program within the NASA agency. This program uses a specially-equipped F/A-18A aircraft called the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), in an effort to improve the maneuverability of high performance military aircraft at low-subsonic-speed, high-angle-of-attack conditions. The overall objective of the NASA Lewis effort is to develop inlet analysis technology towards efficient airflow delivery to the engine during these maneuvers. One portion of this inlet analysis technology uses computational fluid dynamics to predict installed inlet performance. Most of the F/A-18A HARV geometry, which includes the ramp/splitter plate, side diverter and slot, inlet lip and upper diverter, and deflected leading-edge flap has been modeled. The empennage and rear fuselage have not. A pair of vortex generators located on the bottom wall of the inlet were not modeled initially. These vortex generators were installed to alleviate any flow separation that may be induced by the wheel well protrusion into the inlet wall. Calculations completed with the PARC3D code showed that the pressure recovery has been underpredicted and the flow distortion over-predicted. To improve the correlation of PARC3D predictions with flight and wind tunnel tests, the vortex generators were included in the grid geometry and the results are presented in this report. The grid totals 27 blocks or 1.3 million grid points for the half model, which includes the vortex generator grid blocks. Two flight cases were calculated, a high speed case with a Mach number of 0.8 and angle of attack of 3.4; and a low speed case with a Mach number of 0.43 and angle of attack of 32.2. The vortex generators have a significant effect on the inlet boundary layers at high speed, low angle of attack; and have no effect at low speed, high angle of attack.

  11. The PIES2012 Code for Calculating 3D Equilibria with Islands and Stochastic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticello, Donald; Reiman, Allan; Raburn, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We have made major modifications to the PIES 3D equilibrium code to produce a new version, PIES2012. The new version uses an adaptive radial grid for calculating equilibrium currents. A subset of the flux surfaces conform closely to island separatrices, providing an accurate treatment of the effects driving the neoclassical tearing mode. There is now a set of grid surfaces that conform to the flux surfaces in the interiors of the islands, allowing the proper treatment of the current profiles in the islands, which play an important role in tearing phenomena. We have verified that we can introduce appropriate current profiles in the islands to suppress their growth, allowing us to simulate situations where islands are allowed to grow at some rational surfaces but not others. Placement of grid surfaces between islands is guided by the locations of high order fixed points, allowing us to avoid spectral polution and providing a more robust, and smoother convergence of the code. The code now has an option for turning on a vertical magnetic field to fix the position of the magnetic axis, which models the horizontal feedback positioning of a tokamak plasma. The code has a new option for using a Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov scheme for convergence. The code now also contains a model that properly handles stochastic regions with nonzero pressure gradients. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Measurement of carbon ion microdosimetric distributions with ultrathin 3D silicon diodes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, F; Fleta, C; Esteban, S; Quirion, D; Pellegrini, G; Lozano, M; Prezado, Y; Dos Santos, M; Guardiola, C; Montarou, G; Prieto-Pena, J; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2016-06-01

    The commissioning of an ion beam for hadrontherapy requires the evaluation of the biologically weighted effective dose that results from the microdosimetric properties of the therapy beam. The spectra of the energy imparted at cellular and sub-cellular scales are fundamental to the determination of the biological effect of the beam. These magnitudes are related to the microdosimetric distributions of the ion beam at different points along the beam path. This work is dedicated to the measurement of microdosimetric spectra at several depths in the central axis of a (12)C beam with an energy of 94.98 AMeV using a novel 3D ultrathin silicon diode detector. Data is compared with Monte Carlo calculations providing an excellent agreement (deviations are less than 2% for the most probable lineal energy value) up to the Bragg peak. The results show the feasibility to determine with high precision the lineal energy transfer spectrum of a hadrontherapy beam with these silicon devices. PMID:27163881

  13. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  14. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  15. Assessment of Altered 3D Blood Characteristics in Aortic Disease by Velocity Distribution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Julio; Barker, Alex J; van Ooij, Pim; Schnell, Susanne; Puthumana, Jyothy; Bonow, Robert O; Collins, Jeremy D; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of velocity distribution analysis for identifying altered 3D flow characteristics in patients with aortic disease based on 4D flow MRI volumetric analysis. Methods Forty patients with aortic (Ao) dilation (mid ascending aortic diameter MAA=40±7 mm, age=56±17 yr, 11 females) underwent cardiovascular MRI. Four groups were retrospectively defined: mild Ao dilation (n=10, MAA<35 mm); moderate Ao dilation (n=10, 3545 mm); Ao dilation+aortic stenosis AS (n=10, MAA>35 mm and peak velocity >2.5m/s). 3D PC-MR angiograms were computed and used to obtain a 3D segmentation of the aorta which was divided into four segments: root, ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta. Radial chart displays were used to visualize multiple parameters representing segmental changes in the 3D velocity distribution associated with aortic disease. Results Changes in the velocity field and geometry between cohorts resulted in distinct hemodynamic patterns for each aortic segment. Disease progression from mild to Ao dilation+AS resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in flow parameters across cohorts and increased radial chart size for root and ascending aorta segments by 146% and 99%, respectively. Conclusion Volumetric 4D velocity distribution analysis has the potential to identify characteristic changes in regional blood flow patterns in patients with aortic disease. PMID:25252029

  16. Bispectrum feature extraction of gearbox faults based on nonnegative Tucker3 decomposition with 3D calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijun; Xu, Feiyun; Zhao, Jun'ai; Jia, Minping; Hu, Jianzhong; Huang, Peng

    2013-11-01

    Nonnegative Tucker3 decomposition(NTD) has attracted lots of attentions for its good performance in 3D data array analysis. However, further research is still necessary to solve the problems of overfitting and slow convergence under the anharmonic vibration circumstance occurred in the field of mechanical fault diagnosis. To decompose a large-scale tensor and extract available bispectrum feature, a method of conjugating Choi-Williams kernel function with Gauss-Newton Cartesian product based on nonnegative Tucker3 decomposition(NTD_EDF) is investigated. The complexity of the proposed method is reduced from o( n N lg n) in 3D spaces to o( R 1 R 2 nlg n) in 1D vectors due to its low rank form of the Tucker-product convolution. Meanwhile, a simultaneously updating algorithm is given to overcome the overfitting, slow convergence and low efficiency existing in the conventional one-by-one updating algorithm. Furthermore, the technique of spectral phase analysis for quadratic coupling estimation is used to explain the feature spectrum extracted from the gearbox fault data by the proposed method in detail. The simulated and experimental results show that the sparser and more inerratic feature distribution of basis images can be obtained with core tensor by the NTD_EDF method compared with the one by the other methods in bispectrum feature extraction, and a legible fault expression can also be performed by power spectral density(PSD) function. Besides, the deviations of successive relative error(DSRE) of NTD_EDF achieves 81.66 dB against 15.17 dB by beta-divergences based on NTD(NTD_Beta) and the time-cost of NTD_EDF is only 129.3 s, which is far less than 1 747.9 s by hierarchical alternative least square based on NTD (NTD_HALS). The NTD_EDF method proposed not only avoids the data overfitting and improves the computation efficiency but also can be used to extract more inerratic and sparser bispectrum features of the gearbox fault.

  17. Models the Electromagnetic Response of a 3D Distribution using MP COMPUTERS

    1999-05-01

    EM3D models the electromagnetic response of a 3D distribution of conductivity, dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability within the earth for geophysical applications using massively parallel computers. The simulations are carried out in the frequency domain for either electric or magnetic sources for either scattered or total filed formulations of Maxwell''s equations. The solution is based on the method of finite differences and includes absorbing boundary conditions so that responses can be modeled up into themore » radar range where wave propagation is dominant. Recent upgrades in the software include the incorporation of finite size sources, that in addition to dipolar source fields, and a low induction number preconditioner that can significantly reduce computational run times. A graphical user interface (GUI) is bundled with the software so that complicated 3D models can be easily constructed and simulated with the software. The GUI also allows for plotting of the output.« less

  18. 3D Neutronic Analysis in MHD Calculations at ARIES-ST Fusion Reactors Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hançerliogulları, Aybaba; Cini, Mesut

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we developed new models for liquid wall (FW) state at ARIES-ST fusion reactor systems. ARIES-ST is a 1,000 MWe fusion reactor system based on a low aspect ratio ST plasma. In this article, we analyzed the characteristic properties of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and heat transfer conditions by using Monte-Carlo simulation methods (ARIES Team et al. in Fusion Eng Des 49-50:689-695, 2000; Tillack et al. in Fusion Eng Des 65:215-261, 2003) . In fusion applications, liquid metals are traditionally considered to be the best working fluids. The working liquid must be a lithium-containing medium in order to provide adequate tritium that the plasma is self-sustained and that the fusion is a renewable energy source. As for Flibe free surface flows, the MHD effects caused by interaction with the mean flow is negligible, while a fairly uniform flow of thick can be maintained throughout the reactor based on 3-D MHD calculations. In this study, neutronic parameters, that is to say, energy multiplication factor radiation, heat flux and fissile fuel breeding were researched for fusion reactor with various thorium and uranium molten salts. Sufficient tritium amount is needed for the reactor to work itself. In the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) >1.05 ARIES-ST fusion model TBR is >1.1 so that tritium self-sufficiency is maintained for DT fusion systems (Starke et al. in Fusion Energ Des 84:1794-1798, 2009; Najmabadi et al. in Fusion Energ Des 80:3-23, 2006).

  19. Strategy and software for the statistical spatial analysis of 3D intracellular distributions.

    PubMed

    Biot, Eric; Crowell, Elizabeth; Burguet, Jasmine; Höfte, Herman; Vernhettes, Samantha; Andrey, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The localization of proteins in specific domains or compartments in the 3D cellular space is essential for many fundamental processes in eukaryotic cells. Deciphering spatial organization principles within cells is a challenging task, in particular because of the large morphological variations between individual cells. We present here an approach for normalizing variations in cell morphology and for statistically analyzing spatial distributions of intracellular compartments from collections of 3D images. The method relies on the processing and analysis of 3D geometrical models that are generated from image stacks and that are used to build representations at progressively increasing levels of integration, ultimately revealing statistical significant traits of spatial distributions. To make this methodology widely available to end-users, we implemented our algorithmic pipeline into a user-friendly, multi-platform, and freely available software. To validate our approach, we generated 3D statistical maps of endomembrane compartments at subcellular resolution within an average epidermal root cell from collections of image stacks. This revealed unsuspected polar distribution patterns of organelles that were not detectable in individual images. By reversing the classical 'measure-then-average' paradigm, one major benefit of the proposed strategy is the production and display of statistical 3D representations of spatial organizations, thus fully preserving the spatial dimension of image data and at the same time allowing their integration over individual observations. The approach and software are generic and should be of general interest for experimental and modeling studies of spatial organizations at multiple scales (subcellular, cellular, tissular) in biological systems.

  20. Effects of inflow distortion profiles on fan tone noise calculated using a 3-D theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Groeneweg, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations of the fan tone acoustic power and modal structure generated by complex distortions in axial inflow velocity are presented. The model used treats the motor as a rotating three-dimensional cascade and calculates the acoustic field from the distortion-produced dipole distribution on the blades including noncompact source effects. Radial and circumferential distortion shapes are synthesized from Fourier-Bessel components representing individual distortion modes. The relation between individual distortion modes and the generated acoustic modes is examined for particular distortion cases. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results for distortions produced by wakes from upstream radial rods show that the analysis is a good predictor of acoustic power dependence on disturbance strength.

  1. Electromagnetic Response Inversion for a 3D Distribution of Conductivity/Dielect

    2001-10-24

    NLCGCS inverts electromagnetic responses for a 3D distribution of electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity within the earth for geophysical applications using single processor computers. The software comes bundled with a graphical user interface to aid in model construction and analysis and viewing of earth images. The solution employs both dipole and finite size source configurations for harmonic oscillatory sources. A new nonlinear preconditioner is included in the solution to speed up solution convergence.

  2. 3D modeling inversion calculation of magnetic data using iterative reweighted least squares at the Lau basin, Southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Kim, C.; Kim, H. R.; Park, C.; Park, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We performed the marine magnetic and the bathymetry survey in the Lau basin for finding the submarine hydrothermal deposits in October 2009. We acquired magnetic and bathymetry datasets by using Overhouser Proton Magnetometer SeaSPY(Marine Magnetics Co.) and Multi-Beam Echo Sounder EM120(Kongsberg Co.). We conducted the data processing to obtain detailed seabed topography, magnetic anomaly and reduction to the pole(RTP). The Lau basin is one of the youngest back-arc basins in the Southwest Pacific. This region was a lot of hydrothermal activities and hydrothermal deposits. In particular, Tofua Arc(TA) in the Lau basin consists of various and complex stratovolcanos(from Massoth et al., 2007).), We calculated the magnetic susceptibility distribution of the TA19-1 seamount(longitude:176°23.5'W, latitude: 22°42.5'W)area using the RTP data by 3-D magnetic inversion from Jung's previous study(2013). Based on 2D 'compact gravity inversion' by Last & Kubik(1983), we expend it to the 3D algorithm using iterative reweighted least squares method with some weight matrices. The used weight matrices are two types: 1) the minimum gradient support(MGS) that controls the spatial distribution of the solution from Porniaguine and Zhdanov(1999); 2) the depth weight that are used according to the shape of subsurface structures. From the modeling, we derived the appropriate scale factor for the use of depth weight and setting magnetic susceptibility. Furthermore, we have to enter a very small error value to control the computation of the singular point of the inversion model that was able to be easily calculated for modeling. In addition, we applied separately weighted value for the correct shape and depth of the magnetic source. We selected the best results model by change to converge of RMS. Compared between the final modeled result and RTP values in this study, they are generally similar to the each other. But the input values and the modeled values have slightly little difference

  3. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Lin, Xue; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-09-01

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces.

  4. Estimating Fiber Orientation Distribution Functions in 3D-Polarized Light Imaging.

    PubMed

    Axer, Markus; Strohmer, Sven; Gräßel, David; Bücker, Oliver; Dohmen, Melanie; Reckfort, Julia; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Research of the human brain connectome requires multiscale approaches derived from independent imaging methods ideally applied to the same object. Hence, comprehensible strategies for data integration across modalities and across scales are essential. We have successfully established a concept to bridge the spatial scales from microscopic fiber orientation measurements based on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI) to meso- or macroscopic dimensions. By creating orientation distribution functions (pliODFs) from high-resolution vector data via series expansion with spherical harmonics utilizing high performance computing and supercomputing technologies, data fusion with Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become feasible, even for a large-scale dataset such as the human brain. Validation of our approach was done effectively by means of two types of datasets that were transferred from fiber orientation maps into pliODFs: simulated 3D-PLI data showing artificial, but clearly defined fiber patterns and real 3D-PLI data derived from sections through the human brain and the brain of a hooded seal.

  5. Estimating Fiber Orientation Distribution Functions in 3D-Polarized Light Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Axer, Markus; Strohmer, Sven; Gräßel, David; Bücker, Oliver; Dohmen, Melanie; Reckfort, Julia; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Research of the human brain connectome requires multiscale approaches derived from independent imaging methods ideally applied to the same object. Hence, comprehensible strategies for data integration across modalities and across scales are essential. We have successfully established a concept to bridge the spatial scales from microscopic fiber orientation measurements based on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI) to meso- or macroscopic dimensions. By creating orientation distribution functions (pliODFs) from high-resolution vector data via series expansion with spherical harmonics utilizing high performance computing and supercomputing technologies, data fusion with Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become feasible, even for a large-scale dataset such as the human brain. Validation of our approach was done effectively by means of two types of datasets that were transferred from fiber orientation maps into pliODFs: simulated 3D-PLI data showing artificial, but clearly defined fiber patterns and real 3D-PLI data derived from sections through the human brain and the brain of a hooded seal. PMID:27147981

  6. Estimating Fiber Orientation Distribution Functions in 3D-Polarized Light Imaging.

    PubMed

    Axer, Markus; Strohmer, Sven; Gräßel, David; Bücker, Oliver; Dohmen, Melanie; Reckfort, Julia; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Research of the human brain connectome requires multiscale approaches derived from independent imaging methods ideally applied to the same object. Hence, comprehensible strategies for data integration across modalities and across scales are essential. We have successfully established a concept to bridge the spatial scales from microscopic fiber orientation measurements based on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI) to meso- or macroscopic dimensions. By creating orientation distribution functions (pliODFs) from high-resolution vector data via series expansion with spherical harmonics utilizing high performance computing and supercomputing technologies, data fusion with Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become feasible, even for a large-scale dataset such as the human brain. Validation of our approach was done effectively by means of two types of datasets that were transferred from fiber orientation maps into pliODFs: simulated 3D-PLI data showing artificial, but clearly defined fiber patterns and real 3D-PLI data derived from sections through the human brain and the brain of a hooded seal. PMID:27147981

  7. HEMP 3D -- a finite difference program for calculating elastic-plastic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1993-05-26

    The HEMP 3D program can be used to solve problems in solid mechanics involving dynamic plasticity and time dependent material behavior and problems in gas dynamics. The equations of motion, the conservation equations, and the constitutive relations are solved by finite difference methods following the format of the HEMP computer simulation program formulated in two space dimensions and time. Presented here is an update of the 1975 report on the HEMP 3D numerical technique. The present report includes the sliding surface routines programmed by Robert Gulliford.

  8. Electronic and magnetic structure of 3d-transition-metal point defects in silicon calculated from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, F.; Andersen, O. K.; Scheffler, M.

    1990-01-01

    We describe spin-unrestricted self-consistent linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) Green-function calculations for Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu transition-metal impurities in crystalline silicon. Both defect sites of tetrahedral symmetry are considered. All possible charge states with their spin multiplicities, magnetization densities, and energy levels are discussed and explained with a simple physical picture. The early transition-metal interstitial and late transition-metal substitutional 3d ions are found to have low spin. This is in conflict with the generally accepted crystal-field model of Ludwig and Woodbury, but not with available experimental data. For the interstitial 3d ions, the calculated deep donor and acceptor levels reproduce all experimentally observed transitions. For substitutional 3d ions, a large number of predictions is offered to be tested by future experimental studies.

  9. Effect of the cathode on the 3D plume distribution of a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Liqiu; Liang Wei; Fan Jinrui; Zhang Chaohai; Zhao Yequan; Yu Daren

    2012-09-15

    A Hall thruster usually has a symmetric cylindrical structure with the cathode placed on the outlet along a particular radial direction. In order to evaluate the effect of the nonaxisymmetric location of the cathode on the plume distribution, the 3D ion current density distribution was measured and the plume deflection angles were defined. Experimental results show that high electron density near the cathode would cause plume deflection angles along a radial direction toward the cathode. The effect of the cathode's nonaxisymmetric location upon the discharge's axisymmetric characteristics is an important physical problem, which deserves emphasizing.

  10. Electron-density comparisons between radar observations and 3-D ionospheric model calculations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of electron densities calculated from the Utah State University First-Principals Ionospheric Model with simultaneous observations taken at Sondrestrom, Millstone, and Arecibo incoherent-scatter radars was undertaken to better understanding the response of the ionosphere at these longitudinally similar yet latitudinally separated locations. The comparison included over 50 days distributed over 3 1/2 years roughly symmetrical about the last solar-minimum in 1986. The overall trend of the comparison was that to first-order the model reproduces electron densities responding to diurnal, seasonal, geomagnetic, and solar-cycle variations for all three radars. However, some model-observation discrepancies were found. These include, failure of the model to correctly produce an evening peak at Millstone, fall-spring equinox differences at Sondrestrom, tidal structure at Arecibo, and daytime NmF2 values at Arecibo.

  11. Accurate Automatic Detection of Densely Distributed Cell Nuclei in 3D Space

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Terumasa; Kanamori, Manami; Teramoto, Takayuki; Jang, Moon Sun; Kuge, Sayuri; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    To measure the activity of neurons using whole-brain activity imaging, precise detection of each neuron or its nucleus is required. In the head region of the nematode C. elegans, the neuronal cell bodies are distributed densely in three-dimensional (3D) space. However, no existing computational methods of image analysis can separate them with sufficient accuracy. Here we propose a highly accurate segmentation method based on the curvatures of the iso-intensity surfaces. To obtain accurate positions of nuclei, we also developed a new procedure for least squares fitting with a Gaussian mixture model. Combining these methods enables accurate detection of densely distributed cell nuclei in a 3D space. The proposed method was implemented as a graphical user interface program that allows visualization and correction of the results of automatic detection. Additionally, the proposed method was applied to time-lapse 3D calcium imaging data, and most of the nuclei in the images were successfully tracked and measured. PMID:27271939

  12. Accurate Automatic Detection of Densely Distributed Cell Nuclei in 3D Space.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Yu; Tokunaga, Terumasa; Hirose, Osamu; Kanamori, Manami; Teramoto, Takayuki; Jang, Moon Sun; Kuge, Sayuri; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    To measure the activity of neurons using whole-brain activity imaging, precise detection of each neuron or its nucleus is required. In the head region of the nematode C. elegans, the neuronal cell bodies are distributed densely in three-dimensional (3D) space. However, no existing computational methods of image analysis can separate them with sufficient accuracy. Here we propose a highly accurate segmentation method based on the curvatures of the iso-intensity surfaces. To obtain accurate positions of nuclei, we also developed a new procedure for least squares fitting with a Gaussian mixture model. Combining these methods enables accurate detection of densely distributed cell nuclei in a 3D space. The proposed method was implemented as a graphical user interface program that allows visualization and correction of the results of automatic detection. Additionally, the proposed method was applied to time-lapse 3D calcium imaging data, and most of the nuclei in the images were successfully tracked and measured. PMID:27271939

  13. Quantum key distribution for security guarantees over QoS-driven 3D satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, quantum-based communication is emerging as a new technique for ensuring secured communications because it can guarantee absolute security between two different remote entities. Quantum communication performs the transmission and exchange of quantum information among distant nodes within a network. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a methodology for generating and distributing random encryption keys using the principles of quantum physics. In this paper, we investigate the techniques on how to efficiently use QKD in 3D satellite networks and propose an effective method to overcome its communications-distance limitations. In order to implement secured and reliable communications over wireless satellite links, we develop a free-space quantum channel model in satellite communication networks. To enlarge the communications distances over 3D satellite networks, we propose to employ the intermediate nodes to relay the unconditional keys and guarantee the Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER) for security requirement over 3D satellite networks. We also propose the communication model for QKD security-Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee and an adaptive cooperative routing selection scheme to optimize the throughput performance of QKD-based satellite communications networks. The obtained simulation results verify our proposed schemes.

  14. Accurate Automatic Detection of Densely Distributed Cell Nuclei in 3D Space.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Yu; Tokunaga, Terumasa; Hirose, Osamu; Kanamori, Manami; Teramoto, Takayuki; Jang, Moon Sun; Kuge, Sayuri; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    To measure the activity of neurons using whole-brain activity imaging, precise detection of each neuron or its nucleus is required. In the head region of the nematode C. elegans, the neuronal cell bodies are distributed densely in three-dimensional (3D) space. However, no existing computational methods of image analysis can separate them with sufficient accuracy. Here we propose a highly accurate segmentation method based on the curvatures of the iso-intensity surfaces. To obtain accurate positions of nuclei, we also developed a new procedure for least squares fitting with a Gaussian mixture model. Combining these methods enables accurate detection of densely distributed cell nuclei in a 3D space. The proposed method was implemented as a graphical user interface program that allows visualization and correction of the results of automatic detection. Additionally, the proposed method was applied to time-lapse 3D calcium imaging data, and most of the nuclei in the images were successfully tracked and measured.

  15. Efficient and reliable 3D dose quality assurance for IMRT by combining independent dose calculations with measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, R.; Wauben, D. J. L.; Godart, J.; Langendijk, J. A.; Veld, A. A. van't; Korevaar, E. W.; Groot, M. de

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy treatments require appropriate quality assurance (QA) to verify 3D dose distributions. Moreover, increase in patient numbers demand efficient QA-methods. In this study, a time efficient method that combines model-based QA and measurement-based QA was developed; i.e., the hybrid-QA. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the model-based QA and to evaluate time efficiency of the hybrid-QA method. Methods: Accuracy of the model-based QA was determined by comparison of COMPASS calculated dose with Monte Carlo calculations for heterogeneous media. In total, 330 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans were evaluated based on the mean gamma index (GI) with criteria of 3%/3mm and classification of PASS (GI {<=} 0.4), EVAL (0.4 < GI > 0.6), and FAIL (GI {>=} 0.6). Agreement between model-based QA and measurement-based QA was determined for 48 treatment plans, and linac stability was verified for 15 months. Finally, time efficiency improvement of the hybrid-QA was quantified for four representative treatment plans. Results: COMPASS calculated dose was in agreement with Monte Carlo dose, with a maximum error of 3.2% in heterogeneous media with high density (2.4 g/cm{sup 3}). Hybrid-QA results for IMRT treatment plans showed an excellent PASS rate of 98% for all cases. Model-based QA was in agreement with measurement-based QA, as shown by a minimal difference in GI of 0.03 {+-} 0.08. Linac stability was high with an average GI of 0.28 {+-} 0.04. The hybrid-QA method resulted in a time efficiency improvement of 15 min per treatment plan QA compared to measurement-based QA. Conclusions: The hybrid-QA method is adequate for efficient and accurate 3D dose verification. It combines time efficiency of model-based QA with reliability of measurement-based QA and is suitable for implementation within any radiotherapy department.

  16. Distributed haptic interactions with physically based 3D deformable models over lossy networks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ziying; Yang, Yin; Guo, Xiaohu; Prabhakaran, Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have faced great challenges when simulating complicated 3D volumetric deformable models in haptics-enabled collaborative/cooperative virtual environments (HCVEs) due to the expensive simulation cost, heavy communication load, and unstable network conditions. When general network services are applied to HCVEs, network problems such as packet loss, delay, and jitter can cause severe visual distortion, haptic instability, and system inconsistency. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to support haptic interactions with physically based 3D deformable models in a distributed virtual environment. Our objective is to achieve real-time sharing of deformable and force simulations over general networks. Combining linear modal analysis and corotational methods, we can effectively simulate physical behaviors of 3D objects, even for large rotational deformations. We analyze different factors that influence HCVEs' performance and focus on exploring solutions for streaming over lossy networks. In our system, 3D deformation can be described by a fairly small amount of data (several KB) using accelerations in the spectral domain, so that we can achieve low communication load and effective streaming. We develop a loss compensation and prediction algorithm to correct the errors/distortions caused by network problem, and a force prediction method to simulate force at users' side to ensure the haptic stability, and the visual and haptic consistency. Our system works well under both the client-server and the peer-to-peer distribution structures, and can be easily extended to other topologies. In addition to theoretical analysis, we have tested the proposed system and algorithms under various network conditions. The experimental results are remarkably good, confirming the effectiveness, robustness, and validity of our approach. PMID:24808394

  17. The Use of Direct Solver in Vector Finite Element Modeling for Calculating 3-D Magnetotelluric Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prihantoro, Rudy; Sutarno, Doddy; Nurhasan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we seek numerical solution of 3-D Magnetotelluric (MT) using edge- based finite element method. This approach is a variant of standard finite element method and commonly referred as vector finite-element (VFE) method. Nonphysical solutions usually occurred when the solution is sought using standard finite element which is a node based element. Vector finite element attempt to overcome those nonphysical solutions by using the edges of the element as vector basis. The proposed approach on solving second order Maxwell differential equation of 3-D MT is using direct solver rather than iterative method. Therefore, divergence correction to accelerate the rate of convergence for its iterative solution is no longer needed. The utilization of direct solver has been verified previously for correctness by comparing the resulting solution to those given by analytical solution, as well as the solution come from the other numerical methods, for earth layered model, 2-D models and COMMEMI 3D-2 model. In this work, further verification resulted from recent comparison model of Dublin Test Model 1 (DTM1) is presented.

  18. Modeling late rectal toxicities based on a parameterized representation of the 3D dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike

    2011-04-01

    Many models exist for predicting toxicities based on dose-volume histograms (DVHs) or dose-surface histograms (DSHs). This approach has several drawbacks as firstly the reduction of the dose distribution to a histogram results in the loss of spatial information and secondly the bins of the histograms are highly correlated with each other. Furthermore, some of the complex nonlinear models proposed in the past lack a direct physical interpretation and the ability to predict probabilities rather than binary outcomes. We propose a parameterized representation of the 3D distribution of the dose to the rectal wall which explicitly includes geometrical information in the form of the eccentricity of the dose distribution as well as its lateral and longitudinal extent. We use a nonlinear kernel-based probabilistic model to predict late rectal toxicity based on the parameterized dose distribution and assessed its predictive power using data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISCTRN 47772397). The endpoints under consideration were rectal bleeding, loose stools, and a global toxicity score. We extract simple rules identifying 3D dose patterns related to a specifically low risk of complication. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on parameterized representations of geometrical and volumetric measures resulted in areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.66, 0.63 and 0.67 for predicting rectal bleeding, loose stools and global toxicity, respectively. In comparison, NTCP models based on standard DVHs performed worse and resulted in AUCs of 0.59 for all three endpoints. In conclusion, we have presented low-dimensional, interpretable and nonlinear NTCP models based on the parameterized representation of the dose to the rectal wall. These models had a higher predictive power than models based on standard DVHs and their low dimensionality allowed for the identification of 3D dose patterns related to a low risk of complication.

  19. Analysis of the KROTOS KFC test by coupling X-Ray image analysis and MC3D calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Brayer, C.; Charton, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Fouquart, P.; Bullado, Y.; Compagnon, F.; Correggio, P.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Piluso, P.

    2012-07-01

    During a hypothetical severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the hot molten materials (corium) issuing from the degraded reactor core may generate a steam explosion if they come in contact with water and may damage the structures and threaten the reactor integrity. The SERENA program is an international OECD project that aims at helping the understanding of this phenomenon also called Fuel Coolant Interaction (FCI) by providing data. CEA takes part in this program by performing tests in its KROTOS facility where steam explosions using prototypic corium can be triggered. Data about the different phases in the premixing are extracted from the KROTOS X-Ray radioscopy images by using KIWI software (KROTOS Image analysis of Water-corium Interaction) currently developed by CEA. The MC3D code, developed by IRSN, is a thermal-hydraulic multiphase code mainly dedicated to FCI studies. It is composed of two applications: premixing and explosion. An overall FCI calculation with MC3D requires a premixing calculation followed by an explosion calculation. The present paper proposes an alternative approach in which all the features of the premixing are extracted from the X-Ray pictures using the KIWI software and transferred to an MC3D dataset for a direct simulation of the explosion. The main hypothesis are discussed as well as the first explosion results obtained with MC3D for the KROTOS KFC test. These results are rather encouraging and are analyzed on the basis of comparisons with the experimental data. (authors)

  20. 3D Drop Size Distribution Extrapolation Algorithm Using a Single Disdrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    Determining the Z-R relationship (where Z is the radar reflectivity factor and R is rainfall rate) from disdrometer data has been and is a common goal of cloud physicists and radar meteorology researchers. The usefulness of this quantity has traditionally been limited since radar represents a volume measurement, while a disdrometer corresponds to a point measurement. To solve that problem, a 3D-DSD (drop-size distribution) method of determining an equivalent 3D Z-R was developed at the University of Central Florida and tested at the Kennedy Space Center, FL. Unfortunately, that method required a minimum of three disdrometers clustered together within a microscale network (.1-km separation). Since most commercial disdrometers used by the radar meteorology/cloud physics community are high-cost instruments, three disdrometers located within a microscale area is generally not a practical strategy due to the limitations of these kinds of research budgets. A relatively simple modification to the 3D-DSD algorithm provides an estimate of the 3D-DSD and therefore, a 3D Z-R measurement using a single disdrometer. The basis of the horizontal extrapolation is mass conservation of a drop size increment, employing the mass conservation equation. For vertical extrapolation, convolution of a drop size increment using raindrop terminal velocity is used. Together, these two independent extrapolation techniques provide a complete 3DDSD estimate in a volume around and above a single disdrometer. The estimation error is lowest along a vertical plane intersecting the disdrometer position in the direction of wind advection. This work demonstrates that multiple sensors are not required for successful implementation of the 3D interpolation/extrapolation algorithm. This is a great benefit since it is seldom that multiple sensors in the required spatial arrangement are available for this type of analysis. The original software (developed at the University of Central Florida, 1998.- 2000) has

  1. Stress distribution in a premolar 3D model with anisotropic and isotropic enamel.

    PubMed

    Munari, Laís S; Cornacchia, Tulimar P M; Moreira, Allyson N; Gonçalves, Jason B; De Las Casas, Estevam B; Magalhães, Cláudia S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the areas of stress concentration in a three-dimensional (3D) premolar tooth model with anisotropic or isotropic enamel using the finite element method. A computed tomography was imported to an image processing program to create the tooth model which was exported to a 3D modeling program. The mechanical properties and loading conditions were prescribed in Abaqus. In order to evaluate stresses, axial and oblique loads were applied simulating realistic conditions. Compression stress was observed on the side of load application, and tensile stress was observed on the opposite side. Tensile stress was concentrated mainly in the cervical region and in the alveolar insertion bone. Although stress concentration analyses of the isotropic 3D models produced similar stress distribution results when compared to the anisotropic models, tensile stress values shown by anisotropic models were smaller than the isotropic models. Oblique loads resulted in higher values of tensile stresses, which concentrate mainly in the cervical area of the tooth and in the alveolar bone insertion. Anisotropic properties must be utilized in enamel stress evaluation in non-carious cervical lesions. PMID:25850984

  2. 3D distribution of interstellar medium in the Galaxy: Preparation for analysis of Gaia observations

    SciTech Connect

    Puspitarini, Lucky; Lallement, Rosine

    2015-09-30

    Accurate and detailed three-dimensional (3D) maps of Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) are still lacking. One way to obtain such 3D descriptions is to record a large set of individual absorption or reddening measurements toward target stars located at various known distances and directions. The inversion of these measurements using a tomographic method can produce spatial distribution of the ISM. Until recently absorption data were very limited and distances to the target stars are still uncertain, but the situation will greatly improve thanks to current and future massive stellar surveys from ground, and to Gaia mission. To prepare absorption data for inversion from a huge number of stellar spectra, automated tools are needed. We have developed various spectral analysis tools adapted to different type of spectra, early- or late- type star. We also have used diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to trace IS structures and kinematics. Although we do not know yet their carriers, they can be a promising tool to trace distant interstellar clouds or Galactic arms. We present some examples of the interstellar fitting and show the potentiality of DIBs in tracing the ISM. We will also briefly show and comment the latest 3D map of the local ISM which reveal nearby cloud complexes and cavities.

  3. Algorithm Calculates Cumulative Poisson Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert C.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithm calculates accurate values of cumulative Poisson distribution under conditions where other algorithms fail because numbers are so small (underflow) or so large (overflow) that computer cannot process them. Factors inserted temporarily to prevent underflow and overflow. Implemented in CUMPOIS computer program described in "Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program" (NPO-17714).

  4. PARALLEL 3-D SPACE CHARGE CALCULATIONS IN THE UNIFIED ACCELERATOR LIBRARY.

    SciTech Connect

    D'IMPERIO, N.L.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MALITSKY, N.

    2006-06-26

    The paper presents the integration of the SIMBAD space charge module in the UAL framework. SIMBAD is a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. Its 3-D Parallel approach features an optimized load balancing scheme based on a genetic algorithm. The UAL framework enhances the SIMBAD standalone version with the interactive ROOT-based analysis environment and an open catalog of accelerator algorithms. The composite package addresses complex high intensity beam dynamics and has been developed as part of the FAIR SIS 100 project.

  5. The 3D heat flux density distribution on a novel parabolic trough wavy absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demagh, Yassine; Kabar, Yassine; Bordja, Lyes; Noui, Samira

    2016-05-01

    The non-uniform concentrated solar flux distribution on the outer surface of the absorber pipe can lead to large circumferential gradient temperature and high concentrated temperature of the absorber pipe wall, which is one of the primary causes of parabolic trough solar receiver breakdown. In this study, a novel shape of the parabolic trough absorber pipe is proposed as a solution to well homogenize the solar flux distribution, as well as, the temperature in the absorber wall. The conventional straight absorber located along the focal line of the parabola is replaced by wavy one (invention patent by Y. Demagh [1]) for which the heat flux density distribution on the outer surface varies in both axial and azimuthal directions (3D) while it varies only in the azimuthal direction on the former (2D). As far as we know, there is not previous study which has used a longitudinally wavy pipe as an absorber into the parabolic trough collector unit.

  6. Development of an automated 3D segmentation program for volume quantification of body fat distribution using CT.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Yamaji, Taiki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Mutoh, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Kotera, Ken; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Muramatsu, Yukio; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2008-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop a computing tool for full-automatic segmentation of body fat distributions on volumetric CT images. We developed an algorithm to automatically identify the body perimeter and the inner contour that separates visceral fat from subcutaneous fat. Diaphragmatic surfaces can be extracted by model-based segmentation to match the bottom surface of the lung in CT images for determination of the upper limitation of the abdomen. The functions for quantitative evaluation of abdominal obesity or obesity-related metabolic syndrome were implemented with a prototype three-dimensional (3D) image processing workstation. The volumetric ratios of visceral fat to total fat and visceral fat to subcutaneous fat for each subject can be calculated. Additionally, color intensity mapping of subcutaneous areas and the visceral fat layer is quite obvious in understanding the risk of abdominal obesity with the 3D surface display. Preliminary results obtained have been useful in medical checkups and have contributed to improved efficiency in checking obesity throughout the whole range of the abdomen with 3D visualization and analysis.

  7. A statistical approach to estimate the 3D size distribution of spheres from 2D size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kong, M.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; James, C.; Basu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Size distribution of rigidly embedded spheres in a groundmass is usually determined from measurements of the radii of the two-dimensional (2D) circular cross sections of the spheres in random flat planes of a sample, such as in thin sections or polished slabs. Several methods have been devised to find a simple factor to convert the mean of such 2D size distributions to the actual 3D mean size of the spheres without a consensus. We derive an entirely theoretical solution based on well-established probability laws and not constrained by limitations of absolute size, which indicates that the ratio of the means of measured 2D and estimated 3D grain size distribution should be r/4 (=.785). Actual 2D size distribution of the radii of submicron sized, pure Fe0 globules in lunar agglutinitic glass, determined from backscattered electron images, is tested to fit the gamma size distribution model better than the log-normal model. Numerical analysis of 2D size distributions of Fe0 globules in 9 lunar soils shows that the average mean of 2D/3D ratio is 0.84, which is very close to the theoretical value. These results converge with the ratio 0.8 that Hughes (1978) determined for millimeter-sized chondrules from empirical measurements. We recommend that a factor of 1.273 (reciprocal of 0.785) be used to convert the determined 2D mean size (radius or diameter) of a population of spheres to estimate their actual 3D size. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  8. DVR3D: a program suite for the calculation of rotation-vibration spectra of triatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Kostin, Maxim A.; Barletta, Paolo; Harris, Gregory J.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Ramanlal, Jayesh; Zobov, Nikolai F.

    2004-11-01

    The DVR3D program suite calculates energy levels, wavefunctions, and where appropriate dipole transition moments, for rotating and vibrating triatomic molecules. Potential energy and, where necessary, dipole surfaces must be provided. Expectation values of geometrically defined functions can be calculated, a feature which is particularly useful for fitting potential energy surfaces. The programs use an exact (within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation) Hamiltonian and offer a choice of Jacobi or Radau internal coordinates and several body-fixed axes. Rotationally excited states are treated using an efficient two-step algorithm. The programs uses a Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) based on Gauss-Jacobi and Gauss-Laguerre quadrature for all 3 internal coordinates and thus yields a fully point-wise representation of the wavefunctions. The vibrational step uses successive diagonalisation and truncation which is implemented for a number of possible coordinate orderings. The rotational, expectation value and transition dipole programs exploit the savings offered by performing integrals on a DVR grid. The new version has been rewritten in FORTRAN 90 to exploit the dynamic array allocations and the algorithm for dipole and spectra calculations have been substantially improved. New modules allow the z-axis to be embedded perpendicular to the plane of the molecule and for the calculation of expectation values. Program summaryTitle of the program: DVR3D suite Catalogue number: ADTI Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTI Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Programming language: Fortran 90 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 61 574 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 972 404 Distribution format: tar.gz New version summaryTitle of program: DVR3DRJZ Catalogue number: ADTB Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADTB Program obtainable

  9. Numerical simulation of 3-D temperature distribution of the flame tube of the combustion chamber with air film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Haiping; Huang, Taiping; Chen, Wanbing

    1996-01-01

    The wall temperature distribution of the flame tube of the combustion chamber is strongly affected by the combustion, radiation and flow. The interaction of these influential factors forms a coupling system. In this paper, a new method, which is different from the previous methods, has been developed for calculating the temperature distribution of the flame tube wall together with the flow field inside and outside the flame tube. In the calculation, the combustion, heat radiation, cooling air film and injection stream mixing inside the flame tube as well as the secondary air flowing outside the flame tube have been simulated. The calculation, in this paper, uses the SIMPLE algorithm, the k - ɛ turbulence model and the auto-adjustable damping method. By using this method, the 3-D temperature distribution of the flame tube wall of the combustion chamber of an aeroengine has been simulated successfully. The calculation results are compared to the experimental data. The error of wall temperature is less than 10%.

  10. 3-D model-based frame interpolation for distributed video coding of static scenes.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Matthieu; Guillemot, Christine; Morin, Luce

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of side information extraction for distributed coding of videos captured by a camera moving in a 3-D static environment. Examples of targeted applications are augmented reality, remote-controlled robots operating in hazardous environments, or remote exploration by drones. It explores the benefits of the structure-from-motion paradigm for distributed coding of this type of video content. Two interpolation methods constrained by the scene geometry, based either on block matching along epipolar lines or on 3-D mesh fitting, are first developed. These techniques are based on a robust algorithm for sub-pel matching of feature points, which leads to semi-dense correspondences between key frames. However, their rate-distortion (RD) performances are limited by misalignments between the side information and the actual Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames due to the assumption of linear motion between key frames. To cope with this problem, two feature point tracking techniques are introduced, which recover the camera parameters of the WZ frames. A first technique, in which the frames remain encoded separately, performs tracking at the decoder and leads to significant RD performance gains. A second technique further improves the RD performances by allowing a limited tracking at the encoder. As an additional benefit, statistics on tracks allow the encoder to adapt the key frame frequency to the video motion content.

