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Sample records for 3d elastic media

  1. Laplace-domain waveform modeling and inversion for the 3D acoustic-elastic coupled media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jungkyun; Shin, Changsoo; Calandra, Henri

    2016-06-01

    Laplace-domain waveform inversion reconstructs long-wavelength subsurface models by using the zero-frequency component of damped seismic signals. Despite the computational advantages of Laplace-domain waveform inversion over conventional frequency-domain waveform inversion, an acoustic assumption and an iterative matrix solver have been used to invert 3D marine datasets to mitigate the intensive computing cost. In this study, we develop a Laplace-domain waveform modeling and inversion algorithm for 3D acoustic-elastic coupled media by using a parallel sparse direct solver library (MUltifrontal Massively Parallel Solver, MUMPS). We precisely simulate a real marine environment by coupling the 3D acoustic and elastic wave equations with the proper boundary condition at the fluid-solid interface. In addition, we can extract the elastic properties of the Earth below the sea bottom from the recorded acoustic pressure datasets. As a matrix solver, the parallel sparse direct solver is used to factorize the non-symmetric impedance matrix in a distributed memory architecture and rapidly solve the wave field for a number of shots by using the lower and upper matrix factors. Using both synthetic datasets and real datasets obtained by a 3D wide azimuth survey, the long-wavelength component of the P-wave and S-wave velocity models is reconstructed and the proposed modeling and inversion algorithm are verified. A cluster of 80 CPU cores is used for this study.

  2. Numerical modeling of elastic waves in inhomogeneous anisotropic media using 3D-elastodynamic finite integration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinta, Prashanth K.; Mayer, K.; Langenberg, K. J.

    2012-05-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of elastic anisotropic media is very complex because of directional dependency of elastic stiffness tensor. Modeling of elastic waves in such materials gives us intuitive knowledge about the propagation and scattering phenomena. The wave propagation in three dimensional space in anisotropic media gives us the deep insight of the transition of the different elastic wave modes i.e. mode conversion, and scattering of these waves because of inhomogeneities present in the material. The numerical tool Three Dimensional-Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (3D-EFIT) has been proved to be a very efficient tool for the modeling of elastic waves in very complex geometries. The 3D-EFIT is validated using the analytical approach based on the Radon transform. The simulation results of 3D-EFIT applied to inhomogeneous austenitic steel welds and wood structures are presented. In the first application the geometry consists of an austenitic steel weld that joins two isotropic steel blocks. The vertical transversal isotropic (VTI) austenitic steel is used. The convolutional perfectly matched layers are applied at the boundaries that are supported by isotropic steel. In the second application the wave propagation in the orthotropic wooden structure with an air cavity inside is investigated. The wave propagation results are illustrated using time domain elastic wave snapshots.

  3. The scattering potential of partial derivative wavefields in 3D elastic orthorhombic media: An inversion prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-07-01

    Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multi component sensors, the potential for tradeoff between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22 and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23 and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44 and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.

  4. The scattering potential of partial derivative wavefields in 3-D elastic orthorhombic media: an inversion prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-09-01

    Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.

  5. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  6. Laplace-domain wave-equation modeling and full waveform inversion in 3D isotropic elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Woohyun; Pyun, Sukjoon; Shin, Changsoo; Kim, Han-Joon

    2014-06-01

    The 3D elastic problem has not been widely studied because of the computational burden. Over the past few years, 3D elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) techniques in the time and frequency domains have been proposed by some researchers based on developments in computer science. However, these techniques still have the non-uniqueness and high nonlinearity problems. In this paper, we propose a 3D elastic FWI algorithm in the Laplace domain that can mitigate these problems. To efficiently solve the impedance matrix, we adopt a first-order absorbing boundary condition that results in a symmetric system. A conjugate gradient (CG) solver can be used because the Laplace-domain wave equation is naturally positive definite. We apply the Jacobi preconditioner to increase the convergence speed. We identify the permissible range of Laplace damping constants through dispersion analysis and accuracy tests. We perform the Laplace-domain FWI based on a logarithmic objective function, and the inversion examples are designed for a land setting, which means that the source is vertically excited and multi-component data are considered. The inversion results indicate that the inversion that uses only the vertical component performs slightly better than the multi-component inversion. This unexpected result is obtained partly because we use a vertically polarized source. We analyze the residuals and Frechet derivatives for each component to examine the characteristics of the Laplace-domain multi-component FWI. The results indicate that the residuals and Frechet derivatives for the horizontal component have a singularity problem. The numerical examples demonstrate that the singularity problem is related to the directivity of the displacement and to taking the logarithm of Laplace-domain wave fields. To avoid this singularity problem, we use a simple method that excludes the data near the singular region. Although we can use either simultaneous or sequential strategies to invert the

  7. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  8. Lapse-time dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-07-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: firstly, we evaluate the contribution of surface and body wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Secondly, we compare the lapse-time behavior in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  9. Lapse-time-dependent coda-wave depth sensitivity to local velocity perturbations in 3-D heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Planès, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Céline; Campillo, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In the context of seismic monitoring, recent studies made successful use of seismic coda waves to locate medium changes on the horizontal plane. Locating the depth of the changes, however, remains a challenge. In this paper, we use 3-D wavefield simulations to address two problems: first, we evaluate the contribution of surface- and body-wave sensitivity to a change at depth. We introduce a thin layer with a perturbed velocity at different depths and measure the apparent relative velocity changes due to this layer at different times in the coda and for different degrees of heterogeneity of the model. We show that the depth sensitivity can be modelled as a linear combination of body- and surface-wave sensitivity. The lapse-time-dependent sensitivity ratio of body waves and surface waves can be used to build 3-D sensitivity kernels for imaging purposes. Second, we compare the lapse-time behaviour in the presence of a perturbation in horizontal and vertical slabs to address, for instance, the origin of the velocity changes detected after large earthquakes.

  10. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  11. Combined elasticity and 3D imaging of the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinbo; Hossack, John A.

    2005-04-01

    A method is described for repeatably assessing elasticity and 3D extent of suspected prostate cancers. Elasticity is measured by controlled water inflation of a sheath placed over a modified transrectal ultrasound transducer. The benefit of using fluid inflation is that it should be possible to make repeatable, accurate, measurements of elasticity that are of interest in the serial assessment of prostate cancer progression or remission. The second aspect of the work uses auxiliary tracking arrays placed at each end of the central imaging array that allow the transducer to be rotated while simultaneously collected 'tracking' information thus allowing the position of successive image planes to be located with approximately 11% volumetric accuracy in 3D space. In this way, we present a technique for quantifying volumetric extent of suspected cancer in addition to making measures of elastic anomalies.