  11. MESA 3-D calculations of armor penetration by projectiles with combined obliquity and yaw

    SciTech Connect

    Cagliostro, D.J.; Mandell, D.A.; Schwalbe, L.A.; Adams, T.F.; Chapyak, E.J. )

    1989-01-01

    We introduce and briefly describe MESA, a new 3-D hydrodynamic code, developed specifically for simulations of armor and anti-armor systems. The code's current capabilities an its planned model improvements and additions are discussed. An Eulerian code using state-of-the-art numerical methods, MESA runs faster and is less affected by spurious numerical diffusion than older codes. It models hydrodynamic flow and the dynamic deformation of solid materials. It uses simple elastic-perfectly plastic material strength models as well as models with strain and strainrate hardening and thermal softening. Future versions will incorporate advanced fracture models. It treats detonations in explosives using a programmed burn. The code's current capabilities are illustrated with simulations of experiments on yawed rods obliquely impacting armor plates at 1.29 km/s. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Characterization of gas hydrate distribution using conventional 3D seismic data in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Xiujuan; Qiang, Jin; Collett, Timothy S.; Shi, Hesheng; Yang, Shengxiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Duanxin

    2016-01-01

    A new 3D seismic reflection data volume acquired in 2012 has allowed for the detailed mapping and characterization of gas hydrate distribution in the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. Previous studies of core and logging data showed that gas hydrate occurrence at high concentrations is controlled by the presence of relatively coarse-grained sediment and the upward migration of thermogenic gas from the deeper sediment section into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ); however, the spatial distribution of the gas hydrate remains poorly defined. We used a constrained sparse spike inversion technique to generate acoustic-impedance images of the hydrate-bearing sedimentary section from the newly acquired 3D seismic data volume. High-amplitude reflections just above the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) were interpreted to be associated with the accumulation of gas hydrate with elevated saturations. Enhanced seismic reflections below the BSRs were interpreted to indicate the presence of free gas. The base of the BGHSZ was established using the occurrence of BSRs. In areas absent of well-developed BSRs, the BGHSZ was calculated from a model using the inverted P-wave velocity and subsurface temperature data. Seismic attributes were also extracted along the BGHSZ that indicate variations reservoir properties and inferred hydrocarbon accumulations at each site. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the inversion of acoustic impedance of conventional 3D seismic data, along with well-log-derived rock-physics models were also used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Our analysis determined that the gas hydrate petroleum system varies significantly across the Pearl River Mouth Basin and that variability in sedimentary properties as a product of depositional processes and the upward migration of gas from deeper thermogenic sources control the distribution of gas hydrates in this basin.

  13. Distributed network of integrated 3D sensors for transportation security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejmadi, Vic; Garcia, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The US Port Security Agency has strongly emphasized the needs for tighter control at transportation hubs. Distributed arrays of miniature CMOS cameras are providing some solutions today. However, due to the high bandwidth required and the low valued content of such cameras (simple video feed), large computing power and analysis algorithms as well as control software are needed, which makes such an architecture cumbersome, heavy, slow and expensive. We present a novel technique by integrating cheap and mass replicable stealth 3D sensing micro-devices in a distributed network. These micro-sensors are based on conventional structures illumination via successive fringe patterns on the object to be sensed. The communication bandwidth between each sensor remains very small, but is of very high valued content. Key technologies to integrate such a sensor are digital optics and structured laser illumination.

  14. Interpreting Irradiance Distributions Using High-Resolution 3D MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Courtney; Rast, Mark; Criscuoli, Serena; Uitenbroek, Han; Rempel, Matthias D.

    2016-05-01

    We present initial results of studies aimed at understanding the impact of the unresolved magnetic field distribution on solar spectral irradiance. Using high-resolution 3D MHD simulations (from MURaM code) and spectral synthesis (with the RH code), we examine the emergent spectra of two atmospheres with similar mean field strengths but differing imposed-field conditions at wavelengths spanning from visible to infrared. Comparing the contrast against the magnetic field strength for the two magnetic simulations, we find differences in the distributions of contrasts versus field strength. We repeat the analysis after convolving the images with the PSF of a typical solar telescope (1-meter) and discuss the potential implications for irradiance modeling and future steps.

  15. 3D Distribution of the Coronal Electron Density and its Evolution with Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Reginald, Nelson Leslie; Davila, Joseph M.; St. Cyr, Orville Chris

    2016-05-01

    The variability of the solar white-light corona and its connection to the solar activity has been studied for more than a half century. It is widely accepted that the temporal variation of the total radiance of the K-corona follows the solar cycle pattern (e.g., correlated with sunspot number). However, the origin of this variation and its relationships with regard to coronal mass ejections and the solar wind are yet to be clearly understood. We know that the COR1-A and –B instruments onboard the STEREO spacecraft have continued to perform high-cadence (5 min) polarized brightness measurements from two different vantage points over a long period of time that encompasses the solar minimum of Solar Cycle 23 to the solar maximum of Solar Cycle 24. This extended period of polarized brightness measurements can now be used to reconstruct 3D electron density distributions of the corona between the heliocentric heights of 1.5-4.0 solar radii. In this study we have constructed the 3D coronal density models for 100 Carrington rotations (CRs) from 2007 to 2014 using the spherically symmetric inversion (SSI) method. The validity of these 3D density models is verified by comparing with similar 3D density models created by other means such as tomography, MHD modeling, and 2D density distributions inverted from the polarized brightness images from LASCO/C2 instrument onboard the SOHO spacecraft. When examining the causes for the temporal variation of the global electron content we find that its increase from the solar minimum to maximum depends on changes to both the total area and mean density of coronal streamers. We also find that the global and hemispheric electron contents show quasi-periodic variations with a period of 8-9 CRs during the ascending and maximum phases of Solar Cycle 24 through wavelet analysis. In addition, we also explore any obvious relationships between temporal variation of the global electron content with the photospheric magnetic flux, total mass of

  16. Runaway electron production in DIII-D killer pellet experiments, calculated with the CQL3D/KPRAD model

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R. W.; Chan, V. S.; Chiu, S. C.; Evans, T. E.; Rosenbluth, M. N.; Whyte, D. G.

    2000-11-01

    Runaway electrons are calculated to be produced during the rapid plasma cooling resulting from ''killer pellet'' injection experiments, in general agreement with observations in the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon , Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] tokamak. The time-dependent dynamics of the kinetic runaway distributions are obtained with the CQL3D [R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, ''The CQL3D Code,'' in Proceedings of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Numerical Modeling, Montreal, 1992 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1992), p. 489] collisional Fokker--Planck code, including the effect of small and large angle collisions and stochastic magnetic field transport losses. The background density, temperature, and Z{sub eff} are evolved according to the KPRAD [D. G. Whyte and T. E. Evans , in Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Berchtesgaden, Germany (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, 1997), Vol. 21A, p. 1137] deposition and radiation model of pellet--plasma interactions. Three distinct runway mechanisms are apparent: (1) prompt ''hot-tail runaways'' due to the residual hot electron tail remaining from the pre-cooling phase, (2) ''knock-on'' runaways produced by large-angle Coulomb collisions on existing high energy electrons, and (3) Dreicer ''drizzle'' runaway electrons due to diffusion of electrons up to the critical velocity for electron runaway. For electron densities below {approx}1x10{sup 15}cm{sup -3}, the hot-tail runaways dominate the early time evolution, and provide the seed population for late time knock-on runaway avalanche. For small enough stochastic magnetic field transport losses, the knock-on production of electrons balances the losses at late times. For losses due to radial magnetic field perturbations in excess of {approx}0.1% of the background field, i.e., {delta}B{sub r}/B{>=}0.001, the losses

  17. Dose distribution and mapping with 3D imaging presentation in intraoral and panoramic examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Yung-Hui; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Lee, Jason J. S.

    2011-10-01

    In current medical imaging applications, high quality images not only provide more diagnostic value for anatomic delineation but also offer functional information for treatment direction. However, this approach would potentially subscribe higher radiation dose in dental radiographies, which has been putatively associated with low-birth-weight during pregnancy, which affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis or thereby directly affects the reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to apply the high resolution 3-D image mapping technique to evaluate radiation doses from the following aspects: (1) verifying operating parameters of dental X-ray units, (2) measuring the leakage radiations and (3) mapping dose with 3-D radiographic imaging to evaluate dose distribution in head and neck regions. From the study results, we found that (1) leakage radiation from X-ray units was about 21.31±15.24 mR/h (<100 mR/h), (2) error of actual tube voltage for 60 kVp setting was from 0.2% to 6.5%, with an average of 2.5% (<7%) and (3) the error of exposure time for a 0.5-1.5 s setting was within 0.7-8.5%, with an average of 7.3% (<10%) error as well. Our 3-D dose mapping demonstrated that dose values were relatively lower in soft tissues and higher in bone surfaces compared with other investigations. Multiple causes could contribute to these variations, including irradiation geometry, image equipment and type of technique applied, etc. From the results, we also observed that larger accumulated doses were presented in certain critical organs, such as salivary gland, thyroid gland and bone marrow. Potential biological affects associated with these findings warrant further investigation.

  18. Numerical Calculations of 3-D High-Lift Flows and Comparison with Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, William B, III

    2015-01-01

    Solutions were obtained with the Navier-Stokes CFD code TLNS3D to predict the flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing, a high-lift wing composed of three elements: the main-wing element, a deployed leading-edge slat, and a deployed trailing-edge flap. Turbulence was modeled by the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model. One case with massive separation was repeated using Menter's two-equation SST (Menter's Shear Stress Transport) k-omega turbulence model in an attempt to improve the agreement with experiment. The investigation was conducted at a free stream Mach number of 0.2, and at angles of attack ranging from 10.004 degrees to 34.858 degrees. The Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing was 4.3 x 10 (sup 6). Compared to experiment, the numerical procedure predicted the surface pressures very well at angles of attack in the linear range of the lift. However, computed maximum lift was 5% low. Drag was mainly under predicted. The procedure correctly predicted several well-known trends and features of high-lift flows, such as off-body separation. The two turbulence models yielded significantly different solutions for the repeated case.

  19. Local ISM 3D Distribution and Soft X-ray Background Inferences for Nearby Hot Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puspitarini, L.; Lallement, R.; Snowden, Steven L.; Vergely, J.-L.; Snowden, S.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) interstellar medium (ISM) maps can be used to locate not only interstellar (IS) clouds, but also IS bubbles between the clouds that are blown by stellar winds and supernovae, and are filled by hot gas. To demonstrate this, and to derive a clearer picture of the local ISM, we compare our recent 3D IS dust distribution maps to the ROSAT diffuse Xray background maps after removal of heliospheric emission. In the Galactic plane, there is a good correspondence between the locations and extents of the mapped nearby cavities and the soft (0.25 keV) background emission distribution, showing that most of these nearby cavities contribute to this soft X-ray emission. Assuming a constant dust to gas ratio and homogeneous 106 K hot gas filling the cavities, we modeled in a simple way the 0.25 keV surface brightness along the Galactic plane as seen from the Sun, taking into account the absorption by the mapped clouds. The data-model comparison favors the existence of hot gas in the solar neighborhood, the so-called Local Bubble (LB). The inferred mean pressure in the local cavities is found to be approx.9,400/cu cm K, in agreement with previous studies, providing a validation test for the method. On the other hand, the model overestimates the emission from the huge cavities located in the third quadrant. Using CaII absorption data, we show that the dust to CaII ratio is very small in those regions, implying the presence of a large quantity of lower temperature (non-X-ray emitting) ionized gas and as a consequence a reduction of the volume filled by hot gas, explaining at least part of the discrepancy. In the meridian plane, the two main brightness enhancements coincide well with the LB's most elongated parts and chimneys connecting the LB to the halo, but no particular nearby cavity is found towards the enhancement in the direction of the bright North Polar Spur (NPS) at high latitude. We searched in the 3D maps for the source regions of the higher energy

  20. 3D elemental distribution images by XRFμCT at LNLS—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, G. R.; Rocha, H. S.; Calza, C.; Anjos, M. J.; Lima, I.; Pérez, C. A.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    An X-ray Transmission Microtomography (CT) system combined with an X-ray Fluorescence Microtomography (XRFμCT) system was implemented in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The main objective of this work is to determine the elemental distribution in biological samples (breast, prostate and lung samples) in order to verify the concentration of some elements correlated with characteristics and pathology of each tissue observed by the transmission CT. The experiments were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence beamline (D09B-XRF) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. A quasi-monochromatic beam produced by a multilayer monochromator was used as an incident beam. The sample was placed on a high precision goniometer and translation stages that allow its rotation as well as translation perpendicular to the beam. The fluorescence photons were collected with an energy dispersive HPGe detector placed at 90° to the incident beam, while transmitted photons were detected with a fast Na(Tl) scintillation counter placed behind the sample on the beam direction. The CT images were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm and the XRFμCT were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm with absorption corrections. The 3D images were reconstructed using the 3D-DOCTOR software.

  1. Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David H.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new linearly scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method for large scale ab initio electronic structure calculations. LS3DF is based on a divide-and-conquer approach, which incorporates a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects due to the subdivision of the system. As a consequence, the LS3DF program yields essentially the same results as direct density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fragments of the LS3DF algorithm can be calculated separately with different groups of processors. This leads to almost perfect parallelization on tens of thousands of processors. After code optimization, we were able to achieve 35.1 Tflop/s, which is 39percent of the theoretical speed on 17,280 Cray XT4 processor cores. Our 13,824-atom ZnTeO alloy calculation runs 400 times faster than a direct DFTcalculation, even presuming that the direct DFT calculation can scale well up to 17,280 processor cores. These results demonstrate the applicability of the LS3DF method to material simulations, the advantage of using linearly scaling algorithms over conventional O(N3) methods, and the potential for petascale computation using the LS3DF method.

  2. Calculating the Probability of Strong Ground Motions Using 3D Seismic Waveform Modeling - SCEC CyberShake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Callaghan, S.; Graves, R.; Mehta, G.; Zhao, L.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Okaya, D.; Cui, Y.; Field, E.; Gupta, V.; Vahi, K.; Maechling, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Researchers from the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) project are utilizing the CyberShake computational platform and a distributed high performance computing environment that includes USC High Performance Computer Center and the NSF TeraGrid facilities to calculate physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves for several sites in the Southern California area. Traditionally, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is conducted using intensity measure relationships based on empirical attenuation relationships. However, a more physics-based approach using waveform modeling could lead to significant improvements in seismic hazard analysis. Members of the SCEC/CME Project have integrated leading-edge PSHA software tools, SCEC-developed geophysical models, validated anelastic wave modeling software, and state-of-the-art computational technologies on the TeraGrid to calculate probabilistic seismic hazard curves using 3D waveform-based modeling. The CyberShake calculations for a single probablistic seismic hazard curve require tens of thousands of CPU hours and multiple terabytes of disk storage. The CyberShake workflows are run on high performance computing systems including multiple TeraGrid sites (currently SDSC and NCSA), and the USC Center for High Performance Computing and Communications. To manage the extensive job scheduling and data requirements, CyberShake utilizes a grid-based scientific workflow system based on the Virtual Data System (VDS), the Pegasus meta-scheduler system, and the Globus toolkit. Probabilistic seismic hazard curves for spectral acceleration at 3.0 seconds have been produced for eleven sites in the Southern California region, including rock and basin sites. At low ground motion levels, there is little difference between the CyberShake and attenuation relationship curves. At higher ground motion (lower probability) levels, the curves are similar for some sites (downtown LA, I-5/SR-14 interchange) but different for

  3. The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    None, None

    2015-09-28

    Coulomb interaction between charged particles inside a bunch is one of the most importance collective effects in beam dynamics, becoming even more significant as the energy of the particle beam is lowered to accommodate analytical and low-Z material imaging purposes such as in the time resolved Ultrafast Electron Microscope (UEM) development currently underway at Michigan State University. In addition, space charge effects are the key limiting factor in the development of ultrafast atomic resolution electron imaging and diffraction technologies and are also correlated with an irreversible growth in rms beam emittance due to fluctuating components of the nonlinear electron dynamics.more » In the short pulse regime used in the UEM, space charge effects also lead to virtual cathode formation in which the negative charge of the electrons emitted at earlier times, combined with the attractive surface field, hinders further emission of particles and causes a degradation of the pulse properties. Space charge and virtual cathode effects and their remediation are core issues for the development of the next generation of high-brightness UEMs. Since the analytical models are only applicable for special cases, numerical simulations, in addition to experiments, are usually necessary to accurately understand the space charge effect. In this paper we will introduce a grid-free differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm, which calculates the 3D space charge field for n charged particles in arbitrary distribution with an efficiency of O(n), and the implementation of the algorithm to a simulation code for space charge dominated photoemission processes.« less

  4. The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-09-28

    Coulomb interaction between charged particles inside a bunch is one of the most importance collective effects in beam dynamics, becoming even more significant as the energy of the particle beam is lowered to accommodate analytical and low-Z material imaging purposes such as in the time resolved Ultrafast Electron Microscope (UEM) development currently underway at Michigan State University. In addition, space charge effects are the key limiting factor in the development of ultrafast atomic resolution electron imaging and diffraction technologies and are also correlated with an irreversible growth in rms beam emittance due to fluctuating components of the nonlinear electron dynamics. In the short pulse regime used in the UEM, space charge effects also lead to virtual cathode formation in which the negative charge of the electrons emitted at earlier times, combined with the attractive surface field, hinders further emission of particles and causes a degradation of the pulse properties. Space charge and virtual cathode effects and their remediation are core issues for the development of the next generation of high-brightness UEMs. Since the analytical models are only applicable for special cases, numerical simulations, in addition to experiments, are usually necessary to accurately understand the space charge effect. In this paper we will introduce a grid-free differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm, which calculates the 3D space charge field for n charged particles in arbitrary distribution with an efficiency of O(n), and the implementation of the algorithm to a simulation code for space charge dominated photoemission processes.

  5. Patient-Specific 3D Pretreatment and Potential 3D Online Dose Verification of Monte Carlo-Calculated IMRT Prostate Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Boggula, Ramesh; Jahnke, Lennart; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Fast and reliable comprehensive quality assurance tools are required to validate the safety and accuracy of complex intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for prostate treatment. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the COMPASS system for both off-line and potential online procedures for the verification of IMRT treatment plans. Methods and Materials: COMPASS has a dedicated beam model and dose engine, it can reconstruct three-dimensional dose distributions on the patient anatomy based on measured fluences using either the MatriXX two-dimensional (2D) array (offline) or a 2D transmission detector (T2D) (online). For benchmarking the COMPASS dose calculation, various dose-volume indices were compared against Monte Carlo-calculated dose distributions for five prostate patient treatment plans. Gamma index evaluation and absolute point dose measurements were also performed in an inhomogeneous pelvis phantom using extended dose range films and ion chamber for five additional treatment plans. Results: MatriXX-based dose reconstruction showed excellent agreement with the ion chamber (<0.5%, except for one treatment plan, which showed 1.5%), film ({approx}100% pixels passing gamma criteria 3%/3 mm) and mean dose-volume indices (<2%). The T2D based dose reconstruction showed good agreement as well with ion chamber (<2%), film ({approx}99% pixels passing gamma criteria 3%/3 mm), and mean dose-volume indices (<5.5%). Conclusion: The COMPASS system qualifies for routine prostate IMRT pretreatment verification with the MatriXX detector and has the potential for on-line verification of treatment delivery using T2D.

  6. Extracting chemical information from plane wave calculations by a 3D 'fuzzy atoms' analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakó, I.; Stirling, A.; Seitsonen, A. P.; Mayer, I.

    2013-03-01

    Bond order and valence indices have been calculated by the method of the three-dimensional 'fuzzy atoms' analysis, using the numerical molecular orbitals obtained from plane wave DFT calculations, i.e., without introducing any external atom-centered functions. Weight functions of both Hirshfeld and Becke types have been applied. The results are rather close to the similar 'fuzzy atoms' ones obtained by using atom-centered basis sets and agree well with the chemical expectations, stressing the power of the genuine chemical concepts.

  7. The distribution of 3D superconductivity near the second critical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachmar, Ayman; Nasrallah, Marwa

    2016-09-01

    We study the minimizers of the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional with a uniform magnetic field in a three dimensional bounded domain. The functional depends on two positive parameters, the Ginzburg-Landau parameter and the intensity of the applied magnetic field, and acts on complex-valued functions and vector fields. We establish a formula for the distribution of the L 2-norm of the minimizing complex-valued function (order parameter). The formula is valid in the regime where the Ginzburg-Landau parameter is large and the applied magnetic field is close to and strictly below the second critical field—the threshold value corresponding to the transition from the superconducting to the normal phase in the bulk of the sample. Earlier results are valid in 2D domains and for the L 4-norm in 3D domains.

  8. The distribution of 3D superconductivity near the second critical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachmar, Ayman; Nasrallah, Marwa

    2016-09-01

    We study the minimizers of the Ginzburg–Landau energy functional with a uniform magnetic field in a three dimensional bounded domain. The functional depends on two positive parameters, the Ginzburg–Landau parameter and the intensity of the applied magnetic field, and acts on complex-valued functions and vector fields. We establish a formula for the distribution of the L 2-norm of the minimizing complex-valued function (order parameter). The formula is valid in the regime where the Ginzburg–Landau parameter is large and the applied magnetic field is close to and strictly below the second critical field—the threshold value corresponding to the transition from the superconducting to the normal phase in the bulk of the sample. Earlier results are valid in 2D domains and for the L 4-norm in 3D domains.

  9. Feasibility of a Multigroup Deterministic Solution Method for 3D Radiotherapy Dose Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliev, Oleg N.; Wareing, Todd A.; Davis, Ian M.; McGhee, John; Barnett, Douglas; Horton, John L.; Gifford, Kent; Failla, Gregory; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential of a novel deterministic solver, Attila, for external photon beam radiotherapy dose calculations. Methods and Materials Two hypothetical cases for prostate and head and neck cancer photon beam treatment plans were calculated using Attila and EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations. Open beams were modeled as isotropic photon point sources collimated to specified field sizes (100 cm SSD). The sources had a realistic energy spectrum calculated by Monte Carlo for a Varian Clinac 2100 operated in a 6MV photon mode. The Attila computational grids consisted of 106,000 elements, or 424,000 spatial degrees of freedom, for the prostate case, and 123,000 tetrahedral elements, or 492,000 spatial degrees of freedom, for the head and neck cases. Results For both cases, results demonstrate excellent agreement between Attila and EGSnrc in all areas, including the build-up regions, near heterogeneities, and at the beam penumbra. Dose agreement for 99% of the voxels was within 3% (relative point-wise difference) or 3mm distance-to-agreement criterion. Localized differences between the Attila and EGSnrc results were observed at bone and soft tissue interfaces, and are attributable to the effect of voxel material homogenization in calculating dose-to-medium in EGSnrc. For both cases, Attila calculation times were under 20 CPU minutes on a single 2.2 GHz AMD Opteron processor. Conclusions The methods in Attila have the potential to be the basis for an efficient dose engine for patient specific treatment planning, providing accuracy similar to that obtained by Monte Carlo. PMID:18722273

  10. Inverse modeling of InSAR and ground leveling data for 3D volumetric strain distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L. A.; Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.

    2015-12-01

    Wide availability of modern Interferometric Synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) data have made possible the extensive observation of differential surface displacements and are becoming an efficient tool for the detailed monitoring of terrain subsidence associated to reservoir dynamics, volcanic deformation and active tectonism. Unfortunately, this increasing popularity has not been matched by the availability of automated codes to estimate underground deformation, since many of them still rely on trial-error subsurface model building strategies. We posit that an efficient algorithm for the volumetric modeling of differential surface displacements should match the availability of current leveling and InSAR data and have developed an algorithm for the joint inversion of ground leveling and dInSAR data in 3D. We assume the ground displacements are originated by a stress free-volume strain distribution in a homogeneous elastic media and determined the displacement field associated to an ensemble of rectangular prisms. This formulation is then used to develop a 3D conjugate gradient inversion code that searches for the three-dimensional distribution of the volumetric strains that predict InSAR and leveling surface displacements simultaneously. The algorithm is regularized applying discontinuos first and zero order Thikonov constraints. For efficiency, the resulting computational code takes advantage of the resulting convolution integral associated to the deformation field and some basic tools for multithreading parallelization. We extensively test our algorithm on leveling and InSAR test and field data of the Northwest of Mexico and compare to some feasible geological scenarios of underground deformation.

  11. Is the effect of 3-D viscosity distributions on postseismic gravity variations detectable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Satellite gravity measurements by GRACE and GOCE have successfully revealed postseismic mass transports caused by megathrust earthquakes. So far, several physical models to interpret the variations in the gravity field have been constructed. Some models consider the effects of self-gravitation and compressibility and others heterogeneous viscoelastic structures. Previous studies have already shown that the effects of compressibility are not negligible compared with the observation accuracy of gravity data. In this presentation, we estimate the effect of lateral heterogeneities in viscosity due to the presence of a subducting slab, using a spectral finite-element approach. This time-domain approach allows us to account for 3-D viscosity distributions without the necessity of artificial surface boundary conditions as used in an ordinary finite-element model. It is also possible to consider compressibility without technical difficulties which conventional normal mode methods encounter. As an example, we compare our model with recent gravity solutions in the case of the 2011 M-9 Tohoku earthquake. When the spatial resolution is increased up to d/o 80, the difference caused by considering the slab can reach 10 cm in equivalent water height at the center of the negative coseismic signal after the first 4 years from the main shock. This difference amounts to 20 per cent of the coseismic signal. The result indicates that satellite gravity data are potentially useful for investigating 3-D viscosity distributions in relatively shallow portions in the subduction zones, which will help predict the stress behaviors there in the context of earthquake cycles.

  12. The ATLAS 3D project - XXIV. The intrinsic shape distribution of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Young, Lisa M.

    2014-11-01

    We use the ATLAS3D sample to perform a study of the intrinsic shapes of early-type galaxies, taking advantage of the available combined photometric and kinematic data. Based on our ellipticity measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, and additional imaging from the Isaac Newton Telescope, we first invert the shape distribution of fast and slow rotators under the assumption of axisymmetry. The so-obtained intrinsic shape distribution for the fast rotators can be described with a Gaussian with a mean flattening of q = 0.25 and standard deviation σq = 0.14, and an additional tail towards rounder shapes. The slow rotators are much rounder, and are well described with a Gaussian with mean q = 0.63 and σq = 0.09. We then checked that our results were consistent when applying a different and independent method to obtain intrinsic shape distributions, by fitting the observed ellipticity distributions directly using Gaussian parametrizations for the intrinsic axis ratios. Although both fast and slow rotators are identified as early-type galaxies in morphological studies, and in many previous shape studies are therefore grouped together, their shape distributions are significantly different, hinting at different formation scenarios. The intrinsic shape distribution of the fast rotators shows similarities with the spiral galaxy population. Including the observed kinematic misalignment in our intrinsic shape study shows that the fast rotators are predominantly axisymmetric, with only very little room for triaxiality. For the slow rotators though there are very strong indications that they are (mildly) triaxial.

  13. Assessing soil water storage distribution under sprinkler irrigation by coupling 3D simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Uday; Shabeeb, Ahmed; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This work analyzed the variability of sprinkler irrigation application over a bare soil, both in terms of water application efficiency and uniformity, by integrating and comparing the information on the irrigation depth data (ID), as measured by catch cans, soil water storage in the upper root zone, as measured by TDR probes, and a 3D simulations of water flow in soils. Three irrigation tests were performed at three different pressures (2, 3 and 4 bar). A lateral water redistribution was observed and simulated after each irrigation event by comparing spatial distributions of site-specific water application efficiency (AEs), as well as ratios of site-specific actual water storage increase (SWEs) and irrigation depth (IDs) to the water content before irrigation. Because of soil water redistribution processes, distribution uniformity based on soil storages was systematically higher than the catch can uniformity. The obvious consequence of lateral water redistribution processes was that the soil smoothing action on non-uniformity observed at the surface increased both with depth and over time. At a given depth the uniformity of soil water storages always attained the same value, whatever the pressure considered and the catch can-based uniformity coefficient. It was concluded that, for the case of random distribution of ID, the uniformity of water storages is driven by the soil behavior rather than by the irrigation system.

  14. Pre- and post- scission particle emission in 3D Langevin calculations with various macroscopic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, K.; Nadtochy, P. N.; Schmitt, C.; Wasiak, P.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.; Gruyer, D.; Wieleczko, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    The fission dynamics described by solving differential equations of the Langevin type in three dimensional space of the deformation parameters is very sensitive on the choice of the macroscopic components such as potential energy models. The mass or charge distribution or total kinetic energy has been already shown to be different when one uses the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model or Lublin - Strasbourg Drop model. Also the shape-dependent congruence or shape-dependent Wigner energy and A0 terms are important especially for the fission of medium mass nuclei. We would like to make step forward and answer the question about the varying of the post-scission multiplicity by including different PES. Up to now there are only few experimental data for the medium mass nuclei where the pre- and post- scission emission has been estimated and isotopic distributions have been shown. The isotopic distributions of the fission products for light compound nucleus such as 111 In with two beam energies (Ebeam = 10.6 AMeV and 5.9 AMeV) and two heavy systems: 229Np with Ebeam = 7.4 AMeV and 260 No (Ebeam = 6 AMeV and 7.5 AMeV) have been studied theoretically. The agreement with the experimental data is discussed.

  15. Calculations of separated 3-D flows with a pressure-staggered Navier-Stokes equations solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.

    1991-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes equations solver based on a pressure correction method with a pressure-staggered mesh and calculations of separated three-dimensional flows are presented. It is shown that the velocity pressure decoupling, which occurs when various pressure correction algorithms are used for pressure-staggered meshes, is caused by the ill-conditioned discrete pressure correction equation. The use of a partial differential equation for the incremental pressure eliminates the velocity pressure decoupling mechanism by itself and yields accurate numerical results. Example flows considered are a three-dimensional lid driven cavity flow and a laminar flow through a 90 degree bend square duct. For the lid driven cavity flow, the present numerical results compare more favorably with the measured data than those obtained using a formally third order accurate quadratic upwind interpolation scheme. For the curved duct flow, the present numerical method yields a grid independent solution with a very small number of grid points. The calculated velocity profiles are in good agreement with the measured data.

  16. Aorta cross-section calculation and 3D visualization from CT or MRT data using VRML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Guenther; Modritsch, Robert; Stiegmaier, Wolfgang; Grasser, Simon; Klinger, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Quantification of vessel diameters of artherosclerotic or congenital stenosis is very important for the diagnosis of vascular diseases. The aorta extraction and cross-section calculation is a software-based application that offers a three-dimensional, platform-independent, colorized visualization of the extracted aorta with augmented reality information of MRT or CT datasets. This project is based on different types of specialized image processing algorithms, dynamical particle filtering and complex mathematical equations. From this three-dimensional model a calculation of minimal cross sections is performed. In user specified distances, the aorta is cut in differently defined directions which are created through vectors with varying length. The extracted aorta and the derived minimal cross-sections are then rendered with the marching cube algorithm and represented together in a three-dimensional virtual reality with a very high degree of immersion. The aim of this study was to develop an imaging software that delivers cardiologists the possibility of (i) furnishing fast vascular diagnosis, (ii) getting precise diameter information, (iii) being able to process exact, local stenosis detection (iv) having permanent data storing and easy access to former datasets, and (v) reliable documentation of results in form of tables and graphical printouts.

  17. Disentangling Fault Scarp Geometry and Slip-Distribution in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Walker, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new and inherently 3D approach to the analysis of fault scarp geometry using high resolution topography. Recent advance in topographic measurement techniques (LiDAR and Structure from Motion) has allowed the extensive measurement of single earthquake scarps and multiple event cumulative scarps to draw conclusions about along-strike slip variation and characteristic slip. Present analysis of the resulting point clouds and digital elevation models is generally achieved by taking vertical or map view profiles of geomorphic markers across the scarp. Profiles are done at numerous locations along strike carefully chosen to avoid regions degraded by erosion/deposition. The resulting slip distributions are almost always extremely variable and "noisy", both for strike-slip and dip-slip faulting scarps and it is often unclear whether this reflects slip variation, noise/erosion, site effects or geometric variation. When observing palaeo-earthquake and even modern event scarps, the full geometry, such as the degree of oblique slip or the fault dip, is often poorly constrained. We first present the results of synthetic tests to demonstrate the introduction of significant apparent noise by simply varying terrain, fault and measurement geometry (slope angle, slope azimuth, fault dip and slip obliquity). Considering fully 3-dimensional marker surfaces (e.g. Planar or conical) we use the variation in apparent offset with terrain and measurement geometry, to constrain the slip geometry in 3D. Combining measurements windowed along strike, we show that determining the slip vector is reduced to a simple linear problem. We conclude that for scarps in regions of significant topography or with oblique slip, our method will give enhanced slip resolution while standard methods will give poor slip resolution. We test our method using a Structure from Motion pointcloud and digital elevation model covering a ~25 km stretch of a thrust fault scarp in the Kazakh Tien Shan.

  18. Implementation of Hamada principle in calculations of nested 3-D equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    2015-12-01

    > Plasma confinement is based on the use of nested toroidal magnetic surfaces. In axisymmetric configurations the nestedness is provided by the existence of a flux function describing the magnetic surfaces explicitly. In the case of a three-dimensional magnetic field, the nested surfaces represent an exception. More typically, magnetic islands are formed on the resonant surfaces. The islands could degrade the plasma performance. The rigorous condition for the existence of nested surfaces without islands was formulated by Hamada (Nucl. Fusion, vol. 2, 1962, pp. 23-37) but was not implemented directly into numerical codes used, for example, for designing the stellarator configurations. This paper introduces a method of implementation of the Hamada principle in numerical algorithms. The proposed approach allows for simple linearized equilibrium equations (LEE) and potentially very efficient three-dimensional calculations of nested equilibria.

  19. 3D field calculation of the GEM prototype magnet and comparison with measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, R.J.

    1983-10-28

    The proposed 4 GeV Electron Microtron (GEM) is designed to fill the existing buildings left vacant by the demise of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) accelerator. One of the six large dipole magnets is shown as well as the first 10 electron orbits. A 3-orbit prototype magnet has been built. The stepped edge of the magnet is to keep the beam exiting perpendicular to the pole. The end guards that wrap around the main coils are joined together by the 3 shield plates. The auxiliary coils are needed to keep the end guards and shield plates from saturating. A 0.3 cm Purcell filter air gap exists between the pole and the yoke. Can anyone question this being a truly three-dimensional magnetostatic problem. The computer program TOSCA, developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by the Computing Applications Group, was used to calculate this magnet and the results have been compared with measurements.

  20. Applicability of 3D Monte Carlo simulations for local values calculations in a PWR core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Franck; Cochet, Bertrand; Jinaphanh, Alexis; Jacquet, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    As technical support of the French Nuclear Safety Authority, IRSN has been developing the MORET Monte Carlo code for many years in the framework of criticality safety assessment and is now working to extend its application to reactor physics. For that purpose, beside the validation for criticality safety (more than 2000 benchmarks from the ICSBEP Handbook have been modeled and analyzed), a complementary validation phase for reactor physics has been started, with benchmarks from IRPHEP Handbook and others. In particular, to evaluate the applicability of MORET and other Monte Carlo codes for local flux or power density calculations in large power reactors, it has been decided to contribute to the "Monte Carlo Performance Benchmark" (hosted by OECD/NEA). The aim of this benchmark is to monitor, in forthcoming decades, the performance progress of detailed Monte Carlo full core calculations. More precisely, it measures their advancement towards achieving high statistical accuracy in reasonable computation time for local power at fuel pellet level. A full PWR reactor core is modeled to compute local power densities for more than 6 million fuel regions. This paper presents results obtained at IRSN for this benchmark with MORET and comparisons with MCNP. The number of fuel elements is so large that source convergence as well as statistical convergence issues could cause large errors in local tallies, especially in peripheral zones. Various sampling or tracking methods have been implemented in MORET, and their operational effects on such a complex case have been studied. Beyond convergence issues, to compute local values in so many fuel regions could cause prohibitive slowing down of neutron tracking. To avoid this, energy grid unification and tallies preparation before tracking have been implemented, tested and proved to be successful. In this particular case, IRSN obtained promising results with MORET compared to MCNP, in terms of local power densities, standard

  1. An efficient quasi-3D particle tracking-based approach for transport through fractures with application to dynamic dispersion calculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lichun; Cardenas, M Bayani

    2015-08-01

    The quantitative study of transport through fractured media has continued for many decades, but has often been constrained by observational and computational challenges. Here, we developed an efficient quasi-3D random walk particle tracking (RWPT) algorithm to simulate solute transport through natural fractures based on a 2D flow field generated from the modified local cubic law (MLCL). As a reference, we also modeled the actual breakthrough curves (BTCs) through direct simulations with the 3D advection-diffusion equation (ADE) and Navier-Stokes equations. The RWPT algorithm along with the MLCL accurately reproduced the actual BTCs calculated with the 3D ADE. The BTCs exhibited non-Fickian behavior, including early arrival and long tails. Using the spatial information of particle trajectories, we further analyzed the dynamic dispersion process through moment analysis. From this, asymptotic time scales were determined for solute dispersion to distinguish non-Fickian from Fickian regimes. This analysis illustrates the advantage and benefit of using an efficient combination of flow modeling and RWPT. PMID:26042625

  2. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  3. Enabling 3D-Liver Perfusion Mapping from MR-DCE Imaging Using Distributed Computing.

    PubMed

    Leporq, Benjamin; Camarasu-Pop, Sorina; Davila-Serrano, Eduardo E; Pilleul, Frank; Beuf, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    An MR acquisition protocol and a processing method using distributed computing on the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) to allow 3D liver perfusion parametric mapping after Magnetic Resonance Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (MR-DCE) imaging are presented. Seven patients (one healthy control and six with chronic liver diseases) were prospectively enrolled after liver biopsy. MR-dynamic acquisition was continuously performed in free-breathing during two minutes after simultaneous intravascular contrast agent (MS-325 blood pool agent) injection. Hepatic capillary system was modeled by a 3-parameters one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The processing step was parallelized and executed on the EGI. It was modeled and implemented as a grid workflow using the Gwendia language and the MOTEUR workflow engine. Results showed good reproducibility in repeated processing on the grid. The results obtained from the grid were well correlated with ROI-based reference method ran locally on a personal computer. The speed-up range was 71 to 242 with an average value of 126. In conclusion, distributed computing applied to perfusion mapping brings significant speed-up to quantification step to be used for further clinical studies in a research context. Accuracy would be improved with higher image SNR accessible on the latest 3T MR systems available today.

  4. Analysis of Annular Thermoelectric Couples with Nonuniform Temperature Distribution by Means of 3-D Multiphysics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauknecht, Andreas; Steinert, Torsten; Spengler, Carsten; Suck, Gerrit

    2013-07-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) modules with annular geometry are very attractive for waste heat recovery within the automotive world, especially when integrated as stacks into tubular heat exchangers. The required temperature difference is built up between the coolant, which flows inside an inner tube, and the exhaust gas, which flows around an outer tube. The flow pattern of the exhaust gas can be axial or circumferential, which can lead to higher heat transfer coefficients on the outer surface of the tube. However, this multidimensional construction in combination with a complex flow pattern can lead to a nonuniform heat flux. Additionally, the system experiences a nonuniform temperature distribution which consequently leads to complex conditions regarding the electrical potential. The relevant effects are investigated using a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical model implemented in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation environment Star-CCM+. The model supports temperature-dependent characteristics of the materials, contact resistances, and parasitic effects in the TE module. Furthermore, it involves techniques to quickly find the exact maximum power point of the TE module with the given boundary conditions. Using the validated model the influence of the nonuniform temperature distribution is investigated with emphasis on the electrical output and TE efficiency.

  5. The linearly scaling 3D fragment method for large scale electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-07-28

    The Linearly Scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method is an O(N) ab initio electronic structure method for large-scale nano material simulations. It is a divide-and-conquer approach with a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects, which exist in all divide-and-conquer schemes. This method has made ab initio simulations of thousand-atom nanosystems feasible in a couple of hours, while retaining essentially the same accuracy as the direct calculation methods. The LS3DF method won the 2008 ACM Gordon Bell Prize for algorithm innovation. Our code has reached 442 Tflop/s running on 147,456 processors on the Cray XT5 (Jaguar) at OLCF, and has been run on 163,840 processors on the Blue Gene/P (Intrepid) at ALCF, and has been applied to a system containing 36,000 atoms. In this paper, we will present the recent parallel performance results of this code, and will apply the method to asymmetric CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, which have potential applications in electronic devices and solar cells.

  6. The Linearly Scaling 3D Fragment Method for Large Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-06-26

    The Linearly Scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method is an O(N) ab initio electronic structure method for large-scale nano material simulations. It is a divide-and-conquer approach with a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects, which exist in all divide-and-conquer schemes. This method has made ab initio simulations of thousand-atom nanosystems feasible in a couple of hours, while retaining essentially the same accuracy as the direct calculation methods. The LS3DF method won the 2008 ACM Gordon Bell Prize for algorithm innovation. Our code has reached 442 Tflop/s running on 147,456 processors on the Cray XT5 (Jaguar) at OLCF, and has been run on 163,840 processors on the Blue Gene/P (Intrepid) at ALCF, and has been applied to a system containing 36,000 atoms. In this paper, we will present the recent parallel performance results of this code, and will apply the method to asymmetric CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, which have potential applications in electronic devices and solar cells.

  7. The linearly scaling 3D fragment method for large scale electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan; Lee, Byounghak; Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-07-01

    The linearly scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method is an O(N) ab initio electronic structure method for large-scale nano material simulations. It is a divide-and-conquer approach with a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects, which exist in all divide-and-conquer schemes. This method has made ab initio simulations of thousand-atom nanosystems feasible in a couple of hours, while retaining essentially the same accuracy as the direct calculation methods. The LS3DF method won the 2008 ACM Gordon Bell Prize for algorithm innovation. Our code has reached 442 Tflop/s running on 147,456 processors on the Cray XT5 (Jaguar) at OLCF, and has been run on 163,840 processors on the Blue Gene/P (Intrepid) at ALCF, and has been applied to a system containing 36,000 atoms. In this paper, we will present the recent parallel performance results of this code, and will apply the method to asymmetric CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, which have potential applications in electronic devices and solar cells.

  8. The Calculation of the Band Structure in 3D Phononic Crystal with Hexagonal Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryadoust, Mahrokh; Salehi, H.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, the propagation of acoustic waves in the phononic crystals (PCs) of three dimensions with the hexagonal (HEX) lattice is studied theoretically. The PCs are constituted of nickel (Ni) spheres embedded in epoxy. The calculations of the band structure and the density of states are performed using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method in the irreducible part of the Brillouin zone (BZ). In this study, we analyse the dependence of the band structures inside (the complete band gap width) on c/a and filling fraction in the irreducible part of the first BZ. Also, we have analysed the band structure of the ALHA and MLHKM planes. The results show that the maximum width of absolute elastic band gap (AEBG) (0.045) in the irreducible part of the BZ of HEX lattice is formed for c/a=6 and filling fraction equal to 0.01. In addition, the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0884 and 0.0474, respectively, in the MLHKM plane, and the maximum of the first and second AEBG widths are 0.0851 and 0.0431, respectively, in the ALHA plane.

  9. The effect of thread design on stress distribution in a solid screw implant: a 3D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Oğuz; Inan, Ozgür

    2010-08-01

    The biomechanical behavior of implant thread plays an important role on stresses at implant-bone interface. Information about the effect of different thread profiles upon the bone stresses is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different implant thread designs on stress distribution characteristics at supporting structures. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) stress-analysis method was used. Four types of 3D mathematical models simulating four different thread-form configurations for a solid screw implant was prepared with supporting bone structure. V-thread (1), buttress (2), reverse buttress (3), and square thread designs were simulated. A 100-N static axial occlusal load was applied to occlusal surface of abutment to calculate the stress distributions. Solidworks/Cosmosworks structural analysis programs were used for FE modeling/analysis. The analysis of the von Mises stress values revealed that maximum stress concentrations were located at loading areas of implant abutments and cervical cortical bone regions for all models. Stress concentration at cortical bone (18.3 MPa) was higher than spongious bone (13.3 MPa), and concentration of first thread (18 MPa) was higher than other threads (13.3 MPa). It was seen that, while the von Mises stress distribution patterns at different implant thread models were similar, the concentration of compressive stresses were different. The present study showed that the use of different thread form designs did not affect the von Mises concentration at supporting bone structure. However, the compressive stress concentrations differ by various thread profiles.

  10. Resonant structure of the 3d electron`s angular distribution in a free Mn{sup +}Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.; Dolmatov, V.K.

    1995-08-01

    The 3d-electron angular anisotropy parameter of the free Mn{sup +} ion is calculated using the {open_quotes}spin-polarized{close_quotes} random-phase approximation with exchange. Strong resonance structure is discovered, which is due to interference with the powerful 3p {yields} 3d discrete excitation. The effect of the 3p {yields} 4s transition is also noticeable. The ordering of these respective resonances with phonon energy increase proved to be opposite in angular anisotropy parameter to that in 3d-photoionization cross section. A paper describing these results was published.

  11. [The reconstruction of welding arc 3D electron density distribution based on Stark broadening].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang; Hua, Xue-Ming; Pan, Cheng-Gang; Li, Fang; Wang, Min

    2012-10-01

    The three-dimensional electron density is very important for welding arc quality control. In the present paper, Side-on characteristic line profile was collected by a spectrometer, and the lateral experimental data were approximated by a polynomial fitting. By applying an Abel inversion technique, the authors obtained the radial intensity distribution at each wavelength and thus constructed a profile for the radial positions. The Fourier transform was used to separate the Lorentz linear from the spectrum reconstructed, thus got the accurate Stark width. And we calculated the electronic density three-dimensional distribution of the TIG welding are plasma. PMID:23285847

  12. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell ionization of krypton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3rd shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wave functions for target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3rd electrons, is widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  13. Travel time calculation in regular 3D grid in local and regional scale using fast marching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Local and regional 3D seismic velocity models of crust and sediments are very important for numerous technics like mantle and core tomography, localization of local and regional events and others. Most of those techniques require calculation of wave travel time through the 3D model. This can be achieved using multiple approaches from simple ray tracing to advanced full waveform calculation. In this study simple and efficient implementation of fast marching method is presented. This method provides more information than ray tracing and is much less complicated than methods like full waveform being the perfect compromise. Presented code is written in C++, well commented and is easy to modify for different types of studies. Additionally performance is widely discussed including possibilities of multithreading and massive parallelism like GPU. Source code will be published in 2016 as it is part of the PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  14. Three-axis distributed fiber optic strain measurement in 3D woven composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-03-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading.

  15. 3D-Simulation Of Concentration Distributions Inside Large-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnewski, R.; Ratschow, L.; Hartge, E. U.; Werthe, J.

    With increasing size of modern CFB combustors the lateral mixing of fuels and secondary air gains more and more importance. Strong concentration gradients, which result from improper lateral mixing, can lead to operational problems, high flue gas emissions and lower boiler efficiencies. A 3D-model for the simulation of local gas and solids concentrations inside industrial-sized CFB boilers has been developed. The model is based on a macroscopic approach and considers all major mechanisms during fuel spreading and subsequent combustion of char and volatiles. Typical characteristics of modern boilers like staged combustion, a smaller cross-sectional area in the lower section of the combustion chamber and the co-combustion of additional fuels with coal can be considered. The 252 MWth combustor of Stadtwerke Duisburg AG is used for the validation of the model. A comprehensive picture of the local conditions inside the combustion chamber is achieved by the combination of local gas measurements and the three-dimensional simulation of concentration distributions.

  16. Calibration of an outdoor distributed camera network with a 3D point cloud.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Agustín; Silva, Manuel; Teniente, Ernesto H; Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardino, Alexandre; Gaspar, José; Andrade-Cetto, Juan

    2014-07-29

    Outdoor camera networks are becoming ubiquitous in critical urban areas of the largest cities around the world. Although current applications of camera networks are mostly tailored to video surveillance, recent research projects are exploiting their use to aid robotic systems in people-assisting tasks. Such systems require precise calibration of the internal and external parameters of the distributed camera network. Despite the fact that camera calibration has been an extensively studied topic, the development of practical methods for user-assisted calibration that minimize user intervention time and maximize precision still pose significant challenges. These camera systems have non-overlapping fields of view, are subject to environmental stress, and are likely to suffer frequent recalibration. In this paper, we propose the use of a 3D map covering the area to support the calibration process and develop an automated method that allows quick and precise calibration of a large camera network. We present two cases of study of the proposed calibration method: one is the calibration of the Barcelona Robot Lab camera network, which also includes direct mappings (homographies) between image coordinates and world points in the ground plane (walking areas) to support person and robot detection and localization algorithms. The second case consist of improving the GPS positioning of geo-tagged images taken with a mobile device in the Facultat de Matemàtiques i Estadística (FME) patio at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC).

  17. Calibration of an Outdoor Distributed Camera Network with a 3D Point Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Agustín; Silva, Manuel; Teniente, Ernesto H.; Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardino, Alexandre; Gaspar, José; Andrade-Cetto, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor camera networks are becoming ubiquitous in critical urban areas of the largest cities around the world. Although current applications of camera networks are mostly tailored to video surveillance, recent research projects are exploiting their use to aid robotic systems in people-assisting tasks. Such systems require precise calibration of the internal and external parameters of the distributed camera network. Despite the fact that camera calibration has been an extensively studied topic, the development of practical methods for user-assisted calibration that minimize user intervention time and maximize precision still pose significant challenges. These camera systems have non-overlapping fields of view, are subject to environmental stress, and are likely to suffer frequent recalibration. In this paper, we propose the use of a 3D map covering the area to support the calibration process and develop an automated method that allows quick and precise calibration of a large camera network. We present two cases of study of the proposed calibration method: one is the calibration of the Barcelona Robot Lab camera network, which also includes direct mappings (homographies) between image coordinates and world points in the ground plane (walking areas) to support person and robot detection and localization algorithms. The second case consist of improving the GPS positioning of geo-tagged images taken with a mobile device in the Facultat de Matemàtiques i Estadística (FME) patio at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). PMID:25076221

  18. Calibration of an outdoor distributed camera network with a 3D point cloud.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Agustín; Silva, Manuel; Teniente, Ernesto H; Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardino, Alexandre; Gaspar, José; Andrade-Cetto, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor camera networks are becoming ubiquitous in critical urban areas of the largest cities around the world. Although current applications of camera networks are mostly tailored to video surveillance, recent research projects are exploiting their use to aid robotic systems in people-assisting tasks. Such systems require precise calibration of the internal and external parameters of the distributed camera network. Despite the fact that camera calibration has been an extensively studied topic, the development of practical methods for user-assisted calibration that minimize user intervention time and maximize precision still pose significant challenges. These camera systems have non-overlapping fields of view, are subject to environmental stress, and are likely to suffer frequent recalibration. In this paper, we propose the use of a 3D map covering the area to support the calibration process and develop an automated method that allows quick and precise calibration of a large camera network. We present two cases of study of the proposed calibration method: one is the calibration of the Barcelona Robot Lab camera network, which also includes direct mappings (homographies) between image coordinates and world points in the ground plane (walking areas) to support person and robot detection and localization algorithms. The second case consist of improving the GPS positioning of geo-tagged images taken with a mobile device in the Facultat de Matemàtiques i Estadística (FME) patio at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). PMID:25076221

  19. 3D distribution and evolution of porosity during albitization and patch perthitization of alkali feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, N.; Neusser, G.; Wirth, R.; Harlov, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid-mediated replacement of minerals and rocks often results in the formation of an extensive porosity. This reaction-induced porosity is generally assumed to be pervasive enabling the constant progress of the alteration process and fluid infiltration of initially impermeable rocks (e.g. Putnis, 2009 Rev Min Geochem, 70, 87). This hypothesis was tested utilizing state-of-the-art micro- to nano-analytical techniques including FIB in combination with SEM and TEM. For this study two different alkali feldspar replacement reactions common in natural rocks were reproduced experimentally; (i) albitization of K-rich alkali-feldspar (Or85-95) and (ii) patch perthitization of intermediate (exsolved) alkali feldspars (Ab60Or40). 3D analysis of the pore distribution was done by a combination of alternate removal of 100 nm slices using FIB followed by SE imaging of the dissected surface. Series of 100-200 SE images were obtained from 20 × 8 × 20 µm3 sample blocks and translated into a 3-dimensional model using Fiji software package (resolution ~0.03 × 0.03 × 0.1 µm3). Analyses of the experimentally albitized and patch-perthitized alkali feldspar demonstrate that in both cases single-crystalline starting materials are replaced by highly porous, polycrystalline replacement products. In the case of albitization the replacement rim consists of two generations of polycrystalline intergrowths of slightly tilted albite sub-grains visible in TEM. These are a fine-grained, highly porous and a coarse-grained, almost non-porous albite that seems to progressively replace the former. The total reaction-induced porosity clearly exceeds the difference in the molar volume of the reaction of ~ -7.5%. Pores are mostly elongated forming several micron long channels. However, despite the abundance of porosity within the albitized areas, neither 3D analysis nor TEM could detect any significant interconnection between these channels. The same holds true in the case of patch perthitization

  20. Distortion-free wide-angle 3D imaging and visualization using off-axially distributed image sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Piao, Yongri; Kim, Nam-Woo; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2014-07-15

    We propose a new off-axially distributed image sensing (ODIS) using a wide-angle lens for reconstructing distortion-free wide-angle slice images computationally. In the proposed system, the wide-angle image sensor captures a wide-angle 3D scene, and thus the collected information of the 3D objects is severely distorted. To correct this distortion, we introduce a new correction process involving a wide-angle lens to the computational reconstruction in ODIS. This enables us to reconstruct distortion-free, wide-angle slice images for visualization of 3D objects. Experimental results are carried out to verify the proposed method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the use of a wide-angle lens in a multiple-perspective 3D imaging system is described.

  1. DIF3D nodal neutronics option for two- and three-dimensional diffusion theory calculations in hexagonal geometry. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    A nodal method is developed for the solution of the neutron-diffusion equation in two- and three-dimensional hexagonal geometries. The nodal scheme has been incorporated as an option in the finite-difference diffusion-theory code DIF3D, and is intended for use in the analysis of current LMFBR designs. The nodal equations are derived using higher-order polynomial approximations to the spatial dependence of the flux within the hexagonal-z node. The final equations, which are cast in the form of inhomogeneous response-matrix equations for each energy group, involved spatial moments of the node-interior flux distribution plus surface-averaged partial currents across the faces of the node. These equations are solved using a conventional fission-source iteration accelerated by coarse-mesh rebalance and asymptotic source extrapolation. This report describes the mathematical development and numerical solution of the nodal equations, as well as the use of the nodal option and details concerning its programming structure. This latter information is intended to supplement the information provided in the separate documentation of the DIF3D code.

  2. Calculations with spectroscopic accuracy for the ground configuration (3 d9 ) forbidden transition in Co-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. L.; Si, R.; Li, S.; Huang, M.; Hutton, R.; Wang, Y. S.; Chen, C. Y.; Zou, Y. M.; Wang, K.; Yan, J.; Li, C. Y.; Brage, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic and large-scale calculations for the fine-structure energy splitting and transition rate between the 3 d93/2,5/2,2D levels of Co-like ions with 28 ≤Z ≤100 . Two different fully relativistic approaches are used, based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) theory and the relativistic many-body-perturbation theory (RMBPT). Especially the former gives results of similar accuracy as experiments for a large range of ions. Our calculations are therefore accurate enough to probe Breit and quantum-electro-dynamic effects. To obtain spectroscopic accuracy, we show that it is important to include deep core-valence correlation, down to and including the n =2 shell. We estimate that the uncertainties of our wavelengths are within the uncertainty of experiments, i.e., 0.02%. We also show that the frequently used flexible atomic code has an inaccurate treatment of the self-energy (SE) contribution and of the M 1 -transition properties for lower-Z ions. After correcting for the SE calculation, the resulting RMBPT transition energies are in good agreement with the MCDHF ones, especially for the high-Z end of the Co-like sequence.

  3. Accurate first-principles calculations for 12CH3D infrared spectra from isotopic and symmetry transformations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Michaël; Nikitin, Andrei V; Tyuterev, Vladimir G

    2014-07-28

    Accurate variational high-resolution spectra calculations in the range 0-8000 cm(-1) are reported for the first time for the monodeutered methane ((12)CH3D). Global calculations were performed by using recent ab initio surfaces for line positions and line intensities derived from the main isotopologue (12)CH4. Calculation of excited vibrational levels and high-J rovibrational states is described by using the normal mode Eckart-Watson Hamiltonian combined with irreducible tensor formalism and appropriate numerical procedures for solving the quantum nuclear motion problem. The isotopic H→D substitution is studied in details by means of symmetry and nonlinear normal mode coordinate transformations. Theoretical spectra predictions are given up to J = 25 and compared with the HITRAN 2012 database representing a compilation of line lists derived from analyses of experimental spectra. The results are in very good agreement with available empirical data suggesting that a large number of yet unassigned lines in observed spectra could be identified and modeled using the present approach. PMID:25084919

  4. 3D Quantitative Confocal Laser Microscopy of Ilmenite Volume Distribution in Alpe Arami Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhilov, K. N.

    2001-12-01

    The deep origin of the Alpe Arami garnet lherzolite massif in the Swiss Alps proposed by Dobrzhinetskaya et al. (Science, 1996) has been a focus of heated debate. One of the lines of evidence supporting an exhumation from more than 200 km depth includes the abundance, distribution, and orientation of magnesian ilmenite rods in the oldest generation of olivine. This argument has been disputed in terms of the abundance of ilmenite and consequently the maximum TiO2 content in the discussed olivine. In order to address this issue, we have directly measured the volume fraction of ilmenite of the oldest generation of olivine by applying confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM is a method which allows for three-dimensional imaging and quantitative volume determination by optical sectioning of the objects. The images for 3D reconstruction and measurements were acquired from petrographic thin sections in reflected laser light with 488 nm wavelength. Measurements of more than 80 olivine grains in six thin sections of our material yielded an average volume fraction of 0.31% ilmenite in the oldest generation of olivine from Alpe Arami. This translates into 0.23 wt.% TiO2 in olivine with error in determination of ±0.097 wt.%, a value significantly different from that of 0.02 to 0.03 wt.% TiO2 determined by Hacker et al. (Science, 1997) by a broad-beam microanalysis technique. During the complex geological history of the Alpe Arami massif, several events of metamorphism are recorded which all could have caused increased mobility of the mineral components. Evidence for loss of TiO2 from olivine is the tendency for high densities of ilmenite to be restricted to cores of old grains, the complete absence of ilmenite inclusions from the younger, recrystallized, generation of olivine, and reduction in ilmenite size and abundance in more serpentinized specimens. These observations suggest that only olivine grains with the highest concentrations of ilmenite are close to the

  5. Deformable segmentation of 3D MR prostate images via distributed discriminative dictionary and ensemble learning

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yanrong; Shao, Yeqin; Gao, Yaozong; Price, True; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-07-15

    patches of the prostate surface and trained to adaptively capture the appearance in different prostate zones, thus achieving better local tissue differentiation. For each local region, multiple classifiers are trained based on the randomly selected samples and finally assembled by a specific fusion method. In addition to this nonparametric appearance model, a prostate shape model is learned from the shape statistics using a novel approach, sparse shape composition, which can model nonGaussian distributions of shape variation and regularize the 3D mesh deformation by constraining it within the observed shape subspace. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on two datasets consisting of T2-weighted MR prostate images. For the first (internal) dataset, the classification effectiveness of the authors' improved dictionary learning has been validated by comparing it with three other variants of traditional dictionary learning methods. The experimental results show that the authors' method yields a Dice Ratio of 89.1% compared to the manual segmentation, which is more accurate than the three state-of-the-art MR prostate segmentation methods under comparison. For the second dataset, the MICCAI 2012 challenge dataset, the authors' proposed method yields a Dice Ratio of 87.4%, which also achieves better segmentation accuracy than other methods under comparison. Conclusions: A new magnetic resonance image prostate segmentation method is proposed based on the combination of deformable model and dictionary learning methods, which achieves more accurate segmentation performance on prostate T2 MR images.

  6. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  7. A volume of intersection approach for on-the-fly system matrix calculation in 3D PET image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougovski, A.; Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.; Schramm, G.; Will, E.; van den Hoff, J.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of on-the-fly volume of intersection computation for system’s geometry modelling in 3D PET image reconstruction. For this purpose we propose a simple geometrical model in which the cubic image voxels on the given Cartesian grid are approximated with spheres and the rectangular tubes of response (ToRs) are approximated with cylinders. The model was integrated into a fully 3D list-mode PET reconstruction for performance evaluation. In our model the volume of intersection between a voxel and the ToR is only a function of the impact parameter (the distance between voxel centre to ToR axis) but is independent of the relative orientation of voxel and ToR. This substantially reduces the computational complexity of the system matrix calculation. Based on phantom measurements it was determined that adjusting the diameters of the spherical voxel size and the ToR in such a way that the actual voxel and ToR volumes are conserved leads to the best compromise between high spatial resolution, low noise, and suppression of Gibbs artefacts in the reconstructed images. Phantom as well as clinical datasets from two different PET systems (Siemens ECAT HR+ and Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR) were processed using the developed and the respective vendor-provided (line of intersection related) reconstruction algorithms. A comparison of the reconstructed images demonstrated very good performance of the new approach. The evaluation showed the respective vendor-provided reconstruction algorithms to possess 34-41% lower resolution compared to the developed one while exhibiting comparable noise levels. Contrary to explicit point spread function modelling our model has a simple straight-forward implementation and it should be easy to integrate into existing reconstruction software, making it competitive to other existing resolution recovery techniques.

  8. Supporting Distributed Team Working in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Case Study in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey; Morse, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study into how a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (Second Life) can facilitate socialisation and team working among students working on a team project at a distance. This models the situation in many commercial sectors where work is increasingly being conducted across time zones and between…

  9. Mapping molecular orientational distributions for biological sample in 3D (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HE, Wei; Ferrand, Patrick; Richter, Benjamin; Bastmeyer, Martin; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Measuring molecular orientation properties is very appealing for scientists in molecular and cell biology, as well as biomedical research. Orientational organization at the molecular scale is indeed an important brick to cells and tissues morphology, mechanics, functions and pathologies. Recent work has shown that polarized fluorescence imaging, based on excitation polarization tuning in the sample plane, is able to probe molecular orientational order in biological samples; however this applies only to information in 2D, projected in the sample plane. To surpass this limitation, we extended this approach to excitation polarization tuning in 3D. The principle is based on the decomposition of any arbitrary 3D linear excitation in a polarization along the longitudinal z-axis, and a polarization in the transverse xy-sample plane. We designed an interferometer with one arm generating radial polarization light (thus producing longitudinal polarization under high numerical aperture focusing), the other arm controlling a linear polarization in the transverse plane. The amplitude ratio between the two arms can vary so as to get any linear polarized excitation in 3D at the focus of a high NA objective. This technique has been characterized by polarimetry imaging at the back focal plane of the focusing objective, and modeled theoretically. 3D polarized fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated on actin stress fibers in non-flat cells suspended on synthetic polymer structures forming supporting pillars, for which heterogeneous actin orientational order could be identified. This technique shows a great potential in structural investigations in 3D biological systems, such as cell spheroids and tissues.

  10. Quasi Monte Carlo-based Isotropic Distribution of Gradient Directions for Improved Reconstruction Quality of 3D EPR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Deng, Yuanmu; Vikram, Deepti S.; Clymer, Bradley; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Zweier, Jay L.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2007-01-01

    In continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), high quality of reconstructed image along with fast and reliable data acquisition is highly desirable for many biological applications. An accurate representation of uniform distribution of projection data is necessary to ensure high reconstruction quality. The current techniques for data acquisition suffer from nonuniformities or local anisotropies in the distribution of projection data and present a poor approximation of a true uniform and isotropic distribution. In this work, we have implemented a technique based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method to acquire projections with more uniform and isotropic distribution of data over a 3D acquisition space. The proposed technique exhibits improvements in the reconstruction quality in terms of both mean-square-error and visual judgment. The effectiveness of the suggested technique is demonstrated using computer simulations and 3D EPRI experiments. The technique is robust and exhibits consistent performance for different object configurations and orientations. PMID:17095271

  11. Confocal (micro)-XRF for 3D anlaysis of elements distribution in hot environmental particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bielewski, M; Eriksson, M; Himbert, J; Simon, R; Betti, M; Hamilton, T F

    2007-11-27

    calculations. In figure 1 the distributions of Pu, Fe and Ti obtained for one of the studied hot particles are presented. The strongest signal was recorded for plutonium; the signals from iron and titanium are respectively 14 and 38 times less. It means that Pu is the most abundant of the observed elements. However, since the light elements are not detectable with the applied measurement conditions, it cannot be definitely stated if plutonium is the main element present in the sample. The isosurfaces are calculated at 20 % of maximum intensity for each element. Please note that the isosurfaces on the drawing are transparent. Changes in the spatial distribution of Pu, Fe, and Ti within the particle are shown in Fig. 2a, 2b, and 2c. Distinct elemental patterns are clearly visible at the higher concentration levels. The distributions of Cr, Cu, and Pb were also reconstructed but the results are not presented here. As it is shown in Fig. 1, the correlation between elements is good at low concentrations but the maxima of concentrations are not strongly correlated (see Fig. 2.). In general, the particle is inhomogeneous in terms of its elemental composition. Similar inhomogeneities were found for other particles with Pu identified as a major element in three of the six particles examined.

  12. 3D Imaging of Nanoparticle Distribution in Biological Tissue by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, Y.; Busser, B.; Trichard, F.; Kulesza, A.; Laurent, J. M.; Zaun, V.; Lux, F.; Benoit, J. M.; Panczer, G.; Dugourd, P.; Tillement, O.; Pelascini, F.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2016-07-01

    Nanomaterials represent a rapidly expanding area of research with huge potential for future medical applications. Nanotechnology indeed promises to revolutionize diagnostics, drug delivery, gene therapy, and many other areas of research. For any biological investigation involving nanomaterials, it is crucial to study the behavior of such nano-objects within tissues to evaluate both their efficacy and their toxicity. Here, we provide the first account of 3D label-free nanoparticle imaging at the entire-organ scale. The technology used is known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and possesses several advantages such as speed of operation, ease of use and full compatibility with optical microscopy. We then used two different but complementary approaches to achieve 3D elemental imaging with LIBS: a volume reconstruction of a sliced organ and in-depth analysis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the quantitative imaging of both endogenous and exogenous elements within entire organs and paves the way for innumerable applications.

  13. Corrections to traditional methods of verifying tangential-breast 3D monitor-unit calculations: use of an equivalent triangle to estimate effective fields.

    PubMed

    Prado, Karl L; Kirsner, Steven M; Erice, Rolly C

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for correctly estimating the effective field size of tangential-breast fields. The method uses an "equivalent triangle" to verify intact breast tangential field monitor-unit settings calculated by a 3D planning system to within 2%. The effects on verification calculations of loss of full scatter due to beam oblique incidence, proximity to field boundaries, and reduced scattering volumes are handled properly. The methodology is validated by comparing calculations performed by the 3D planning system with the respective verification estimates. The accuracy of this technique is established for dose calculations both with and without heterogeneity corrections.

  14. The Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) - A fast approach for the calculation of 3D thermal heating rates in cloud resolving models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Carolin; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Due to computational costs, radiation is usually neglected or solved in plane parallel 1D approximation in today's numerical weather forecast and cloud resolving models. We present a fast and accurate method to calculate 3D heating and cooling rates in the thermal spectral range that can be used in cloud resolving models. The parameterization considers net fluxes across horizontal box boundaries in addition to the top and bottom boundaries. Since the largest heating and cooling rates occur inside the cloud, close to the cloud edge, the method needs in first approximation only the information if a grid box is at the edge of a cloud or not. Therefore, in order to calculate the heating or cooling rates of a specific grid box, only the directly neighboring columns are used. Our so-called Neighboring Column Approximation (NCA) is an analytical consideration of cloud side effects which can be considered a convolution of a 1D radiative transfer result with a kernel or radius of 1 grid-box (5 pt stencil) and which does usually not break the parallelization of a cloud resolving model. The NCA can be easily applied to any cloud resolving model that includes a 1D radiation scheme. Due to the neglect of horizontal transport of radiation further away than one model column, the NCA works best for model resolutions of about 100 m or lager. In this paper we describe the method and show a set of applications of LES cloud field snap shots. Correction terms, gains and restrictions of the NCA are described. Comprehensive comparisons to the 3D Monte Carlo Model MYSTIC and a 1D solution are shown. In realistic cloud fields, the full 3D simulation with MYSTIC shows cooling rates up to -150 K/d (100 m resolution) while the 1D solution shows maximum coolings of only -100 K/d. The NCA is capable of reproducing the larger 3D cooling rates. The spatial distribution of the heating and cooling is improved considerably. Computational costs are only a factor of 1.5-2 higher compared to a 1D

  15. Land use influence on 3-D distribution of soil microbiological activity in forest-steppe zone of Central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Tembo, Alan; Sarzhanov, Dmirty; Sotnikova, Julia; Ryzhkov, Oleg; Lakeev, Pavel; Valentini, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Land use is the principal factor influencing soil environmental functions and quality. Quite a few studies on soil quality mainly focus on natural and agroecosystems. Much less is known about urban ecosystems, although the urbanization effect on soil quality can be considerable. Parameters of soil microbiological activity are very sensitive to land-use change. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal respiration (BR) and microbial metabolic coefficient (qCO2) are among most widely used parameters of soil microbiological activity. They are directly associated with such soil functions as fertility, microorganisms' habitat and participation in carbon cycle. So far, most of the studies focus on the effect of land-use change on the topsoil (0-10 cm) microbiological activity, averaged for different land-use types. Much less is known about changes in spatial variability and profile distribution of Cmic, BR and qCO2 in response to different land-use. Land-use influence on spatial and profile distribution of soil microbiological activity may differ between bioclimatic zones. Very fertile and rich in carbon Chernozemic soils (depth of the A horizon up to 1 m, carbon concentration up to 7-9%), dominating in forest-steppe zone are among the most sensitive to land-use change. This study aims to improve understanding of land-use influence on 3-D distribution of Cmic, BR and qCO2 in Central Chernozemic region of Russia. We observed three land-use types (fallow land, natural pasture and meadow) located in Kursk region and three contrast urban functional zone (industrial, residential and recreational) in Kursk city. Soil samples were collected by auguring in five replicas per land-use type, four layers each sampling point (0-10, 10-50, 50-100 and 100-150 cm). Cmic, BR and qCO2 as well as Corg, N and pHKCl were analyzed in all the samples. Cmic (µg C g-1 soil) was analyzed based on the substrate induced respiration (SIR) approach. qCO2 (μg CO2-C mg-1 Cmic h-1) was calculated as the

  16. Electronic structures in coupled two quantum dots by 3D-mesh Hartree-Fock-Kohn-Sham calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuse, T.; Hama, T.; Kaihatsu, H.; Toyoda, N.; Takizawa, T.

    To study the electronic structures of quantum dots in the framework of self-interaction-free including three dimensional effects, we adopt the theory of nonlocal effective potential introduced by Kohn and Sham [#!ks65!#]. For utilizing the advantageous point of the real space (3D) mesh method to solve the original nonlinear and nonlocal Hartree-Fock-Kohn-Sham (HFKS)-equation, we introduce a linearization of the equation in the local form by introducing the local Coulomb potentials which depend on explicitly the two single particle states. In practice, for solving the local form HFKS-equation, we use the Car-Parrinello-like relaxation method and the Coulomb potentials are obtained by solving the Poisson equation under proper boundary conditions. Firstly the observed energy gap between triplet- and singlet-states of N = 4 in DBS [#!tarucha96!#] is discussed to reproduce the addition energies and chemical potentials depending the magnetic field. Next the coupling between two-quantum dots in TBS [#!aht97!#] is studied by adding the square barrier between two dots. The spin-degeneracy [#!aht97!#] measured in gate-voltage depending on magnetic field is well reproduced in the limit of small mismatch. Finally, the electronic states in the ring structure are calculated and discussed how the ring size and magnetic field affect to the structures.

  17. Isolated tree 3D modeling: based on photographing leaf area density(LAD) calculation and L-system method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shengye; Tamura, Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we developed a 3D L-System tree model which expresses the leaf area density (LAD). As a key parameter, which conveys the thickness degree of the canopy and interaction capacity between a tree and the atmosphere, LAD is an important aspect in radiation transfer modeling within the vegetation canopy during the last decades. For modeling a tree, L-System is a good application which explains the internal canopy structure in detail. In the study, we developed the tree model in 3 steps. First we took photographs from eight directions using a commercial digital camera, and then extracted the canopy gap fraction. Secondly, we collected the sample camphor tree's leaf angles in the field for getting the leaf angle density function and computed the G-function from leaf angle density. We calculated the sample tree's LAD by Beer-Lambert's law. LAI-2000 instrument was the standard data source provider for evaluating the photographing method's LAD result. We set the L-System tree parameters in order to coincide with the real tree. The tree model visualization was performed by using POV-Ray v3.60. The eight directions photographing method's LAD result (0.54) was significantly close with the LAI-2000 adjusted data (0.52). Similarly the L-system tree models LAD mean value for 1000 samples was observed to be 0.54 which is close to the validation results.

  18. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  19. 3D Imaging of Nanoparticle Distribution in Biological Tissue by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Y.; Busser, B.; Trichard, F.; Kulesza, A.; Laurent, J. M.; Zaun, V.; Lux, F.; Benoit, J. M.; Panczer, G.; Dugourd, P.; Tillement, O.; Pelascini, F.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials represent a rapidly expanding area of research with huge potential for future medical applications. Nanotechnology indeed promises to revolutionize diagnostics, drug delivery, gene therapy, and many other areas of research. For any biological investigation involving nanomaterials, it is crucial to study the behavior of such nano-objects within tissues to evaluate both their efficacy and their toxicity. Here, we provide the first account of 3D label-free nanoparticle imaging at the entire-organ scale. The technology used is known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and possesses several advantages such as speed of operation, ease of use and full compatibility with optical microscopy. We then used two different but complementary approaches to achieve 3D elemental imaging with LIBS: a volume reconstruction of a sliced organ and in-depth analysis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the quantitative imaging of both endogenous and exogenous elements within entire organs and paves the way for innumerable applications. PMID:27435424

  20. Ambulatory assessment of 3D ground reaction force using plantar pressure distribution.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, H; Favre, J; Crevoisier, X; Aminian, K

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to use the plantar pressure insole for estimating the three-dimensional ground reaction force (GRF) as well as the frictional torque (T(F)) during walking. Eleven subjects, six healthy and five patients with ankle disease participated in the study while wearing pressure insoles during several walking trials on a force-plate. The plantar pressure distribution was analyzed and 10 principal components of 24 regional pressure values with the stance time percentage (STP) were considered for GRF and T(F) estimation. Both linear and non-linear approximators were used for estimating the GRF and T(F) based on two learning strategies using intra-subject and inter-subjects data. The RMS error and the correlation coefficient between the approximators and the actual patterns obtained from force-plate were calculated. Our results showed better performance for non-linear approximation especially when the STP was considered as input. The least errors were observed for vertical force (4%) and anterior-posterior force (7.3%), while the medial-lateral force (11.3%) and frictional torque (14.7%) had higher errors. The result obtained for the patients showed higher error; nevertheless, when the data of the same patient were used for learning, the results were improved and in general slight differences with healthy subjects were observed. In conclusion, this study showed that ambulatory pressure insole with data normalization, an optimal choice of inputs and a well-trained nonlinear mapping function can estimate efficiently the three-dimensional ground reaction force and frictional torque in consecutive gait cycle without requiring a force-plate.

  1. The fast multipole method in the differential algebra framework for the calculation of 3D space charge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He

    2013-01-01

    The space charge effect is one of the most important collective effects in beam dynamic studies. In many cases, numerical simulations are inevitable in order to get a clear understanding of this effect. The particle-particle interaction algorithms and the article-in-cell algorithms are widely used in space charge effect simulations. But they both have difficulties in dealing with highly correlated beams with abnormal distributions or complicated geometries. We developed a new algorithm to calculate the three dimensional self-field between charged particles by combining the differential algebra (DA) techniques with the fast multi-pole method (FMM). The FMM hierarchically decomposes the whole charged domain into many small regions. For each region it uses multipole expansions to represent the potential/field contributions from the particles far away from the region and then converts the multipole expansions into a local expansion inside the region. The potential/field due to the far away particles is calculated from the expansions and the potential/field due to the nearby particles is calculated from the Coulomb force law. The DA techniques are used in the calculation, translation and converting of the expansions. The new algorithm scales linearly with the total number of particles and it is suitable for any arbitrary charge distribution. Using the DA techniques, we can calculate both the potential/field and its high order derivatives, which will be useful for the purpose of including the space charge effect into transfer maps in the future. We first present the single level FMM, which decomposes the whole domain into boxes of the same size. It works best for charge distributions that are not overly non-uniform. Then we present the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA), which decomposes the whole domain into different sized boxes according to the charge density. Finer boxes are generated where the higher charge density exists; thus the algorithm works for any

  2. Alignment independent 3D-QSAR, quantum calculations and molecular docking of Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shiri, Fereshteh; Pirhadi, Somayeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B.

    2015-01-01

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a promising novel cancer therapeutic target in many human cancers, because abnormal activation of Mer has been implicated in survival signaling and chemoresistance. 3D-QSAR analyses based on alignment independent descriptors were performed on a series of 81 Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The fractional factorial design (FFD) and the enhanced replacement method (ERM) were applied and tested as variable selection algorithms for the selection of optimal subsets of molecular descriptors from a much greater pool of such regression variables. The data set was split into 65 molecules as the training set and 16 compounds as the test set. All descriptors were generated by using the GRid INdependent descriptors (GRIND) approach. After variable selection, GRIND were correlated with activity values (pIC50) by PLS regression. Of the two applied variable selection methods, ERM had a noticeable improvement on the statistical parameters of PLS model, and yielded a q2 value of 0.77, an rpred2 of 0.94, and a low RMSEP value of 0.25. The GRIND information contents influencing the affinity on Mer specific tyrosine kinase were also confirmed by docking studies. In a quantum calculation study, the energy difference between HOMO and LUMO (gap) implied the high interaction of the most active molecule in the active site of the protein. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential energy at DFT level confirmed results obtained from the molecular docking. The identified key features obtained from the molecular modeling, enabled us to design novel kinase inhibitors. PMID:27013913

  3. Low-cost real-time 3D PC distributed-interactive-simulation (DIS) application for C4I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonthier, David L.; Veron, Harry

    1998-04-01

    A 3D Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) application was developed and demonstrated in a PC environment. The application is capable of running in the stealth mode or as a player which includes battlefield simulations, such as ModSAF. PCs can be clustered together, but not necessarily collocated, to run a simulation or training exercise on their own. A 3D perspective view of the battlefield is displayed that includes terrain, trees, buildings and other objects supported by the DIS application. Screen update rates of 15 to 20 frames per second have been achieved with fully lit and textured scenes thus providing high quality and fast graphics. A complete PC system can be configured for under $2,500. The software runs under Windows95 and WindowsNT. It is written in C++ and uses a commercial API called RenderWare for 3D rendering. The software uses Microsoft Foundation classes and Microsoft DirectPlay for joystick input. The RenderWare libraries enhance the performance through optimization for MMX and the Pentium Pro processor. The RenderWare and the Righteous 3D graphics board from Orchid Technologies with an advertised rendering rate of up to 2 million texture mapped triangles per second. A low-cost PC DIS simulator that can partake in a real-time collaborative simulation with other platforms is thus achieved.

  4. Characterizing 3D grain size distributions from 2D sections in mylonites using a modified version of the Saltykov method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Sanchez, Marco; Llana-Fúnez, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of creep behaviour in rocks requires knowledge of 3D grain size distributions (GSD) that result from dynamic recrystallization processes during deformation. The methods to estimate directly the 3D grain size distribution -serial sectioning, synchrotron or X-ray-based tomography- are expensive, time-consuming and, in most cases and at best, challenging. This means that in practice grain size distributions are mostly derived from 2D sections. Although there are a number of methods in the literature to derive the actual 3D grain size distributions from 2D sections, the most popular in highly deformed rocks is the so-called Saltykov method. It has though two major drawbacks: the method assumes no interaction between grains, which is not true in the case of recrystallised mylonites; and uses histograms to describe distributions, which limits the quantification of the GSD. The first aim of this contribution is to test whether the interaction between grains in mylonites, i.e. random grain packing, affects significantly the GSDs estimated by the Saltykov method. We test this using the random resampling technique in a large data set (n = 12298). The full data set is built from several parallel thin sections that cut a completely dynamically recrystallized quartz aggregate in a rock sample from a Variscan shear zone in NW Spain. The results proved that the Saltykov method is reliable as long as the number of grains is large (n > 1000). Assuming that a lognormal distribution is an optimal approximation for the GSD in a completely dynamically recrystallized rock, we introduce an additional step to the Saltykov method, which allows estimating a continuous probability distribution function of the 3D grain size population. The additional step takes the midpoints of the classes obtained by the Saltykov method and fits a lognormal distribution with a trust region using a non-linear least squares algorithm. The new protocol is named the two-step method. The

  5. Clinical examples of 3D dose distribution reconstruction, based on the actual MLC leaves movement, for dynamic treatment techniques

    PubMed Central

    Osewski, Wojciech; Dolla, Łukasz; Radwan, Michał; Szlag, Marta; Rutkowski, Roman; Smolińska, Barbara; Ślosarek, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Aim To present practical examples of our new algorithm for reconstruction of 3D dose distribution, based on the actual MLC leaf movement. Background DynaLog and RTplan files were used by DDcon software to prepare a new RTplan file for dose distribution reconstruction. Materials and methods Four different clinically relevant scenarios were used to assess the feasibility of the proposed new approach: (1) Reconstruction of whole treatment sessions for prostate cancer; (2) Reconstruction of IMRT verification treatment plan; (3) Dose reconstruction in breast cancer; (4) Reconstruction of interrupted arc and complementary plan for an interrupted VMAT treatment session of prostate cancer. The applied reconstruction method was validated by comparing reconstructed and measured fluence maps. For all statistical analysis, the U Mann–Whitney test was used. Results In the first two and the fourth cases, there were no statistically significant differences between the planned and reconstructed dose distribution (p = 0.910, p = 0.975, p = 0.893, respectively). In the third case the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.015). Treatment plan had to be reconstructed. Conclusion Developed dose distribution reconstruction algorithm presents a very useful QA tool. It provides means for 3D dose distribution verification in patient volume and allows to evaluate the influence of actual MLC leaf motion on the dose distribution. PMID:25337416

  6. A Non-Linear Inversion for the Global 3-D Electrical Conductivity Distribution in the Upper to Mid-Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbert, A.; Schultz, A.

    2004-12-01

    The case for substantial heterogeneity in mantle conductivity has stimulated the development of methods for solving Maxwell's equations in a heterogeneous conducting sphere. A global 3-D frequency domain forward solver has been devised (Uyeshima & Schultz, 2000), accurate and efficient enough to be an attractive kernel of a practical inverse method. The solver employs a staggered-grid finite difference formulation in spherical coordinates. The induced fields are found as a solution to the integral form of Maxwell's equations, while the system is solved using stabilised biconjugate gradient methods. A single, accurate forward solution takes approx. 4 minutes on 5 GFLOP (peak) processor. The aim of our present research is to produce an inverse solver, to be applied to the Fujii & Schultz (2002) data set of globally-distributed EM response functions, which would reconstruct the 3-D electrical conductivity distribution in the upper to mid-mantle. Geophysical inversion is an ill-posed problem, therefore the aim is to apply suitable parameter constraints and a nonlinear search algorithm to identify candidate minima, then to apply local gradient methods around those minima. Our specific target involves designing a fast enough global optimisation routine that would allow us to produce at least one fully 3-D starting model, optimal with respect to the RMS misfit between the data and the forward solutions. A new and very flexible inverse solver has been developed utilizing parallel optimisation routines to obtain a starting model that satisfies the data. 3-D simulations have been run, the parametrization based on a spherical harmonic representation of a chess board model of varying degree and order. The inversion has demonstrated accurate fidelity in reproducing resolvable features of the test model. A study has been made of the reduction in fidelity as the number and distribution of observatory sites on the Earth's surface is degraded. An inversion of the Fujii & Schultz

  7. 3-D ion distribution and evolution in storm-time RC Retrieved from TWINS ENA by differential voxel CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Yan, W.; Xu, L.