  12. Multiscreen backpropagator for fast 3D elastic prestack migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ru-Shan; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    1994-09-01

    Due the huge amount of computation and internal memory required, wave backpropagation becomes the bottleneck of prestack migration or other 3D imaging/inversion procedures. We propose to use the multi-screen backpropagator for 3D prestack migration in laterally inhomogeneous background (depth migration). Multi-screen (phase-screen for scalar waves, elastic complex-screen for elastic waves) backpropagator shuttles between space-domain and wavenumber-domain using FFT and therefore avoids the time-demanding matrix multiplication. The time saving is tremendous for large-size elastic wave problems. Because it needs to store the medium parameters only one grid-plane for each step, the enormous computer memory saving makes it capable of handling large 3D problem prohibitive to other methods. The method of elastic complex screen (ECS) is a one-way propagation algorithm by neglecting the backscattered waves. However, all the forward multiple-scattering effect, such as the focusing/defocusing, diffraction, interference, wave conversion between P and S, interface waves, guided waves, etc., can be correctly handled. In this paper first the Love integral and Love migration integral are introduced. The formulation of elastic complex-screen as elastic wave one-way propagator is summarized. Numerical tests and comparisons with other full-wave methods (elastic wave finite difference and eigenfunction expansion method) are presented to show the validity of the propagator. Finally, two numerical examples of single-shot prestack migration using the ECS backpropagator, one for homogeneous background and the other for inhomogeneous background, are shown to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  13. Elastically deformable 3D organs for haptic surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Webster, Roger; Haluck, Randy; Ravenscroft, Rob; Mohler, Betty; Crouthamel, Eric; Frack, Tyson; Terlecki, Steve; Sheaffer, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for incorporating real-time elastically deformable 3D organs in haptic surgical simulators. Our system is a physically based particle model utilizing a mass-springs-damper connectivity with an implicit predictor to speed up calculations during each time step. The solution involves repeated application of Newton's 2ndd Law of motion: F = ma using an implicit solver for numerically solving the differential equations.

  14. Learning in 3-D Virtual Worlds: Rethinking Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    3-D virtual worlds, as a new form of learning environments in the 21st century, hold great potential in education. Learning in such environments, however, demands a broader spectrum of literacy skills. This article identifies a new set of media literacy skills required in 3-D virtual learning environments by reviewing exemplary 3-D virtual…

  15. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  16. 3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Megan Ashley

    In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.

  17. 3D elastic full waveform inversion: case study from a land seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormann, Jean; Marti, David; Rodriguez, Juan-Esteban; Marzan, Ignacio; Ferrer, Miguel; Gutierrez, Natalia; Farres, Albert; Hanzich, Mauricio; de la Puente, Josep; Carbonell, Ramon

    2016-04-01

    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is one of the most advanced processing methods that is recently reaching a mature state after years of solving theoretical and technical issues such as the non-uniqueness of the solution and harnessing the huge computational power required by realistic scenarios. BSIT (Barcelona Subsurface Imaging Tools, www.bsc.es/bsit) includes a FWI algorithm that can tackle with very complex problems involving large datasets. We present here the application of this system to a 3D dataset acquired to constrain the shallow subsurface. This is where the wavefield is the most complicated, because most of the wavefield conversions takes place in the shallow region and also because the media is much more laterally heterogeneous. With this in mind, at least isotropic elastic approximation would be suitable as kernel engine for FWI. The current study explores the possibilities to apply elastic isotropic FWI using only the vertical component of the recorded seismograms. The survey covers an area of 500×500 m2, and consists in a receivers grid of 10 m×20 m combined with a 250 kg accelerated weight-drop as source on a displaced grid of 20 m×20 m. One of the main challenges in this case study is the costly 3D modeling that includes topography and substantial free surface effects. FWI is applied to a data subset (shooting lines 4 to 12), and is performed for 3 frequencies ranging from 15 to 25 Hz. The starting models are obtained from travel-time tomography and the all computation is run on 75 nodes of Mare Nostrum supercomputer during 3 days. The resulting models provide a higher resolution of the subsurface structures, and show a good correlation with the available borehole measurements. FWI allows to extend in a reliable way this 1D knowledge (borehole) to 3D.

  18. Visualizing 3D fracture morphology in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Recent work has pointed to the importance of capillary forces in some relevant regimes of fracturing of granular materials (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011), leading to the term hydro-capillary fracturing (Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these experimental and computational investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a 3D granular bed, and control the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We determine the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system, and elucidate different regimes of the invasion pattern. We present result for the 3D morphology of the invasion, with particular emphasis on the fracturing regime.

  19. Visualizing 3D Fracture Morphology in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbe, M. J.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered subsurface processes. The interplay between fluid flow, medium deformation and fracture is essential in geoscience problems as disparate as fracking for unconventional hydrocarbon production, conduit formation and methane venting from lake and ocean sediments, and desiccation cracks in soil. Recent work has pointed to the importance of capillary forces in some relevant regimes of fracturing of granular materials (Sandnes et al., Nat. Comm. 2011), leading to the term hydro-capillary fracturing (Holtzman et al., PRL 2012). Most of these experimental and computational investigations have focused, however, on 2D or quasi-2D systems. Here, we develop an experimental set-up that allows us to observe two-phase flow in a 3D granular bed, and control the level of confining stress. We use an index matching technique to directly visualize the injection of a liquid in a granular media saturated with another, immiscible liquid. We determine the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system, and elucidate different regimes of the invasion pattern. We present result for the 3D morphology of the invasion, with particular emphasis on the fracturing regime.

  20. Finite element analysis of 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem for Cosserat materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Xie, Z. Q.; Chen, B. S.; Zhang, H. W.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a finite element model for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem of Cosserat materials. Because 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problems belong to the unspecified boundary problems with nonlinearities in both material and geometric forms, a large number of calculations are needed to obtain numerical results with high accuracy. Based on the parametric variational principle and the corresponding quadratic programming method for numerical simulation of frictional contact problems, a finite element model is developed for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact analysis of Cosserat materials. The problems are finally reduced to linear complementarity problems (LCP). Numerical examples show the feasibility and importance of the developed model for analyzing the contact problems of structures with materials which have micro-polar characteristics.

  1. 3D mapping of elastic modulus using shear wave optical micro-elastography

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang; Qi, Li; Miao, Yusi; Ma, Teng; Dai, Cuixia; Qu, Yueqiao; He, Youmin; Gao, Yiwei; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Elastography provides a powerful tool for histopathological identification and clinical diagnosis based on information from tissue stiffness. Benefiting from high resolution, three-dimensional (3D), and noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical micro-elastography has the ability to determine elastic properties with a resolution of ~10 μm in a 3D specimen. The shear wave velocity measurement can be used to quantify the elastic modulus. However, in current methods, shear waves are measured near the surface with an interference of surface waves. In this study, we developed acoustic radiation force (ARF) orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE) to visualize shear waves in 3D. This method uses acoustic force perpendicular to the OCT beam to excite shear waves in internal specimens and uses Doppler variance method to visualize shear wave propagation in 3D. The measured propagation of shear waves agrees well with the simulation results obtained from finite element analysis (FEA). Orthogonal acoustic excitation allows this method to measure the shear modulus in a deeper specimen which extends the elasticity measurement range beyond the OCT imaging depth. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE system has the ability to noninvasively determine the 3D elastic map. PMID:27762276