    2013-12-01

    The quantitative retrieval of the 3-D spatial distribution of the parent energetic ions of ENA from a 2-D ENA image is a quite challenge task. The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission of NASA is the first constellation to perform stereoscopic magnetospheric imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) from a pair of spacecraft flying on two widely-separated Molniya orbits. TWINS provides a unique opportunity to retrieve the 3-D distribution of ions in the ring current (RC) by using a volumetric pixel (voxel) CT inversion method. In this study the voxel CT method is implemented for a series of differential ENA fluxes averaged over about 6 to 7 sweeps (corresponding to a time period of about 9 min.) at different energy levels ranging from 5 to 100 keV, obtained simultaneously by the two satellites during the main phase of a great magnetic storm with minimum Sym-H of -156 nT on 24-25 October 2011. The data were selected to span a period about 50 minutes during which a large substorm was undergoing its expansion phase first and then recovery. The ENA species of O and H are distinguished for some time-segments by analyzing the signals of pulse heights of second electrons emitted from the carbon foil and impacted on the MCP detector in the TWINS sensors. In order to eliminate the possible influence on retrieval induced by instrument bias error, a differential voxel CT technique is applied. The flux intensity of the ENAs' parent ions in the RC has been obtained as a function of energy, L value, MLT sector and latitude, along with their time evolution during the storm-time substorm expansion phase. Forward calculations proved the reliability of the retrieved results. It shows that the RC is highly asymmetric, with a major concentration in the midnight to dawn sector for equatorial latitudes. Halfway through the substorm expansion there occurred a large enhancement of equatorial ion flux at lower energy (5 keV) in the dusk sector, with narrow extent

  8. Characterization of the 3D distribution of ozone and coarse aerosols in the Troposphere using IASI thermal infrared satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, J.; Eremenko, M.; Dufour, G.; Hoepfner, M.; Orphal, J.

    2012-04-01

    Both tropospheric ozone and aerosols significantly affect air quality in megacities during pollution events. Moreover, living conditions may be seriously aggravated when such agglomerations are affected by wildfires (e.g. Russian fires over Moscow in 2010), which produce smoke and pollutant precursors, or even during dense desert dust outbreaks (e.g. recurrently over Beijing or Cairo). Moreover, since aerosols diffuse and absorb solar radiation, they have a direct impact on the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone. These interactions during extreme events of high aerosol loads are nowadays poorly known, even though they may significantly affect the tropospheric photochemical equilibrium. In order to address these issues, we have developed a new retrieval technique to jointly characterize the 3D distribution of both tropospheric ozone and coarse aerosols, using spaceborne observations of the infrared spectrometer IASI onboard MetOp-A satellite. Our methodology is based on the inversion of Earth radiance spectra in the atmospheric window from 8 to 12 μm measured by IASI and a «Tikhonov-Philipps»-type regularisation with constraints varying in altitude (as in [Eremenko et al., 2008, GRL; Dufour et al., 2010 ACP]) to simultaneously retrieve ozone profiles, aerosol optical depths at 10 μm and aerosol layer effective heights. Such joint retrieval prevents biases in the ozone profile retrieval during high aerosol load conditions. Aerosol retrievals using thermal infrared radiances mainly account for desert dust and the coarse fraction of biomass burning aerosols. We use radiances from 15 micro-windows within the 8-12 μm atmospheric window, which were carefully chosen (following [Worden et al., 2006 JGR]) for extracting the maximum information on aerosols and ozone and minimizing contamination by other species. We use the radiative transfer code KOPRA, including line-by-line calculations of gas absorption and single scattering for aerosols [Hoepfner et al

  9. Direct Determination of 3D Distribution of Elemental Composition in Single Semiconductor Nanoislands by Scanning Auger Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryov, Semyon S.; Yukhymchuk, Volodymyr O.; Lytvyn, Peter M.; Valakh, Mykhailo Ya

    2016-02-01

    An application of scanning Auger microscopy with ion etching technique and effective compensation of thermal drift of the surface analyzed area is proposed for direct local study of composition distribution in the bulk of single nanoislands. For GexSi1 - x-nanoislands obtained by MBE of Ge on Si-substrate gigantic interdiffusion mixing takes place both in the open and capped nanostructures. Lateral distributions of the elemental composition as well as concentration-depth profiles were recorded. 3D distribution of the elemental composition in the d-cluster bulk was obtained using the interpolation approach by lateral composition distributions in its several cross sections and concentration-depth profile. It was shown that there is a germanium core in the nanoislands of both nanostructure types, which even penetrates the substrate. In studied nanostructures maximal Ge content in the nanoislands may reach about 40 at.%.

  10. Novel methods for estimating 3D distributions of radioactive isotopes in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Taya, T.; Okochi, H.; Ogata, H.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, various gamma-ray visualization techniques, or gamma cameras, have been proposed. These techniques are extremely effective for identifying "hot spots" or regions where radioactive isotopes are accumulated. Examples of such would be nuclear-disaster-affected areas such as Fukushima or the vicinity of nuclear reactors. However, the images acquired with a gamma camera do not include distance information between radioactive isotopes and the camera, and hence are "degenerated" in the direction of the isotopes. Moreover, depth information in the images is lost when the isotopes are embedded in materials, such as water, sand, and concrete. Here, we propose two methods of obtaining depth information of radioactive isotopes embedded in materials by comparing (1) their spectra and (2) images of incident gamma rays scattered by the materials and direct gamma rays. In the first method, the spectra of radioactive isotopes and the ratios of scattered to direct gamma rays are obtained. We verify experimentally that the ratio increases with increasing depth, as predicted by simulations. Although the method using energy spectra has been studied for a long time, an advantage of our method is the use of low-energy (50-150 keV) photons as scattered gamma rays. In the second method, the spatial extent of images obtained for direct and scattered gamma rays is compared. By performing detailed Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4, we verify that the spatial extent of the position where gamma rays are scattered increases with increasing depth. To demonstrate this, we are developing various gamma cameras to compare low-energy (scattered) gamma-ray images with fully photo-absorbed gamma-ray images. We also demonstrate that the 3D reconstruction of isotopes/hotspots is possible with our proposed methods. These methods have potential applications in the medical fields, and in severe environments such as the nuclear-disaster-affected areas in Fukushima.

  11. Automated quantitative 3D analysis of aorta size, morphology, and mural calcification distributions

    PubMed Central

    Kurugol, Sila; Come, Carolyn E.; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Ross, James C.; Kinney, Greg L.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Hokanson, John E.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Washko, George R.; San Jose Estepar, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a fully automated pipeline to compute aorta morphology and calcification measures in large cohorts of CT scans that can be used to investigate the potential of these measures as imaging biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Methods: The first step of the automated pipeline is aorta segmentation. The algorithm the authors propose first detects an initial aorta boundary by exploiting cross-sectional circularity of aorta in axial slices and aortic arch in reformatted oblique slices. This boundary is then refined by a 3D level-set segmentation that evolves the boundary to the location of nearby edges. The authors then detect the aortic calcifications with thresholding and filter out the false positive regions due to nearby high intensity structures based on their anatomical location. The authors extract the centerline and oblique cross sections of the segmented aortas and compute the aorta morphology and calcification measures of the first 2500 subjects from COPDGene study. These measures include volume and number of calcified plaques and measures of vessel morphology such as average cross-sectional area, tortuosity, and arch width. Results: The authors computed the agreement between the algorithm and expert segmentations on 45 CT scans and obtained a closest point mean error of 0.62 ± 0.09 mm and a Dice coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.01. The calcification detection algorithm resulted in an improved true positive detection rate of 0.96 compared to previous work. The measurements of aorta size agreed with the measurements reported in previous work. The initial results showed associations of aorta morphology with calcification and with aging. These results may indicate aorta stiffening and unwrapping with calcification and aging. Conclusions: The authors have developed an objective tool to assess aorta morphology and aortic calcium plaques on CT scans that may be used to provide information about the presence of cardiovascular

  12. Calculation and Update of a 3d Building Model of Bavaria Using LIDAR, Image Matching and Catastre Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aringer, K.; Roschlaub, R.

    2013-09-01

    The Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation has launched a statewide 3D Building Model with standardized roof shapes without textures for all 8.1 million buildings in Bavaria. For acquisition of the 3D Building Model LiDAR-data are used as data basis as well as the building ground plans of the official cadastral map and a list of standardized roof shapes. The data management of the 3D Building Model is carried out by a central database with the usage of a nationwide standardized data model and the data exchange interface CityGML. On the one hand the update of the 3D Building Model for new buildings is done by terrestrial building measurements within the maintenance process of the cadastre. On the other hand the roofs of buildings which were built after the LiDAR flight and which were not measured terrestrially yet, are captured by means of picture-based digital surface-models derived from image-matching of oriented aerial photographs (DSM from image matching).

  13. Intensifying the response of distributed optical fibre sensors using 2D and 3D image restoration

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Marcelo A.; Ramírez, Jaime A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Distributed optical fibre sensors possess the unique capability of measuring the spatial and temporal map of environmental quantities that can be of great interest for several field applications. Although existing methods for performance enhancement have enabled important progresses in the field, they do not take full advantage of all information present in the measured data, still giving room for substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach for performance enhancement that exploits the high level of similitude and redundancy contained on the multidimensional information measured by distributed fibre sensors. Exploiting conventional image and video processing, an unprecedented boost in signal-to-noise ratio and measurement contrast is experimentally demonstrated. The method can be applied to any white-noise-limited distributed fibre sensor and can remarkably provide a 100-fold improvement in the sensor performance with no hardware modification. PMID:26927698

  14. Intensifying the response of distributed optical fibre sensors using 2D and 3D image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Marcelo A.; Ramírez, Jaime A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-03-01

    Distributed optical fibre sensors possess the unique capability of measuring the spatial and temporal map of environmental quantities that can be of great interest for several field applications. Although existing methods for performance enhancement have enabled important progresses in the field, they do not take full advantage of all information present in the measured data, still giving room for substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach for performance enhancement that exploits the high level of similitude and redundancy contained on the multidimensional information measured by distributed fibre sensors. Exploiting conventional image and video processing, an unprecedented boost in signal-to-noise ratio and measurement contrast is experimentally demonstrated. The method can be applied to any white-noise-limited distributed fibre sensor and can remarkably provide a 100-fold improvement in the sensor performance with no hardware modification.

  15. Target specific delivery of anticancer drug in silk fibroin based 3D distribution model of bone-breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subia, Bano; Dey, Tuli; Sharma, Shaily; Kundu, Subhas C

    2015-02-01

    To avoid the indiscriminating action of anticancer drugs, the cancer cell specific targeting of drug molecule becomes a preferred choice for the treatment. The successful screening of the drug molecules in 2D culture system requires further validation. The failure of target specific drug in animal model raises the issue of creating a platform in between the in vitro (2D) and in vivo animal testing. The metastatic breast cancer cells migrate and settle at different sites such as bone tissue. This work evaluates the in vitro 3D model of the breast cancer and bone cells to understand the cellular interactions in the presence of a targeted anticancer drug delivery system. The silk fibroin based cytocompatible 3D scaffold is used as in vitro 3D distribution model. Human breast adenocarcinoma and osteoblast like cells are cocultured to evaluate the efficiency of doxorubicin loaded folic acid conjugated silk fibroin nanoparticle as drug delivery system. Decreasing population of the cancer cells, which lower the levels of vascular endothelial growth factors, glucose consumption, and lactate production are observed in the drug treated coculture constructs. The drug treated constructs do not show any major impact on bone mineralization. The diminished expression of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcein and alkaline phosphatase are recorded. The result indicates that this type of silk based 3D in vitro coculture model may be utilized as a bridge between the traditional 2D and animal model system to evaluate the new drug molecule (s) or to reassay the known drug molecules or to develop target specific drug in cancer research. PMID:25557227

  16. Target specific delivery of anticancer drug in silk fibroin based 3D distribution model of bone-breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subia, Bano; Dey, Tuli; Sharma, Shaily; Kundu, Subhas C

    2015-02-01

    To avoid the indiscriminating action of anticancer drugs, the cancer cell specific targeting of drug molecule becomes a preferred choice for the treatment. The successful screening of the drug molecules in 2D culture system requires further validation. The failure of target specific drug in animal model raises the issue of creating a platform in between the in vitro (2D) and in vivo animal testing. The metastatic breast cancer cells migrate and settle at different sites such as bone tissue. This work evaluates the in vitro 3D model of the breast cancer and bone cells to understand the cellular interactions in the presence of a targeted anticancer drug delivery system. The silk fibroin based cytocompatible 3D scaffold is used as in vitro 3D distribution model. Human breast adenocarcinoma and osteoblast like cells are cocultured to evaluate the efficiency of doxorubicin loaded folic acid conjugated silk fibroin nanoparticle as drug delivery system. Decreasing population of the cancer cells, which lower the levels of vascular endothelial growth factors, glucose consumption, and lactate production are observed in the drug treated coculture constructs. The drug treated constructs do not show any major impact on bone mineralization. The diminished expression of osteogenic markers such as osteocalcein and alkaline phosphatase are recorded. The result indicates that this type of silk based 3D in vitro coculture model may be utilized as a bridge between the traditional 2D and animal model system to evaluate the new drug molecule (s) or to reassay the known drug molecules or to develop target specific drug in cancer research.

  17. In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Yeoreum; Chung, Wan Kyun; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-05-01

    Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. Intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence properties of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were characterized, and their distributions in mouse cornea in vivo were measured by 3D MPM imaging. Both moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin had similar multiphoton spectra, while moxifloxacin had stronger fluorescence than gatifloxacin. MPM imaging of mouse cornea in vivo showed (1) moxifloxacin had good penetration through the superficial corneal epithelium, while gatifloxacin had relatively poor penetration, (2) both ophthalmic solutions had high intracellular distribution. In vivo MPM results were consistent with previous studies. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MPM as a method for in vivo direct measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea.

  18. Observations of the 3-D distribution of interplanetary electrons and ions from solar wind plasma to low energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Ashford, S.; Carlson, C.; Curtis, D.; Ergun, R.; Larson, D.; McFadden, J.; McCarthy, M.; Parks, G. K.

    1995-01-01

    The 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle instrument on the GGS Wind spacecraft (launched November 1, 1994) is designed to make measurements of the full three-dimensional distribution of suprathermal electrons and ions from solar wind plasma to low energy cosmic rays, with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, good energy and angular resolution, and high time resolution. Three pairs of double-ended telescopes, each with two or three closely sandwiched passivated ion implanted silicon detectors measure electrons and ions from approximately 20 keV to greater than or equal to 300 keV. Four top-hat symmetrical spherical section electrostatic analyzers with microchannel plate detectors, a large and a small geometric factor analyzer for electrons and a similar pair for ions, cover from approximately 3 eV to 30 keV. We present preliminary observations of the electron and ion distributions in the absence of obvious solar impulsive events and upstream particles. The quiet time electron energy spectrum shows a smooth approximately power law fall-off extending from the halo population at a few hundred eV to well above approximately 100 keV The quiet time ion energy spectrum also shows significant fluxes over this energy range. Detailed 3-D distributions and their temporal variations will be presented.

  19. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  20. Estimating the 3D pore size distribution of biopolymer networks from directionally biased data.

    PubMed

    Lang, Nadine R; Münster, Stefan; Metzner, Claus; Krauss, Patrick; Schürmann, Sebastian; Lange, Janina; Aifantis, Katerina E; Friedrich, Oliver; Fabry, Ben

    2013-11-01

    The pore size of biopolymer networks governs their mechanical properties and strongly impacts the behavior of embedded cells. Confocal reflection microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy are widely used to image biopolymer networks; however, both techniques fail to resolve vertically oriented fibers. Here, we describe how such directionally biased data can be used to estimate the network pore size. We first determine the distribution of distances from random points in the fluid phase to the nearest fiber. This distribution follows a Rayleigh distribution, regardless of isotropy and data bias, and is fully described by a single parameter--the characteristic pore size of the network. The bias of the pore size estimate due to the missing fibers can be corrected by multiplication with the square root of the visible network fraction. We experimentally verify the validity of this approach by comparing our estimates with data obtained using confocal fluorescence microscopy, which represents the full structure of the network. As an important application, we investigate the pore size dependence of collagen and fibrin networks on protein concentration. We find that the pore size decreases with the square root of the concentration, consistent with a total fiber length that scales linearly with concentration. PMID:24209841

  1. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Tony; Knopf, Antje

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on

  2. Calculation of the virtual current in an electromagnetic flow meter with one bubble using 3D model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Yantao

    2004-04-01

    Based on the theory of electromagnetic induction flow measurement, the Laplace equation in a complicated three-dimensional (3D) domain is solved by an alternating method. Virtual current potentials are obtained for an electromagnetic flow meter with one spherical bubble inside. The solutions are used to investigate the effects of bubble size and bubble position on the virtual current. Comparisons are done among the cases of 2D and 3D models, and of point electrode and large electrode. The results show that the 2D model overestimates the effect, while large electrodes are least sensitive to the bubble. This paper offers fundamentals for the study of the behavior of an electromagnetic flow meter in multiphase flow. For application, the results provide a possible way to estimate errors of the flow meter caused by multiphase flow.

  3. Comparison of 3D dose distributions for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources with normoxic polymer gel dosimetry and treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Senkesen, Oznur; Tezcanli, Evrim; Buyuksarac, Bora; Ozbay, Ismail

    2014-10-01

    Radiation fluence changes caused by the dosimeter itself and poor spatial resolution may lead to lack of 3-dimensional (3D) information depending on the features of the dosimeter and quality assurance of dose distributions for high–dose rate (HDR) iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) brachytherapy sources is challenging and experimental dosimetry methods used for brachytherapy sources are limited. In this study, we investigated 3D dose distributions of {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources for irradiation with single and multiple dwell positions using a normoxic gel dosimeter and compared them with treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. For dose calibration purposes, 100-mL gel-containing vials were irradiated at predefined doses and then scanned in an magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. Gel phantoms prepared in 2 spherical glasses were irradiated with {sup 192}Ir for the calculated dwell positions, and MR scans of the phantoms were obtained. The images were analyzed with MATLAB software. Dose distributions and profiles derived with 1-mm resolution were compared with TPS calculations. Linearity was observed between the delivered dose and the reciprocal of the T2 relaxation time constant of the gel. The x-, y-, and z-axes were defined as the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes, respectively, the sagittal and axial planes were defined parallel to the long axis of the source while the coronal plane was defined horizontally to the long axis of the source. The differences between measured and calculated profile widths of 3-cm source length and point source for 70%, 50%, and 30% isodose lines were evaluated at 3 dose levels using 18 profiles of comparison. The calculations for 3-cm source length revealed a difference of > 3 mm in 1 coordinate at 50% profile width on the sagittal plane and 3 coordinates at 70% profile width and 2 coordinates at 50% and 30% profile widths on the axial plane. Calculations on the coronal plane for 3-cm source length showed > 3-mm difference in 1

  4. Calculation of Dose Deposition in 3D Voxels by Heavy Ions and Simulation of gamma-H2AX Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, I.; Ponomarev, A. L.; Wang, M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The biological response to high-LET radiation is different from low-LET radiation due to several factors, notably difference in energy deposition and formation of radiolytic species. Of particular importance in radiobiology is the formation of double-strand breaks (DSB), which can be detected by -H2AX foci experiments. These experiments has revealed important differences in the spatial distribution of DSB induced by low- and high-LET radiations [1,2]. To simulate -H2AX experiments, models based on amorphous track with radial dose are often combined with random walk chromosome models [3,4]. In this work, a new approach using the Monte-Carlo track structure code RITRACKS [5] and chromosome models have been used to simulate DSB formation. At first, RITRACKS have been used to simulate the irradiation of a cubic volume of 5 m by 1) 450 1H+ ions of 300 MeV (LET 0.3 keV/ m) and 2) by 1 56Fe26+ ion of 1 GeV/amu (LET 150 keV/ m). All energy deposition events are recorded to calculate dose in voxels of 20 m. The dose voxels are distributed randomly and scattered uniformly within the volume irradiated by low-LET radiation. Many differences are found in the spatial distribution of dose voxels for the 56Fe26+ ion. The track structure can be distinguished, and voxels with very high dose are found in the region corresponding to the track "core". These high-dose voxels are not found in the low-LET irradiation simulation and indicate clustered energy deposition, which may be responsible for complex DSB. In the second step, assuming that DSB will be found only in voxels where energy is deposited by the radiation, the intersection points between voxels with dose > 0 and simulated chromosomes were obtained. The spatial distribution of the intersection points is similar to -H2AX foci experiments. These preliminary results suggest that combining stochastic track structure and chromosome models could be a good approach to understand radiation-induced DSB and chromosome aberrations.

  5. 3D Spatial Distribution of the Intergalactic Medium: The ESO Blues?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollinde, Emmanuel; Petitjean, Patrick; Pichon, Christophe; Colombi, Stéphane; Aracil, Bastien

    The numerous absorption lines seen in the spectra of distant quasars (the so-called Lyman-α forest) reveal the intergalactic medium (IGM) up to redshifts larger than 5. It is believed that the space distribution of the gas traces the potential wells of the dark matter. Indeed, recent numerical N-body simulations have been successful at reproducing the observed characteristics of the Lyman-α forest (e.g. [1][12][5]). The IGM is therefore seen as a smooth pervasive medium which can be used to study the spatial distribution of the mass on scales larger than the Jeans' length. This idea is reinforced by observations of multiple lines of sight. It is observed that the Lyman-α forest is fairly homogeneous on scale smaller than 100 kpc (e.g. [11]) and highly correlated on scale up to one megaparsec (e.g. [13][3]). The number of suitable multiple lines of sight is small however and the sample need to be significantly enlarged before any firm conclusion can be drawn (see Section 3.3).

  6. Particle size distribution of cataclastic fault materials from Southern California: A 3-D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Lin-Ji; Sammis, Charles G.

    1994-03-01

    The particle size distributions of fault gouge from the San Andreas, the San Gabriel, and the Lopez Canyon faults in Southern California were measured using sieving and Coulter-Counter techniques over a range of particle sizes from 2 μm to 16 mm. The distributions were found to be power law (fractal) for the smaller fragments and log-normal by mass for sizes near and above the peak size. The apparent fractal dimension D of the smaller particles in gouge samples from the San Andreas fault, the San Gabriel fault and the Lopez Canyon gouge were 2.4 3.6, 2.6 2.9 and 2.4 3.0, respectively. The average D for the Lopez Canyon gouge was 2.7±0.2, which is in agreement with earlier studies of this gouge using planar 2-D sections. The fractal dimension of the finer fragments from all three faults is observed to be correlated with the peak fragment size, with finer gouges tending to have a larger D. A computer automaton is used to show that this observation may be explained as resulting from a fragmentation process which has a “grinding limit” at which particle reduction stops.

  7. Toward Measuring Galactic Dense Molecular Gas Properties and 3D Distribution with Hi-GAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterlund, Erika; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory's submillimeter dust continuum survey Hi-GAL provides a powerful new dataset for characterizing the structure of the dense interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Hi-GAL observed a 2° wide strip covering the entire 360° of the Galactic plane in broad bands centered at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm, with angular resolution ranging from 10 to 40 arcseconds. We are adapting a molecular cloud clump-finding algorithm and a distance probability density function distance-determination method developed for the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) to the Hi-GAL data. Using these methods we expect to generate a database of 105 cloud clumps, derive distance information for roughly half the clumps, and derive precise distances for approximately 20% of them. With five-color photometry and distances, we will measure the cloud clump properties, such as luminosities, physical sizes, and masses, and construct a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way's dense molecular gas distribution.The cloud clump properties and the dense gas distribution will provide critical ground truths for comparison to theoretical models of molecular cloud structure formation and galaxy evolution models that seek to emulate spiral galaxies. For example, such models cannot resolve star formation and use prescriptive recipes, such as converting a fixed fraction of interstellar gas to stars at a specified interstellar medium density threshold. The models should be compared to observed dense molecular gas properties and galactic distributions.As a pilot survey to refine the clump-finding and distance measurement algorithms developed for BGPS, we have identified molecular cloud clumps in six 2° × 2° patches of the Galactic plane, including one in the inner Galaxy along the line of sight through the Molecular Ring and the termination of the Galactic bar and one toward the outer Galaxy. Distances have been derived for the inner Galaxy clumps and compared to Bolocam Galactic Plane

  8. 3D replicon distributions arise from stochastic initiation and domino-like DNA replication progression

    PubMed Central

    Löb, D.; Lengert, N.; Chagin, V. O.; Reinhart, M.; Casas-Delucchi, C. S.; Cardoso, M. C.; Drossel, B.

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication dynamics in cells from higher eukaryotes follows very complex but highly efficient mechanisms. However, the principles behind initiation of potential replication origins and emergence of typical patterns of nuclear replication sites remain unclear. Here, we propose a comprehensive model of DNA replication in human cells that is based on stochastic, proximity-induced replication initiation. Critical model features are: spontaneous stochastic firing of individual origins in euchromatin and facultative heterochromatin, inhibition of firing at distances below the size of chromatin loops and a domino-like effect by which replication forks induce firing of nearby origins. The model reproduces the empirical temporal and chromatin-related properties of DNA replication in human cells. We advance the one-dimensional DNA replication model to a spatial model by taking into account chromatin folding in the nucleus, and we are able to reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of the replication foci distribution throughout S-phase. PMID:27052359

  9. High-Performance Computation of Distributed-Memory Parallel 3D Voronoi and Delaunay Tessellation

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, Tom; Morozov, Dmitriy; Phillips, Carolyn

    2014-11-14

    Computing a Voronoi or Delaunay tessellation from a set of points is a core part of the analysis of many simulated and measured datasets: N-body simulations, molecular dynamics codes, and LIDAR point clouds are just a few examples. Such computational geometry methods are common in data analysis and visualization; but as the scale of simulations and observations surpasses billions of particles, the existing serial and shared-memory algorithms no longer suffice. A distributed-memory scalable parallel algorithm is the only feasible approach. The primary contribution of this paper is a new parallel Delaunay and Voronoi tessellation algorithm that automatically determines which neighbor points need to be exchanged among the subdomains of a spatial decomposition. Other contributions include periodic and wall boundary conditions, comparison of our method using two popular serial libraries, and application to numerous science datasets.

  10. The internal density distribution of comet 67P/C-G based on 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, Laurent; Faurschou Hviid, Stubbe; Capanna, Claire; Gaskell, Robert W.; Gutiérrez, Pedro; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Rodionov, Sergey; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    The OSIRIS camera aboard the Rosetta spacecraft observed the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G from the mapping phase in summer 2014 until now. The images have allowed the reconstruction in three-dimension of nucleus surface with stereophotogrammetry (Preusker et al., Astron. Astrophys.) and stereophotoclinometry (Jorda et al., Icarus) techniques. We use the reconstructed models to constrain the internal density distribution based on: (i) the measurement of the offset between the center of mass and the center of figure of the object, and (ii) the assumption that flat areas observed at the surface of the comet correspond to iso-gravity surfaces. The results of our analysis will be presented, and the consequences for the internal structure and formation of the nucleus of comet 67P/C-G will be discussed.

  11. 3D modeling of the electron energy distribution function in negative hydrogen ion sources.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, R; Fujino, I; Hatayama, A; Mizuno, T; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    For optimization and accurate prediction of the amount of H-ion production in negative ion sources, analysis of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is necessary. We are developing a numerical code which analyzes EEDF in the tandem-type arc-discharge source. It is a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation code with realistic geometry and magnetic configuration. Coulomb collision between electrons is treated with the "binary collision" model and collisions with hydrogen species are treated with the "null-collision" method. We applied this code to the analysis of the JAEA 10 A negative ion source. The numerical result shows that the obtained EEDF is in good agreement with experimental results.

  12. 3D replicon distributions arise from stochastic initiation and domino-like DNA replication progression.

    PubMed

    Löb, D; Lengert, N; Chagin, V O; Reinhart, M; Casas-Delucchi, C S; Cardoso, M C; Drossel, B

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication dynamics in cells from higher eukaryotes follows very complex but highly efficient mechanisms. However, the principles behind initiation of potential replication origins and emergence of typical patterns of nuclear replication sites remain unclear. Here, we propose a comprehensive model of DNA replication in human cells that is based on stochastic, proximity-induced replication initiation. Critical model features are: spontaneous stochastic firing of individual origins in euchromatin and facultative heterochromatin, inhibition of firing at distances below the size of chromatin loops and a domino-like effect by which replication forks induce firing of nearby origins. The model reproduces the empirical temporal and chromatin-related properties of DNA replication in human cells. We advance the one-dimensional DNA replication model to a spatial model by taking into account chromatin folding in the nucleus, and we are able to reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of the replication foci distribution throughout S-phase.

  13. Optimal angular dose distribution to acquire 3D and extra 2D images for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-Seul; Lee, Haeng-Hwa; Gang, Won-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Young-Wook; Choi, JaeGu

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal non-uniform angular dose distribution to improve the quality of the 3D reconstructed images and to acquire extra 2D projection images. In this analysis, 7 acquisition sets were generated by using four different values for the number of projections (11, 15, 21, and 29) and total angular range (±14°, ±17.5°, ±21°, and ±24.5° ). For all acquisition sets, the zero-degree projection was used as the 2D image that was close to that of standard conventional mammography (CM). Exposures used were 50, 100, 150, and 200 mR for the zero-degree projection, and the remaining dose was distributed over the remaining projection angles. To quantitatively evaluate image quality, we computed the CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio) and the ASF (artifact spread function) for the same radiation dose. The results indicate that, for microcalcifications, acquisition sets with approximately 4 times higher exposure on the zero-degree projection than the average exposure for the remaining projection angles yielded higher CNR values and were 3% higher than the uniform distribution. However, very high dose concentrations toward the zero-degree projection may reduce the quality of the reconstructed images due to increasing noise in the peripheral views. The zero-degree projection of the non-uniform dose distribution offers a 2D image similar to that of standard CM, but with a significantly lower radiation dose. Therefore, we need to evaluate the diagnostic potential of extra 2D projection image when diagnose breast cancer by using 3D images with non-uniform angular dose distributions.

  14. pySeismicFMM: Python based travel time calculation in regular 2D and 3D grids in Cartesian and geographic coordinates using Fast Marching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  15. Effect of 3D stall-cells on the pressure distribution of a laminar NACA64-418 wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragni, Daniele; Ferreira, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    A 3D stall-cell flow-field has been studied in a 4.8 aspect-ratio wing obtained by linear extrusion of a laminar NACA64-418 airfoil profile. The span-wise change in the velocity and pressure distribution along the wing has been quantified with respect to the development of cellular structures from 8° to 20° angle of attack. Oil-flow visualizations help localizing the regular cellular pattern in function of the angle of attack. Multi-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements obtained by traversing the entire setup along the wing span show that the flow separation is not span-wise uniform. The combination of different stereoscopic fields into a 3D volume of velocity data allows studying the global effect of the stall-cell pattern on the wing flow. Integration of the experimentally computed pressure gradient from the Navier-Stokes equation is employed to compute the span-wise distribution of the mean surface pressure. Comparison of the results with the ones obtained from pressure taps installed in the wing evidences a span-wise periodic loading on the wing. The periodic loading has maxima confined in the stream-wise direction between the location of the highest airfoil curvature and the one of the airfoil flow separation. Estimation of the periodic loading is found within 2-6 % of the sectional wing lift.

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. LOCA hydroloads calculations with multidimensional nonlinear fluid/structure interaction. Volume 3. Fluid/structure interaction studies using 3-D STEALTH/WHAMSE. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Santee, G.E. Jr.; Chang, F.H.; Mortensen, G.A.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.B.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1982-11-01

    This report, the third in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the final step in the stepwise approach for developing the three-dimensional, nonlinear, fluid-structure interaction methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The final step in the methodology implements enhancements and special modifications to the STEALTH 3D computer program and the WHAMSE 3D computer program. After describing the enhancements, the individual and the coupled computer programs are assessed by comparing calculational results with either analytical solutions or with experimental data. The coupled 3D STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program is then applied to the simulation of HDR Test V31.1 to further assess the program and to investigate the role that fluid-structure interaction plays in the hydrodynamic loading of reactor internals during subcooled blowdown.

  19. STRUCTURE IN THE 3D GALAXY DISTRIBUTION. II. VOIDS AND WATERSHEDS OF LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D. E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net

    2015-01-20

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog.

  20. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. II. Voids and Watersheds of Local Maxima and Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog.

  1. 3D measurement of the radiation distribution in a water phantom in a hadron therapy beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opalka, L.; Granja, C.; Hartmann, B.; Jakubek, J.; Jaekel, O.; Martisikova, M.; Pospisil, S.; Solc, J.

    2012-01-01

    Hadron therapy is a highly precise radio-therapeutic method with many advantages especially in cases when the tumour is close to sensitive organs where standard treatments cannot be used. For reliable treatment planning it is necessary to have calculation tools for maximization of the dose delivered to the targeted tissue and minimization of the dose outside of it. While the main physical processes in material irradiated by hadron beams are known, in reality the processes involved are complex so that analytical computations are impossible. Thus, the planning tools to incorporate simplified models and numerical approximations and an experimental method for high precision verification of the models within phantoms is desired. The development of sensitive, high resolution and online methods for measurement of the radiation environment inside of the irradiated object is the aim of this work. Such measurements are made possible by the resolving power of the state-of-the-art pixel detector Timepix. This quantum counting imaging device is able to record the characteristic shapes of the particle traces including their energies deposited in the detector. All these data recorded for each event allow to estimate the particle type, its energy and direction of flight. Event-by-event analysis is done using pattern recognition of the characteristic traces. The objective of the experiment is the detection and characterization of secondary radiation generated by the primary therapeutic beams in tissue equivalent material (water). Measurements were performed inside of a water phantom irradiated by a carbon beam at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT).

  2. Experimental Investigation and 3D Finite Element Prediction of Temperature Distribution during Travelling Heat Sourced from Oxyacetylene Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar Alkali, Adam; Lenggo Ginta, Turnad; Majdi Abdul-Rani, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a 3D transient finite element modelling of the workpiece temperature field produced during the travelling heat sourced from oxyacetylene flame. The proposed model was given in terms of preheat-only test applicable during thermally enhanced machining using the oxyacetylene flame as a heat source. The FEA model as well as the experimental test investigated the surface temperature distribution on 316L stainless steel at scanning speed of 100mm/min, 125mm/min 160mm/min, 200mm/min and 250mm/min. The parametric properties of the heat source maintained constant are; lead distance Ld =10mm, focus height Fh=7.5mm, oxygen gas pressure Poxy=15psi and acetylene gas pressure Pacty=25psi. An experimental validation of the temperature field induced on type 316L stainless steel reveal that temperature distribution increases when the travelling speed decreases.

  3. The 3D distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole (British Columbia, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidies, Fred; Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Pattison, David

    2016-04-01

    The size, abundance, shape and spatial distribution of metamorphic minerals bears important information on the rates and mechanisms of fundamental processes that take place during metamorphic crystallization. X-ray computed tomography (XR-CT) has become the method of choice to study the three-dimensional (3D) disposition of minerals in rocks as it allows investigation of relatively large sample volumes at sufficiently high resolution required for statistically meaningful analyses, and as its non-destructive fashion permits further studies such as mineral chemical, isotopic or crystallographic analyses of select grains identified through XR-CT. We present results obtained through the quantification of the 3D disposition of cordierite and biotite crystals in a hornfels from the contact aureole of the Bugaboo Batholith (British Columbia, Canada) using XR-CT and global as well as scale-dependent pattern statistics (Petley-Ragan et al., 2016). The results demonstrate a random distribution of cordierite and biotite crystal sizes for all scales across the entire rock volume studied indicative of interface-controlled prograde metamorphic reaction kinetics. We show that the common approach to approximate the shape of crystals as spherical underestimates the influence of the Strauss hard-core process on rock texture which may be misinterpreted to reflect ordering of crystal sizes by inhibition of nucleation and growth commonly associated with diffusion-controlled reaction kinetics. According to our findings, Strauss hard-core ordering develops at length scales equal to and less than the average major axis of the crystal population. This is significantly larger than what is obtained if a spherical crystal geometry would be assumed, and increases with deviation from sphericity. For the cordierite and biotite populations investigated in this research, Strauss hard-core ordering developed at length scales of up to ˜2.2 and 1.25 mm, respectively, which is almost 1 mm longer than

  4. Calculated angular distributions of energetic atmospheric neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merker, M.

    1975-01-01

    Calculated angular distributions of atmospheric leakage neutron fluxes from 19 MeV to 1 GeV are presented. Comparisons with the balloon measurements of Preszler et al. and Kanbach et al. are made and show substantial agreement, strengthening the belief in the importance of the CRAND (cosmic-ray albedo-neutron decay) contribution to the high-energy protons in the earth's inner radiation belt. The calculation is presented as a means for investigating features of atmospheric flux distributions.

  5. Calculation of the Poisson cumulative distribution function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert G.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A method for calculating the Poisson cdf (cumulative distribution function) is presented. The method avoids computer underflow and overflow during the process. The computer program uses this technique to calculate the Poisson cdf for arbitrary inputs. An algorithm that determines the Poisson parameter required to yield a specified value of the cdf is presented.

  6. Tumor control probability and the utility of 4D vs 3D dose calculations for stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Gilmer; Robinson, Clifford; Lee, Percy; Morel, Delphine; Low, Daniel; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Lamb, James M

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTVsetup were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTVsetup was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion.

  7. Tumor control probability and the utility of 4D vs 3D dose calculations for stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, Gilmer; Robinson, Clifford; Lee, Percy; Morel, Delphine; Low, Daniel; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Lamb, James M.

    2015-04-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTV{sub setup} were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTV{sub setup} was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5 Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion.

  8. Benchmark of Atucha-2 PHWR RELAP5-3D control rod model by Monte Carlo MCNP5 core calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Pecchia, M.; D'Auria, F.; Mazzantini, O.

    2012-07-01

    Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and peculiarities require the adoption of advanced Monte Carlo codes for performing realistic neutronic simulations. Therefore core models of Atucha-2 PHWR were developed using MCNP5. In this work a methodology was set up to collect the flux in the hexagonal mesh by which the Atucha-2 core is represented. The scope of this activity is to evaluate the effect of obliquely inserted control rod on neutron flux in order to validate the RELAP5-3D{sup C}/NESTLE three dimensional neutron kinetic coupled thermal-hydraulic model, applied by GRNSPG/UNIPI for performing selected transients of Chapter 15 FSAR of Atucha-2. (authors)

  9. Investigation of 3D tungsten distributions in (1,1) kink modes induced by toroidal plasma rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, M.; Gude, A.; Igochine, V.; Maraschek, M.; Zohm, H.; Bohle, R.; Dux, R.; Lackner, K.; Odstrčil, T.; Pütterich, T.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of high-Z impurities, such as tungsten (W), can lead to non-uniform SXR radiation on flux surfaces due to the centrifugal forces in rotating plasmas. The goal of this work is to characterize the effects of such rotation-induced radiation asymmetries on FFT-based SXR mode analysis. Therefore, a synthetic SXR diagnostic has been implemented, which takes into account the full 3D geometry of the detectors, resulting in a volume integration rather than the more simplifying line integration. We have focused on resistive (1,1) kink modes, where we have implemented a model for the flux surfaces perturbed by the mode and the W distribution within. In a rotation scan, which leads to a variation of the asymmetry, a strong dependence of the FFT phase profile on the asymmetry strength is found. A comparison with experimental data shows good agreement, which verifies the used models.

  10. Modeling the crystal distribution of lead-sulfate in lead-acid batteries with 3D spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Moritz; Badeda, Julia; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-04-01

    For the reliability of lead-acid batteries it is important to have an accurate prediction of its response to load profiles. A model for the lead-sulfate growth is presented, which is embedded in a physical-chemical model with 3D spatial resolution is presented which is used for analyzing the different mechanism influencing the cell response. One import factor is the chemical dissolution and precipitation of lead-sulfate, since its dissolution speed limits the charging reaction and the accumulation of indissolvable of lead-sulfate leads to capacity degradation. The cell performance/behavior is not only determined by the amount of the sulfate but also by the radii and distribution of the crystals. The presented model can be used to for an improved understanding of the interaction of the different mechanisms.

  11. THE RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1 FROM THE 3D-HST SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Lundgren, Britt; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Van der Wel, Arjen; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon; Kriek, Mariska; Schmidt, Kasper B.

    2013-01-20

    The assembly of galaxies can be described by the distribution of their star formation as a function of cosmic time. Thanks to the WFC3 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) it is now possible to measure this beyond the local Universe. Here we present the spatial distribution of H{alpha} emission for a sample of 54 strongly star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 1 in the 3D-HST Treasury survey. By stacking the H{alpha} emission, we find that star formation occurred in approximately exponential distributions at z {approx} 1, with a median Sersic index of n = 1.0 {+-} 0.2. The stacks are elongated with median axis ratios of b/a = 0.58 {+-} 0.09 in H{alpha} consistent with (possibly thick) disks at random orientation angles. Keck spectra obtained for a subset of eight of the galaxies show clear evidence for rotation, with inclination corrected velocities of 90-330 km s{sup -1}. The most straightforward interpretation of our results is that star formation in strongly star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 1 generally occurred in disks. The disks appear to be 'scaled-up' versions of nearby spiral galaxies: they have EW(H{alpha}) {approx} 100 A out to the solar orbit and they have star formation surface densities above the threshold for driving galactic scale winds.

  12. The Radial Distribution of Star Formation in Galaxies at Z approximately 1 from the 3D-HST Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Erica June; vanDokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel; Lundgren, Britt; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; DaCunha, Elisabete; Schreiber, Natascha Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; vanderWel, Argen; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of galaxies can be described by the distribution of their star formation as a function of cosmic time. Thanks to the WFC3 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) it is now possible to measure this beyond the local Universe. Here we present the spatial distribution of H emission for a sample of 54 strongly star-forming galaxies at z 1 in the 3D-HST Treasury survey. By stacking the H emission, we find that star formation occurred in approximately exponential distributions at z approximately 1, with a median Sersic index of n = 1.0 +/- 0.2. The stacks are elongated with median axis ratios of b/a = 0.58 +/- 0.09 in H consistent with (possibly thick) disks at random orientation angles. Keck spectra obtained for a subset of eight of the galaxies show clear evidence for rotation, with inclination corrected velocities of 90.330 km s(exp 1-). The most straightforward interpretation of our results is that star formation in strongly star-forming galaxies at z approximately 1 generally occurred in disks. The disks appear to be scaled-up versions of nearby spiral galaxies: they have EW(H alpha) at approximately 100 A out to the solar orbit and they have star formation surface densities above the threshold for driving galactic scale winds.