  2. Modeling Electric Current Flow in 3D Fractured Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, S.; Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a variety of research fields and applications such as hydrogeology, hydrocarbon extraction and long-term storage of toxic waste. As fractures are highly conductive structures in comparison to the surrounding rock, their presence can be either an advantage or a drawback. For hydrocarbon extraction, fractures allow for quick and easy access to the resource whereas for toxic waste storage their presence increases the risk of leakage and migration of pollutants. In both cases, the identification of fracture network characteristics is an essential step. Recently, we have developed an approach for modeling electric current flow in 2D fractured media. This approach is based on a discrete-dual-porosity model where fractures are represented explicitly, the matrix is coarsely discretized into blocks, and current flow exchange between the fractures and matrix is analytically evaluated at the fracture-scale and integrated at the block-scale [1]. Although this approach has shown much promise and has proven its efficiency for 2D simulations, its extension to 3D remains to be addressed. To this end, we assume that fractures can be represented as two-dimensional finite planes embedded in the surrounding matrix, and we express analytically the distribution of electric potential at the fracture scale. This fracture-scale expression takes into account the electric-current-flow exchange with the surrounding matrix and flow conservation is enforced at the fracture intersections. The fracture-matrix exchange is then integrated at the matrix-block scale where the electric current flow conservation at the block boundaries is formulated with a modified finite volume method. With the objective of providing a low-computational-cost modeling approach adapted to 3D simulations in fractured media, our model is (i) validated and compared to existing modeling approaches and, (ii) used to evaluate the impact of the presence of fractures on

  3. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, Kenneth; Dunham, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge-Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture dynamics

  4. Computation of elastic properties of 3D digital cores from the Longmaxi shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Fu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Yan; Jin, Wei-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of elastic moduli of shales on the mineralogy and microstructure of shales is important for the prediction of sweet spots and shale gas production. Based on 3D digital images of the microstructure of Longmaxi black shale samples using X-ray CT, we built detailed 3D digital images of cores with porosity properties and mineral contents. Next, we used finite-element (FE) methods to derive the elastic properties of the samples. The FE method can accurately model the shale mineralogy. Particular attention is paid to the derived elastic properties and their dependence on porosity and kerogen. The elastic moduli generally decrease with increasing porosity and kerogen, and there is a critical porosity (0.75) and kerogen content (ca. ≤3%) over which the elastic moduli decrease rapidly and slowly, respectively. The derived elastic moduli of gas- and oil-saturated digital cores differ little probably because of the low porosity (4.5%) of the Longmaxi black shale. Clearly, the numerical experiments demonstrated the feasibility of combining microstructure images of shale samples with elastic moduli calculations to predict shale properties.

  5. Second order Method for Solving 3D Elasticity Equations with Complex Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elastic materials are ubiquitous in nature and indispensable components in man-made devices and equipments. When a device or equipment involves composite or multiple elastic materials, elasticity interface problems come into play. The solution of three dimensional (3D) elasticity interface problems is significantly more difficult than that of elliptic counterparts due to the coupled vector components and cross derivatives in the governing elasticity equation. This work introduces the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method for solving 3D elasticity interface problems. The proposed MIB elasticity interface scheme utilizes fictitious values on irregular grid points near the material interface to replace function values in the discretization so that the elasticity equation can be discretized using the standard finite difference schemes as if there were no material interface. The interface jump conditions are rigorously enforced on the intersecting points between the interface and the mesh lines. Such an enforcement determines the fictitious values. A number of new techniques has been developed to construct efficient MIB elasticity interface schemes for dealing with cross derivative in coupled governing equations. The proposed method is extensively validated over both weak and strong discontinuity of the solution, both piecewise constant and position-dependent material parameters, both smooth and nonsmooth interface geometries, and both small and large contrasts in the Poisson’s ratio and shear modulus across the interface. Numerical experiments indicate that the present MIB method is of second order convergence in both L∞ and L2 error norms for handling arbitrarily complex interfaces, including biomolecular surfaces. To our best knowledge, this is the first elasticity interface method that is able to deliver the second convergence for the molecular surfaces of proteins.. PMID:25914422

  6. Scattering of elastic waves by an arbitrary shaped 3-D planar crack using the Indirect Boundary Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveros, U.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Luzon, F.

    2001-12-01

    The scattering of elastic waves by various types of cracks is an important engineering problem. From a physical point of view the question that arises is up to what degree will a local perturbation in a medium modifies the scattered wave field. For instance, in the seismic monitoring to enhance oil recovery (due to extensive presence of cracks and cavities) a crucial problem is to determine zones where there are physical property changes. Modelling such highly heterogeneous media is critical to increased production from oil and gas. In order to study scattering effects caused by arbitrary-shaped cracks a simplified indirect boundary element method (BEM) is used to compute the seismic response of a 3-D crack under incident elastic P and S waves. The method is based on the integral representation for scattered elastic waves using single layer boundary sources. This approach is called indirect BEM in the literature as the sources strengths should be obtained as an intermediate step. Scattered waves are constructed at the boundaries from which they radiate. Therefore, this method can be regarded as a numerical realization of Huygens' principle. Boundary conditions lead to a system of integral for boundary sources. A simplified discretization scheme is used. It is based on the approximate rectification of the surfaces involved using circles for the numerical and analytical integration of the exact Green's function for the unbounded elastic space. Radiation patterns for penny-shaped and croissant-shaped cracks are explored. The scattering effects of the elastic waves in a homogeneous isotropic infinite elastic medium with a 3-D crack are displayed in both frequency and time domains.

  7. ZIP3D: An elastic and elastic-plastic finite-element analysis program for cracked bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    ZIP3D is an elastic and an elastic-plastic finite element program to analyze cracks in three dimensional solids. The program may also be used to analyze uncracked bodies or multi-body problems involving contacting surfaces. For crack problems, the program has several unique features including the calculation of mixed-mode strain energy release rates using the three dimensional virtual crack closure technique, the calculation of the J integral using the equivalent domain integral method, the capability to extend the crack front under monotonic or cyclic loading, and the capability to close or open the crack surfaces during cyclic loading. The theories behind the various aspects of the program are explained briefly. Line-by-line data preparation is presented. Input data and results for an elastic analysis of a surface crack in a plate and for an elastic-plastic analysis of a single-edge-crack-tension specimen are also presented.

  8. Simultaneous elastic parameter inversion in 2-D/3-D TTI medium combined later arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Wang, Tao; Yang, Shang-bei; Li, Xing-wang; Huang, Guo-jiao

    2016-04-01

    Traditional traveltime inversion for anisotropic medium is, in general, based on a "weak" assumption in the anisotropic property, which simplifies both the forward part (ray tracing is performed once only) and the inversion part (a linear inversion solver is possible). But for some real applications, a general (both "weak" and "strong") anisotropic medium should be considered. In such cases, one has to develop a ray tracing algorithm to handle with the general (including "strong") anisotropic medium and also to design a non-linear inversion solver for later tomography. Meanwhile, it is constructive to investigate how much the tomographic resolution can be improved by introducing the later arrivals. For this motivation, we incorporated our newly developed ray tracing algorithm (multistage irregular shortest-path method) for general anisotropic media with a non-linear inversion solver (a damped minimum norm, constrained least squares problem with a conjugate gradient approach) to formulate a non-linear inversion solver for anisotropic medium. This anisotropic traveltime inversion procedure is able to combine the later (reflected) arrival times. Both 2-D/3-D synthetic inversion experiments and comparison tests show that (1) the proposed anisotropic traveltime inversion scheme is able to recover the high contrast anomalies and (2) it is possible to improve the tomographic resolution by introducing the later (reflected) arrivals, but not as expected in the isotropic medium, because the different velocity (qP, qSV and qSH) sensitivities (or derivatives) respective to the different elastic parameters are not the same but are also dependent on the inclination angle.

  9. Numerical study of elastic turbulence in a 3D curvilinear micro-channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongna; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Li, Fengchen

    2012-11-01

    Elastic turbulence is an intriguing phenomenon of viscoelastic fluid flow, and dominated by the strong nonlinear elasticity due to the existence of flexible microstructures. It implies the possibility to generate a turbulent state (so-called an elastic turbulence) in the micro-scale devices by introducing the viscoelastic fluids, which could significantly enhance the mixing efficiency therein. Several experiments have been carried out to study its characteristics and underlying physics. However, the difficulty in measuring the flow information and behaviors of the microstructures, especially in the cross section normal to the mean flow direction, limits our current understanding and controlling. In the present study, the nondimensionalization method in which the characteristic velocity is defined as the ratio of the solution viscosity to the width of the channel was adopted to simulate the elastic turbulence in the micro-scale devices. And the elastic turbulent flow was obtained numerically in the 3D curvilinear micro-channel. Therein, the characteristics of the velocity field and polymer's behavior are discussed. Moreover, the energy transfer between the kinetic energy and the polymer's elastic energy is also investigated to understand its physical mechanism. Supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science research fellowship and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology via `Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming' of Global Center of Excellence (G-COE) program (J-051).

  10. Modelling Elastic Media With Arbitrary Shapes Using the Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, J. W.; Cardoso, F. A.; Rosa, J. W.; Aki, K.

    2004-12-01

    We extend the new method proposed by Rosa et al. (2001) for the study of elastic bodies with complete arbitrary shapes. The method was originally developed for modelling 2-D elastic media with the application of the wavelet transform, and was extended to cases where discontinuities simulated geologic faults between two different elastic media. In addition to extending the method for the study of bodies with complete arbitrary shapes, we also test new transforms with the objective of making the related matrices more compact, which are also applied to the most general case of the method. The basic method consists of the discretization of the polynomial expansion for the boundary conditions of the 2-D problem involving the stress and strain relations for the media. This parameterization leads to a system of linear equations that should be solved for the determination of the expansion coefficients, which are the model parameters, and their determination leads to the solution of the problem. Despite the fact that the media we studied originally were 2-D bodies, the result of the application of this new method can be viewed as an approximate solution to some specific 3-D problems. Among the motivations for developing this method are possible geological applications (that is, the study of tectonic plates and geologic faults) and simulations of the elastic behaviour of materials in several other fields of science. The wavelet transform is applied with two main objectives, namely to decrease the error related to the truncation of the polynomial expansion and to make the system of linear equations more compact for computation. Having validated this method for the original 2-D elastic media, we plan that this extension to elastic bodies with complete arbitrary shapes will enable it to be even more attractive for modelling real media. Reference Rosa, J. W. C., F. A. C. M. Cardoso, K. Aki, H. S. Malvar, F. A. V. Artola, and J. W. C. Rosa, Modelling elastic media with the

  11. Elasticity Imaging of Polymeric Media

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Mallika; Liu, Jie; Insana, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues and hydropolymers depend on the strength of molecular bonding forces connecting the polymer matrix and surrounding fluids. The basis for diagnostic imaging is that disease processes alter molecular-scale bonding in ways that vary the measurable stiffness and viscosity of the tissues. This paper reviews linear viscoelastic theory as applied to gelatin hydrogels for the purpose of formulating approaches to molecular-scale interpretation of elasticity imaging in soft biological tissues. Comparing measurements acquired under different geometries, we investigate the limitations of viscoelastic parameters acquired under various imaging conditions. Quasistatic (step-and-hold and low-frequency harmonic) stimuli applied to gels during creep and stress relaxation experiments in confined and unconfined geometries reveal continuous, bimodal distributions of respondance times. Within the linear range of responses, gelatin will behave more like a solid or fluid depending on the stimulus magnitude. Gelatin can be described statistically from a few parameters of low-order rheological models that form the basis of viscoelastic imaging. Unbiased estimates of imaging parameters are obtained only if creep data are acquired for greater than twice the highest retardance time constant and any steady-state viscous response has been eliminated. Elastic strain and retardance time images are found to provide the best combination of contrast and signal strength in gelatin. Retardance times indicate average behavior of fast (1–10 s) fluid flows and slow (50–400 s) matrix restructuring in response to the mechanical stimulus. Insofar as gelatin mimics other polymers, such as soft biological tissues, elasticity imaging can provide unique insights into complex structural and biochemical features of connectives tissues affected by disease. PMID:17408331

  12. Vorticity and upscaled dispersion in 3D heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; Chiogna, Gabriele; de Barros, Felipe; Bellin, Alberto; Fiori, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    Modeling flow in porous media is relevant for many environmental, energy and industrial applications. From an environmental perspective, the relevance of porous media flow becomes evident in subsurface hydrology. In general, flow in natural porous media is creeping, yet the large variability in the hydraulic conductivity values encountered in natural aquifers leads to highly heterogeneous flow fields. This natural variability in the conductivity field will affect both dilution rates of chemical species and reactive mixing. A physical consequence of this heterogeneity is also the presence of a various localized kinematical features such as straining, shearing and vorticity in aquifers, which will influence the shape of solute clouds and its fate and transport. This work aims in fundamentally characterizing the vorticity field in spatially heterogeneous flow fields as a function of their statistical properties in order to analyze the impact on transport processes. In our study, three-dimensional porous formations are constructed with an ensemble of N independent, non-overlapping spheroidal inclusions submerged into an homogeneous matrix, of conductivity K0. The inclusions are randomly located in a domain of volume W and are fully characterized by the geometry of spheroid (oblate or prolate), their conductivity K (random and drawn from a given probability density function fκ), the centroid location ¯x, the axes ratio e, the orientation of the rotational axis (α1,α2) and the volume w. Under the assumption of diluted medium, the flow problem is solved analitically by means of only two parameters: the conductivity contrast κ = K/K0 and the volume fraction n = Nw/W . Through the variation of these parameters of the problem, it is possible to approximate the structure of natural heterogeneous porous media. Using a random distribution of the orientation of the inclusions, we create media defined by the same global anisotropy f = Iz/Ix but different micro

  13. Jammed elastic shells - a 3D experimental soft frictionless granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jissy; Blab, Gerhard A.; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout

    2015-03-01

    We present a new experimental system of monodisperse, soft, frictionless, fluorescent labelled elastic shells for the characterization of structure, universal scaling laws and force networks in 3D jammed matter. The interesting fact about these elastic shells is that they can reversibly deform and therefore serve as sensors of local stress in jammed matter. Similar to other soft particles, like emulsion droplets and bubbles in foam, the shells can be packed to volume fractions close to unity, which allows us to characterize the contact force distribution and universal scaling laws as a function of volume fraction, and to compare them with theoretical predictions and numerical simulations. However, our shells, unlike other soft particles, deform rather differently at large stresses. They deform without conserving their inner volume, by forming dimples at contact regions. At each contact one of the shells buckled with a dimple and the other remained spherical, closely resembling overlapping spheres. We conducted 3D quantitative analysis using confocal microscopy and image analysis routines specially developed for these particles. In addition, we analysed the randomness of the process of dimpling, which was found to be volume fraction dependent.