  13. The Radial Distribution of Star Formation in Galaxies at z1 From The 3D-HST Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Erica June; Dokkum, Pieter G. Van; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel; Lundgren, Britt; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker; Cunha, Elisabete Da; Schreiber, Natascha Forster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Wel, Arjen Van Der; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of galaxies can be described by the distribution of their star formation as a function of cosmic time.Thanks to the WFC3 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) it is now possible to measure this beyond thelocal Universe. Here we present the spatial distribution of H emission for a sample of 54 strongly star-forming-galaxies at z1 in the 3D-HST Treasury survey. By stacking the Halpha emission, we find that star formation occurredin approximately exponential distributions at z1, with a median Sersic index of n=1.0 plus or minus 0.2. The stacks areelongated with median axis ratios of b/a 0.58 plus or minus 0.09 in Halpha consistent with (possibly thick) disks at randomorientation angles. Keck spectra obtained for a subset of eight of the galaxies show clear evidence for rotation, withinclination corrected velocities of 90-330 km per second. The most straightforward interpretation of our results is that starformation in strongly star-forming galaxies at z1 generally occurred in disks. The disks appear to be scaled-upversions of nearby spiral galaxies: they have EW(Halpha)100 Angstroms out to the solar orbit and they have star formation surface densities above the threshold for driving galactic scale winds.

  14. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  15. Development of a locally mass flux conservative computer code for calculating 3-D viscous flow in turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walitt, L.

    1982-01-01

    The VANS successive approximation numerical method was extended to the computation of three dimensional, viscous, transonic flows in turbomachines. A cross-sectional computer code, which conserves mass flux at each point of the cross-sectional surface of computation was developed. In the VANS numerical method, the cross-sectional computation follows a blade-to-blade calculation. Numerical calculations were made for an axial annular turbine cascade and a transonic, centrifugal impeller with splitter vanes. The subsonic turbine cascade computation was generated in blade-to-blade surface to evaluate the accuracy of the blade-to-blade mode of marching. Calculated blade pressures at the hub, mid, and tip radii of the cascade agreed with corresponding measurements. The transonic impeller computation was conducted to test the newly developed locally mass flux conservative cross-sectional computer code. Both blade-to-blade and cross sectional modes of calculation were implemented for this problem. A triplet point shock structure was computed in the inducer region of the impeller. In addition, time-averaged shroud static pressures generally agreed with measured shroud pressures. It is concluded that the blade-to-blade computation produces a useful engineering flow field in regions of subsonic relative flow; and cross-sectional computation, with a locally mass flux conservative continuity equation, is required to compute the shock waves in regions of supersonic relative flow.

  16. 3D modeling of gas/water distribution in water-bearing carbonate gas reservoirs: the Longwangmiao gas field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Chenghua; Li, ChaoChun; Ma, Zhonggao

    2016-10-01

    A water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir is an important natural gas resource being developed worldwide. Due to the long-term water/rock/gas interaction during geological evolution, complex gas/water distribution has formed under the superposed effect of sedimentary facies, reservoir space facies and gravity difference of fluid facies. In view of these challenges, on the basis of the conventional three-stage modeling method, this paper presents a modelling method controlled by four-stage facies to develop 3D model of a water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir. Key to this method is the reservoir property modelling controlled by two-stage facies, and the fluid property modelling controlled by another two-stage facies. The prerequisite of this method is a reliable database obtained from solid geological investigation. On the basis of illustrating the principles of the modelling method controlled by four-stage facies, this paper further implements systematically modeling of the heterogeneous gas/water distribution of the Longwangmiao carbonate formation in the Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan basin, China.

  17. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhalandinov, A.; Tsofin, V.; Kochkin, V.; Panferov, P.; Timofeev, A.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makhotin, D.; Erak, D.; Voloschenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  18. Calculation of three-dimensional (3-D) internal flow by means of the velocity-vorticity formulation on a staggered grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to accurately compute the viscous flow in three-dimensional (3-D) enclosures. This method is the 3-D extension of a two-dimensional (2-D) method developed for the calculation of flow over airfoils. The 2-D method has been tested extensively and has been shown to accurately reproduce experimental results. As in the 2-D method, the 3-D method provides for the non-iterative solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by means of a fully coupled implicit technique. The solution is calculated on a body fitted computational mesh incorporating a staggered grid methodology. In the staggered grid method, the three components of vorticity are defined at the centers of the computational cell sides, while the velocity components are defined as normal vectors at the centers of the computational cell faces. The staggered grid orientation provides for the accurate definition of the vorticity components at the vorticity locations, the divergence of vorticity at the mesh cell nodes and the conservation of mass at the mesh cell centers. The solution is obtained by utilizing a fractional step solution technique in the three coordinate directions. The boundary conditions for the vorticity and velocity are calculated implicitly as part of the solution. The method provides for the non-iterative solution of the flow field and satisfies the conservation of mass and divergence of vorticity to machine zero at each time step. To test the method, the calculation of simple driven cavity flows have been computed. The driven cavity flow is defined as the flow in an enclosure driven by a moving upper plate at the top of the enclosure. To demonstrate the ability of the method to predict the flow in arbitrary cavities, results will he shown for both cubic and curved cavities.

  19. The 3-D aftershock distribution of three recent M5~5.5 earthquakes in the Anza region,California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Wdowinski, S.; Lin, G.

    2011-12-01

    The San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ) exhibits the highest level of seismicity compared to other regions in southern California. On average, it produces four earthquakes per day, most of them at depth of 10-17 km. Over the past decade, an increasing seismic activity occurred in the Anza region, which included three M5~5.5 events and their aftershock sequences. These events occurred in 2001, 2005, and 2010. In this research we map the 3-D distribution of these three events to evaluate their rupture geometry and better understand the unusual deep seismic pattern along the SJFZ, which was termed "deep creep" (Wdowinski, 2009). We relocated 97,562 events from 1981 to 2011 in Anza region by applying the Source-Specific Station Term (SSST) method (Lin et al., 2006) and used an accurate 1-D velocity model derived from 3-D model of Lin et al (2007) and used In order to separate the aftershock sequence from background seismicity, we characterized each of the three aftershock sequences using Omori's law. Preliminary results show that all three sequences had a similar geometry of deep elongated aftershock distribution. Most aftershocks occurred at depth of 10-17 km and extended over a 70 km long segments of the SJFZ, centered at the mainshock hypocenters. A comparative study of other M5~5.5 mainshocks and their aftershock sequences in southern California reveals very different geometrical pattern, suggesting that the three Anza M5~5.5 events are unique and can be indicative of "deep creep" deformation processes. Reference 1.Lin, G.and Shearer,P.M.,2006, The COMPLOC earthquake location package,Seism. Res. Lett.77, pp.440-444. 2.Lin, G. and Shearer, P.M., Hauksson, E., and Thurber C.H.,2007, A three-dimensional crustal seismic velocity model for southern California from a composite event method,J. Geophys.Res.112, B12306, doi: 10.1029/ 2007JB004977. 3.Wdowinski, S. ,2009, Deep creep as a cause for the excess seismicity along the San Jacinto fault, Nat. Geosci.,doi:10.1038/NGEO684.

  20. Calculation of 3D turbulent jets in crossflow with a multigrid method and a second-moment closure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1990-01-01

    A multigrid method is presented for calculating turbulent jets in crossflow. Fairly rapid convergence is obtained with the k-epsilon turbulence model, but computations with a full Reynolds stress turbulence model (RSM) are not yet very efficient. Grid dependency tests show that there are slight differences between results obtained on the two finest grid levels. Computations using the RSM are significantly different from those with k-epsilon model and compare better to experimental data. Some work is still required to improve the efficiency of the computations with the RSM.

  1. Developing a 3D Constrained Variational Analysis Method to Calculate Large Scale Forcing Data and the Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S.; Zhang, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale forcing data (vertical velocities and advective tendencies) are important atmospheric fields to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES), but they are difficult to calculate accurately. The current 1-dimensional constrained variational analysis (1D CVA) method (Zhang and Lin, 1997) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is limited to represent the average of a sounding network domain. We extended the original 1D CVA algorithm into 3-dimensional along with other improvements, calculated gridded large-scale forcing data, apparent heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and compared with 5 reanalyses: ERA-Interim, NCEP CFSR, MERRA, JRA55 and NARR for a mid-latitude spring cyclone case. The results from a case study for in March 3rd 2000 at the Southern Great Plain (SGP) show that reanalyses generally captured the structure of the mid-latitude cyclone, but they have serious biases in the 2nd order derivative terms (divergences and horizontal derivations) at regional scales of less than a few hundred kilometers. Our algorithm provides a set of atmospheric fields consistent with the observed constraint variables at the surface and top of the atmosphere better than reanalyses. The analyzed atmospheric fields can be used in SCM, CRM and LES to provide 3-dimensional dynamical forcing, or be used to evaluate reanalyses or model simulations.

  2. Component mode synthesis methods applied to 3D heterogeneous core calculations, using the mixed dual finite element solver MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new technique for determining the pin power in heterogeneous core calculations. It is based on a domain decomposition with overlapping sub-domains and a component mode synthesis technique for the global flux determination. Local basis functions are used to span a discrete space that allows fundamental global mode approximation through a Galerkin technique. Two approaches are given to obtain these local basis functions: in the first one (Component Mode Synthesis method), the first few spatial eigenfunctions are computed on each sub-domain, using periodic boundary conditions. In the second one (Factorized Component Mode Synthesis method), only the fundamental mode is computed, and we use a factorization principle for the flux in order to replace the higher order Eigenmodes. These different local spatial functions are extended to the global domain by defining them as zero outside the sub-domain. These methods are well-fitted for heterogeneous core calculations because the spatial interface modes are taken into account in the domain decomposition. Although these methods could be applied to higher order angular approximations - particularly easily to a SPN approximation - the numerical results we provide are obtained using a diffusion model. We show the methods' accuracy for reactor cores loaded with UOX and MOX assemblies, for which standard reconstruction techniques are known to perform poorly. Furthermore, we show that our methods are highly and easily parallelizable. (authors)

  3. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  4. Constraints on 3D fault and fracture distribution in layered volcanic- volcaniclastic sequences from terrestrial LIDAR datasets: Faroe Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raithatha, Bansri; McCaffrey, Kenneth; Walker, Richard; Brown, Richard; Pickering, Giles

    2013-04-01

    Hydrocarbon reservoirs commonly contain an array of fine-scale structures that control fluid flow in the subsurface, such as polyphase fracture networks and small-scale fault zones. These structures are unresolvable using seismic imaging and therefore outcrop-based studies have been used as analogues to characterize fault and fracture networks and assess their impact on fluid flow in the subsurface. To maximize recovery and enhance production, it is essential to understand the geometry, physical properties, and distribution of these structures in 3D. Here we present field data and terrestrial LIDAR-derived 3D, photo-realistic virtual outcrops of fault zones at a range of displacement scales (0.001- 4.5 m) within a volcaniclastic sand- and basaltic lava unit sequence in the Faroe Islands. Detailed field observations were used to constrain the virtual outcrop dataset, and a workflow has been developed to build a discrete fracture network (DFN) models in GOCAD® from these datasets. Model construction involves three main stages: (1) Georeferencing and processing of LIDAR datasets; (2) Structural interpretation to discriminate between faults, fractures, veins, and joint planes using CAD software and RiSCAN Pro; and (3) Building a 3D DFN in GOCAD®. To test the validity of this workflow, we focus here on a 4.5 m displacement strike-slip fault zone that displays a complex polymodal fracture network in the inter-layered basalt-volcaniclastic sequence, which is well-constrained by field study. The DFN models support our initial field-based hypothesis that fault zone geometry varies with increasing displacement through volcaniclastic units. Fracture concentration appears to be greatest in the upper lava unit, decreases into the volcaniclastic sediments, and decreases further into the lower lava unit. This distribution of fractures appears to be related to the width of the fault zone and the amount of fault damage on the outcrop. For instance, the fault zone is thicker in

  5. SU-C-BRB-06: Utilizing 3D Scanner and Printer for Dummy Eye-Shield: Artifact-Free CT Images of Tungsten Eye-Shield for Accurate Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Lee, J; Kim, H; Kim, I; Ye, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a tungsten eye-shield on the dose distribution of a patient. Methods: A 3D scanner was used to extract the dimension and shape of a tungsten eye-shield in the STL format. Scanned data was transferred into a 3D printer. A dummy eye shield was then produced using bio-resin (3D systems, VisiJet M3 Proplast). For a patient with mucinous carcinoma, the planning CT was obtained with the dummy eye-shield placed on the patient’s right eye. Field shaping of 6 MeV was performed using a patient-specific cerrobend block on the 15 x 15 cm{sup 2} applicator. The gantry angle was 330° to cover the planning target volume near by the lens. EGS4/BEAMnrc was commissioned from our measurement data from a Varian 21EX. For the CT-based dose calculation using EGS4/DOSXYZnrc, the CT images were converted to a phantom file through the ctcreate program. The phantom file had the same resolution as the planning CT images. By assigning the CT numbers of the dummy eye-shield region to 17000, the real dose distributions below the tungsten eye-shield were calculated in EGS4/DOSXYZnrc. In the TPS, the CT number of the dummy eye-shield region was assigned to the maximum allowable CT number (3000). Results: As compared to the maximum dose, the MC dose on the right lens or below the eye shield area was less than 2%, while the corresponding RTP calculated dose was an unrealistic value of approximately 50%. Conclusion: Utilizing a 3D scanner and a 3D printer, a dummy eye-shield for electron treatment can be easily produced. The artifact-free CT images were successfully incorporated into the CT-based Monte Carlo simulations. The developed method was useful in predicting the realistic dose distributions around the lens blocked with the tungsten shield.

  6. Comparison of the LLNL ALE3D and AKTS Thermal Safety Computer Codes for Calculating Times to Explosion in ODTX and STEX Thermal Cookoff Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wemhoff, A P; Burnham, A K

    2006-04-05

    Cross-comparison of the results of two computer codes for the same problem provides a mutual validation of their computational methods. This cross-validation exercise was performed for LLNL's ALE3D code and AKTS's Thermal Safety code, using the thermal ignition of HMX in two standard LLNL cookoff experiments: the One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) test and the Scaled Thermal Explosion (STEX) test. The chemical kinetics model used in both codes was the extended Prout-Tompkins model, a relatively new addition to ALE3D. This model was applied using ALE3D's new pseudospecies feature. In addition, an advanced isoconversional kinetic approach was used in the AKTS code. The mathematical constants in the Prout-Tompkins code were calibrated using DSC data from hermetically sealed vessels and the LLNL optimization code Kinetics05. The isoconversional kinetic parameters were optimized using the AKTS Thermokinetics code. We found that the Prout-Tompkins model calculations agree fairly well between the two codes, and the isoconversional kinetic model gives very similar results as the Prout-Tompkins model. We also found that an autocatalytic approach in the beta-delta phase transition model does affect the times to explosion for some conditions, especially STEX-like simulations at ramp rates above 100 C/hr, and further exploration of that effect is warranted.

  7. Finite element calculations on detailed 3D models for the superferric main magnets of the FAIR SIS100 synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Shcherbakov, P.; Kurnyshov, R.

    2007-11-01

    The synchrotron SIS100 is one of the two basic accelerators of the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. This accelerator should provide high intensity U28+ and proton beams with a pulse repetition rate of 1 Hz (i.e. a ramp rate of 4 T/s). The magnetic system of the accelerator uses superferric 2.1 T dipoles of about 3 m length and 32 T/m quadrupoles of about 1 m length. The magnet coils are made of a hollow tube cable wrapped with Cu/NbTi composite wire cooled with two phase helium flow at 4.5 K. The bore dimensions were defined to 130 × 60 mm for the dipole and 135 × 65 mm for the quadrupole. We present the developed ANSYS models for different important aspects: AC loss, magnetic field quality and mechanical stability. Preliminary studies verified the approaches and these models were applied to calculate the effects for the coil, the yoke and the beam pipe structures. We outline further steps to fully describe the SIS100 magnets including mechanical and thermal properties.

  8. An algorithm for the calculation of 3-D ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) fields in tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smithe, D.N.; Colestock, P.L.; Kashuba, R.J.; Kammash, T.

    1987-04-01

    A computational scheme is developed which permits tractable calculation of three-dimensional full-wave solutions to the Maxwell-Vlasov equations under typical Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) experimental conditions. The method is unique in that power deposition to the plasma is determined via the anti-Hermitian part of a truncated warm-plasma dielectric operator, rather than as the result of an assumed phenomenological collision frequency. The resulting computer code allows arbitrary variation of density, temperature, magnetic field, and minority concentration in the poloidal plane by performing a convolution of poloidal modes to produce a coupled system of differential equations in the radial variable. By assuming no inhomogeneity along the toroidal axis, an inverse transform over k/sub parallel/ is performed to yield the full three-dimensional field solutions. The application of the code to TFTR-like plasmas shows a mild resonance structure in antenna loading related to the changing number of wavelengths between antenna and the resonance layer. 48 figs.

  9. WKB calculation of an epidemic outbreak distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Andrew J.; McKane, Alan J.

    2011-12-01

    We calculate both the exponential and prefactor contributions in a WKB approximation of the master equation for a stochastic SIR model with highly oscillatory dynamics. Fixing the basic parameters of the model, we investigate how the outbreak distribution changes with the population size. We show that this distribution rapidly becomes highly non-Gaussian, acquiring large tails, indicating the presence of rare but large outbreaks, as the population is made smaller. The analytic results are found to be in excellent agreement with simulations until the systems become so small that the dynamics are dominated by fade-out of the disease.

  10. Accurate electronic and chemical properties of 3d transition metal oxides using a calculated linear response U and a DFT + U(V) method

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhongnan; Kitchin, John R.; Joshi, Yogesh V.; Raman, Sumathy

    2015-04-14

    We validate the usage of the calculated, linear response Hubbard U for evaluating accurate electronic and chemical properties of bulk 3d transition metal oxides. We find calculated values of U lead to improved band gaps. For the evaluation of accurate reaction energies, we first identify and eliminate contributions to the reaction energies of bulk systems due only to changes in U and construct a thermodynamic cycle that references the total energies of unique U systems to a common point using a DFT + U(V ) method, which we recast from a recently introduced DFT + U(R) method for molecular systems. We then introduce a semi-empirical method based on weighted DFT/DFT + U cohesive energies to calculate bulk oxidation energies of transition metal oxides using density functional theory and linear response calculated U values. We validate this method by calculating 14 reactions energies involving V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co oxides. We find up to an 85% reduction of the mean average error (MAE) compared to energies calculated with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional. When our method is compared with DFT + U with empirically derived U values and the HSE06 hybrid functional, we find up to 65% and 39% reductions in the MAE, respectively.

  11. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A comparison of 2D and 3D finite element calculations with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement.

  12. In-situ 3D high-spatial resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic parameter distribution at decameter scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, R.; Brauchler, R.; Hu, L.; Qiu, P.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, a major challenge in aquifer characterization is the determination of hydraulic parameters with high-spatial resolution. Since the mid-90's, various working groups have developed numerical evaluation approaches for hydraulic tomography: the inversion of hydraulic tests that have been recorded using tomographic arrangements. The practical application is often associated with long test times, complex evaluations, and prolonged computation times. In our study, a hydraulic tomographical data set consisted of 450 drawdown curves produced by a series of short term pumping tests conducted over 4 working days. Data was collected by two scientists without a technical staff. The tests were performed at the test site "Stegemühle", Göttingen, Germany in a confined sand and gravel aquifer with a thickness of 2-3 m. For the inversion, an approach has been used, which is based on the transformation of the groundwater flow equation into a form of Eikonal equation (Vasco et al., 2000). Utilizing this approach, the hydraulic data can be inverted using an Eikonal solver e.g. SIRT. This Eikonal solver is considerably computationally efficient and allows hundreds of draw down curves to be inverted on a standard laptop within minutes. Following the methodology described in Brauchler et al. 2013, 3D distribution of diffusivity and specific storage were directly reconstructed, and subsequently their product: the hydraulic conductivity. This study exemplifies that the required data can be recorded and analyzed efficiently in the field, which is a vital precondition for the in-situ field aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. Literature Vasco, D.W., Keers, H., Karasaki, K. (2000) Estimation of reservoir properties using transient pressure data: An asymptotic approach. Water Resour. Res. 36(12), 3447-3465 Brauchler, R., Hu, R., Hu, L., Jimenéz, S., Bayer, P., Ptak, T. (2013) Rapid field application of hydraulic tomography for resolving aquifer heterogeneity in

  13. Pyridine N-oxide/trichloroacetic acid complex in acetonitrile: FTIR spectra, anharmonic calculations and computations of 1-3D potential surfaces of O-H vibrations.

    PubMed

    Pitsevich, G; Malevich, A; Doroshenko, I; Kozlovskaya, E; Pogorelov, V; Sablinskas, V; Balevicius, V

    2014-01-01

    FTIR spectra of pyridine N-oxide and trichloroacetic acid H-bonded complex in acetonitrile were studied at 20 and 50°C. The calculations of equilibrium configurations of the complex and their IR spectra in harmonic- and anharmonic approximations were carried out at the level of B3LYP/cc-pVTZ/PCM. However both approximations turned out to be incompetent determining the frequency of the O-Н stretching vibration. In order to reveal the causes of essential discrepancies between calculated and experimental data one-, two- and three-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PES) of the O-H…O bridge proton motion in the frame of fixed other atoms in the complex were calculated. The frequencies of O-H…O stretching and bending vibrations were calculated by numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation. It is shown that only the approach of proton motion on the 3D PES allows obtaining a good agreement between the calculated and the experimental values of the frequencies of the О-Н stretching vibrations. PMID:24373980

  14. 3D-HST+CANDELS: The evolution of the galaxy size-mass distribution since z = 3

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Wel, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Chang, Yu-Yen; Franx, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Momcheva, I. G.; Skelton, R. E.; Whitaker, K. E.; Brammer, G. B.; Ferguson, H. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Behroozi, P.; Bell, E. F.; Wuyts, S.; Holden, B. P.; Barro, G.; Häussler, B.; Dekel, A.; and others

    2014-06-10

    Spectroscopic+photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. Separating early- and late-type galaxies on the basis of star-formation activity, we confirm that early-type galaxies are on average smaller than late-type galaxies at all redshifts, and we find a significantly different rate of average size evolution at fixed galaxy mass, with fast evolution for the early-type population, R {sub eff}∝(1 + z){sup –1.48}, and moderate evolution for the late-type population, R {sub eff}∝(1 + z){sup –0.75}. The large sample size and dynamic range in both galaxy mass and redshift, in combination with the high fidelity of our measurements due to the extensive use of spectroscopic data, not only fortify previous results but also enable us to probe beyond simple average galaxy size measurements. At all redshifts the slope of the size-mass relation is shallow, R{sub eff}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.22}, for late-type galaxies with stellar mass >3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, and steep, R{sub eff}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 0.75}, for early-type galaxies with stellar mass >2 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. The intrinsic scatter is ≲0.2 dex for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric but is skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses, a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive (∼10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), compact (R {sub eff} < 2 kpc) early-type galaxies increases from z = 3 to z = 1.5-2 and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.

  15. 3D-HST + CANDELS: the Evolution of the Galaxy Size-mass Distribution Since Z=3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDerWel, A.; Franx, M.; vanDokkum, P. G.; Skelton, R. E.; Momcheva, I. G.; Whitaker, K. E.; Brammer, G. B.; Bell, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Wuyts, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Holden, B. P.; Barro, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Chang, Yu-Yen; McGrath, E. J.; Haussler, B.; Dekel, A.; Behroozi, P.; Fumagalli, M.; Leja, J.; Lundgren, B. F.; Maseda, M. V.; Nelson, E. J.; Wake, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift (z) range 0 < z < 3. Separating early- and late-type galaxies on the basis of star-formation activity, we confirm that early-type galaxies are on average smaller than late-type galaxies at all redshifts, and find a significantly different rate of average size evolution at fixed galaxy mass, with fast evolution for the early-type population, effective radius is in proportion to (1 + z) (sup -1.48), and moderate evolution for the late-type population, effective radius is in proportion to (1 + z) (sup -0.75). The large sample size and dynamic range in both galaxy mass and redshift, in combination with the high fidelity of our measurements due to the extensive use of spectroscopic data, not only fortify previous results, but also enable us to probe beyond simple average galaxy size measurements. At all redshifts the slope of the size-mass relation is shallow, effective radius in proportion to mass of a black hole (sup 0.22), for late-type galaxies with stellar mass > 3 x 10 (sup 9) solar masses, and steep, effective radius in proportion to mass of a black hole (sup 0.75), for early-type galaxies with stellar mass > 2 x 10 (sup 10) solar masses. The intrinsic scatter is approximately or less than 0.2 decimal exponents for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric, but skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive (approximately 10 (sup 11) solar masses), compact (effective radius less than 2 kiloparsecs) early-type galaxies increases from z = 3 to z = 1.5 - 2 and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.

  16. Evolution of a Directional Wave Spectrum in a 3D Marginal Ice Zone with Random Floe Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive

  17. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  18. Temperature dependences of self- and N2-broadened line-shape parameters in the ν3 and ν5 bands of 12CH3D: Measurements and calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, A.; Malathy Devi, V.; Sutradhar, P.; Sinyakova, T.; Buldyreva, J.; Sung, K.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a spectroscopic line shape study of self- and nitrogen-broadened 12CH3D transitions in the ν3 and ν5 bands in the Triad region. We combined five pure gas spectra with eighteen spectra of lean mixtures of 12CH3D and nitrogen, all recorded with a Bruker IFS-125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra have been analyzed simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique. N2-broadened line parameters for 184 transitions in the ν3 band and 205 transitions in the ν5 band were measured. In addition, line positions and line intensities were measured for 168 transitions in the ν3 band and 214 transitions in the ν5 band. We have observed 10 instances of weak line mixing corresponding to K″=3 A1 or A2 transitions. Comparisons were made for the N2-broadening coefficients and associated temperature exponents with corresponding values calculated using a semi-classical Robert Bonamy type formalism that involved an inter-molecular potential with terms corresponding to short- and long-range interactions, and exact classical molecular trajectories. The theoretical N2-broadened coefficients are overestimated for high J values, but are in good agreement with the experimental values for small and middle range J values.

  19. Maximizing modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial information: 3D reconstruction and rapid prototype production of anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial information were explored to overcome these limitations through the digitalization of anatomical casts of human specimens through three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, rapid prototype production, and Web-based 3D atlas construction. The corrosion cast of a lung, along with its associated arteries, veins, trachea, and bronchial tree was CT-scanned, and the data was then processed by Mimics software. Data from the lung casts were then reconstructed into 3D models using a hybrid method, utilizing both "image threshold" and "region growing." The fine structures of the bronchial tree, arterial, and venous network of the lung were clearly displayed and demonstrated their distinct relationships. The multiple divisions of bronchi and bronchopulmonary segments were identified. The 3D models were then uploaded into a rapid prototype 3D printer to physically duplicate the cast. The physically duplicated model of the lung was rescanned by CT and reconstructed to detect its production accuracy. Gross observation and accuracy detection were used to evaluate the duplication and few differences were found. Finally, Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) was used to edit the 3D casting models to construct a Web-based 3D atlas accessible through Internet Explorer with 3D display and annotation functions.

  20. 3D bone mineral density distribution and shape reconstruction of the proximal femur from a single simulated DXA image: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmarsh, Tristan; Humbert, Ludovic; De Craene, Mathieu; del Río Barquero, Luis M.; Fritscher, Karl; Schubert, Rainer; Eckstein, Felix; Link, Thomas; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2010-03-01

    Area Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is an established criterion in the evaluation of hip fracture risk. The evaluation from these planar images, however, is limited to 2D while it has been shown that proper 3D assessment of both the shape and the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) distribution improves the fracture risk estimation. In this work we present a method to reconstruct both the 3D bone shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from a single DXA image. A statistical model of shape and a separate statistical model of the BMD distribution were automatically constructed from a set of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans. The reconstruction method incorporates a fully automatic intensity based 3D-2D registration process, maximizing the similarity between the DXA and a digitally reconstructed radiograph of the combined model. For the construction of the models, an in vitro dataset of QCT scans of 60 anatomical specimens was used. To evaluate the reconstruction accuracy, experiments were performed on simulated DXA images from the QCT scans of 30 anatomical specimens. Comparisons between the reconstructions and the same subject QCT scans showed a mean shape accuracy of 1.2mm, and a mean density error of 81mg/cm3. The results show that this method is capable of accurately reconstructing both the 3D shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from DXA images used in clinical routine, potentially improving the diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessments at a low radiation dose and low cost.

  1. SU-E-T-35: An Investigation of the Accuracy of Cervical IMRT Dose Distribution Using 2D/3D Ionization Chamber Arrays System and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yang, J; Liu, H; Liu, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to compare the verification results of three solutions (2D/3D ionization chamber arrays measurement and Monte Carlo simulation), the results will help make a clinical decision as how to do our cervical IMRT verification. Methods: Seven cervical cases were planned with Pinnacle 8.0m to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. The plans were recalculated in the Matrixx and Delta4 phantom with the accurate plans parameters. The plans were also recalculated by Monte Carlo using leaf sequences and MUs for individual plans of every patient, Matrixx and Delta4 phantom. All plans of Matrixx and Delta4 phantom were delivered and measured. The dose distribution of iso slice, dose profiles, gamma maps of every beam were used to evaluate the agreement. Dose-volume histograms were also compared. Results: The dose distribution of iso slice and dose profiles from Pinnacle calculation were in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation, Matrixx and Delta4 measurement. A 95.2%/91.3% gamma pass ratio was obtained between the Matrixx/Delta4 measurement and Pinnacle distributions within 3mm/3% gamma criteria. A 96.4%/95.6% gamma pass ratio was obtained between the Matrixx/Delta4 measurement and Monte Carlo simulation within 2mm/2% gamma criteria, almost 100% gamma pass ratio within 3mm/3% gamma criteria. The DVH plot have slightly differences between Pinnacle and Delta4 measurement as well as Pinnacle and Monte Carlo simulation, but have excellent agreement between Delta4 measurement and Monte Carlo simulation. Conclusion: It was shown that Matrixx/Delta4 and Monte Carlo simulation can be used very efficiently to verify cervical IMRT delivery. In terms of Gamma value the pass ratio of Matrixx was little higher, however, Delta4 showed more problem fields. The primary advantage of Delta4 is the fact it can measure true 3D dosimetry while Monte Carlo can simulate in patients CT images but not in phantom.

  2. Invariant joint distribution of a stationary random field and its derivatives: Euler characteristic and critical point counts in 2 and 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Pogosyan, Dmitry; Gay, Christophe; Pichon, Christophe

    2009-10-15

    The full moments expansion of the joint probability distribution of an isotropic random field, its gradient, and invariants of the Hessian are presented in 2 and 3D. It allows for explicit expression for the Euler characteristic in ND and computation of extrema counts as functions of the excursion set threshold and the spectral parameter, as illustrated on model examples.

  3. The Distributed Lambda (?) Model (DLM): A 3-D, Finite-Element Muscle Model Based on Feldman's ? Model; Assessment of Orofacial Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors aimed to design a distributed lambda model (DLM), which is well adapted to implement three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element descriptions of muscles. Method: A muscle element model was designed. Its stress-strain relationships included the active force-length characteristics of the ? model along the muscle fibers, together…

  4. A Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor Network for Online 3-D Temperature and Neutron Fluence Mapping in a VHTR Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel; Dickerson, Bryan; French, Joseph; McEachern, Donald; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-04-30

    Robust sensing technologies allowing for 3D in-core performance monitoring in real time are of paramount importance for already established LWRs to enhance their reliability and availability per year, and therefore, to further facilitate their economic competitiveness via predictive assessment of the in-core conditions.

  5. I-125 ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: Validation of a commercial 3D ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent dose calculation software with GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Poder, Joel; Corde, Stéphanie

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions for different Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services, Australia (ROPES) type eye plaques loaded with I-125 (model 6711) seeds using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films, in order to verify the dose distributions in the Plaque Simulator™ (PS) ophthalmic 3D treatment planning system. The brachytherapy module of RADCALC{sup ®} was used to independently check the dose distributions calculated by PS. Correction factors were derived from the measured data to be used in PS to account for the effect of the stainless steel ROPES plaque backing on the 3D dose distribution.Methods: Using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films inserted in a specially designed Solid Water™ eye ball phantom, dose distributions were measured three-dimensionally both along and perpendicular to I-125 (model 6711) loaded ROPES eye plaque's central axis (CAX) with 2 mm depth increments. Each measurement was performed in full scatter conditions both with and without the stainless steel plaque backing attached to the eye plaque, to assess its effect on the dose distributions. Results were compared to the dose distributions calculated by Plaque Simulator™ and checked independently with RADCALC{sup ®}.Results: The EBT3 film measurements without the stainless steel backing were found to agree with PS and RADCALC{sup ®} to within 2% and 4%, respectively, on the plaque CAX. Also, RADCALC{sup ®} was found to agree with PS to within 2%. The CAX depth doses measured using EBT3 film with the stainless steel backing were observed to result in a 4% decrease relative to when the backing was not present. Within experimental uncertainty, the 4% decrease was found to be constant with depth and independent of plaque size. Using a constant dose correction factor of T= 0.96 in PS, where the calculated dose for the full water scattering medium is reduced by 4% in every voxel in the dose grid, the effect of the plaque backing was accurately

  6. Three-dimensional distribution of the ISM in the Milky Way Galaxy. IV. 3D molecular fraction and Galactic-scale H I-to-H2 transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the volume-density molecular fraction, defined by f_mol^ρ =ρ _H_2/(ρ _{H I}+ρ _H_2), is studied in the Milky Way Galaxy. The molecular front appears at galacto-centric distance of R ˜ 8 kpc, where the galactic-scale phase transition from atomic to molecular hydrogen occurs with f_mol^ρ dropping from ˜0.8 to 0.2 within a radial interval as narrow as ˜0.5 kpc. The f_mol^ρ front is much sharper than that of the surface density molecular fraction. The f_mol^ρ front also appears in the direction vertical to the galactic plane with a full width of the high-f_mol^ρ disk to be ˜100 pc. The radial and vertical f_mol^ρ profiles, particularly the front behavior, are fitted by theoretical curves calculated using the observed density profile and assumed radiation field and metallicity with exponential gradients. The molecular fraction was found to be enhanced along spiral arms at radii R ˜ 6 to 10 kpc, such as the Perseus arm. This implies that the molecular clouds are produced from H I in the arms and are dissociated in the interarm regions in the transition region around the molecular front. We also show that there is a threshold value of mean H I density, over which H I is transformed into molecular gas.

  7. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  8. Spatial synchronization of an insole pressure distribution system with a 3D motion analysis system for center of pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Laetitia; Siegel, Johannes; Dahl, Marieke; Alimusaj, Merkur; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2009-01-01

    Insole pressure systems are often more appropriate than force platforms for analysing center of pressure (CoP) as they are more flexible in use and indicate the position of the CoP that characterizes the contact foot/shoe during gait with shoes. However, these systems are typically not synchronized with 3D motion analysis systems. The present paper proposes a direct method that does not require a force platform for synchronizing an insole pressure system with a 3D motion analysis system. The distance separating 24 different CoPs measured optically and their equivalents measured by the insoles and transformed in the global coordinate system did not exceed 2 mm, confirming the suitability of the method proposed. Additionally, during static single limb stance, distances smaller than 7 mm and correlations higher than 0.94 were found between CoP trajectories measured with insoles and force platforms. Similar measurements were performed during gait to illustrate the characteristics of the CoP measured with each system. The distance separating the two CoPs was below 19 mm and the coefficient of correlation above 0.86. The proposed method offers the possibility to conduct new experiments, such as the investigation of proprioception in climbing stairs or in the presence of obstacles.

  9. Source inversion analysis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake using Green's functions calculated from a 3-D heterogeneous structure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Maeda, T.; Sekiguchi, H.; Kunugi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Source inversion analysis using near-source strong-motion records with an assumption of 1-D underground structure models has revealed the overall characteristics of the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega-thrust earthquake. This assumption for the structure model is acceptable because the seismic waves radiated during the Tohoku-Oki event were rich in the very-low-frequency contents lower than 0.05 Hz, which are less affected by the small-scale heterogeneous structure. The analysis using more reliable Green's functions even in the higher-frequency range considering complex structure of the subduction zone will illuminate more detailed rupture process in space and time and the transition of the frequency dependence of the wave radiation for the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this study, we calculate the near-source Green's functions using a 3-D underground structure model and perform the source inversion analysis using them. The 3-D underground structure model used in this study is the Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, 2012). A curved fault model on the Pacific plate interface is discretized into 287 subfaults at ~20 km interval. The Green's functions are calculated using GMS (Aoi et al., 2004), which is a simulation program package for the seismic wave field by the finite difference method using discontinuous grids (Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999). Computational region is 136-146.2E in longitude, 34-41.6N in latitude, and 0-100 km in depth. The horizontal and vertical grid intervals are 200 m and 100 m, respectively, for the shallower region and those for the deeper region are tripled. The number of the total grids is 2.1 billion. We derive 300-s records by calculating 36,000 steps with a time interval of 0.0083 second (120 Hz sampling). It takes nearly one hour to compute one case using 48 Graphics Processing Units (GPU) on TSUBAME2.0 supercomputer owned by Tokyo Institute of Technology. In total, 574 cases are

  10. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  11. Interplay Between Melt Flow and the 3D Distribution and Morphology of Fe-Rich Phases in AlSi Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczak, Piotr; Ratke, Lorenz

    2015-03-01

    The presence of Fe aids in establishing the mechanical and physical properties of AlSi alloys and is also one of the main impurities leading to formation of β-Al5FeSi intermetallics. This study aims to understand the effect of fluid flow on the dendritic microstructure with intermetallics in Al-5/7/9 wt pct Si-0.2/0.5/1.0 wt pct Fe alloys that are directionally solidified under defined thermal and fluid flow conditions. We made extensive use of 3D X-ray tomography to obtain a better insight into the morphology and formation of the intermetallics. Three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of intermetallics presented here shows that the growth of large β-Al5FeSi due to forced flow occurs in the eutectic specimen center and together with an increase in the number density of β precipitates. The 3D reconstructions have verified the β shaped to be curved, bent with twining, branched, and to have imprints, holes, and propeller-shaped platelets. The 3D views showed that hole-shaped β arose from the lateral growth around α-Al dendrites. These views also confirmed the phenomenon of shortening of β as an effect of flow in the dendritic region, where β could be fragmented or completely remelted, and ultimately resulting in microstructures with shorter β-Al5FeSi and increases in number density. The analysis revealed an interaction between melt flow, 3D distribution, and the morphology of β-Al5FeSi. The growth of a large and complex group of β intermetallics can reduce the melt flow between dendrites and strengthen pore nucleation and eutectic colonies nucleation, leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and increased porosity in the castings.

  12. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Soumendu; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-08-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO)24 nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals—Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO)24 nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  13. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Datta, Soumendu; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO)24 nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals-Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO)24 nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  14. Is Multidirectional UV Exposure Responsible for Increasing Melanoma Prevalence with Altitude? A Hypothesis Based on Calculations with a 3D-Human Exposure Model

    PubMed Central

    Schrempf, Michael; Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Riechelmann, Stefan; Graw, Kathrin; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, melanoma incidence rates for Austrian inhabitants living at higher altitudes were found to increase by as much as 30% per 100 m altitude. This strong increase cannot simply be explained by the known increase of erythemally-weighted irradiance with altitude, which ranges between 0.5% and 4% per 100 m. We assume that the discrepancy is partially explainable by upwelling UV radiation; e.g., reflected by snow-covered surfaces. Therefore, we present an approach where the human UV exposure is derived by integrating incident radiation over the 3D geometry of a human body, which enables us to take upwelling radiation into account. Calculating upwelling and downwelling radiance with a radiative transfer model for a snow-free valley and for snow-covered mountain terrain (with albedo of 0.6) yields an increase in UV exposure by 10% per 100 m altitude. The results imply that upwelling radiation plays a significant role in the increase of melanoma incidence with altitude. PMID:27690069

  15. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO){sub 24} nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals—Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO){sub 24} nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  16. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Datta, Soumendu; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-08-28

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO)24 nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals-Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO)24 nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties. PMID:26328845

  17. Biomechanical influence of crown-to-implant ratio on stress distribution over internal hexagon short implant: 3-D finite element analysis with statistical test.

    PubMed

    Ramos Verri, Fellippo; Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; de Faria Almeida, Daniel Augusto; de Oliveira, Guilherme Bérgamo Brandão; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Marques Honório, Heitor; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2015-01-01

    The study of short implants is relevant to the biomechanics of dental implants, and research on crown increase has implications for the daily clinic. The aim of this study was to analyze the biomechanical interactions of a singular implant-supported prosthesis of different crown heights under vertical and oblique force, using the 3-D finite element method. Six 3-D models were designed with Invesalius 3.0, Rhinoceros 3D 4.0, and Solidworks 2010 software. Each model was constructed with a mandibular segment of bone block, including an implant supporting a screwed metal-ceramic crown. The crown height was set at 10, 12.5, and 15 mm. The applied force was 200 N (axial) and 100 N (oblique). We performed an ANOVA statistical test and Tukey tests; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The increase of crown height did not influence the stress distribution on screw prosthetic (p>0.05) under axial load. However, crown heights of 12.5 and 15 mm caused statistically significant damage to the stress distribution of screws and to the cortical bone (p<0.001) under oblique load. High crown to implant (C/I) ratio harmed microstrain distribution on bone tissue under axial and oblique loads (p<0.001). Crown increase was a possible deleterious factor to the screws and to the different regions of bone tissue.

  18. Parallel tree code for large N-body simulation: Dynamic load balance and data distribution on a CRAY T3D system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.; Ansaloni, R.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Erbacci, G.; Gambera, M.; Pagliaro, A.