  14. A 3-D enlarged cell technique (ECT) for elastic wave modelling of a curved free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Songlin; Zhou, Jianyang; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-09-01

    The conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for elastic waves suffers from the staircasing error when applied to model a curved free surface because of its structured grid. In this work, an improved, stable and accurate 3-D FDTD method for elastic wave modelling on a curved free surface is developed based on the finite volume method and enlarged cell technique (ECT). To achieve a sufficiently accurate implementation, a finite volume scheme is applied to the curved free surface to remove the staircasing error; in the mean time, to achieve the same stability as the FDTD method without reducing the time step increment, the ECT is introduced to preserve the solution stability by enlarging small irregular cells into adjacent cells under the condition of conservation of force. This method is verified by several 3-D numerical examples. Results show that the method is stable at the Courant stability limit for a regular FDTD grid, and has much higher accuracy than the conventional FDTD method.

  15. A 3-D enlarged cell technique (ECT) for elastic wave modelling of a curved free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Songlin; Zhou, Jianyang; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-07-01

    The conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for elastic waves suffers from the staircasing error when applied to model a curved free surface because of its structured grid. In this work, an improved, stable and accurate 3-D FDTD method for elastic wave modelling on a curved free surface is developed based on the finite volume method and enlarged cell technique (ECT). To achieve a sufficiently accurate implementation, a finite volume scheme is applied to the curved free surface to remove the staircasing error; in the mean time, to achieve the same stability as the FDTD method without reducing the time step increment, the ECT is introduced to preserve the solution stability by enlarging small irregular cells into adjacent cells under the condition of conservation of force. This method is verified by several 3-D numerical examples. Results show that the method is stable at the Courant stability limit for a regular FDTD grid, and has much higher accuracy than the conventional FDTD method.

  16. Prediction of positive and negative elastic dilatancy in 2D and 3D liquid foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognon, P.; Molino, F.; Gay, C.

    2010-05-01

    Liquid foams have been observed to behave like immersed granular materials in at least one respect: deformation tends to raise their liquid contents, a phenomenon called dilatancy. While experimental observations evidenced the effect of a continuous deformation rate (dynamic dilatancy), we present a geometrical interpretation of both main contributions to elastic dilatancy (during elastic deformation) in foams squeezed between two solid plates (2D GG foams), which contain pseudo Plateau borders along the plates, and in 3D foams. The positive contribution is related to the increase in total Plateau border length while the negative contribution reflects the increase in total surface area of the foam. In 2D, we show that the negative dilatancy predicted by Weaire and Hutzler (Philos. Mag., 83 (2003) 2747) at very low liquid fractions is specific to ideal 2D foams (with no glass plates). In 3D, we predict that dilatancy should be positive at low liquid fractions (below 1%) and negative at moderate liquid fractions (above 4%).

  17. Inhomogeneous Media 3D EM Modeling with Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Q.; Wang, R.; An, Z.; Fu, C.; Xu, C.

    2010-12-01

    In general, only the half space of earth is considered in electromagnetic exploration. However, for the long bipole source, because the length is close to the height of ionosphere and also most offsets between source and receivers are equal or larger than the height of ionosphere, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source. At this point the problem becomes one which should contain ionosphere, atmosphere and earth that is “earth-ionosphere” case. There are a few of literatures to report the electromagnetic field results which is including ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media at the same time. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using integral equation (IE) method for a three layers earth-ionosphere model. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale bipole source can be ignorable. The comparison of small scale three layers earth-ionosphere modeling and half space analytical resolution shows that the IE method can be used to modeling the EM fields for long bipole large offset configuration. In order to discuss EM fields’ characteristics for complicate earth-ionosphere media excited by long bipole source in the far-field and wave-guide zones, we first modeled the decay characters of electromagnetic fields for three layers earth-ionosphere model. Because of the effect of ionosphere, the earth-ionosphere electromagnetic fields’ decay curves with given frequency show that there should be an extra wave guide zone for long bipole artificial source, and there are many different characters between this extra zone and far field zone. They are: 1) the amplitudes of EM fields decay much slower; 2) the polarization patterns change; 3) the positions better to measure Zxy and

  18. Jamming of a soft granular system of hollow elastic shells in 3D using confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jissy; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a new system for jammed matter research consisting of monodisperse, fluorescent, hollow deformable shells, dispersed in an index matched solvent. The interesting fact about these elastic shells is that they undergo buckling: in each contact one of the shells receives an indentation from its neighbor under compressive stress. This kind of deformation is different from the soft granular systems experimentally studied so far like photo elastic disks, emulsions and foams, where the particles are flattened in the region of contact and conserve their volume. Using confocal microscopy and image analysis routines (ImageJ software) we identified the 3D position of the particles with sub pixel resolution. The force law to find the contact forces between pairs of particle is derived from the theory of elasticity of thin shells, where force is proportional to the square root of indentation depth. The distribution of normalized contact forces showed a similar trend like other jammed systems with a peak around the mean and a tail that decayed faster than exponential away from jamming threshold. Further, we also investigated the structure of the jammed packings and contact number distribution with distance to jamming.

  19. Estimation of 3D cardiac deformation using spatio-temporal elastic registration of non-scanconverted ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elen, An; Loeckx, Dirk; Choi, Hon Fai; Gao, Hang; Claus, Piet; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul; D'hooge, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Current ultrasound methods for measuring myocardial strain are often limited to measurements in one or two dimensions. Spatio-temporal elastic registration of 3D cardiac ultrasound data can however be used to estimate the 3D motion and full 3D strain tensor. In this work, the spatio-temporal elastic registration method was validated for both non-scanconverted and scanconverted images. This was done using simulated 3D pyramidal ultrasound data sets based on a thick-walled deforming ellipsoid and an adapted convolution model. A B-spline based frame-to-frame elastic registration method was applied to both the scanconverted and non-scanconverded data sets and the accuracy of the resulting deformation fields was quantified. The mean accuracy of the estimated displacement was very similar for the scanconverted and non-scanconverted data sets and thus, it was shown that 3D elastic registration to estimate the cardiac deformation from ultrasound images can be performed on non-scanconverted images, but that avoiding of the scanconversion step does not significantly improve the results of the displacement estimation.

  20. Effect of Kayak Ergometer Elastic Tension on Upper Limb EMG Activity and 3D Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of shoulder injury in kayakers, limited published research examining associated upper limb kinematics and recruitment patterns exists. Altered muscle recruitment patterns on-ergometer vs. on-water kayaking were recently reported, however, mechanisms underlying changes remain to be elucidated. The current study assessed the effect of ergometer recoil tension on upper limb recruitment and kinematics during the kayak stroke. Male kayakers (n = 10) performed 4 by 1 min on-ergometer exercise bouts at 85%VO2max at varying elastic recoil tension; EMG, stroke force and three-dimensional 3D kinematic data were recorded. While stationary recoil forces significantly increased across investigated tensions (125% increase, p < 0.001), no significant differences were detected in assessed force variables during the stroke cycle. In contrast, increasing tension induced significantly higher Anterior Deltoid (AD) activity in the latter stages (70 to 90%) of the cycle (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed across tension levels for Triceps Brachii or Latissimus Dorsi. Kinematic analysis revealed that overhead arm movements accounted for 39 ± 16% of the cycle. Elbow angle at stroke cycle onset was 144 ± 10°; maximal elbow angle (151 ± 7°) occurred at 78 ± 10% into the cycle. All kinematic markers moved to a more anterior position as tension increased. No significant change in wrist marker elevation was observed, while elbow and shoulder marker elevations significantly increased across tension levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, data suggested that kayakers maintained normal upper limb kinematics via additional AD recruitment despite ergometer induced recoil forces. Key pointsKayak ergometer elastic tension significantly alters Anterior Deltoid recruitment patterns.Kayakers maintain optimal arm kinematics despite changing external forces via altered shoulder muscle recruitment.Overhead arm movements account for a high proportion of the kayak

  1. 3D Discontinuous Galerkin elastic seismic wave modeling based upon a grid injection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiller, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a seismic imaging method that estimates thesub-surface physical properties with a spatial resolution of the order of thewavelength. FWI is generally recast as the iterative optimization of anobjective function that measures the distance between modeled and recordeddata. In the framework of local descent methods, FWI requires to perform atleast two seismic modelings per source and per FWI iteration.Due to the resulting computational burden, applications of elastic FWI have been usuallyrestricted to 2D geometries. Despite the continuous growth of high-performancecomputing facilities, application of 3D elastic FWI to real-scale problemsremain computationally too expensive. To perform elastic seismic modeling with a reasonable amount of time, weconsider a reduced computational domain embedded in a larger background modelin which seismic sources are located. Our aim is to compute repeatedly thefull wavefield in the targeted domain after model alteration, once theincident wavefield has been computed once for all in the background model. Toachieve this goal, we use a grid injection method referred to as the Total-Field/Scattered-Field (TF/SF) technique in theelectromagnetic community. We implemented the Total-Field/Scattered-Field approach in theDiscontinuous Galerkin Finite Element method (DG-FEM) that is used to performmodeling in the local domain. We show how to interface the DG-FEM with any modeling engine (analytical solution, finite difference or finite elements methods) that is suitable for the background simulation. One advantage of the Total-Field/Scattered-Field approach is related to thefact that the scattered wavefield instead of the full wavefield enter thePMLs, hence making more efficient the absorption of the outgoing waves at theouter edges of the computational domain. The domain reduction in which theDG-FEM is applied allows us to use modest computational resources opening theway for high-resolution imaging by full

  2. Embedding SAS approach into conjugate gradient algorithms for asymmetric 3D elasticity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hsin-Chu; Warsi, N.A.; Sameh, A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present two strategies to embed the SAS (symmetric-and-antisymmetric) scheme into conjugate gradient (CG) algorithms to make solving 3D elasticity problems, with or without global reflexive symmetry, more efficient. The SAS approach is physically a domain decomposition scheme that takes advantage of reflexive symmetry of discretized physical problems, and algebraically a matrix transformation method that exploits special reflexivity properties of the matrix resulting from discretization. In addition to offering large-grain parallelism, which is valuable in a multiprocessing environment, the SAS scheme also has the potential for reducing arithmetic operations in the numerical solution of a reasonably wide class of scientific and engineering problems. This approach can be applied directly to problems that have global reflexive symmetry, yielding smaller and independent subproblems to solve, or indirectly to problems with partial symmetry, resulting in loosely coupled subproblems. The decomposition is achieved by separating the reflexive subspace from the antireflexive one, possessed by a special class of matrices A, A {element_of} C{sup n x n} that satisfy the relation A = PAP where P is a reflection matrix (symmetric signed permutation matrix).

  3. Estimating elastic moduli of rocks from thin sections: Digital rock study of 3D properties from 2D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Nishank; Mavko, Gary

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of elastic rock moduli using 2D plane strain computations from thin sections has several numerical and analytical advantages over using 3D rock images, including faster computation, smaller memory requirements, and the availability of cheap thin sections. These advantages, however, must be weighed against the estimation accuracy of 3D rock properties from thin sections. We present a new method for predicting elastic properties of natural rocks using thin sections. Our method is based on a simple power-law transform that correlates computed 2D thin section moduli and the corresponding 3D rock moduli. The validity of this transform is established using a dataset comprised of FEM-computed elastic moduli of rock samples from various geologic formations, including Fontainebleau sandstone, Berea sandstone, Bituminous sand, and Grossmont carbonate. We note that using the power-law transform with a power-law coefficient between 0.4-0.6 contains 2D moduli to 3D moduli transformations for all rocks that are considered in this study. We also find that reliable estimates of P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) trends can be obtained using 2D thin sections.

  4. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces. PMID:27482721

  5. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces.

  6. Traveltime computation and imaging from rugged topography in 3D TTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoyong; Wang, Huazhong; Yang, Qinyong; Fang, Wubao

    2014-02-01

    Foothill areas with rugged topography are of great potential for oil and gas seismic exploration, but subsurface imaging in these areas is very challenging. Seismic acquisition with larger offset and wider azimuth is necessary for seismic imaging in complex areas. However, the scale anisotropy in this case must be taken into account. To generalize the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) to 3D transversely isotropic media with vertical symmetry axes (VTI) and tilted symmetry axes (TTI) from rugged topography, a new dynamic programming approach for the first-arrival traveltime computation method is proposed. The first-arrival time on every uniform mesh point is calculated based on Fermat's principle with simple calculus techniques and a systematic mapping scheme. In order to calculate the minimum traveltime, a set of nonlinear equations is solved on each mesh point, where the group velocity is determined by the group angle. Based on the new first-arrival time calculation method, the corresponding PSDM and migration velocity analysis workflow for 3D anisotropic media from rugged surface is developed. Numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed traveltime calculation method is effective in both VTI and TTI media. The migration results for 3D field data show that it is necessary to choose a smooth datum to remove the high wavenumber move-out components for PSDM with rugged topography and take anisotropy into account to achieve better images.

  7. Multilevel-3D Bit Patterned Magnetic Media with 8 Signal Levels Per Nanocolumn

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Nissim; Butler, John; Lee, Beomseop; Shachar, Meir H.; Hu, Bing; Tian, Yuan; Hong, Jeongmin; Garcia, Davil; Ikkawi, Rabee M.; Haddon, Robert C.; Litvinov, Dmitri; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2012-01-01

    This letter presents an experimental study that shows that a 3rd physical dimension may be used to further increase information packing density in magnetic storage devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of at least quadrupling the magnetic states of magnetic-based data storage devices by recording and reading information from nanopillars with three magnetically-decoupled layers. Magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy and magnetic force microscopy analysis show that both continuous (thin film) and patterned triple-stack magnetic media can generate eight magnetically-stable states. This is in comparison to only two states in conventional magnetic recording. Our work further reveals that ferromagnetic interaction between magnetic layers can be reduced by combining Co/Pt and Co/Pd multilayers media. Finally, we are showing for the first time an MFM image of multilevel-3D bit patterned media with 8 discrete signal levels. PMID:22808105

  8. 3D extension of Tensorial Polar Decomposition. Application to (photo-)elasticity tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmorat, Rodrigue; Desmorat, Boris