    1997-10-01

    N-body algorithms for long-range unscreened interactions like gravity belong to a class of highly irregular problems whose optimal solution is a challenging task for present-day massively parallel computers. In this paper we describe a strategy for optimal memory and work distribution which we have applied to our parallel implementation of the Barnes & Hut (1986) recursive tree scheme on a Cray T3D using the CRAFT programming environment. We have performed a series of tests to find an optimal data distribution in the T3D memory, and to identify a strategy for the Dynamic Load Balance in order to obtain good performances when running large simulations (more than 10 million particles). The results of tests show that the step duration depends on two main factors: the data locality and the T3D network contention. Increasing data locality we are able to minimize the step duration if the closest bodies (direct interaction) tend to be located in the same PE local memory (contiguous block subdivision, high granularity), whereas the tree properties have a fine grain distribution. In a very large simulation, due to network contention, an unbalanced load arises. To remedy this we have devised an automatic work redistribution mechanism which provided a good Dynamic Load Balance at the price of an insignificant overhead.

  19. The Inorganic Illustrator: A 3-D Graphical Supplement for Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry Courses Distributed on CD-ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Scott L.; Hagen, Karl S.

    1996-10-01

    The visualization of molecular and solid state chemical structures in three dimensions is a particularly difficult problem for students to overcome when the primary means of communication is the two-dimensional world of textbooks, blackboards, and overhead projector screens. Recent editions of popular textbooks in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry have included stereoviews of molecules to aid the student, and stereoviews of crystal structures have been used in inorganic chemistry publications for many years. These are powerful aids for visualizing complex molecules, but with the exception of the biochemistry text mentioned above, they are limited to single, static images generally in black and white. Molecular model kits are routinely used very effectively in organic chemistry but their utility in inorganic chemistry is limited to all but the most simple molecules encountered. Now that personal computers are generally accessible and multimedia tools are starting to make an appearance in chemistry lecture halls (1), we can make our inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry and crystallography lectures come alive with the aid of the computer-based resources, which are the essence of this project. As part of this project we are accumulating a database of representative crystal structures of main group molecules, coordination complexes, organometallic compounds, small metalloproteins, bioinorganic model complexes, clusters, and solid state materials in Chem3D Plus format to be viewed with Chem3D Viewer, which is free software from Cambridge Scientific Computing. We are also generating a library of high-quality graphic images of these same molecules and structures using Cerius2 package from Molecular Simulations. These include polyhedral representations of clusters and solid state structures (see Fig. 1). Figure 1. Representation of the user interface: the title page and an example of polyhedral and ball-and-stick representation of an octanuclear iron-oxo cluster. The

  20. The influence of the spatial resolution of topographic input data on the accuracy of 3-D UV actinic flux and irradiance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Wagner, J. E.; Schreier, S. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Angelini, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, G. P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Simic, S.; Webb, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of a digital elevation map (DEM) on the three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer performance for both spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and actinic flux at 305 nm. Model simulations were performed for clear sky conditions for three case studies: the first and second one using three sites in the Innsbruck area and the third one using three sites at the Sonnblick observatory and surrounding area. It was found that the DEM resolution may change the altitude at some locations by up to 500 m, resulting in changes in the sky obscured by the horizon of up to 15%. The geographical distribution of UV irradiance and actinic flux shows that with larger pixel size, uncertainties in UV irradiance and actinic flux determination of up to 100% are possible. These large changes in incident irradiance and actinic flux with changing pixel size are strongly connected to shading effects. The effect of the DEM pixel size on irradiance and actinic flux was studied at the six locations, and it was found that significant increases in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM pixel size occurred at one valley location at high solar zenith angles in the Innsbruck area as well as for one steep valley location in the Sonnblick area. This increase in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM resolution is most likely to be connected to shading effects affecting the reflections from the surroundings.

  1. The influence of the spatial resolution of topographic input data on the accuracy of 3-D UV actinic flux and irradiance calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, P.; Wagner, J. E.; Schreier, S. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Angelini, F.; Blumthaler, M.; Fitzka, M.; Gobbi, G. P.; Kift, R.; Kreuter, A.; Simic, S.; Webb, A. R.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the spatial resolution of a digital elevation map (DEM) on the three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer performance for both spectral ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and actinic flux at 305 nm. Model simulations were performed for clear sky conditions for three case studies: the first and second one using three sites in the Innsbruck area and the third one using three sites at the Sonnblick Observatory and surrounding area. It was found that DEM resolution may change the altitude at some locations by up to 500 m, resulting in changes in the sky obscured by the horizon of up to 15%. The geographical distribution of UV irradiance and actinic flux shows that with larger pixel size, uncertainties in UV irradiance and actinic flux determination of up to 100% are possible. These large changes in incident irradiance and actinic flux with changing pixel size are strongly connected to shading effects. The effect of DEM pixel size on irradiance and actinic flux was studied at the six locations, and it was found that significant increases in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM pixel size occurred at one valley location at high solar zenith angles in the Innsbruck area as well as for one steep valley location in the Sonnblick area. This increase in irradiance and actinic flux with increasing DEM resolution is most likely to be connected to shading effects affecting the reflections from the surroundings.

  2. Singlet-triplet energy splitting between 1D and 3D (1s2 2s nd), n = 3, 4, 5, and 6, Rydberg states of the beryllium atom (9Be) calculated with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-11-01

    Accurate variational nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical calculations are performed for the five lowest 1D and four lowest 3D states of the 9Be isotope of the beryllium atom. All-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) functions are used in the calculations and their nonlinear parameters are optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The effect of the finite nuclear mass is directly included in the Hamiltonian used in the calculations. The singlet-triplet energy gaps between the corresponding 1D and 3D states, are reported.

  3. Determination of focal mechanisms of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in Mexico, based on Greens functions calculated for a 3D Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2015-04-01

    One important ingredient in the study of the complex active tectonics in Mexico is the analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, or the seismic moment tensor. They can be determined trough the calculation of Green functions and subsequent inversion for moment-tensor parameters. However, this calculation is gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with laterally heterogeneities in the crust. For these earthquakes, using 1D velocity models to compute the Greens fucntions works well. The opposite occurs for smaller and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle and requires more specific or regional 3D models. In this study, we calculate Greens functions for earthquakes in Mexico using a laterally heterogeneous seismic wave speed model, comprised of mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al 2008) and crustal model CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al 1990). Subsequently, we invert the observed seismograms for the seismic moment tensor using a method developed by Liu et al (2004) an implemented by Óscar de La Vega (2014) for earthquakes in Mexico. By following a brute force approach, in which we include all observed Rayleigh and Love waves of the Mexican National Seismic Network (Servicio Sismológico Naciona, SSN), we obtain reliable focal mechanisms for events that excite a considerable amount of low frequency waves (Mw > 4.8). However, we are not able to consistently estimate focal mechanisms for smaller events using this method, due to high noise levels in many of the records. Excluding the noisy records, or noisy parts of the records manually, requires interactive edition of the data, using an efficient tool for the editing. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI), based on python and the python library ObsPy, that allows the edition of observed and

  4. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    PubMed

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  5. Spatial distribution of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the West Korea Bay Basin in the northern part of the Yellow Sea, estimated by 3D gravity forward modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungchan; Ryu, In-Chang; Götze, H.-J.; Chae, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Although an amount of hydrocarbon has been discovered in the West Korea Bay Basin (WKBB), located in the North Korean offshore area, geophysical investigations associated with these hydrocarbon reservoirs are not permitted because of the current geopolitical situation. Interpretation of satellite- derived potential field data can be alternatively used to image the three-dimensional (3D) density distribution in the sedimentary basin associated with hydrocarbon deposits. We interpreted the TRIDENT satellite-derived gravity field data to provide detailed insights into the spatial distribution of sedimentary density structures in the WKBB. We used 3D forward density modeling for the interpretation that incorporated constraints from existing geological and geophysical information. The gravity data interpretation and the 3D forward modeling showed that there are two modeled areas in the central subbasin that are characterized by very low density structures, with a maximum density of about 2000 kg/m3, indicating some type of hydrocarbon reservoir. One of the anticipated hydrocarbon reservoirs is located in the southern part of the central subbasin with a volume of about 250 km3 at a depth of about 3000 m in the Cretaceous/Jurassic layer. The other hydrocarbon reservoir should exist in the northern part of the central subbasin, with an average volume of about 300 km3 at a depth of about 2500 m.

  6. Comparison of hydrologic response between a conceptual and a travel time distribution model for a snow-covered alpine catchment using Alpine3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comola, Francesco; Lehning, Michael; Bavay, Mathias; Mutzner, Raphaël; Schaefli, Bettina; Rinaldo, Andrea; Parlange, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Fully distributed models of alpine catchment surface processes typically use the geomorphological information provided by digital maps for describing the dynamics of rain, snow, soil and vegetation with much detail. Physically based hydrological models would also require a detailed description of the sub-surface characteristics, which is hardly available. With the increased use of detailed and highly distributed models of surface transport the lack of adequate treatment of sub-surface processes becomes the serious bottle neck. In the past, conceptual hydrological models have been widely applied also for mountain catchments. Their parameters, however, require careful calibration since they do not generally have any direct physical meaning. This motivates the testing of a spatially-explicit hydrologic response model based on geomorphologic travel time distributions, in connection with the detailed description of alpine surface processes as provided by Alpine3D. Moreover, mountain basins are generally characterized by shallow soil layers and the runoff response is highly influenced by the significant topographical gradients, which may favour travel time distribution approaches based on geomorphological information. In this contribution we present the comparison between the conceptual snowmelt/rainfall-runoff model currently implemented in Alpine3D and the spatially-explicit hydrological response model. In particular we characterize the response during snowmelt, considering patchy snow covers in the Dischma and Val Ferret catchments (Grisons and Valais, Switzerland). We show that the spatially-explicit hydrological response model, which explicitly accounts for geomorphologic travel time distributions reacts adequately to spatially varying water input from melting snow. We conclude that a spatially-explicit hydrological model presents an interesting new avenue for the simulation of the hydrologic response of mountain catchments with Alpine3D.

  7. A 3D simulation of the early winter distribution of reactive chlorine in the north polar vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A.; Rood, R.; Waters, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W.; Elson, L.; Geller, M.; Chi, Y.; Cerniglia, M.; Steenrod, S.

    1993-01-01

    Early in December 1991, high values of ClO are seen by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite at latitudes south of areas of temperatures cold enough to form polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). A 3D simulation shows that the heterogeneous conversion of chlorine reservoirs to reactive chlorine on the surfaces of PSCs (processing) takes place at high latitudes. Often the processed air must be transported to lower latitudes, where the reactive chlorine is photochemically converted to ClO, to be observed by MLS. In this simulation, one incidence of cold temperatures is associated with an anticyclone, and a second with a cyclone. The transport of processed air associated with the anticyclone is marked by shearing; a decrease in the maximum of the processed air is accompanied by growth of the area influenced by the processing. In contrast, the air processed in the cyclonic event spreads more slowly. This shows that transport and shearing is a crucial element to the evolution of reactive chlorine associated with a processing event. In particular, transport and shearing, as well as photochemical processes, can cause variations in observed ClO.

  8. Presentation of a High Resolution Time Lapse 3D Groundwater Model of Metsähovi for Calculating the Gravity Effect of Groundwater in Local Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokkanen, T. M.; Hartikainen, A.; Raja-Halli, A.; Virtanen, H.; Makinen, J.

    2015-12-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study is to construct a fine resolution time lapse groundwater (GW) model of Metsähovi (MH). GW, geological, and soil moisture (SM) data were collected for several years to achieve the goal. The knowledge of the behavior of the GW at local scale is essential for superconductive gravimeter (SG) investigations performing in MH. DESCRIPTION OF THE DATA Almost 50 sensors have been recorded SM data some 6 years with 1 to 5 minutes sampling frequency. The GW table has been monitored, both in bedrock and in soil, in many stages with all together 15 piezometers. Two geological sampling campaigns were conducted to get the knowledge of hydrological properties of soil in the study area of 200×200 m2 around SG station in MH. PRINCIPLE OF TIME LAPSE 3D HYDROGEOLOGICAL MODEL The model of study site consists of the surfaces of ground and bedrock gridded with 2×2 m2 resolution. The height of GW table was interpolated to 2×2×0.1 m3 grid between GW and SM monitoring points. Close to the outline of the study site and areas lacking of sensors GW table was defined by extrapolation and considering the geological information of the area. The bedrock porosity is 2% and soil porosity determined by geological information and SM recordings is from 5 to 35%. Only fully saturated media is considered in the time lapse model excluding unsaturated one. BENEFICIERS With a new model the fluctuation of GW table can be followed with ranging time lapses from 1 minute to 1 month. The gravity effect caused by the variation of GW table can be calculated more accurate than before in MH. Moreover, the new model can be validated and refined by measured gravity, i.e. hydrological model can be improved by SG recordings (Figure 1).

  9. Dynamic 3D scanning as a markerless method to calculate multi-segment foot kinematics during stance phase: methodology and first application.

    PubMed

    Van den Herrewegen, Inge; Cuppens, Kris; Broeckx, Mario; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Vander Sloten, Jos; Leardini, Alberto; Peeraer, Louis

    2014-08-22

    Multi-segmental foot kinematics have been analyzed by means of optical marker-sets or by means of inertial sensors, but never by markerless dynamic 3D scanning (D3DScanning). The use of D3DScans implies a radically different approach for the construction of the multi-segment foot model: the foot anatomy is identified via the surface shape instead of distinct landmark points. We propose a 4-segment foot model consisting of the shank (Sha), calcaneus (Cal), metatarsus (Met) and hallux (Hal). These segments are manually selected on a static scan. To track the segments in the dynamic scan, the segments of the static scan are matched on each frame of the dynamic scan using the iterative closest point (ICP) fitting algorithm. Joint rotations are calculated between Sha-Cal, Cal-Met, and Met-Hal. Due to the lower quality scans at heel strike and toe off, the first and last 10% of the stance phase is excluded. The application of the method to 5 healthy subjects, 6 trials each, shows a good repeatability (intra-subject standard deviations between 1° and 2.5°) for Sha-Cal and Cal-Met joints, and inferior results for the Met-Hal joint (>3°). The repeatability seems to be subject-dependent. For the validation, a qualitative comparison with joint kinematics from a corresponding established marker-based multi-segment foot model is made. This shows very consistent patterns of rotation. The ease of subject preparation and also the effective and easy to interpret visual output, make the present technique very attractive for functional analysis of the foot, enhancing usability in clinical practice.

  10. Do Practical Standard Coupled Cluster Calculations Agree Better than Kohn–Sham Calculations with Currently Available Functionals When Compared to the Best Available Experimental Data for Dissociation Energies of Bonds to 3d Transition Metals?

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xuefei; Zhang, Wenjing; Tang, Mingsheng; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-05-12

    Coupled-cluster (CC) methods have been extensively used as the high-level approach in quantum electronic structure theory to predict various properties of molecules when experimental results are unavailable. It is often assumed that CC methods, if they include at least up to connected-triple-excitation quasiperturbative corrections to a full treatment of single and double excitations (in particular, CCSD(T)), and a very large basis set, are more accurate than Kohn–Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). In the present work, we tested and compared the performance of standard CC and KS methods on bond energy calculations of 20 3d transition metal-containing diatomic molecules against the most reliable experimental data available, as collected in a database called 3dMLBE20. It is found that, although the CCSD(T) and higher levels CC methods have mean unsigned deviations from experiment that are smaller than most exchange-correlation functionals for metal–ligand bond energies of transition metals, the improvement is less than one standard deviation of the mean unsigned deviation. Furthermore, on average, almost half of the 42 exchange-correlation functionals that we tested are closer to experiment than CCSD(T) with the same extended basis set for the same molecule. The results show that, when both relativistic and core–valence correlation effects are considered, even the very high-level (expensive) CC method with single, double, triple, and perturbative quadruple cluster operators, namely, CCSDT(2)Q, averaged over 20 bond energies, gives a mean unsigned deviation (MUD(20) = 4.7 kcal/mol when one correlates only valence, 3p, and 3s electrons of transition metals and only valence electrons of ligands, or 4.6 kcal/mol when one correlates all core electrons except for 1s shells of transition metals, S, and Cl); and that is similar to some good xc functionals (e.g., B97-1 (MUD(20) = 4.5 kcal/mol) and PW6B95 (MUD(20) = 4.9 kcal/mol)) when the same basis set is used

  11. Longevity of duct tape in residential air distribution systems: 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D joints

    SciTech Connect

    Abushakra, Bass

    2002-05-30

    The aging tests conducted so far showed that duct tape tends to degrade in its performance as the joint it is applied to requires a geometrical description of a higher number of space dimensions (1-D, 2-D, 3-D). One-dimensional joints are the easiest to seal with duct tape, and thus the least to experience failure. Two-dimensional joints, such as the flexible duct core-to-collar joints tested in this study, are less likely to fail than three-dimensional collar-to-plenum joints, as the shrinkage could have a positive effect in tightening the joint. Three-dimensional joints are the toughest to seal and the most likely to experience failure. The 2-D flexible duct core-to-collar joints passed the six-month period of the aging test in terms of leakage, but with the exception of the foil-butyl tape, showed degradation in terms hardening, brittleness, partial peeling, shrinkage, wrinkling, delamination of the tape layers, flaking, cracking, bubbling, oozing and discoloration. The baking test results showed that the failure in the duct tape joints could be attributed to the type of combination of the duct tape and the material it is applied to, as the duct tape behaves differently with different substrates. Overall, the foil-butyl tape (Tape 4) had the best results, while the film tape (Tape 3) showed the most deterioration. The conventional duct tapes tested (Tape 1 and Tape 2) were between these two extremes, with Tape 2 performing better than Tape 1. Lastly, we found that plastic straps became discolored and brittle during the tests, and a couple of straps broke completely. Therefore, we recommend that clamping the duct-taped flexible core-to-collar joints should be done with metallic adjustable straps.

  12. 3-D seismic analysis of a carbonate platform in the Molasse Basin - reef distribution and internal separation with seismic attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Schulz, Rüdiger

    2012-10-01

    Carbonate platforms differ from clastic sedimentary environments by a greater heterogeneity, so that key horizons for mapping and compartmentalisation of the reservoir are generally missing. We show that different seismic attributes help to compete with these difficulties and to identify different carbonate facies within the platform. The Upper Jurassic carbonate platform in Southern Germany in the Molasse Basin is a main exploration target for hydrogeothermal projects. Knowledge about the distribution of different carbonate facies within the platform, which is overprinted by faults, is important for a realistic reservoir simulation. The platform with an average thickness of 600 meters was artificially divided into four layers of equal thickness. Within each layer the characteristic seismic pattern was visualized by different attributes (travel time mapping, spectral decomposition), allowing additionally for further depositional classification. Within the uppermost layer the coral reef distribution could be mapped. The reefs form several complexes of up to 12 square kilometres in size. The surrounding slope and trough areas are identified as well. Within the platform , the distribution of sponge reefs could be visualized. They form either amalgamations in distinct areas, or are spread as small singular structures with diameters of approximately less than hundred meters. Comparing tectonic elements and reef distribution within the whole platform reveals that the early topography triggered the reef distribution, while these lithologic inhomogenities influenced later on the local shape of tectonic lineaments. The fault system which dominates the structural style in the area is visible in the different transformations but does not obscure the facies distribution, which hindered former interpretations of the data set. In this way a reservoir model can incorporate now the first time the reef distribution within an area.

  13. 3D scene reconstruction based on multi-view distributed video coding in the Zernike domain for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, V.; Carli, M.; Neri, A.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper a Multi-view Distributed Video Coding scheme for mobile applications is presented. Specifically a new fusion technique between temporal and spatial side information in Zernike Moments domain is proposed. Distributed video coding introduces a flexible architecture that enables the design of very low complex video encoders compared to its traditional counterparts. The main goal of our work is to generate at the decoder the side information that optimally blends temporal and interview data. Multi-view distributed coding performance strongly depends on the side information quality built at the decoder. At this aim for improving its quality a spatial view compensation/prediction in Zernike moments domain is applied. Spatial and temporal motion activity have been fused together to obtain the overall side-information. The proposed method has been evaluated by rate-distortion performances for different inter-view and temporal estimation quality conditions.

  14. Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and measurement with a 3D polymer gel dosimeter for dose distributions in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Furuta, T; Maeyama, T; Ishikawa, K L; Fukunishi, N; Fukasaku, K; Takagi, S; Noda, S; Himeno, R; Hayashi, S

    2015-08-21

    In this research, we used a 135 MeV/nucleon carbon-ion beam to irradiate a biological sample composed of fresh chicken meat and bones, which was placed in front of a PAGAT gel dosimeter, and compared the measured and simulated transverse-relaxation-rate (R2) distributions in the gel dosimeter. We experimentally measured the three-dimensional R2 distribution, which records the dose induced by particles penetrating the sample, by using magnetic resonance imaging. The obtained R2 distribution reflected the heterogeneity of the biological sample. We also conducted Monte Carlo simulations using the PHITS code by reconstructing the elemental composition of the biological sample from its computed tomography images while taking into account the dependence of the gel response on the linear energy transfer. The simulation reproduced the experimental distal edge structure of the R2 distribution with an accuracy under about 2 mm, which is approximately the same as the voxel size currently used in treatment planning. PMID:26266894

  15. Comparison between Monte Carlo simulation and measurement with a 3D polymer gel dosimeter for dose distributions in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, T.; Maeyama, T.; Ishikawa, K. L.; Fukunishi, N.; Fukasaku, K.; Takagi, S.; Noda, S.; Himeno, R.; Hayashi, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we used a 135 MeV/nucleon carbon-ion beam to irradiate a biological sample composed of fresh chicken meat and bones, which was placed in front of a PAGAT gel dosimeter, and compared the measured and simulated transverse-relaxation-rate (R2) distributions in the gel dosimeter. We experimentally measured the three-dimensional R2 distribution, which records the dose induced by particles penetrating the sample, by using magnetic resonance imaging. The obtained R2 distribution reflected the heterogeneity of the biological sample. We also conducted Monte Carlo simulations using the PHITS code by reconstructing the elemental composition of the biological sample from its computed tomography images while taking into account the dependence of the gel response on the linear energy transfer. The simulation reproduced the experimental distal edge structure of the R2 distribution with an accuracy under about 2 mm, which is approximately the same as the voxel size currently used in treatment planning.

  16. MoldaNet: a network distributed molecular graphics and modelling program that integrates secure signed applet and Java 3D technologies.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Rzepa, H S; Tonge, A P

    1998-06-01

    MoldaNet is a molecular graphics and modelling program that integrates several new Java technologies, including authentication as a Secure Signed Applet, and implementation of Java 3D classes to enable access to hardware graphics acceleration. It is the first example of a novel class of Internet-based distributed computational chemistry tool designed to eliminate the need for user pre-installation of software on their client computer other than a standard Internet browser. The creation of a properly authenticated tool using a signed digital X.509 certificate permits the user to employ MoldaNet to read and write the files to a local file store; actions that are normally disallowed in Java applets. The modularity of the Java language also allows straightforward inclusion of Java3D and Chemical Markup Language classes in MoldaNet to permit the user to filter their model into 3D model descriptors such as VRML97 or CML for saving on local disk. The implications for both distance-based training environments and chemical commerce are noted.

  17. 3D ELECTRON DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA DURING SOLAR MINIMA: ASSESSMENT FOR MORE REALISTIC SOLAR WIND MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Patoul, Judith de; Foullon, Claire; Riley, Pete E-mail: c.foullon@exeter.ac.uk

    2015-11-20

    Knowledge of the electron density distribution in the solar corona put constraints on the magnetic field configurations for coronal modeling and on initial conditions for solar wind modeling. We work with polarized SOHO/LASCO-C2 images from the last two recent minima of solar activity (1996–1997 and 2008–2010), devoid of coronal mass ejections. The goals are to derive the 4D electron density distributions in the corona by applying a newly developed time-dependent tomographic reconstruction method and to compare the results between the two solar minima and with two magnetohydrodynamic models. First, we confirm that the values of the density distribution in thermodynamic models are more realistic than in polytropic ones. The tomography provides more accurate distributions in the polar regions, and we find that the density in tomographic and thermodynamic solutions varies with the solar cycle in both polar and equatorial regions. Second, we find that the highest-density structures do not always correspond to the predicted large-scale heliospheric current sheet or its helmet streamer but can follow the locations of pseudo-streamers. We deduce that tomography offers reliable density distributions in the corona, reproducing the slow time evolution of coronal structures, without prior knowledge of the coronal magnetic field over a full rotation. Finally, we suggest that the highest-density structures show a differential rotation well above the surface depending on how they are magnetically connected to the surface. Such valuable information on the rotation of large-scale structures could help to connect the sources of the solar wind to their in situ counterparts in future missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus.

  18. 3D electron density distributions in the solar corona during solar minima: assessment for more realistic solar wind modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Patoul, J.; Foullon, C.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the electron density distribution in the solar corona put constraints on the magnetic field configurations for coronal modeling, and on initial conditions for solar wind modeling. We work with polarized SOHO/LASCO-C2 images from the last two recent minima of solar activity (1996-1997 and 2008-2010), devoid of coronal mass ejections. We derive the 4D electron density distributions in the corona by applying a newly developed time-dependent tomographic reconstruction method. First we compare the density distributions obtained from tomography with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solutions. The tomography provides more accurate distributions of electron densities in the polar regions, and we find that the observed density varies with the solar cycle in both polar and equatorial regions. Second, we find that the highest-density structures do not always correspond to the predicted large-scale heliospheric current sheet or its helmet streamer but can follow the locations of pseudo-streamers. We conclude that tomography offers reliable density distribution in the corona, reproducing the slow time evolution of coronal structures, without prior knowledge of the coronal magnetic field over a full rotation. Finally, we suggest that the highest-density structures show a differential rotation well above the surface depending on how it is magnetically connected to the surface. Such valuable information on the rotation of large-scale structures could help to connect the sources of the solar wind to their in-situ counterparts in future missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus. This research combined with the MHD coronal modeling efforts has the potential to increase the reliability for future space weather forecasting.

  19. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3). PMID:26011866

  20. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the 3D Porosity Distribution and Mechanical Behavior of a High Pressure Die Cast Mg AZ91 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sket, Federico; Fernández, Ana; Jérusalem, Antoine; Molina-Aldareguía, Jon M.; Pérez-Prado, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    A limiting factor of high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg alloys is the presence of porosity, which has a detrimental effect on the mechanical strength and gives rise to a large variability in the ductility. The application of hydrostatic pressure after casting is known to be beneficial to improve the mechanical response of HPDC Mg alloys. In this study, a combined experimental and simulation approach has been developed in order to investigate the influence of pressurization on the 3D porosity distribution and on the mechanical behavior of an HPDC Mg AZ91 alloy. Examination of about 10,000 pores by X-ray computed microtomography allowed determining the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the bulk porosity volume fraction, as well as the change in volume and geometry of each individual pore. The evolution of the 3D porosity distribution and mechanical behavior of a sub-volume containing 200 pores was also simulated by finite element analysis. Both experiments and simulations consistently revealed a decrease in the bulk porosity fraction and a bimodal distribution of the individual volume changes after the application of the pressure. This observation is associated with pores containing internal pressure as a result of the HPDC process. Furthermore, a decrease in the complexity factor with increasing volume change is observed experimentally and predicted by simulations. The pressure-treated samples have consistently higher plastic flow strengths.

  1. A Smart Cage With Uniform Wireless Power Distribution in 3D for Enabling Long-Term Experiments With Freely Moving Animals.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Bahrami, Hadi; Sawan, Mohamad; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental chamber with uniform wireless power distribution in 3D for enabling long-term biomedical experiments with small freely moving animal subjects. The implemented power transmission chamber prototype is based on arrays of parallel resonators and multicoil inductive links, to form a novel and highly efficient wireless power transmission system. The power transmitter unit includes several identical resonators enclosed in a scalable array of overlapping square coils which are connected in parallel to provide uniform power distribution along x and y. Moreover, the proposed chamber uses two arrays of primary resonators, facing each other, and connected in parallel to achieve uniform power distribution along the z axis. Each surface includes 9 overlapped coils connected in parallel and implemented into two layers of FR4 printed circuit board. The chamber features a natural power localization mechanism, which simplifies its implementation and ease its operation by avoiding the need for active detection and control mechanisms. A single power surface based on the proposed approach can provide a power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 69% and a power delivered to the load (PDL) of 120 mW, for a separation distance of 4 cm, whereas the complete chamber prototype provides a uniform PTE of 59% and a PDL of 100 mW in 3D, everywhere inside the chamber with a size of 27×27×16 cm(3).

  2. Combination of pedCAT® for 3D Imaging in Standing Position With Pedography Shows No Statistical Correlation of Bone Position With Force/Pressure Distribution.

    PubMed

    Richter, Martinus; Zech, Stefan; Hahn, Sarah; Naef, Issam; Merschin, David

    2016-01-01

    pedCAT(®) (CurveBeam, Warrington, PA) is a technology for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging with full weightbearing that has been proved to exactly visualize the 3D bone position. For the present study, a customized pedography sensor (Pliance; Novel, Munich, Germany) was inserted into the pedCAT(®). The aim of our study was to analyze the correlation of the bone position and force/pressure distribution. A prospective consecutive study of 50 patients was performed, starting July 28, 2014. All patients underwent a pedCAT(®) scan and simultaneous pedography with full weightbearing in the standing position. The following parameters were measured on the pedCAT(®) image for the right foot by 3 different investigators 3 times: lateral talo-first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, and minimum height of the fifth metatarsal base, second to fifth metatarsal heads, and medial sesamoid. From the pedography data, the following parameters were defined using the standardized software algorithm: midfoot contact area, maximum force of midfoot, maximum force of midfoot lateral, maximum force of entire foot, and maximum pressure of first to fifth metatarsal. The values of the corresponding pedCAT(®) and pedographic parameters were correlated (Pearson). The intra- and interobserver reliability of the pedCAT(®) measurements were sufficient (analysis of variance, p > .8 for each, power >0.8). No sufficient correlation was found between the pedCAT(®) and pedographic parameters (r < 0.05 or r > -0.38).3D bone position did not correlate with the force and pressure distribution under the foot sole during simultaneous pedCAT(®) scanning and pedography. Thus, the bone positions measured with pedCAT(®) do not allow conclusions about the force and pressure distribution. However, the static pedographic parameters also do not allow conclusions about the 3D bone position.one position and force/pressure distribution are important parameters for diagnostics, planning, and follow

  3. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  4. Simulation of phytoplankton distribution and variation in the Bering-Chukchi Sea using a 3-D physical-biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haoguo; Wang, Jia; Liu, Hui; Goes, Joaquim

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional physical-biological model has been used to simulate seasonal phytoplankton variations in the Bering and Chukchi Seas with a focus on understanding the physical and biogeochemical mechanisms involved in the formation of the Bering Sea Green Belt (GB) and the Subsurface Chlorophyll Maxima (SCM). Model results suggest that the horizontal distribution of the GB is controlled by a combination of light, temperature, and nutrients. Model results indicated that the SCM, frequently seen below the thermocline, exists because of a rich supply of nutrients and sufficient light. The seasonal onset of phytoplankton blooms is controlled by different factors at different locations in the Bering-Chukchi Sea. In the off-shelf central region of the Bering Sea, phytoplankton blooms are regulated by available light. On the Bering Sea shelf, sea ice through its influence on light and temperature plays a key role in the formation of blooms, whereas in the Chukchi Sea, bloom formation is largely controlled by ambient seawater temperatures. A numerical experiment conducted as part of this study revealed that plankton sinking is important for simulating the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and the seasonal formation of the SCM. An additional numerical experiment revealed that sea ice algae account for 14.3-36.9% of total phytoplankton production during the melting season, and it cannot be ignored when evaluating primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  6. Sideband and Angular Distribution Oscillation of Photoelectrons Observed with XUV/IR 3D Momentum Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperl, A.; Rietz, H.; Schoenwald, M.; Fischer, A.; Simeonidis, K.; Ullrich, J.

    Noble gas atoms can be ionized by irradiation with an extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train emitting electron wave packets. The attosecond pulse trains can be characterized by superimposing the XUV and its generating, fundamental IR field and considering the energy transfer to the electron wave packets as a function of time delay between both fields, resulting in oscillating energy-sidebands. The three-dimensional dynamics of the photoelectrons however can now be studied in more detail by combining the XUV light source with a Reaction Microscope. In this context we changed the polarisation of the XUV and the IR fields with respect to each other by 90{}^{circ }, detecting a remarkable change of the angular distribution of the sideband-photoelectrons.

  7. The 3-D distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in southwestern Japan and the western part of the Nankai subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    waves at high frequencies (>1 Hz) show collapsed and broadened wave trains caused by multiple scattering in the lithosphere. This study analyzed the envelopes of direct S waves in southwestern Japan and on the western side of the Nankai trough and estimated the spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities by assuming a von Kármán type power spectral density function (PSDF). Strongly inhomogeneous media have been mostly imaged at shallow depth (0-20 km depth) in the onshore area of southwestern Japan, and their PSDF is represented as P(m) ≈ 0.05m-3.7 km3, with m being the spatial wave number, whereas most of the other area shows weak inhomogeneities of which PSDF is P(m) ≈ 0.005m-4.5 km3. At Hyuga-nada in Nankai trough, there is an anomaly of inhomogeneity of which PSDF is estimated as P(m) ≈ 0.01m-4.5 km3. This PSDF has the similar spectral gradient with the weakly inhomogeneous media, but has larger power spectral density than other offshore areas. This anomalous region is broadly located in the subducted Kyushu Palau ridge, which was identified by using velocity structures and bathymetry, and it shows no clear correlation with the fault zones of large earthquakes in past decades. These spatial correlations suggest that possible origins of inhomogeneities at Hyuga-nada are ancient volcanic activity in the oceanic plate or deformed structures due to the subduction of the Kyushu Palau ridge.

  8. Reducing Uncertainty in the Distribution of Hydrogeologic Units within Volcanic Composite Units of Pahute Mesa Using High-Resolution 3-D Resistivity Methods, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sweetkind, Don; Burton, Bethany L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the groundwater table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the NTS including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. Volcanic composite units make up much of the area within the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NTS, Nevada. The extent of many of these volcanic composite units extends throughout and south of the primary areas of past underground testing at Pahute and Rainier Mesas. As situated, these units likely influence the rate and direction of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Currently, these units are poorly resolved in terms of their hydrologic properties introducing large uncertainties into current CAU-scale flow and transport models. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DOE and NNSA-NSO acquired three-dimensional (3-D) tensor magnetotelluric data at the NTS in Area 20 of Pahute Mesa CAU. A total of 20 magnetotelluric recording stations were established at about 600-m spacing on a 3-D array and were tied to ER20-6 well and other nearby well control (fig. 1). The purpose of this survey was to determine if closely spaced 3-D resistivity measurements can be used to characterize the distribution of shallow (600- to 1,500-m-depth range) devitrified rhyolite lava-flow aquifers (LFA) and zeolitic tuff confining units (TCU) in areas of limited drill hole control on

  9. Numerical calculation of ion runaway distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Embréus, O.; Stahl, A.; Hirvijoki, E.; Fülöp, T.; Newton, S.

    2015-05-15

    Ions accelerated by electric fields (so-called runaway ions) in plasmas may explain observations in solar flares and fusion experiments; however, limitations of previous analytic work have prevented definite conclusions. In this work, we describe a numerical solver of the 2D non-relativistic linearized Fokker-Planck equation for ions. It solves the initial value problem in velocity space with a spectral-Eulerian discretization scheme, allowing arbitrary plasma composition and time-varying electric fields and background plasma parameters. The numerical ion distribution function is then used to consider the conditions for runaway ion acceleration in solar flares and tokamak plasmas. Typical time scales and electric fields required for ion acceleration are determined for various plasma compositions, ion species, and temperatures, and the potential for excitation of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes during tokamak disruptions is considered.

  10. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in realtime by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  11. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R

    2012-02-23

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  12. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  13. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  14. Slip Distribution of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake obtained by Geodetic and Tsunami Data and with a 3-D Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Ito, Y.; Piatanesi, A.; Lanucara, P.; Hirata, K.; D'Agostino, N.; Cocco, M.

    2012-12-01

    The rupture process of the Great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has been particularly well studied by using an unprecedented collection of geophysical data. There is a general agreement among the different source models obtained by modeling seismological, geodetic and tsunami data. A slip patch of nearly 40÷50 meters has been imaged and located around and up-dip from the hypocenter by most of published models, while some differences exist in the slip pattern retrieved at shallow depths near the trench, likely due to the different resolving power of distinct data sets and to the adopted fault geometry. It is well known that the modeling of great subduction earthquakes requires the use of 3-D structural models in order to properly account for the effects of topography, bathymetry and the geometrical variations of the plate interface as well as for the effects of elastic contrasts between the subducting plate and the continental lithosphere. In this study we build a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model of the Tohoku-oki area in order to infer the slip distribution of the 2011 earthquake by performing a joint inversion of geodetic (GPS and seafloor observations) and tsunami (ocean bottom pressure sensors, DART and GPS buoys) data. The FE model is used to compute the geodetic and tsunami Green's functions. In order to understand how geometrical and elastic heterogeneities control the inferred slip distribution of the Tohoku-oki earthquake, we compare the slip patterns obtained using both homogeneous and heterogeneous structural models. The goal of this study is to better constrain the slip distribution and the maximum slip amplitudes. In particular, we aim to focus on the rupture process in the shallower part of the fault plane and near the trench, which is crucial to model the tsunami data and to assess the tsunamigenic potential of earthquakes in this region.

  15. Local ISM 3D distribution and soft X-ray background. Inferences on nearby hot gas and the North Polar Spur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitarini, L.; Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Snowden, S. L.

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) interstellar medium (ISM) maps can be used to locate not only interstellar (IS) clouds, but also IS bubbles between the clouds that are blown by stellar winds and supernovae, and that are filled by hot gas. To demonstrate this and to derive a clearer picture of the local ISM, we compare our recent 3D maps of the IS dust distribution to the ROSAT diffuse X-ray background maps after removing heliospheric emission. In the Galactic plane, there is a good correspondence between the locations and extents of the mapped nearby cavities and the soft (0.25 keV) background emission distribution, showing that most of these nearby cavities contribute to this soft X-ray emission. Assuming a constant dust-to-gas ratio and homogeneous 106 K hot gas filling the cavities, we modeled the 0.25 keV surface brightness in a simple way along the Galactic plane as seen from the Sun, taking the absorption by the mapped clouds into account. The data-model comparison favors the existence of hot gas in the solar neighborhood, the so-called Local Bubble (LB). The inferred average mean pressure in the local cavities is found to be on the order of 10 000 cm-3 K, in agreement with previous studies, providing a validation test for the method. On the other hand, the model overestimates the emission from the huge cavities located in the third quadrant. Using CaII absorption data, we show that the dust-to-CaII ratio is very low in this region, implying there is a large quantity of lower temperature (non-X-ray emitting) ionized gas and, as a consequence, a reduction in the volume filled by hot gas, explaining at least part of the discrepancy. In the meridian plane, the main two brightness enhancements coincide well with the LB's most elongated parts and chimneys connecting the LB to the halo, but no particular nearby cavity is found towards the enhancement in the direction of the bright North Polar Spur (NPS) at high latitude. We searched in the 3D maps for the source regions of

  16. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E.

    1997-06-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

  17. Efficacy of adding a supporting implant in stress distribution of long-span fixed partial dentures: a 3D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Shurbaji Mozayek, Rami; Allaf, Mirza; B Abuharb, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long span is seen in many clinical situations. Treatmentplanning options of these cases are difficult and may require FPD, RPD or ISP. Each option has its own disadvantages, including mechanical problems, patient comfort and cost. This article will evaluate the stress distribution of a different treatment option, which consists of adding a single sup-porting implant to the FPD by using 3D finite element analysis. Methods. Three models, each consisting of 5 units, were created as follows: 1. Tooth Pontic Pontic Pontic Tooth; 2. Tooth Pontic Implant Pontic Tooth; 3. Tooth Pontic Pontic Implant Tooth. An axial force was applied to the prostheses by using 3D finite element method and stresses were evaluated. Results. The maximum stress was found in the prostheses in all the models; the highest stress values in all the shared components of the models were almost similar. Stress in implants was lower in the second model than the third one. Conclusion. Adding a supporting implant in long-span FPD has no advantages while it has the disadvantages of complicating treatment and the complications that may occur to the implant and surrounding bone. PMID:27429723

  18. Efficacy of adding a supporting implant in stress distribution of long-span fixed partial dentures: a 3D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shurbaji Mozayek, Rami; Allaf, Mirza; B. Abuharb, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long span is seen in many clinical situations. Treatmentplanning options of these cases are difficult and may require FPD, RPD or ISP. Each option has its own disadvantages, including mechanical problems, patient comfort and cost. This article will evaluate the stress distribution of a different treatment option, which consists of adding a single sup-porting implant to the FPD by using 3D finite element analysis. Methods. Three models, each consisting of 5 units, were created as follows: 1. Tooth Pontic Pontic Pontic Tooth; 2. Tooth Pontic Implant Pontic Tooth; 3. Tooth Pontic Pontic Implant Tooth. An axial force was applied to the prostheses by using 3D finite element method and stresses were evaluated. Results. The maximum stress was found in the prostheses in all the models; the highest stress values in all the shared components of the models were almost similar. Stress in implants was lower in the second model than the third one. Conclusion. Adding a supporting implant in long-span FPD has no advantages while it has the disadvantages of complicating treatment and the complications that may occur to the implant and surrounding bone. PMID:27429723

  19. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  20. [An empirical model for calculating electron dose distributions].