    2016-06-01

    The orthogonalized harmonic decomposition of symmetric fourth-order tensors (i.e. having major and minor indicial symmetries, such as elasticity tensors) is completed by a representation of harmonic fourth-order tensors H by means of two second-order harmonic (symmetric deviatoric) tensors only. A similar decomposition is obtained for non-symmetric tensors (i.e. having minor indicial symmetry only, such as photo-elasticity tensors or elasto-plasticity tangent operators) introducing a fourth-order major antisymmetric traceless tensor Z. The tensor Z is represented by means of one harmonic second-order tensor and one antisymmetric second-order tensor only. Representations of totally symmetric (rari-constant), symmetric and major antisymmetric fourth-order tensors are simple particular cases of the proposed general representation. Closed-form expressions for tensor decomposition are given in the monoclinic case. Practical applications to elasticity and photo-elasticity monoclinic tensors are finally presented. xml:lang="fr"

  9. 3D imaging of translucent media with a plenoptic sensor based on phase space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuanzhe; Shu, Bohong; Du, Shaojun

    2015-05-01

    Traditional stereo imaging technology is not working for dynamical translucent media, because there are no obvious characteristic patterns on it and it's not allowed using multi-cameras in most cases, while phase space optics can solve the problem, extracting depth information directly from "space-spatial frequency" distribution of the target obtained by plenoptic sensor with single lens. This paper discussed the presentation of depth information in phase space data, and calculating algorithms with different transparency. A 3D imaging example of waterfall was given at last.

  10. HEMP 3D -- a finite difference program for calculating elastic-plastic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1993-05-26

    The HEMP 3D program can be used to solve problems in solid mechanics involving dynamic plasticity and time dependent material behavior and problems in gas dynamics. The equations of motion, the conservation equations, and the constitutive relations are solved by finite difference methods following the format of the HEMP computer simulation program formulated in two space dimensions and time. Presented here is an update of the 1975 report on the HEMP 3D numerical technique. The present report includes the sliding surface routines programmed by Robert Gulliford.

  11. Validation of a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction model simulating flow through an elastic aperture

    PubMed Central

    Quaini, A.; Canic, S.; Glowinski, R.; Igo, S.; Hartley, C.J.; Zoghbi, W.; Little, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194

  12. Impact of Hydration Media on Ex Vivo Corneal Elasticity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noël M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of hydration media on ex vivo corneal elasticity. Methods Experiments were conducted on forty porcine eyes retrieved from an abattoir (10 eyes each for PBS, BSS, Optisol, 15% Dextran). The epithelium was removed and the cornea was excised with an intact scleral rim and placed in 20% Dextran overnight to restore its physiological thickness. For each hydration media, corneas were evenly divided into two groups: one with an intact scleral rim and the other without. Corneas were mounted onto a custom chamber and immersed in a hydration medium for elasticity testing. While in each medium, corneal elasticity measurements were performed for 2 hours: at 5-minute intervals for the first 30 minutes and then 15-minute intervals for the remaining 90 minutes. Elasticity testing was performed using nanoindentation with spherical indenters and Young’s modulus was calculated using the Hertz model. Thickness measurements were taken before and after elasticity testing. Results The percentage change in corneal thickness and elasticity was calculated for each hydration media group. BSS, PBS, and Optisol showed an increase in thickness and Young’s moduli for corneas with and without an intact scleral rim. 15% Dextran exhibited a dehydrating effect on corneal thickness and provided stable maintenance of corneal elasticity for both groups. Conclusions Hydration media affects the stability of corneal thickness and elasticity measurements over time. 15% Dextran was most effective in maintaining corneal hydration and elasticity, followed by Optisol. PMID:25603443

  13. Mach-wave coherence in 3D media with random heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Jagdish C.; Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Dunham, Eric M.; Imperatori, Walter

    2016-04-01

    We investigate Mach-waves coherence for complex super-shear ruptures embedded in 3D random media that lead to seismic scattering. We simulate Mach-wave using kinematic earthquake sources that include fault-regions over which the rupture propagates at super-shear speed. The local slip rate is modeled with the regularized Yoffe function. The medium heterogeneities are characterized by Von Karman correlation function. We consider various realizations of 3D random media from combinations of different values of correlation length (0.5 km, 2 km, 5 km), standard deviation (5%, 10%, 15%) and Hurst exponent (0.2). Simulations in a homogeneous medium serve as a reference case. The ground-motion simulations (maximum resolved frequency of 5 Hz) are conducted by solving the elasto-dynamic equations of motions using a generalized finite-difference method, assuming a vertical strike-slip fault. The seismic wavefield is sampled at numerous locations within the Mach-cone region to study the properties and evolution of the Mach-waves in scattering media. We find that the medium scattering from random heterogeneities significantly diminishes the coherence of Mach-wave in terms of both amplitude and frequencies. We observe that Mach-waves are considerably scattered at distances RJB > 20 km (and beyond) for random media with standard deviation 10%. The scattering efficiency of the medium for small Hurst exponents (H <= 0.2) is mainly controlled by the standard deviation of the velocity heterogeneities, rather than their correlation length, as both theoretical considerations and numerical experiments indicate. Based on our simulations, we propose that local super-shear ruptures may be more common in nature then reported, but are very difficult to detect due to the strong seismic scattering. We suggest that if an earthquake is recorded within 10-15 km fault perpendicular distance and has high PGA, then inversion should be carried out by allowing rupture speed variations from sub

  14. 2.5-D/3-D resistivity modelling in anisotropic media using Gaussian quadrature grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Greenhalgh, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new numerical scheme for 2.5-D/3-D direct current resistivity modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media. This method, named the `Gaussian quadrature grid' (GQG) method, cooperatively combines the solution of the Variational Principle of the partial differential equation, Gaussian quadrature abscissae and local cardinal functions so that it has the main advantages of the spectral element method. The formulation shows that the GQG method is a modification of the spectral element method but does not employ the constant elements or require the mesh generator to match the Earth's surface. This makes it much easier to deal with geological models having a 2-D/3-D complex topography than using traditional numerical methods. The GQG technique can achieve a similar convergence rate to the spectral element method. We show it transforms the 2.5-D/3-D resistivity modelling problem into a sparse and symmetric linear equation system that can be solved by an iterative or matrix inversion method. Comparison with analytic solutions for homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic models shows that the error depends on the Gaussian quadrature order (abscissa number) and the subdomain size. The higher the order or the smaller the subdomain size that is employed, the more accurate are the results obtained. Several other synthetic examples, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, incorporating sloping, undulating and severe topography, are presented and found to yield results comparable to finite element solutions involving a dense mesh.

  15. Towards the elastic properties of 3D spin-crossover thin films: Evidence of buckling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukheddaden, Kamel; Bailly-Reyre, Aurélien

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses the macroscopic deformations of spin-crossover (SC) thin sheets upon their cooperative transformation between the low-spin (LS) and the high-spin (HS) states from the viewpoint of electro-elastic interactions among molecules. When the size of each molecule changes depending on its spin state, the elastic interaction among the lattice distortions provides the cooperative interactions between the spin states, resulting in a macroscopic volume change. In this prospective contribution, we study the elasto-electronic properties of SC sheets in which the atoms can move according to the three directions of space. We predict that when HS and LS domains coexist, the system undergoes tremendous strain by compressing and expanding to differing degrees along the sheet, and it becomes far more favourable energetically to the sheet to buckle out of the plane. According to the elastic interaction between the SC atoms, we found the existence of a phase transition between flat and highly crumpled surfaces. This phenomenon was also investigated on two elastically coupled SC membranes where we demonstrate the existence of specific features of electro-elastic HS:LS interface. To enhance the quality of the surface layers, we have implemented the radial basis functions (RBF) interpolation which allowed to study small systems in a very accurate way. This method gives rise to a functional representation of a solid model, where gradients can be determined analytically, thus promising better understanding of the macroscopic crystal deformations and morphologies during the phase transition. Dedicated to Prof. François Varret on the occasion of his 72nd birthday.