    PubMed

    Leistner, H; Schüler, W

    1990-01-01

    Dose-distributions in radiation fields are calculated for purpose of irradiation planning from measured depth dose and cross-distributions predominantly. Especially in electron fields the measuring effort is high to this, because these distributions have to be measured for all occurring irradiation parameters and in many different tissue depths. At the very least it can be shown for the 6...10 MeV electron radiation of the linear accelerator Neptun 10p that all required distributions can be calculated from each separately measured depth dose and cross-distribution. For this depth dose distribution and the measured border decrease of cross-distribution are tabulated and the abscissas are submitted to a linear transformation x' = k.x. In case of depth dose distribution the transformation factor k is dependent on electron energy only and in cross-distribution on tissue depth and source-surface-distance additionally. PMID:2356295

  1. Quantum-mechanical calculation of carrier distribution in MOS accumulation and strong inversion layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chien-Wei; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo

    2013-10-15

    We derive a statistical physics model of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and propose an accurate approximation method for calculating the quantum-mechanical effects of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure in accumulation and strong inversion regions. We use an exponential surface potential approximation in solving the quantization energy levels and derive the function of density of states in 2D to 3D transition region by applying uncertainty principle and Schrödinger equation in k-space. The simulation results show that our approximation method and theory of density of states solve the two major problems of previous researches: the non-negligible error caused by the linear potential approximation and the inconsistency of density of states and carrier distribution in 2D to 3D transition region.

  2. Dynamics of pickup ion velocity distribution function in Titan's plasma environment (TA encounter): 3D hybrid kinetic modeling and comparison with CAPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma dynamics near Titan: mass loading, excitation of the low-frequency waves and the formation of the particle velocity distribution function, e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc. The kinetic approach is important for estimation of the collision processes e.g. a charge exchange. The particle velocity distribution function also plays a key role for understanding the observed particle fluxes. In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution function dynamics from 3D hybrid modeling. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion measurements during the TA flyby. In our model the background ions, all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperatures of the background electrons and pickup electrons were also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. We use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components and include a simple ionosphere model with M=28 ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our modeling shows that interaction between background plasma and pickup ions H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+ has a more complicated structure than was observed in the T9 flyby and modeling due to the large gyroradius of the background O+ ions [1,2,3,4]. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS TA observations. We also compare our kinetic modeling with other hybrid and MHD modeling of Titan's environment. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds

  3. Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Dynamics in Titan's Plasma Environment: 3D Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution dynamics from the 3D hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.

  4. A precise and non-destructive method to calculate the surface area in living scleractinian corals using X-ray computed tomography and 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforsch, C.; Christoph, E.; Glaser, C.; Naumann, M.; Wild, C.; Niggl, W.

    2008-12-01

    The surface area of corals represents a major reference parameter for the standardization of flux rates, for coral growth investigations, and for investigations of coral metabolism. The methods currently used to determine the surface area of corals are rather approximate approaches lacking accuracy, or are invasive and often destructive methods that are inapplicable for experiments involving living corals. This study introduces a novel precise and non-destructive technique to quantify surface area in living coral colonies by applying computed tomography (CT) and subsequent 3D reconstruction. Living coral colonies of different taxa were scanned by conventional medical CT either in air or in sea water. Resulting data volumes were processed by 3D modeling software providing realistic 3D coral skeleton surface reconstructions, thus enabling surface area measurements. Comparisons of CT datasets obtained from calibration bodies and coral colonies proved the accuracy of the surface area determination. Surface area quantifications derived from two different surface rendering techniques applied for scanning living coral colonies showed congruent results (mean deviation ranging from 1.32 to 2.03%). The validity of surface area measurement was verified by repeated measurements of the same coral colonies by three test persons. No significant differences between all test persons in all coral genera and in both surface rendering techniques were found (independent sample t-test: all n.s.). Data analysis of a single coral colony required approximately 15 to 30 min for a trained user using the isosurface technique regardless of the complexity and growth form of the latter, rendering the method presented in this study as a time-saving and accurate method to quantify surface areas in both living coral colonies and bare coral skeletons.

  5. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl via Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the solar wind electron halo can be formed by the scattering of the strahl. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions) a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a very limited energy range. When the magnetic field is well off the nominal solar wind flow direction such filaments are inconsistent with any local forces and are probably the result of strong scattering. Furthermore, observations indicates that the strahl component is frequently and significantly anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx.2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  6. The Spatial Extent and Distribution of Star Formation in 3D-HST Mergers at z is approximately 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; da Cunha, Elisabete; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Cox, Thomas J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Jonsson, Patrik; Lundgren, Britt; Maseda, Michael V.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of star formation in a sample of 60 visually identified galaxy merger candidates at z greater than 1. Our sample, drawn from the 3D-HST survey, is flux-limited and was selected to have high star formation rates based on fits of their broad-band, low spatial resolution spectral energy distributions. It includes plausible pre-merger (close pairs) and post-merger (single objects with tidal features) systems,with total stellar masses and star formation rates derived from multi-wavelength photometry. Here we use near-infrared slitless spectra from 3D-HST which produce H or [OIII] emission line maps as proxies for star-formation maps. This provides a first comprehensive high-resolution, empirical picture of where star formation occurred in galaxy mergers at the epoch of peak cosmic star formation rate. We find that detectable star formation can occur in one or both galaxy centres, or in tidal tails. The most common case (58%) is that star formation is largely concentrated in a single, compact region, coincident with the centre of (one of) the merger components. No correlations between star formation morphology and redshift, total stellar mass, or star formation rate are found. A restricted set of hydrodynamical merger simulationsbetween similarly massive and gas-rich objects implies that star formation should be detectable in both merger components, when the gas fractions of the individual components are the same. This suggests that z is approximately 1.5 mergers typically occur between galaxies whose gas fractions, masses, andor star formation rates are distinctly different from one another.

  7. CROSS DRIVE: A New Interactive and Immersive Approach for Exploring 3D Time-Dependent Mars Atmospheric Data in Distributed Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerndt, Andreas M.; Engelke, Wito; Giuranna, Marco; Vandaele, Ann C.; Neary, Lori; Aoki, Shohei; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Garcia, Arturo; Fernando, Terrence; Roberts, David; CROSS DRIVE Team

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric phenomena of Mars can be highly dynamic and have daily and seasonal variations. Planetary-scale wavelike disturbances, for example, are frequently observed in Mars' polar winter atmosphere. Possible sources of the wave activity were suggested to be dynamical instabilities and quasi-stationary planetary waves, i.e. waves that arise predominantly via zonally asymmetric surface properties. For a comprehensive understanding of these phenomena, single layers of altitude have to be analyzed carefully and relations between different atmospheric quantities and interaction with the surface of Mars have to be considered. The CROSS DRIVE project tries to address the presentation of those data with a global view by means of virtual reality techniques. Complex orbiter data from spectrometer and observation data from Earth are combined with global circulation models and high-resolution terrain data and images available from Mars Express or MRO instruments. Scientists can interactively extract features from those dataset and can change visualization parameters in real-time in order to emphasize findings. Stereoscopic views allow for perception of the actual 3D behavior of Mars's atmosphere. A very important feature of the visualization system is the possibility to connect distributed workspaces together. This enables discussions between distributed working groups. The workspace can scale from virtual reality systems to expert desktop applications to web-based project portals. If multiple virtual environments are connected, the 3D position of each individual user is captured and used to depict the scientist as an avatar in the virtual world. The appearance of the avatar can also scale from simple annotations to complex avatars using tele-presence technology to reconstruct the users in 3D. Any change of the feature set (annotations, cutplanes, volume rendering, etc.) within the VR is immediately exchanged between all connected users. This allows that everybody is always

  8. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  9. A basic insight to FEM_based temperature distribution calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, A.; Khairina

    2012-06-01

    A manual for finite element method (FEM)-based temperature distribution calculation has been performed. The code manual is written in visual basic that is operated in windows. The calculation of temperature distribution based on FEM has three steps namely preprocessor, processor and post processor. Therefore, three manuals are produced namely a preprocessor to prepare the data, a processor to solve the problem, and a post processor to display the result. In these manuals, every step of a general procedure is described in detail. It is expected, by these manuals, the understanding of calculating temperature distribution be better and easier.

  10. Coefficient of variation calculated from the range for skewed distributions.

    PubMed

    Rhiel, G Steven

    2006-02-01

    In this research a coefficient of variation (CVS(high.low)) is developed that is calculated from the highest and lowest values in a set of data for samples from skewed distributions. A correction factor is determined such that CVS(high-low) is a dose estimate of the population coefficient of variation when sampling from three skewed chi-squared distributions and three skewed empirical distributions. The empirical distributions are from "real-world" data sets in psychology and education.

  11. Prediction of Residual Stress Distributions in Welded Sections of P92 Pipes with Small Diameter and Thick Wall based on 3D Finite Element Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Gong, Jianming; Zhao, Yanping; Wang, Yanfei

    2015-05-01

    This study used ABAQUS finite element (FE) software to investigate the residual stress distributions of P92 welded pipes in both the as-weld and post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Sequential coupling quasi-static thermo-mechanical in conjunction with moving double ellipsoidal heat source and an element add/remove technique to simulate deposition of new weld material, are combined in the 3D FE analysis. To validate the simulation results, the residual stresses in axial direction at the surface of pipe were measured by X-ray diffraction technique and compared with the results of FE analysis. Detailed characteristic distributions of the residual stresses are discussed. Results show that the FE model can predict the residual stress distributions satisfactorily. Highest residual stresses on the outer surface are found in the last weld bead to be deposited. And the highest tensile residual stress for the full welded section take place in heat affected zone (HAZ) near the middle thickness. Larger residual sstress can be found around the welding start point along the pipe circumference. Comparison of heat treated specimen and untreated specimen illustrates that PWHT has a strong effect on the residual stress field.

  12. Current distribution and inductance calculations for rail-gun conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1981-11-01

    A method has been developed to calculate the current-density distribution, magnetic field, and inductance of rail-gun or flux-compression generator rails, or other long, parallel conductors of arbitrary cross section, in the high-frequency limit. The results represent initial estimates of these quantities in rail-gun circuits before current or magnetic-field diffusion has significantly changed the current distribution. The numerical procedure determines the current-density distribution using an existing technique originally developed for calculation of charge distribution on equipotential surfaces. The inductance and magnetic field are calculated from the current distribution. Calculations were performed for four systems: two cylindrical conductors, two rectangular conductors, two rectangular conductors in a tube, and flux-compression generators used at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Inductances of two rectangular conductors and of flux-compression generators were fitted to empirical equations to simplify their further use. Calculated current distributions and inductances were compared with other theoretical calculations and with measured data. The comparisons indicate that results from this method accurately predict the current-density distribution and inductance of these systems in the high-frequency limit.

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  14. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  15. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cu-Au-Mo ore deposits along the western Tethyan convergent margin: a link with the 3D subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menant, A.; Bertrand, G.; Loiselet, C.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Jolivet, L.

    2012-12-01

    numerous mineralized systems within the upper crust. The Au-rich Oligocene - Neogene metallogenic episode in the eastern Mediterranean region is also correlated with an increase of mantle-derived and/or subduction-modified lithospheric mantle components in magmas. This feature may be a consequence of the emplacement of hot asthenosphere at shallow depth related to (1) the development of a wide back-arc region due to slab retreat such as in the Aegean domain and (2) a slab tear and/or a lithospheric delamination, suspected notably in the Carpathians and western Turkey where alkaline to shoshonitic volcanism occurs. As the behavior of the slab and asthenosphere below the upper plate seems to play a key-role in controlling the distribution of ore deposits, it is worth studying the dynamics of the 3D mantle flow related to slab retreat. Thus, 3D numerical models of subduction dynamics with realistic rheologies have been developed. Around the slab edges, the poloidal (i.e. in a vertical plane) and toroidal (i.e. in a horizontal plane) components of the mantle flow in subduction zone appear to depend on the slab rollback to plate velocity ratio. Heat and mass transfers induced by such 3D mantle flow, promote thermal anomalies in back-arc domain, observed on seismic tomographic models and necessary to produce fertile magmatism.

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    calculations on a supercomputer, the Supercomputer/IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers advanced 3-D, view manipulation, and animation capabilities. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are available. Simple animation sequences can be created on the IRIS, or,if an appropriately modified version of ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is accesible on the supercomputer, files can be created for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and options for recording images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ Supercomputer/IRIS implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12779) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12784) are suitable for use on CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and ALLIANT computers with a remote Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstation. These programs are distributed on .25 inch magnetic tape cartridges in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC12777, ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 - which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates

  18. PLOT3D/AMES, UNIX SUPERCOMPUTER AND SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    calculations on a supercomputer, the Supercomputer/IRIS implementation of PLOT3D offers advanced 3-D, view manipulation, and animation capabilities. Shading and hidden line/surface removal can be used to enhance depth perception and other aspects of the graphical displays. A mouse can be used to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. Files for several types of output can be produced. Two animation options are available. Simple animation sequences can be created on the IRIS, or,if an appropriately modified version of ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is accesible on the supercomputer, files can be created for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program which offers more complex rendering and animation capabilities and options for recording images to digital disk, video tape, or 16-mm film. The version 3.6b+ Supercomputer/IRIS implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12779) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12784) are suitable for use on CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and ALLIANT computers with a remote Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstation. These programs are distributed on .25 inch magnetic tape cartridges in IRIS TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC12777, ARC-12781); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 - which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  1. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  2. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  3. Effect of type of luting agents on stress distribution in the bone surrounding implants supporting a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis: 3D finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Ehsan; Abedian, Alireza; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Khazaei, Saber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osseointegration of dental implants is influenced by many biomechanical factors that may be related to stress distribution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of type of luting agent on stress distribution in the bone surrounding implants, which support a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) using finite element (FE) analysis. Materials and Methods: A 3D FE model of a three-unit FDP was designed replacing the maxillary first molar with maxillary second premolar and second molar as the abutments using CATIA V5R18 software and analyzed with ABAQUS/CAE 6.6 version. The model was consisted of 465108 nodes and 86296 elements and the luting agent thickness was considered 25 μm. Three load conditions were applied on eight points in each functional cusp in horizontal (57.0 N), vertical (200.0 N) and oblique (400.0 N, θ = 120°) directions. Five different luting agents were evaluated. All materials were assumed to be linear elastic, homogeneous, time independent and isotropic. Results: For all luting agent types, the stress distribution pattern in the cortical bone, connectors, implant and abutment regions was almost uniform among the three loads. Furthermore, the maximum von Mises stress of the cortical bone was at the palatal side of second premolar. Likewise, the maximum von Mises stress in the connector region was in the top and bottom of this part. Conclusion: Luting agents transfer the load to cortical bone and different types of luting agents do not affect the pattern of load transfer. PMID:25709676

  4. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 1: Retrieval of 3-D distributions of NO2 and azimuth-dependent OVOC ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Koenig, T.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-06-01

    We present an innovative instrument telescope and describe a retrieval method to probe three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of atmospheric trace gases that are relevant to air pollution and tropospheric chemistry. The University of Colorado (CU) two-dimensional (2-D) multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), oxygen dimer (O2-O2, or O4), and water vapor (H2O); nitrous acid (HONO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and iodine monoxide (IO) are among other gases that can in principle be measured. Information about aerosols is derived through coupling with a radiative transfer model (RTM). The 2-D telescope has three modes of operation: mode 1 measures solar scattered photons from any pair of elevation angle (-20° < EA < +90° or zenith; zero is to the horizon) and azimuth angle (-180° < AA < +180°; zero being north); mode 2 measures any set of azimuth angles (AAs) at constant elevation angle (EA) (almucantar scans); and mode 3 tracks the direct solar beam via a separate view port. Vertical profiles of trace gases are measured and used to estimate mixing layer height (MLH). Horizontal distributions are then derived using MLH and parameterization of RTM (Sinreich et al., 2013). NO2 is evaluated at different wavelengths (350, 450, and 560 nm), exploiting the fact that the effective path length varies systematically with wavelength. The area probed is constrained by O4 observations at nearby wavelengths and has a diurnal mean effective radius of 7.0 to 25 km around the instrument location; i.e., up to 1960 km2 can be sampled with high time resolution. The instrument was deployed as part of the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, from 7 June to 6 July 2013. We present first measurements (modes 1 and 2 only) and describe a four-step retrieval to derive (a) boundary layer vertical profiles and MLH of NO2; (b

  5. Probabilistic models and numerical calculation of system matrix and sensitivity in list-mode MLEM 3D reconstruction of Compton camera images.

    PubMed

    Maxim, Voichita; Lojacono, Xavier; Hilaire, Estelle; Krimmer, Jochen; Testa, Etienne; Dauvergne, Denis; Magnin, Isabelle; Prost, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the system matrix and the sensitivity for iterative reconstruction in Compton camera imaging. Proposed models and numerical calculation strategies are compared through the influence they have on the three-dimensional reconstructed images. The study attempts to address four questions. First, it proposes an analytic model for the system matrix. Second, it suggests a method for its numerical validation with Monte Carlo simulated data. Third, it compares analytical models of the sensitivity factors with Monte Carlo simulated values. Finally, it shows how the system matrix and the sensitivity calculation strategies influence the quality of the reconstructed images.

  6. Summary of MELCOR 1.8.2 calculations for three LOCA sequences (AG, S2D, and S3D) at the Surry Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetyk, L.; Smith, L.

    1994-03-01

    Activities involving regulatory implementation of updated source term information were pursued. These activities include the identification of the source term, the identification of the chemical form of iodine in the source term, and the timing of the source term`s entrance into containment. These activities are intended to support a more realistic source term for licensing nuclear power plants than the current TID-14844 source term and current licensing assumptions. MELCOR calculations were performed to support the technical basis for the updated source term. This report presents the results from three MELCOR calculations of nuclear power plant accident sequences and presents comparisons with Source Term code Package (STCP) calculations for the same sequences. The three low-pressure sequences were analyzed to identify the materials which enter containment (source terms) and are available for release to the environment, and to obtain timing of sequence events. The source terms include fission products and other materials such as those generated by core-concrete interactions. All three calculations, for both MELCOR and STCP, analyzed the Surry plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a subatmospheric containment design.

  7. Calculations of non-gray gas radiative heat transfer by coupling the discrete ordinates method with the Leckner model in 3D rectangular enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi Azarkhavarani, M. E.; Hosseini Abardeh, R.; Rahmani, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this study a new approach for radiation heat flux calculations by coupling the discrete ordinates method with the Leckner global model is introduced. The aim is to analyze the radiative heat transfer problem within a three-dimensional enclosure filled with non-gray gas mixture of {H}2{O} and {C}{O}2. A computer code developed by this approach is applied to radiative calculations in three groups of well-known test cases published previously; considering homogeneous and inhomogeneous isothermal and non-isothermal participating media. All results are compared with well-known calculations based on statistical narrow band model. Also a new series of predictions for a medium with non-black walls and various mixture of {H}2{O} and {C}{O}2 is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the Leckner model. The effect of different compositions of {H}2{O} and {C}{O}2 on the radiative transfer within modern combustors is also examined. Based on the results obtained, it is believed that the discrete ordinates method coupled with the Leckner global model despite of its inherent simplicity and low computational cost is sufficiently accurate. For its convenient use, this method is suitable for a wide range of engineering calculations of participating media as well as for its link to previously written computational fluid dynamics codes.

  8. Calculations of non-gray gas radiative heat transfer by coupling the discrete ordinates method with the Leckner model in 3D rectangular enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi Azarkhavarani, M. E.; Hosseini Abardeh, R.; Rahmani, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a new approach for radiation heat flux calculations by coupling the discrete ordinates method with the Leckner global model is introduced. The aim is to analyze the radiative heat transfer problem within a three-dimensional enclosure filled with non-gray gas mixture of H2O and CO2 . A computer code developed by this approach is applied to radiative calculations in three groups of well-known test cases published previously; considering homogeneous and inhomogeneous isothermal and non-isothermal participating media. All results are compared with well-known calculations based on statistical narrow band model. Also a new series of predictions for a medium with non-black walls and various mixture of H2O and CO2 is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the Leckner model. The effect of different compositions of H2O and CO2 on the radiative transfer within modern combustors is also examined. Based on the results obtained, it is believed that the discrete ordinates method coupled with the Leckner global model despite of its inherent simplicity and low computational cost is sufficiently accurate. For its convenient use, this method is suitable for a wide range of engineering calculations of participating media as well as for its link to previously written computational fluid dynamics codes.

  9. Global magnetosphere-like 3D structure formation in kinetics by hot magnetized plasma flow characterized by shape of the particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubchenko, Vladimir

    The task was to provide an analytical elementary magnetosphere-like model in kinetics for verification of the 3D EM PIC codes created for space/aerospace and HED plasmas applications. Kinetic approach versus cold MHD approach takes into account different behavior in the EM fields of resonant and non resonant particles in the velocity phase space, which appears via shape characteristics of the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) and via the spatial dispersion effect forming the collisionless dissipation in the EM fields. The external flow is a hot collisionless plasma characterized by the particle velocity distribution function (PVDF) with different shapes: Maxwellian, kappa, etc. The flow is in a “hot regime”: it can be supersonic but its velocity remains less the thermal velocity of the electrons. The “internal” part of the magnetosphere formed by trapped particles is the prescribed 3D stationary magnetization considered as a spherical “quasiparticle” with internal magnetodipole and toroidal moments represented as a broadband EM driver. We obtain after the linearization of Vlasov/Maxwell equations a self-consistent 3D large scale kinetic solution of the classic problem. Namely, we: model the “outer” part of the magnetosphere formed by external hot plasma flow of the flyby particles. Solution of the Vlasov equation expressed via a tensor of dielectric permittivity of nonmagnetized and magnetized flowing plasma. Here, we obtain the direct kinetic dissipative effect of the magnetotail formation and the opposite diamagnetic effect of the magnetosphere “dipolization”. We get MHD wave cone in flow magnetized by external guiding magnetic (GM) field. Magnetosphere in our consideration is a 3D dissipative “wave” package structure of the skinned EM fields formed by the “waves” excited at frequency bands where we obtain negative values and singularities (resonances) of squared EM refractive index of the cold plasma. The hot regime

  10. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl: Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinas, A. F.; Gurgiolo, C. A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Wendel, D. E.; Goldstein, M. L.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    The current hypothesis of the formation of the solar wind halo electrons is that they are produced from scattering of the strahl. This hypothesis is strengthened by direct observations of the strahl electrons being scattered into the halo in an isolated event. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions, a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a limited energy range. The observation implies that the formation of the halo is not a continuous process but occurs in bursts in regions where conditions for wave growth providing the scattering are optimum. Sometimes, observations indicates that the strahl component is anisotropic (Tper/Tpal ~ 2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism, however this condition is not always observed. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  11. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, SGI IRIS VERSION (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  13. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  14. Total maximum allocated load calculation of nitrogen pollutants by linking a 3D biogeochemical-hydrodynamic model with a programming model in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Aiquan; Li, Keqiang; Ding, Dongsheng; Li, Yan; Liang, Shengkang; Li, Yanbin; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiulin

    2015-12-01

    The equal percent removal (EPR) method, in which pollutant reduction ratio was set as the same in all administrative regions, failed to satisfy the requirement for water quality improvement in the Bohai Sea. Such requirement was imposed by the developed Coastal Pollution Total Load Control Management. The total maximum allocated load (TMAL) of nitrogen pollutants in the sea-sink source regions (SSRs) around the Bohai Rim, which is the maximum pollutant load of every outlet under the limitation of water quality criteria, was estimated by optimization-simulation method (OSM) combined with loop approximation calculation. In OSM, water quality is simulated using a water quality model and pollutant load is calculated with a programming model. The effect of changes in pollutant loads on TMAL was discussed. Results showed that the TMAL of nitrogen pollutants in 34 SSRs was 1.49×105 ton/year. The highest TMAL was observed in summer, whereas the lowest in winter. TMAL was also higher in the Bohai Strait and central Bohai Sea and lower in the inner area of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay. In loop approximation calculation, the TMAL obtained was considered satisfactory for water quality criteria as fluctuation of concentration response matrix with pollutant loads was eliminated. Results of numerical experiment further showed that water quality improved faster and were more evident under TMAL input than that when using the EPR method

  15. Analysis of the energy distribution of interface traps related to tunnel oxide degradation using charge pumping techniques for 3D NAND flash applications

    SciTech Connect

    An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Tae Geun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The degradation tendency extracted by CP technique was almost the same in both the bulk-type and TFT-type cells. - Highlights: • D{sub it} is directly investigated from bulk-type and TFT-type CTF memory. • Charge pumping technique was employed to analyze the D{sub it} information. • To apply the CP technique to monitor the reliability of the 3D NAND flash. - Abstract: The energy distribution and density of interface traps (D{sub it}) are directly investigated from bulk-type and thin-film transistor (TFT)-type charge trap flash memory cells with tunnel oxide degradation, under program/erase (P/E) cycling using a charge pumping (CP) technique, in view of application in a 3-demension stackable NAND flash memory cell. After P/E cycling in bulk-type devices, the interface trap density gradually increased from 1.55 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} to 3.66 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} due to tunnel oxide damage, which was consistent with the subthreshold swing and transconductance degradation after P/E cycling. Its distribution moved toward shallow energy levels with increasing cycling numbers, which coincided with the decay rate degradation with short-term retention time. The tendency extracted with the CP technique for D{sub it} of the TFT-type cells was similar to those of bulk-type cells.

  16. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-03-01

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ``end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified.

  17. Benchmarking of calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections using the 3-D, MC codes PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, MCNPX_HI, and NUCFRG2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.; Niita, K.; Sato, T.; Townsend, L.; Farmer, C.; Pinsky, L.; Ferrari, A.; Cerutti, F.; Gomes, I.

    Particles and heavy ions are used in various fields of nuclear physics, medical physics, and material science, and their interactions with different media, including human tissue and critical organs, have therefore carefully been investigated both experimentally and theoretically since the 1930s. However, heavy-ion transport includes many complex processes and measurements for all possible systems, including critical organs, would be impractical or too expensive; e.g. direct measurements of dose equivalents to critical organs in humans cannot be performed. A reliable and accurate particle and heavy-ion transport code is therefore an essential tool in the design study of accelerator facilities as well as for other various applications. Recently, new applications have also arisen within transmutation and reactor science, space and medicine, especially radiotherapy, and several accelerator facilities are operating or planned for construction. Accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of particles and heavy ions is also necessary for estimating radiation damage to equipment used on space vehicles, to calculate the transport of the heavy ions in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) through the interstellar medium, and the evolution of the heavier elements after the Big Bang. Concerns about the biological effect of space radiation and space dosimetry are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration astronaut missions, both in relation to the International Space Station and to manned interplanetary missions in near future. Radiation protection studies for crews of international flights at high altitude have also received considerable attention in recent years. There is therefore a need to develop accurate and reliable particle and heavy-ion transport codes. To be able to calculate complex geometries, including production and transport of protons, neutrons, and alpha particles, 3-dimensional transport using Monte Carlo (MC) technique must be used. Today

  18. Calculations of heavy ion charge state distributions for nonequilibrium conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhn, A.; Hovestadt, D.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the charge state distributions of test ions in a hot plasma under nonequilibrium conditions are presented. The mean ionic charges of heavy ions for finite residence times in an instantaneously heated plasma and for a non-Maxwellian electron distribution function are derived. The results are compared with measurements of the charge states of solar energetic particles, and it is found that neither of the two simple cases considered can explain the observations.

  19. Multi-fields direct design approach in 3D: calculating a two-surface freeform lens with an entrance pupil for line imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yunfeng; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian

    2015-12-28

    Including an entrance pupil in optical systems provides clear benefits for balancing the overall performance of freeform and/or rotationally symmetric imaging systems. Current existing direct design methods that are based on perfect imaging of few discrete ray bundles are not well suited for wide field of view systems. In this paper, a three-dimensional multi-fields direct design approach is proposed to balance the full field imaging performance of a two-surface freeform lens. The optical path lengths and image points of numerous fields are calculated during the procedures, wherefore very few initial parameters are needed in advance. Design examples of a barcode scanner lens as well as a line imaging objective are introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. PMID:26832061

  20. Electrostatic potential and Born energy of charged molecules interacting with phospholipid membranes: calculation via 3-D numerical solution of the full Poisson equation.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, J E; Lambrakis, K C

    1991-09-21

    Understanding the physicochemical basis of the interaction of molecules with lipid bilayers is fundamental to membrane biology. In this study, a new, three-dimensional numerical solution of the full Poisson equation including local dielectric variation is developed using finite difference techniques in order to model electrostatic interactions of charged molecules with a non-uniform dielectric. This solution is used to describe the electric field and electrostatic potential profile of a charged molecule interacting with a phospholipid bilayer in a manner consistent with the known composition and structure of the membrane. Furthermore, the Born interaction energy is then calculated by appropriate integration of the electric field over whole space. Numerical computations indicate that the electrostatic potential profile surrounding a charge molecule and its resultant Born interaction energy are a function of molecular position within the membrane and change most significantly within the polar region of the bilayer. The maximum interaction energy is observed when the charge is placed at the center of the hydrophobic core of the membrane and is strongly dependent on the size of the charge and on the thickness of the hydrocarbon core of the bilayer. The numerical results of this continuum model are compared with various analytical approximations for the Born energy including models established for discontinuous slab dielectrics. The calculated energies agree with the well-known Born analytical expression only when the charge is located near the center of a hydrocarbon core of greater than 60 A in thickness. The Born-image model shows excellent agreement with the numerical results only when modified to include an appropriate effective thickness of the low dielectric region. In addition, a newly derived approximation which considers the local mean dielectric provides a simple and continuous solution that also agrees well with the numerical results.

  1. Improving the calculation of rovibrational spectra of five-atom molecules with three identical atoms by using a C3upsilonG6 symmetry-adapted grid: applied to CH3D and CHD3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2005-10-15

    In this paper we report two improvements on the approach we have used to compute rovibrational levels of methane and apply the new ideas to calculate rovibrational levels of two methane isotopomers CH3D and CHD3. Both improvements make the bend calculation better. The first improvement is a G6-invariant (or C3upsilon-invariant) grid which is designed such that each point on the grid is mapped to another point on the grid by any of the G6 operations. The second improvement is the use of fast Fourier transform (FFT) to compute the bend potential matrix-vector products. The FFT matrix-vector product is about three and ten times faster than the previous sequential summation method for the J=0 and J>0 cases, respectively. The calculated J=1 rovibrational levels of CH3D and CHD3 on the Schwenke and Partridge [Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 57, 887 (2001)] ab initio potential are in good agreement (within 6 cm(-1) for the levels up to 3000 cm(-1)) with the experimental data. The agreement is even better (within 0.1 cm(-1) for the levels up to 6000 cm(-1)) if the associated J=0 energies are subtracted. PMID:16252944

  2. Monte-Carlo Simulation of Heavy Ion Track Structure Calculation of Local Dose and 3D Time Evolution of Radiolytic Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy ions have gained considerable importance in radiotherapy due to their advantageous dose distribution profile and high Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). Heavy ions are difficult to produce on Earth, but they are present in space and it is impossible at this moment to completely shield astronauts from them. The risk of these radiations is poorly understood, which is a concern for a 3-years Mars mission. The effects of radiation are mainly due to DNA damage such as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), although non-targeted effects are also very important. DNA can be damaged by the direct interaction of radiation and by reactions with chemical species produced by the radiolysis of water. The energy deposition is of crucial importance to understand biological effects of radiation. Therefore, much effort has been done recently to improve models of radiation tracks.

  3. Exact Chord-Length Distribution For SEU Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Luke, Keung L.

    1990-01-01

    Computed rates of SEU's more accurate. Exact integral chord-length distribution derived for use in calculations of rates of single-event upsets (SEU's) (changes in logic states) caused by impingement of cosmic rays or other ionizing radiation on electronic logic circuits.

  4. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  5. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  6. Energetic evaluation of possible interstitial compound formation of BaSi2 with 2p-, 3s-, and 3d-elements using first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yoji; Sohma, Mitsugu; Suemasu, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The energy changes in the formation of interstitially doped BaSi2, caused by doping with Na, Mg, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, B, C, N, O, F, and Ne, are calculated using the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximations of the density functional theory. It is predicted that the majority of the elements, apart from Na, Mg, Zn, and Ne, are capable of forming interstitially doped compounds with BaSi2, if these elements are provided as an isolated atom. However, the energetic stabilities of the standard states of these elements (metals, diatomic gases, etc.) exceed the energy gain accompanying the formation of the interstitial compounds and, therefore, the conventional diffusion method using metals or gaseous source materials cannot produce the interstitial compounds. From the energetic perspective, B, C, N, O, and F appear to be favorably inserted into the BaSi2 lattice, but the observed behavior of B-implanted BaSi2 suggests that substitution of B for Si may occur.

  7. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, P. X.; Lian, F. L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W. S.; Zhao, H. F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D. H.; Wu, Z. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrPC) to the post-translationally modified form (PrPSc) is thought to be relevant to Cu2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases.

  8. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  9. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  10. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  11. SHAPEMOL: a 3D code for calculating CO line emission in planetary and protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed model-fitting of the complex nebula NGC 6302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Koning, N.; Steffen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Modern instrumentation in radioastronomy constitutes a valuable tool for studying the Universe: ALMA has reached unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolution, while Herschel/HIFI has opened a new window (most of the sub-mm and far-infrared ranges are only accessible from space) for probing molecular warm gas (~50-1000 K). On the other hand, the software SHAPE has emerged in the past few years as a standard tool for determining the morphology and velocity field of different kinds of gaseous emission nebulae via spatio-kinematical modelling. Standard SHAPE implements radiative transfer solving, but it is only available for atomic species and not for molecules. Aims: Being aware of the growing importance of the development of tools for simplifying the analyses of molecular data from new-era observatories, we introduce the computer code shapemol, a complement to SHAPE, with which we intend to fill the so-far under-developed molecular niche. Methods: shapemol enables user-friendly, spatio-kinematic modelling with accurate non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer in CO lines. Currently, it allows radiative transfer solving in the 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 to J = 17-16 lines, but its implementation permits easily extending the code to different transitions and other molecular species, either by the code developers or by the user. Used along SHAPE, shapemol allows easily generating synthetic maps to test against interferometric observations, as well as synthetic line profiles to match single-dish observations. Results: We give a full description of how shapemol works, and we discuss its limitations and the sources of uncertainty to be expected in the final synthetic profiles or maps. As an example of the power and versatility of shapemol, we build a model of the molecular envelope of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 and compare it with 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 interferometric maps from SMA and high-J transitions from Herschel/HIFI. We find the

  12. Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.

  13. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  14. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  15. 3_D modeling using TLS and GPR techniques to characterize above and below-ground wood distribution in pyroclastic deposits along the Blanco River (Chilean Patagonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdebenito, Galo; Tonon, Alessia; Iroume, Andrés; Alvarado, David; Fuentes, Carlos; Picco, Lorenzo; Lenzi, Mario

    2016-04-01

    origin, suggesting that these elements were generated by toppling and breaking of surrounding dead trees. Results obtained with the GPR confirm the ability of this instrument to localize the presence and distribution of buried wood. From the 3-D analysis it was possible to assess the spatial distribution and to estimate, as first approach, the volume of the buried wood which represents approximately 0.04% of the entire volcanic deposit. Further analysis will focus on additional GPR calibration with different wood sizes for a more accurate estimation of the volume. The knowledge of the overall wood amount stored in a fluvial system that can be remobilized over time, represent an essential factor to ensure better forest and river management actions.

  16. Combined 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation studies on the 5-hydroxy-2H-pyridazin-3-one derivatives as HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijing; Fang, Yu; Lu, Xia; Liu, Yongjuan; Zhang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    The NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) is a promising therapeutic target for developing novel anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs. In this work, a combined molecular modeling study was performed on a series of 193 5-hydroxy-2H-pyridazin-3-one derivatives as inhibitors of HCV NS5B Polymerase. The best 3D-QSAR models, including CoMFA and CoMSIA, are based on receptor (or docking). Furthermore, a 40-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and binding free energy calculations using docked structures of NS5B with ten compounds, which have diverse structures and pIC50 values, were employed to determine the detailed binding process and to compare the binding modes of the inhibitors with different activities. On one side, the stability and rationality of molecular docking and 3D-QSAR results were validated by MD simulation. The binding free energies calculated by the MM-PBSA method gave a good correlation with the experimental biological activity. On the other side, by analyzing some differences between the molecular docking and the MD simulation results, we can find that the MD simulation could also remedy the defects of molecular docking. The analyses of the combined molecular modeling results have identified that Tyr448, Ser556, and Asp318 are the key amino acid residues in the NS5B binding pocket. The results from this study can provide some insights into the development of novel potent NS5B inhibitors.

  17. Experimental validation of an analytical method of calculating photon distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Celler, A.; Harrop, R.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed a method for analytically calculating photon distributions in SPECT projections. This method models primary photon distributions as well as first and second order Compton scattering and Rayleigh scattering. It uses no free fitting parameters and so the projections produced are completely determined by the characteristics of the SPECT camera system, the energy of the isotope, an estimate of the source distribution and an attenuation map of the scattering object. The method was previously validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and we are now verifying its accuracy with respect to phantom experiments. We have performed experiments using a Siemens MS3 SPECT camera system for a point source (2mm in diameter) within a homogeneous water bath and a small spherical source (1cm in diameter) within both a homogeneous water cylinder and a non-homogeneous medium consisting of air and water. Our technique reproduces well the distribution of photons in the experimentally acquired projections.

  18. Calculations of the integral invariant coordinates I and L* in the magnetosphere and mapping of the regions where I is conserved, using a particle tracer (ptr3D v2.0), LANL*, SPENVIS, and IRBEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, K.; Sarris, T.

    2015-09-01

    The integral invariant coordinate I and Roederer's L or L* are proxies for the second and third adiabatic invariants, respectively, that characterize charged particle motion in a magnetic field. Their usefulness lies in the fact that they are expressed in more instructive ways than their counterparts: I is equivalent to the path length of the particle motion between two mirror points, whereas L*, although dimensionless, is equivalent to the distance from the center of the Earth to the equatorial point of a given field line, in units of Earth radii, in the simplified case of a dipole magnetic field. However, care should be taken when calculating the above invariants, as the assumption of their conservation is not valid everywhere in the Earth's magnetosphere. This is not clearly stated in state-of-the-art models that are widely used for the calculation of these invariants. The purpose of this work is thus to investigate where in the near-Earth magnetosphere we can safely calculate I and L* with tools with widespread use in the field of space physics, for various magnetospheric conditions and particle initial conditions. More particularly, in this paper we compare the values of I and L* as calculated using LANL*, an artificial neural network developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, SPENVIS, a space environment online tool, IRBEM, a software library dedicated to radiation belt modeling, and ptr3D, a 3-D particle tracing code that was developed for this study. We then attempt to quantify the variations between the calculations of I and L* of those models. The deviation between the results given by the models depends on particle initial position, pitch angle and magnetospheric conditions. Using the ptr3D v2.0 particle tracer we map the areas in the Earth's magnetosphere where I and L* can be assumed to be conserved by monitoring the constancy of I for energetic protons propagating forwards and backwards in time. These areas are found to be centered on the noon

  19. Validation of a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for IMRT and VMAT treatments using on-treatment EPID images and a model-based forward-calculation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Van Uytven, Eric Van Beek, Timothy; McCowan, Peter M.; Chytyk-Praznik, Krista; Greer, Peter B.; McCurdy, Boyd M. C.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Radiation treatments are trending toward delivering higher doses per fraction under stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated treatment regimens. There is a need for accurate 3D in vivo patient dose verification using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. This work presents a model-based technique to compute full three-dimensional patient dose reconstructed from on-treatment EPID portal images (i.e., transmission images). Methods: EPID dose is converted to incident fluence entering the patient using a series of steps which include converting measured EPID dose to fluence at the detector plane and then back-projecting the primary source component of the EPID fluence upstream of the patient. Incident fluence is then recombined with predicted extra-focal fluence and used to calculate 3D patient dose via a collapsed-cone convolution method. This method is implemented in an iterative manner, although in practice it provides accurate results in a single iteration. The robustness of the dose reconstruction technique is demonstrated with several simple slab phantom and nine anthropomorphic phantom cases. Prostate, head and neck, and lung treatments are all included as well as a range of delivery techniques including VMAT and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results: Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For simple phantom and square field tests, agreement was excellent with a 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rate ≥98.9%. On anthropomorphic phantoms, the 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rates ranged from 79.9% to 99.9% in the planning target volume (PTV) region and 96.5% to 100% in the low dose region (>20% of prescription, excluding PTV and skin build-up region). Conclusions: An algorithm to reconstruct delivered patient 3D doses from EPID exit dosimetry measurements was presented. The method was applied to phantom and patient

  20. Calculation of energy deposition distributions for simple geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    When high-energy charged particles pass through a thin detector, the ionization energy loss in that detector is subject to fluctuations or straggling which must be considered in interpreting the data. Under many conditions, which depend upon the charge and energy of the incident particle and the detector geometry, the ionization energy lost by the particle is significantly different from the energy deposited in the detector. This problem divides naturally into a calculation of the energy loss that results in excitation and low-energy secondary electrons which do not travel far from their production points, and a calculation of energy loss that results in high-energy secondary electrons which can escape from the detector. The first calculation is performed using a modification of the Vavilov energy loss distribution. A cutoff energy is introduced above which all electrons are ignored and energy transferred to low energy particles is assumed to be equivalent to the energy deposited by them. For the second calculation, the trajectory of the primary particle is considered as a source of secondary high-energy electrons. The electrons from this source are transported using Monte Carlo techniques and multiple scattering theory, and the energy deposited by them in the detector is calculated. The results of the two calculations are then combined to predict the energy deposition distribution. The results of these calculations are used to predict the charge resolution of parallel-plate pulse ionization chambers that are being designed to measure the charge spectrum of heavy nuclei in the galactic cosmic-ray flux.

  1. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  2. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  3. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  4. Effect of attachment types and number of implants supporting mandibular overdentures on stress distribution: a computed tomography-based 3D finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Arat Bilhan, Selda; Baykasoglu, Cengiz; Bilhan, Hakan; Kutay, Omer; Mugan, Ata

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate stresses in bone tissue surrounding uncoupled and splinted implants that are induced by a bite force applied to the mandible and to determine whether the number of mandibular overdenture supporting implants in mandibular bone influence the stress distribution. A human adult edentulous mandible retrieved from a formalin fixed cadaver was used to define the geometry of finite element (FE) model and the FE model was verified with experimental measurements. Following the FE model validation, three different biting situations were simulated for the 2-, 3- and 4-implant retentive anchor as well as bar attachment overdentures under vertical loading of 100 N. As a result of the analyses, it was concluded that an increment in implant number and the splinted attachment type tended to cause lower stresses and the use of two single attachments seems to be a safe and sufficient solution for the treatment of mandibular edentulism with overdentures.

  5. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  6. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  7. Comparison of Measured Leakage Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Ladbury, R.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; Howe, C.; Weller, B.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Jordan, T. M.; Fodness, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distribution were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [I]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Car10 code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. The nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) has a negligible effect on the shape of the damage distribution. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3,4], a Geant4 [4,5] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  8. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  9. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  10. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  11. 3D palmprint data fast acquisition and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxu; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a fast 3D (Three-Dimension) palmprint capturing system and develops an efficient 3D palmprint feature extraction and recognition method. In order to fast acquire accurate 3D shape and texture of palmprint, a DLP projector triggers a CCD camera to realize synchronization. By generating and projecting green fringe pattern images onto the measured palm surface, 3D palmprint data are calculated from the fringe pattern images. The periodic feature vector can be derived from the calculated 3D palmprint data, so undistorted 3D biometrics is obtained. Using the obtained 3D palmprint data, feature matching test have been carried out by Gabor filter, competition rules and the mean curvature. Experimental results on capturing 3D palmprint show that the proposed acquisition method can fast get 3D shape information of palmprint. Some initial experiments on recognition show the proposed method is efficient by using 3D palmprint data.

  12. Performance of dose calculation algorithms from three generations in lung SBRT: comparison with full Monte Carlo-based dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Jarkko J; Kapanen, Mika K; Hyödynmaa, Simo J; Wigren, Tuija K; Pitkänen, Maunu A

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of dose calculation is a key challenge in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of the lung. We have benchmarked three photon beam dose calculation algorithms--pencil beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Acuros XB (AXB)--implemented in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), Varian Eclipse. Dose distributions from full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were regarded as a reference. In the first stage, for four patients with central lung tumors, treatment plans using 3D conformal radiotherapy (CRT) technique applying 6 MV photon beams were made using the AXB algorithm, with planning criteria according to the Nordic SBRT study group. The plans were recalculated (with same number of monitor units (MUs) and identical field settings) using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc MC codes. The MC-calculated dose distributions were compared to corresponding AXB-calculated dose distributions to assess the accuracy of the AXB algorithm, to which then other TPS algorithms were compared. In the second stage, treatment plans were made for ten patients with 3D CRT technique using both the PBC algorithm and the AAA. The plans were recalculated (with same number of MUs and identical field settings) with the AXB algorithm, then compared to original plans. Throughout the study, the comparisons were made as a function of the size of the planning target volume (PTV), using various dose-volume histogram (DVH) and other parameters to quantitatively assess the plan quality. In the first stage also, 3D gamma analyses with threshold criteria 3%/3mm and 2%/2 mm were applied. The AXB-calculated dose distributions showed relatively high level of agreement in the light of 3D gamma analysis and DVH comparison against the full MC simulation, especially with large PTVs, but, with smaller PTVs, larger discrepancies were found. Gamma agreement index (GAI) values between 95.5% and 99.6% for all the plans with the threshold criteria 3%/3 mm were achieved, but 2%/2 mm

  13. TH-E-BRE-01: A 3D Solver of Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation Based On a New Angular Discretization Method with Positivity for Photon Dose Calculation Benchmarked with Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X; Gao, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation (LBTE) solved through statistical Monte Carlo (MC) method provides the accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the alternative way for accurately solving LBTE using deterministic numerical method due to its possible advantage in computational speed from MC. Methods: Instead of using traditional spherical harmonics to approximate angular scattering kernel, our deterministic numerical method directly computes angular scattering weights, based on a new angular discretization method that utilizes linear finite element method on the local triangulation of unit angular sphere. As a Result, our angular discretization method has the unique advantage in positivity, i.e., to maintain all scattering weights nonnegative all the time, which is physically correct. Moreover, our method is local in angular space, and therefore handles the anisotropic scattering well, such as the forward-peaking scattering. To be compatible with image-guided radiotherapy, the spatial variables are discretized on the structured grid with the standard diamond scheme. After discretization, the improved sourceiteration method is utilized for solving the linear system without saving the linear system to memory. The accuracy of our 3D solver is validated using analytic solutions and benchmarked with Geant4, a popular MC solver. Results: The differences between Geant4 solutions and our solutions were less than 1.5% for various testing cases that mimic the practical cases. More details are available in the supporting document. Conclusion: We have developed a 3D LBTE solver based on a new angular discretization method that guarantees the positivity of scattering weights for physical correctness, and it has been benchmarked with Geant4 for photon dose calculation.

  14. Coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake from joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data for slip within a 3-D heterogeneous Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Sui; Masterlark, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    We derive a coseismic slip model of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake on the basis of GPS and line-of-sight displacements from ALOS-2 descending interferograms, using Green's functions calculated with a 3-D finite element model (FEM). The FEM simulates a nonuniform distribution of elastic material properties and a precise geometric configuration of the irregular topographical surface. The rupturing fault is modeled as a low-angle and north dipping surface within the Main Frontal Thrust along the convergent margin of the Himalayas. The optimal model that inherits heterogeneous material properties provides a significantly better solution than that in a homogenous domain at the 95% confidence interval. The best fit solution for the domain having a nonuniform distribution of material properties reveals a rhombus-shaped slip zone of three composite asperities. Slip is primarily concentrated at a depth of 15 km with both dip-slip (maximum 6.54 m) and strike-slip (maximum 2.0 m) components, giving rise to a geodetic-based moment of 1.09 × 1021 Nm in general agreement with the seismological estimate. The optimal relative weights among GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) are deduced from a new method, MC-HVCE which combines a Monte Carlo search and a Helmert Method of Variance Components Estimation. This method determines the relative weights in a systemic approach which preserves the intrinsic solution smoothness. The joint solution is significantly better than those inverted from each individual data set. This methodology allows us to integrate multiple data sets of geodetic observations with seismic tomography, in an effort to achieve a better understanding of seismic ruptures within crustal heterogeneity.

  15. Accurate calculation of field and carrier distributions in doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenji; Tang, Jianping; Yu, Hongchun; Wang, Yanguo

    2012-06-01

    We use the numerical squeezing algorithm(NSA) combined with the shooting method to accurately calculate the built-in fields and carrier distributions in doped silicon films (SFs) in the micron and sub-micron thickness range and results are presented in graphical form for variety of doping profiles under different boundary conditions. As a complementary approach, we also present the methods and the results of the inverse problem (IVP) - finding out the doping profile in the SFs for given field distribution. The solution of the IVP provides us the approach to arbitrarily design field distribution in SFs - which is very important for low dimensional (LD) systems and device designing. Further more, the solution of the IVP is both direct and much easy for all the one-, two-, and three-dimensional semiconductor systems. With current efforts focused on the LD physics, knowing of the field and carrier distribution details in the LD systems will facilitate further researches on other aspects and hence the current work provides a platform for those researches.

  16. Independent calculation of dose distributions for helical tomotherapy using a conventional treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Klüter, Sebastian Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local

  17. 3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.

  18. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings' surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  19. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    SciTech Connect

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris

    2013-12-16

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  20. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  1. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  2. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  4. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. The polyGeVero® software for fast and easy computation of 3D radiotherapy dosimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The polyGeVero® software package was elaborated for calculations of 3D dosimetry data such as the polymer gel dosimetry. It comprises four workspaces designed for: i) calculating calibrations, ii) storing calibrations in a database, iii) calculating dose distribution 3D cubes, iv) comparing two datasets e.g. a measured one with a 3D dosimetry with a calculated one with the aid of a treatment planning system. To accomplish calculations the software was equipped with a number of tools such as the brachytherapy isotopes database, brachytherapy dose versus distance calculation based on the line approximation approach, automatic spatial alignment of two 3D dose cubes for comparison purposes, 3D gamma index, 3D gamma angle, 3D dose difference, Pearson's coefficient, histograms calculations, isodoses superimposition for two datasets, and profiles calculations in any desired direction. This communication is to briefly present the main functions of the software and report on the speed of calculations performed by polyGeVero®.

  6. Kinoform for VLSI clock distribution calculated by nonparaxial phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Zbigniew

    1990-07-01

    Kinoform for irregular space-variant nonparaxial optical interconnection (01) was calculated by the generalized error-reduction algorithm (ERA). Diffraction limited spots easy to align for detectors of 10 im width and diffraction efficiency r 34 were obtained for the binary kmoform case. This approach is fast takes into account the incident beam intensity distribution and an equalization of the intensity between spots is easy. However the resulted surface relief is complicated. NONPARAXIAL KINOFORM SYNTHESIS Free-space Ols for clock distribution will require a low f-number (F/i) holograms due to expected detector sizes of 10 m x 10 im and typical laser diode (LD) light divergence angles of 30 and iS . Large field angles needed to obtain large fanouts and to deflect beams towards detectors located near the chip boundary also cause that paraxial conditions are not satisfied. Kinoforms which are computer generated phase holograms afford possibilities for Ols with complicated detector patterns and high . Free-space nonparaxial propagation can be described by the operator N FT QFI where Fr U f Uexp(-ikcxx1 ) dx1 U(x1) is the complex amplitude in the kinoform plane Q is the spectrum phase shift operator QFJ'' U exp ( ikz I 1 - 2 ) j''U k 2 vt/A X is the wavelength is the normalized spatial frequency and z is the separation between planes. N is an unitary transform because we may neglect evanescent waves in

  7. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  8. RACE and Calculations of Three-dimensional Distributed Cavity Phase Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Ruoxin; Gibble, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The design for RACE, a Rb-clock flight experiment for the ISS, is described. The cold collision shift and multiple launching (juggling) have important implications for the design and the resulting clock accuracy and stability. We present and discuss the double clock design for RACE. This design reduces the noise contributions of the local oscillator and simplifies and enhances an accuracy evaluation of the clock. As we try to push beyond the current accuracies of clocks, new systematic errors become important. The best fountain clocks are using cylindrical TE(sub 011) microwave cavities. We recently pointed out that many atoms pass through a node of the standing wave microwave field in these cavities. Previous studies have shown potentially large frequency shifts for atoms passing through nodes in a TE(sub 013) cavity. The shift occurs because there is a small traveling wave component due to the absorption of the copper cavity walls. The small traveling wave component leads to position dependent phase shifts. To study these effects, we perform Finite Element calculations. Three-dimensional Finite Element calculations require significant computer resources. Here we show that the cylindrical boundary condition can be Fourier decomposed to a short series of two-dimensional problems. This dramatically reduces the time and memory required and we obtain (3D) phase distributions for a variety of cavities. With these results, we will be able to analyze this frequency shift in fountain and future space clocks.

  9. Electrochemical fields within 3D reconstructed microstructures of mixed ionic and electronic conducting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Chen, Yu; Lin, Ye; Yan, Mufu; Harris, William M.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Ni, Meng; Chen, Fanglin

    2016-11-01

    The performance and stability of the mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membrane devices, such as solid oxide cells (SOCs) and oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) interplay tightly with the transport properties and the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the membrane. However, development of the MIEC devices is hindered by the limited knowledge about the distribution of electrochemical fields within the 3D local microstructures, especially at surface and interface. In this work, a generic model conforming to local thermodynamic equilibrium is developed to calculate the electrochemical fields, such as electric potential and oxygen chemical potential, within the 3D microstructure of the MIEC membrane. Stability of the MIEC membrane is evaluated by the distribution of oxygen partial pressure. The cell-level performance such as polarization resistance and voltage vs. current curve can be further calculated. Case studies are performed to demonstrate the capability of the framework by using X-ray computed tomography reconstructed 3D microstructures of a SOC and an OSM. The calculation method demonstrates high computational efficiency for large size 3D tomographic microstructures, and permits parallel calculation. The framework can serve as a powerful tool for correlating the transport properties and the 3D microstructure to the performance and the stability of MIEC devices.

  10. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  11. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  12. Calculation of nanodrop profile from fluid density distribution.

    PubMed

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2016-05-01

    Two approaches are examined, which can be used to determine the drop profile from the fluid density distributions (FDDs) obtained on the basis of microscopic theories. For simplicity, only two-dimensional (cylindrical, or axisymmetrical) distributions are examined and it is assumed that the fluid is either in contact with a smooth solid or separated from the smooth solid by a lubricating liquid film. The first approach is based on the sharp-kink interface approximation in which the density of the liquid inside and the density of the vapor outside the drop are constant with the exception of the surface layer of the drop where the density is different from the above ones. In this case, the drop profile was calculated by minimizing the total potential energy of the system. The second approach is based on a nonuniform FDD obtained either by the density functional theory or molecular dynamics simulations. To determine the drop profile from such an FDD, which does not contain sharp interfaces, three procedures can be used. In the first two procedures, P1 and P2, the one-dimensional FDDs along straight lines which are parallel to the surface of the solid are extracted from the two-dimensional FDD. Each of those one-dimensional FDDs has a vapor-liquid interface at which the fluid density changes from vapor-like to liquid-like values. Procedure P1 uses the locations of the equimolar dividing surfaces for the one-dimensional FDDs as points of the drop profile. Procedure P2 is based on the assumption that the fluid density is constant on the surface of the drop, that density being selected either arbitrarily or as a fluid density at the location of the equimolar dividing surface for one of the one-dimensional FDDs employed in procedure P1. In the third procedure, P3, which is suggested for the first time in this paper, the one-dimensional FDDs are taken along the straight lines passing through a selected point inside the drop (radial line). Then, the drop profile is

  13. CIRCE2/DEKGEN2: A software package for facilitated optical analysis of 3-D distributed solar energy concentrators. Theory and user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.J.

    1994-03-01

    CIRCE2 is a computer code for modeling the optical performance of three-dimensional dish-type solar energy concentrators. Statistical methods are used to evaluate the directional distribution of reflected rays from any given point on the concentrator. Given concentrator and receiver geometries, sunshape (angular distribution of incident rays from the sun), and concentrator imperfections such as surface roughness and random deviation in slope, the code predicts the flux distribution and total power incident upon the target. Great freedom exists in the variety of concentrator and receiver configurations that can be modeled. Additionally, provisions for shading and receiver aperturing are included.- DEKGEN2 is a preprocessor designed to facilitate input of geometry, error distributions, and sun models. This manual describes the optical model, user inputs, code outputs, and operation of the software package. A user tutorial is included in which several collectors are built and analyzed in step-by-step examples.

  14. Dynamic analysis of radial force density in brushless DC motor using 3-D equivalent magnetic circuit network method

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, J.; Chun, Y.D.; Lee, J.; Hyun, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    The distribution of radial force density in brushless permanent magnet DC motor is not uniform in axial direction. The analysis of radial force density has to consider the 3-D shape of teeth and overhand, because the radial force density causes vibration and acts on the surface of teeth inconstantly. For the analysis, a new 3-D equivalent magnetic circuit network method is used to account the rotor movement without remesh. The radial force density is calculated and analyzed by Maxwell stress tensor and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) respectively. The results of 3-D equivalent magnetic circuit method have been compared with the results of 3-D FEM.

  15. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  16. Combining Speech Recognition/Natural Language Processing with 3D Online Learning Environments to Create Distributed Authentic and Situated Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Greg; Squires, Todd; Hicks, Jeramie

    2008-01-01

    This article will describe research done at the National Institute of Multimedia in Education, Japan and the University of North Texas on the creation of a distributed Internet-based spoken language learning system that would provide more interactive and motivating learning than current multimedia and audiotape-based systems. The project combined…

  17. Maximizing Modern Distribution of Complex Anatomical Spatial Information: 3D Reconstruction and Rapid Prototype Production of Anatomical Corrosion Casts of Human Specimens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical…

  18. Spread of excitation in 3-D models of the anisotropic cardiac tissue. III. Effects of ventricular geometry and fiber structure on the potential distribution.

    PubMed

    Colli Franzone, P; Guerri, L; Pennacchio, M; Taccardi, B

    1998-07-01

    In a previous paper we studied the spread of excitation in a simplified model of the left ventricle, affected by fiber structure and obliqueness, curvature of the wall and Purkinje network. In the present paper we investigate the extracellular potential distribution u in the same ventricular model. Given the transmembrane potential v, associated with the spreading excitation, the extracellular potential u is obtained as solution of a linear elliptic equation with the source term related to v. The potential distributions were computed for point stimulations at different intramural depths. The results of the simulations enabled us to identify a number of common features which appears in all the potential patterns irrespective of pacing site. In addition, by splitting the sources into an axial and conormal component, we were able to evaluate the contribution of the classical uniform dipole layer to the total potential field and the role of the superimposed axial component.

  19. Fast Gated EPR Imaging of the Beating Heart: Spatiotemporally-Resolved 3D Imaging of Free Radical Distribution during the Cardiac Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiyu; Reyes, Levy A.; Johnson, David H.; Velayutham, Murugesan; Yang, Changjun; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    In vivo or ex vivo electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a powerful technique for determining the spatial distribution of free radicals and other paramagnetic species in living organs and tissues. However, applications of EPRI have been limited by long projection acquisition times and the consequent fact that rapid gated EPRI was not possible. Hence in vivo EPRI typically provided only time-averaged information. In order to achieve direct gated EPRI, a fast EPR acquisition scheme was developed to decrease EPR projection acquisition time down to 10 – 20 ms, along with corresponding software and instrumentation to achieve fast gated EPRI of the isolated beating heart with submillimeter spatial resolution in as little as 2 to 3 minutes. Reconstructed images display temporal and spatial variations of the free radical distribution, anatomical structure, and contractile function within the rat heart during the cardiac cycle. PMID:22473660

  20. Users manual for the NASA Lewis three-dimensional ice accretion code (LEWICE 3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the methodology, the algorithms, and the input and output data along with an example case for the NASA Lewis 3D ice accretion code (LEWICE3D) has been produced. The manual has been designed to help the user understand the capabilities, the methodologies, and the use of the code. The LEWICE3D code is a conglomeration of several codes for the purpose of calculating ice shapes on three-dimensional external surfaces. A three-dimensional external flow panel code is incorporated which has the capability of calculating flow about arbitrary 3D lifting and nonlifting bodies with external flow. A fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to calculate arbitrary streamlines. An Adams type predictor-corrector trajectory integration scheme has been included to calculate arbitrary trajectories. Schemes for calculating tangent trajectories, collection efficiencies, and concentration factors for arbitrary regions of interest for single droplets or droplet distributions have been incorporated. A LEWICE 2D based heat transfer algorithm can be used to calculate ice accretions along surface streamlines. A geometry modification scheme is incorporated which calculates the new geometry based on the ice accretions generated at each section of interest. The three-dimensional ice accretion calculation is based on the LEWICE 2D calculation. Both codes calculate the flow, pressure distribution, and collection efficiency distribution along surface streamlines. For both codes the heat transfer calculation is divided into two regions, one above the stagnation point and one below the stagnation point, and solved for each region assuming a flat plate with pressure distribution. Water is assumed to follow the surface streamlines, hence starting at the stagnation zone any water that is not frozen out at a control volume is assumed to run back into the next control volume. After the amount of frozen water at each control volume has been calculated the geometry is modified by

  1. Distribution and Viability of Fetal and Adult Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in a Biaxial Rotating Vessel Bioreactor after Seeding on Polymeric 3D Additive Manufactured Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Leferink, Anne M.; Chng, Yhee-Cheng; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering-based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs) seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of indicators for stemness and differentiation are not significantly changed upon this bioreactor culture, whereas static culture shows variations of several indicators for stemness and differentiation. The biaxial rotating bioreactor presented here offers a homogeneous distribution of hfMSCs, enabling studies on MSCs fate in additive manufactured scaffolds without inducing undesired differentiation. PMID:26557644

  2. Micro-CT observations of the 3D distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in cotyledons during maturation and germination in Lotus miyakojimae seeds.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Hayami, Masato; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Karahara, Ichirou; Sato, Mayuko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takano, Hidekazu; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu

    2013-06-01

    The cotyledon of legume seeds is a storage organ that provides nutrients for seed germination and seedling growth. The spatial and temporal control of the degradation processes within cotyledons has not been elucidated. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals, a common calcium deposit in plants, have often been reported to be present in legume seeds. In this study, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was employed at the SPring-8 facility to examine the three-dimensional distribution of crystals inside cotyledons during seed maturation and germination of Lotus miyakojimae (previously Lotus japonicus accession Miyakojima MG-20). Using this technique, we could detect the outline of the embryo, void spaces in seeds and the cotyledon venation pattern. We found several sites that strongly inhibited X-ray transmission within the cotyledons. Light and polarizing microscopy confirmed that these areas corresponded to CaOx crystals. Three-dimensional observations of dry seeds indicated that the CaOx crystals in the L. miyakojimae cotyledons were distributed along lateral veins; however, their distribution was limited to the abaxial side of the procambium. The CaOx crystals appeared at stage II (seed-filling stage) of seed development, and their number increased in dry seeds. The number of crystals in cotyledons was high during germination, suggesting that CaOx crystals are not degraded for their calcium supply. Evidence for the conservation of CaOx crystals in cotyledons during the L. miyakojimae germination process was also supported by the biochemical measurement of oxalic acid levels.

  3. 3D Geologic and Reservoir Modelling of a Distributive Fluvial System Derived from lidar: A Case Study of the Huesca Fluvial Fan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Brian; Hodgetts, David; Redfern, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Understanding stratigraphic and depositional architecture in a fluvially dominated system is fundamental when trying to model and characterise properties such as geometric relationships, heterogeneity, lithologic patterns or trends of the system as well as any associated petrophysical properties or behaviours. The Huesca fluvial fan, an Oligocene - Miocene age Distributive Fluvial System (DFS) in the northern extent of the Ebro Basin, is used extensively as an outcrop analogue for modelling fluvial hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as a base for the DFS model. To further improve understanding of the system, mapping techniques using lidar integrated with Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (DGNSS) measurements were used to create sub-metre (spatially) accurate geologic models of the medial-distal portions of the DFS. In addition to the digital terrain data, traditional field sedimentary logs, structural and palaeocurrent measurements, and samples for petrophysical analysis were also collected near the town of Piracés in a series of amphitheatres and canal cuts that expose excellent two and three-dimensional views of the strata. The geologic models and subsequent analyses derived from the data will provide a quantitative tool to further understand the depositional architecture, geometric relationship and lithologic characteristics across the studied portion of the distributive fluvial system. Utilizing the inherent quantitative nature of the terrain data in combination with the traditional field and sample data collected, an outcrop based geocellular model of the studied section can be constructed by using several geostatistical modelling approaches to describe geo-body geometries (thickness and width ratio) for the associated fluvial architecture, as well as facies distribution and observed petrophysical characteristics. The resolution of the digital terrain data (<10cm) allowed for an accurate integration of the field observations (palaeoflow

  4. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  5. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  6. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  7. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  8. Soft 3D acoustic metamaterial with negative index.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Thomas; Merlin, Aurore; Mascaro, Benoit; Zimny, Kevin; Leng, Jacques; Poncelet, Olivier; Aristégui, Christophe; Mondain-Monval, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to the design and achievement of negative-refractive-index metamaterials since the 2000s. One of the challenges at present is to extend that field beyond electromagnetism by realizing three-dimensional (3D) media with negative acoustic indices. We report a new class of locally resonant ultrasonic metafluids consisting of a concentrated suspension of macroporous microbeads engineered using soft-matter techniques. The propagation of Gaussian pulses within these random distributions of 'ultra-slow' Mie resonators is investigated through in situ ultrasonic experiments. The real part of the acoustic index is shown to be negative (up to almost - 1) over broad frequency bandwidths, depending on the volume fraction of the microbeads as predicted by multiple-scattering calculations. These soft 3D acoustic metamaterials open the way for key applications such as sub-wavelength imaging and transformation acoustics, which require the production of acoustic devices with negative or zero-valued indices. PMID:25502100

  9. Influence of Implant Position on Stress Distribution in Implant-Assisted Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures: A 3D Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Memari, Yeganeh; Geramy, Allahyar; Fayaz, Amir; Rezvani Habib Abadi, Shirin; Mansouri, Yasaman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Distal extension removable partial denture is a prosthesis with lack of distal dental support with a 13-fold difference in resiliency between the mucosa and the periodontal ligament, resulting in leverage during compression forces. It may be potentially destructive to the abutments and the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of implant location on stress distribution, in distal extension implant assisted removable partial dentures. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models of a bilateral distal extension partially edentulous mandible containing anterior teeth and first premolar in both sides of the arch, a partial removable denture and an implant (4×10mm) were designed. With the aid of the finite element program ANSYS 8.0, the models were meshed and strictly vertical forces of 10 N were applied to each cusp tip. Displacement and von Mises Maps were plotted for visualization of results. Results: When an implant was placed in the second premolar region, the highest stress on implant, abutment tooth and cancellous bone was shown. The lowest stress was shown on implant and bone in the 1st molar area. Conclusion: Implants located in the first molar area showed the least distribution of stresses in the analyzed models. PMID:25628678

  10. Inferring transit time distributions from atmospheric tracer data: Assessment of the predictive capacities of Lumped Parameter Models on a 3D crystalline aquifer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marçais, J.; de Dreuzy, J.-R.; Ginn, T. R.; Rousseau-Gueutin, P.; Leray, S.

    2015-06-01

    While central in groundwater resources and contaminant fate, Transit Time Distributions (TTDs) are never directly accessible from field measurements but always deduced from a combination of tracer data and more or less involved models. We evaluate the predictive capabilities of approximate distributions (Lumped Parameter Models abbreviated as LPMs) instead of fully developed aquifer models. We develop a generic assessment methodology based on synthetic aquifer models to establish references for observable quantities as tracer concentrations and prediction targets as groundwater renewal times. Candidate LPMs are calibrated on the observable tracer concentrations and used to infer renewal time predictions, which are compared with the reference ones. This methodology is applied to the produced crystalline aquifer of Plœmeur (Brittany, France) where flows leak through a micaschists aquitard to reach a sloping aquifer where they radially converge to the producing well, issuing broad rather than multi-modal TTDs. One, two and three parameters LPMs were calibrated to a corresponding number of simulated reference anthropogenic tracer concentrations (CFC-11, 85Kr and SF6). Extensive statistical analysis over the aquifer shows that a good fit of the anthropogenic tracer concentrations is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to reach acceptable predictive capability. Prediction accuracy is however strongly conditioned by the use of a priori relevant LPMs. Only adequate LPM shapes yield unbiased estimations. In the case of Plœmeur, relevant LPMs should have two parameters to capture the mean and the standard deviation of the residence times and cover the first few decades [0; 50 years]. Inverse Gaussian and shifted exponential performed equally well for the wide variety of the reference TTDs from strongly peaked in recharge zones where flows are diverging to broadly distributed in more converging zones. When using two sufficiently different atmospheric tracers like

  11. Inferring Transit Time Distributions from Atmospheric Tracer Data: Assessment of Predictive Capacities of Lumped Parameter Models on a 3D Crystalline Aquifer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marçais, J.; De Dreuzy, J. R.; Ginn, T. R.; Gueutin, P.; Leray, S.

    2014-12-01

    Transit time distributions (TTDs) play a key role in the transport processes, the interpretation of atmospheric tracer data and the predictions made on groundwater resources. However TTDs are not accessible from field measurements. Only hints on these TTDs can be obtained from anthropogenic tracer concentrations, also commonly called "groundwater ages". We evaluate the predictive capabilities of the information contained in anthropogenic tracer concentrations on groundwater renewal times through the use of Lumped Parameter Models (LPMs) instead of fully developed aquifer models. Towards this end, we develop an assessment methodology in three steps. First, a synthetic crystalline aquifer model representing the site of Plœmeur (Brittany, France) is used to give, at any point, references for observables quantities (anthropogenic tracer concentrations of CFC-11, 85Kr and SF6), for non-observables quantities (the TTDs), and for the prediction objective (groundwater renewal times). Second, several LPMs are considered with one, two or three parameters, and are parameterized by fitting the reference anthropogenic concentrations. Third, the reference renewal times obtained from the synthetic model are compared to the renewal times obtained independently from the LPMs. Statistical analyses over the aquifer show that a good fit of the anthropogenic tracer concentrations is a necessary but not sufficient condition for acceptable predictions. The use of only one anthropogenic tracer gives poor predictions differing by 7 to 12 years to the references. The use of two sufficiently different anthropogenic tracers not only reduce the errors but surprisingly yield to very accurate predictions with errors smaller than 3 years. The additional use of a third anthropogenic tracer does not improve the predictive capabilities. Careful a posteriori analyses reveal that reference TTDs have widely varying shapes from well peaked in recharge zones where flows are diverging to broadly

  12. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  13. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  14. Application of a 3D volumetric display for radiation therapy treatment planning I: quality assurance procedures.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xing; Kirk, Michael Collins; Napoli, Josh; Stutsman, Sandy; Zusag, Tom; Khelashvili, Gocha; Chu, James

    2009-07-17

    To design and implement a set of quality assurance tests for an innovative 3D volumetric display for radiation treatment planning applications. A genuine 3D display (Perspecta Spatial 3D, Actuality-Systems Inc., Bedford, MA) has been integrated with the Pinnacle TPS (Philips Medical Systems, Madison WI), for treatment planning. The Perspecta 3D display renders a 25 cm diameter volume that is viewable from any side, floating within a translucent dome. In addition to displaying all 3D data exported from Pinnacle, the system provides a 3D mouse to define beam angles and apertures and to measure distance. The focus of this work is the design and implementation of a quality assurance program for 3D displays and specific 3D planning issues as guided by AAPM Task Group Report 53. A series of acceptance and quality assurance tests have been designed to evaluate the accuracy of CT images, contours, beams, and dose distributions as displayed on Perspecta. Three-dimensional matrices, rulers and phantoms with known spatial dimensions were used to check Perspecta's absolute spatial accuracy. In addition, a system of tests was designed to confirm Perspecta's ability to import and display Pinnacle data consistently. CT scans of phantoms were used to confirm beam field size, divergence, and gantry and couch angular accuracy as displayed on Perspecta. Beam angles were verified through Cartesian coordinate system measurements and by CT scans of phantoms rotated at known angles. Beams designed on Perspecta were exported to Pinnacle and checked for accuracy. Dose at sampled points were checked for consistency with Pinnacle and agreed within 1% or 1 mm. All data exported from Pinnacle to Perspecta was displayed consistently. The 3D spatial display of images, contours, and dose distributions were consistent with Pinnacle display. When measured by the 3D ruler, the distances between any two points calculated using Perspecta agreed with Pinnacle within the measurement error.

  15. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  16. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  17. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  18. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  19. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  20. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  1. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  2. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  3. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  4. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Crustal structure and fluid distribution beneath the southern part of the Hidaka collision zone revealed by 3-D electrical resistivity modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Hiroshi; Mogi, Toru; Tanimoto, Kengo; Yamaya, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Uyeshima, Makoto; Ogawa, Yasuo

    2016-04-01

    The Hidaka collision zone, where the Kurile and northeastern (NE) Japan arcs collide, provides a useful study area for elucidating the processes of arc-continent evolution and inland earthquakes. To produce an image of the collision structure and elucidate the mechanisms of anomalously deep inland earthquakes such as the 1970 Hidaka earthquake (M6.7), we conducted magnetotelluric observations and generated a three-dimensional resistivity distribution in the southern part of the Hidaka collision zone. The modeled resistivity was characterized by a high resistivity area in the upper crust of the Kurile arc corresponding to metamorphic rocks. The model also showed conductive zones beneath the center of the collision zone. The boundary between the resistive and conductive areas corresponds geometrically to the Hidaka main thrust, which is regarded as the arc-arc boundary. The correspondence supports the collision model that the upper-middle part of crust in the Kurile arc is obducting over the NE Japan arc. The conductive areas were interpreted as fluid-filled zones associated with collision processes and upwelling of dehydrated fluid from the subducting Pacific slab. The fluid flow possibly contributes to over-pressurized conduction that produces deep inland earthquakes. We also observed a significant conductive anomaly beneath the area of Horoman peridotite, which may be related to the uplift of mantle materials to the surface.

  6. Experimental procurement of the complete 3D etch rate distribution of Si in anisotropic etchants based on vertically micromachined wagon wheel samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosálvez, M. A.; Pal, Prem; Ferrando, N.; Hida, H.; Sato, K.

    2011-12-01

    This is part I of a series of two papers dedicated to the presentation of a novel, large throughput, experimental procedure to determine the three-dimensional distribution of the etch rate of silicon in a wide range of anisotropic etchants, including a total of 30 different etching conditions in KOH, KOH+IPA, TMAH and TMAH+Triton solutions at various concentrations and temperatures. The method is based on the use of previously reported, vertically micromachined wagon wheels (WWs) (Wind and Hines 2000 Surf. Sci. 460 21-38 Nguyen and Elwenspoek 2007 J. Electrochem. Soc. 154 D684-91), focusing on speeding up the etch rate extraction process for each WW by combining macrophotography and image processing procedures. The proposed procedure positions the WWs as a realistic alternative to the traditional hemispherical specimen. The obtained, extensive etch rate database is used to perform wet etching simulations of advanced systems, showing good agreement with the experimental counterparts. In part II of this series (Gosálvez et al J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 125008), we provide a theoretical analysis of the etched spoke shapes, a detailed comparison to the etch rates from previous studies and a self-consistency study of the measured etch rates against maximum theoretical values derived from the spoke shape analysis.

  7. FIT3D toolbox: multiple view geometry and 3D reconstruction for Matlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Isaac; Dijk, Judith; Groen, Frans

    2010-10-01

    FIT3D is a Toolbox built for Matlab that aims at unifying and distributing a set of tools that will allow the researcher to obtain a complete 3D model from a set of calibrated images. In this paper we motivate and present the structure of the toolbox in a tutorial and example based approach. Given its flexibility and scope we believe that FIT3D represents an exciting opportunity for researchers that want to apply one particular method with real data without the need for extensive additional programming.

  8. Decoupled 3D moment control using in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuyama, Etsuo

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.

  9. CX, DPX and PRIDE: WWW servers for the analysis and comparison of protein 3D structures.

    PubMed

    Vlahovicek, Kristian; Pintar, Alessandro; Parthasarathi, Laavanya; Carugo, Oliviero; Pongor, Sándor

    2005-07-01

    The WWW servers at http://www.icgeb.org/protein/ are dedicated to the analysis of protein 3D structures submitted by the users as the Protein Data Bank (PDB) files. CX computes an atomic protrusion index that makes it possible to highlight the protruding atoms within a protein 3D structure. DPX calculates a depth index for the buried atoms and makes it possible to analyze the distribution of buried residues. CX and DPX return PDB files containing the calculated indices that can then be visualized using standard programs, such as Swiss-PDBviewer and Rasmol. PRIDE compares 3D structures using a fast algorithm based on the distribution of inter-atomic distances. The options include pairwise as well as multiple comparisons, and fold recognition based on searching the CATH fold database. PMID:15980464

  10. Numerical calculation of neoclassical distribution functions and current profiles in low collisionality, axisymmetric plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, B. C.; Jardin, S. C.; Ramos, J. J.

    2012-08-01

    A new code, the Neoclassical Ion-Electron Solver (NIES), has been written to solve for stationary, axisymmetric distribution functions (f) in the conventional banana regime for both ions and electrons using a set of drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) with linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. Solvability conditions on the DKEs determine the relevant non-adiabatic pieces of f (called h). We work in a 4D phase space in which ψ defines a flux surface, θ is the poloidal angle, v is the magnitude of the velocity referenced to the mean flow velocity, and λ is the dimensionless magnetic moment parameter. We expand h in finite elements in both v and λ. The Rosenbluth potentials, Φ and Ψ, which define the integral part of the collision operator, are expanded in Legendre series in cosχ, where χ is the pitch angle, Fourier series in cosθ, and finite elements in v. At each ψ, we solve a block tridiagonal system for hi (independent of fe), then solve another block tridiagonal system for he (dependent on fi). We demonstrate that such a formulation can be accurately and efficiently solved. NIES is coupled to the MHD equilibrium code JSOLVER [J. DeLucia et al., J. Comput. Phys. 37, 183-204 (1980)] allowing us to work with realistic magnetic geometries. The bootstrap current is calculated as a simple moment of the distribution function. Results are benchmarked against the Sauter analytic formulas and can be used as a kinetic closure for an MHD code (e.g., M3D -C1 [S. C. Jardin et al., Comput. Sci. Discovery 5, 014002 (2012)]).

  11. Numerical Calculation of Neoclassical Distribution Functions and Current Profiles in Low Collisionality, Axisymmetric Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Lyons, S.C. Jardin, and J.J. Ramos

    2012-06-28

    A new code, the Neoclassical Ion-Electron Solver (NIES), has been written to solve for stationary, axisymmetric distribution functions (f ) in the conventional banana regime for both ions and elec trons using a set of drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) with linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. Solvability conditions on the DKEs determine the relevant non-adiabatic pieces of f (called h ). We work in a 4D phase space in which Ψ defines a flux surface, θ is the poloidal angle, v is the total velocity referenced to the mean flow velocity, and λ is the dimensionless magnetic moment parameter. We expand h in finite elements in both v and λ . The Rosenbluth potentials, φ and ψ, which define the integral part of the collision operator, are expanded in Legendre series in cos χ , where χ is the pitch angle, Fourier series in cos θ , and finite elements in v . At each ψ , we solve a block tridiagonal system for hi (independent of fe ), then solve another block tridiagonal system for he (dependent on fi ). We demonstrate that such a formulation can be accurately and efficiently solved. NIES is coupled to the MHD equilibrium code JSOLVER [J. DeLucia, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 37 , pp 183-204 (1980).] allowing us to work with realistic magnetic geometries. The bootstrap current is calculated as a simple moment of the distribution function. Results are benchmarked against the Sauter analytic formulas and can be used as a kinetic closure for an MHD code (e.g., M3D-C1 [S.C. Jardin, et al ., Computational Science & Discovery, 4 (2012).]).

  12. Numerical calculation of neoclassical distribution functions and current profiles in low collisionality, axisymmetric plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, B. C.; Jardin, S. C.; Ramos, J. J.

    2012-08-15

    A new code, the Neoclassical Ion-Electron Solver (NIES), has been written to solve for stationary, axisymmetric distribution functions (f) in the conventional banana regime for both ions and electrons using a set of drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) with linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. Solvability conditions on the DKEs determine the relevant non-adiabatic pieces of f (called h). We work in a 4D phase space in which {psi} defines a flux surface, {theta} is the poloidal angle, v is the magnitude of the velocity referenced to the mean flow velocity, and {lambda} is the dimensionless magnetic moment parameter. We expand h in finite elements in both v and {lambda}. The Rosenbluth potentials, {Phi} and {Psi}, which define the integral part of the collision operator, are expanded in Legendre series in cos{chi}, where {chi} is the pitch angle, Fourier series in cos{theta}, and finite elements in v. At each {psi}, we solve a block tridiagonal system for h{sub i} (independent of f{sub e}), then solve another block tridiagonal system for h{sub e} (dependent on f{sub i}). We demonstrate that such a formulation can be accurately and efficiently solved. NIES is coupled to the MHD equilibrium code JSOLVER [J. DeLucia et al., J. Comput. Phys. 37, 183-204 (1980)] allowing us to work with realistic magnetic geometries. The bootstrap current is calculated as a simple moment of the distribution function. Results are benchmarked against the Sauter analytic formulas and can be used as a kinetic closure for an MHD code (e.g., M3D-C{sup 1}[S. C. Jardin et al., Comput. Sci. Discovery 5, 014002 (2012)]).

  13. Gravitational field calculations on a dynamic lattice by distributed computing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mähönen, P.; Punkka, V.

    A new method of calculating numerically time evolution of a gravitational field in general relativity is introduced. Vierbein (tetrad) formalism, dynamic lattice and massively parallelized computation are suggested as they are expected to speed up the calculations considerably and facilitate the solution of problems previously considered too hard to be solved, such as the time evolution of a system consisting of two or more black holes or the structure of worm holes.

  14. Gravitation Field Calculations on a Dynamic Lattice by Distributed Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mähönen, Petri; Punkka, Veikko

    A new method of calculating numerically time evolution of a gravitational field in General Relatity is introduced. Vierbein (tetrad) formalism, dynamic lattice and massively parallelized computation are suggested as they are expected to speed up the calculations considerably and facilitate the solution of problems previously considered too hard to be solved, such as the time evolution of a system consisting of two or more black holes or the structure of worm holes.

  15. Patient-specific dosimetry based on quantitative SPECT imaging and 3D-DFT convolution

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G.; Hawkins, W.G.; Eckblade, M.B.; Leichner, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the use of a 3-D discrete Fourier Transform (3D-DFT) convolution method to carry out the dosimetry for I-131 for soft tissues in radioimmunotherapy procedures. To validate this convolution method, mathematical and physical phantoms were used as a basis of comparison with Monte Carlo transport (MCT) calculations which were carried out using the EGS4 system code. The mathematical phantom consisted of a sphere containing uniform and nonuniform activity distributions. The physical phantom consisted of a cylinder containing uniform and nonuniform activity distributions. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction was carried out using the Circular Harmonic Transform (CHT) algorithm.

  16. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  17. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  18. Evolution of Archaea in 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Tankosic, Dragana; Sheldon, Rob

    2012-11-01

    The analysis of all groups of Archaea performed in two-dimensions have demonstrated a specific distribution of Archaean species as a function of pH/temperature, temperature/salinity and pH/salinity. Work presented here is an extension of this analysis with a three dimensional (3D) modeling in logarithmic scale. As it was shown in 2D representation, the "Rules of the Diagonal" have been expressed even more clearly in 3D modeling. In this article, we used a 3D Mesh modeling to show the range of distribution of each separate group of Archaea as a function of pH, temperature, and salinity. Visible overlap and links between different groups indicate a direction of evolution in Archaea. The major direction in ancestral life (vector of evolution) has been indicated: from high temperature, acidic, and low-salinity system towards low temperature, alkaline and high salinity systems. Specifics of the geometrical coordinates and distribution of separate groups of Archaea in 3 D scale were analyzed with a mathematical description of the functions. Based on the obtained data, a new model for the origin and evolution of life on Earth is proposed. The geometry of this model is described by a hyperboloid of one sheet. Conclusions of this research are consistent with previous results derived from the two-dimensional diagrams. This approach is suggested as a new method for analyzing any biological group in accordance to its environmental parameters.

  19. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  20. Computer program calculates and plots surface area and pore size distribution data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates surface area and pore size distribution of powders, metals, ceramics, and catalysts, and prints and plots the desired data directly. Surface area calculations are based on the gas adsorption technique of Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller, and pore size distribution calculations are based on the gas adsorption technique of Pierce.