  16. Force sensing using 3D displacement measurements in linear elastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xinzeng; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2016-07-01

    In cell traction microscopy, the mechanical forces exerted by a cell on its environment is usually determined from experimentally measured displacement by solving an inverse problem in elasticity. In this paper, an innovative numerical method is proposed which finds the "optimal" traction to the inverse problem. When sufficient regularization is applied, we demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves the widely used approach using Green's functions. Motivated by real cell experiments, the equilibrium condition of a slowly migrating cell is imposed as a set of equality constraints on the unknown traction. Our validation benchmarks demonstrate that the numeric solution to the constrained inverse problem well recovers the actual traction when the optimal regularization parameter is used. The proposed method can thus be applied to study general force sensing problems, which utilize displacement measurements to sense inaccessible forces in linear elastic bodies with a priori constraints.

  17. A 3-D elasticity theory based model for acoustic radiation from multilayered anisotropic plates.

    PubMed

    Shen, C; Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2014-05-01

    A theoretical model built upon three-dimensional elasticity theory is developed to investigate the acoustic radiation from multilayered anisotropic plates subjected to a harmonic point force excitation. Fourier transform technique and stationary phase method are combined to predict the far-field radiated sound pressure of one-side water immersed plate. Compared to equivalent single-layer plate models, the present model based on elasticity theory can differentiate radiated sound pressure between dry-side and wet-side excited cases, as well as discrepancies induced by different layer sequences for multilayered anisotropic plates. These results highlight the superiority of the present theoretical model especially for handling multilayered anisotropic structures. PMID:24815294

  18. A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.

    SciTech Connect

    English, Shawn Allen

    2014-09-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

  19. Fast myocardial strain estimation from 3D ultrasound through elastic image registration with analytic regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Bidisha; Heyde, Brecht; Alessandrini, Martino; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Image registration techniques using free-form deformation models have shown promising results for 3D myocardial strain estimation from ultrasound. However, the use of this technique has mostly been limited to research institutes due to the high computational demand, which is primarily due to the computational load of the regularization term ensuring spatially smooth cardiac strain estimates. Indeed, this term typically requires evaluating derivatives of the transformation field numerically in each voxel of the image during every iteration of the optimization process. In this paper, we replace this time-consuming step with a closed-form solution directly associated with the transformation field resulting in a speed up factor of ~10-60,000, for a typical 3D B-mode image of 2503 and 5003 voxels, depending upon the size and the parametrization of the transformation field. The performance of the numeric and the analytic solutions was contrasted by computing tracking and strain accuracy on two realistic synthetic 3D cardiac ultrasound sequences, mimicking two ischemic motion patterns. Mean and standard deviation of the displacement errors over the cardiac cycle for the numeric and analytic solutions were 0.68+/-0.40 mm and 0.75+/-0.43 mm respectively. Correlations for the radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain components at end-systole were 0.89, 0.83 and 0.95 versus 0.90, 0.88 and 0.92 for the numeric and analytic regularization respectively. The analytic solution matched the performance of the numeric solution as no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found when expressed in terms of bias or limits-of-agreement.

  20. 3D printed elastic honeycombs with graded density for tailorable energy absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Simon R. G.; Farrow, Ian R.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the development and experimental analysis of hyperelastic honeycombs with graded densities, for the purpose of energy absorption. Hexagonal arrays are manufactured from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing and the density graded by varying cell wall thickness though the structures. Manufactured samples are subject to static compression tests and their energy absorbing potential analysed via the formation of energy absorption diagrams. It is shown that by grading the density through the structure, the energy absorption profile of these structures can be manipulated such that a wide range of compression energies can be efficiently absorbed.

  1. fVisiOn: glasses-free tabletop 3D display to provide virtual 3D media naturally alongside real media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2012-06-01

    A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display, named fVisiOn, floats virtual 3D objects on an empty, flat, tabletop surface and enables multiple viewers to observe raised 3D images from any angle at 360° Our glasses-free 3D image reproduction method employs a combination of an optical device and an array of projectors and produces continuous horizontal parallax in the direction of a circular path located above the table. The optical device shapes a hollow cone and works as an anisotropic diffuser. The circularly arranged projectors cast numerous rays into the optical device. Each ray represents a particular ray that passes a corresponding point on a virtual object's surface and orients toward a viewing area around the table. At any viewpoint on the ring-shaped viewing area, both eyes collect fractional images from different projectors, and all the viewers around the table can perceive the scene as 3D from their perspectives because the images include binocular disparity. The entire principle is installed beneath the table, so the tabletop area remains clear. No ordinary tabletop activities are disturbed. Many people can naturally share the 3D images displayed together with real objects on the table. In our latest prototype, we employed a handmade optical device and an array of over 100 tiny projectors. This configuration reproduces static and animated 3D scenes for a 130° viewing area and allows 5-cm-tall virtual characters to play soccer and dance on the table.

  2. The use of open data from social media for the creation of 3D georeferenced modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2016-08-01

    There is a great deal of open source video on the internet that is posted by users on social media sites. With the release of low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles, many hobbyists are uploading videos from different locations, especially in remote areas. Using open source data that is available on the internet, this study utilized structure to motion (SfM) as a range imaging technique to estimate 3 dimensional landscape features from 2 dimensional image sequences subtracted from video, applied image distortion correction and geo-referencing. This type of documentation may be necessary for cultural heritage sites that are inaccessible or documentation is difficult, where we can access video from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). These 3D models can be viewed using Google Earth, create orthoimage, drawings and create digital terrain modeling for cultural heritage and archaeological purposes in remote or inaccessible areas.

  3. Bioconductive 3D nano-composite constructs with tunable elasticity to initiate stem cell growth and induce bone mineralization.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Nitin; Khanna, Kunal; Sardesai, Varda S; Singh, Atul K; Temgire, Mayur; Kalita, Mridula Phukan; Kadam, Sachin S; Soni, Vivek P; Bhartiya, Deepa; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-12-01

    Bioactive 3D composites play an important role in advanced biomaterial design to provide molecular coupling and improve integrity with the cellular environment of the native bone. In the present study, a hybrid lyophilized polymer composite blend of anionic charged sodium salt of carboxymethyl chitin and gelatin (CMChNa-GEL) reinforced with nano-rod agglomerated hydroxyapatite (nHA) has been developed with enhanced biocompatibility and tunable elasticity. The scaffolds have an open, uniform and interconnected porous structure with an average pore diameter of 157±30μm and 89.47+0.03% with four dimensional X-ray. The aspect ratio of ellipsoidal pores decrease from 4.4 to 1.2 with increase in gelatin concentration; and from 2.14 to 1.93 with decrease in gelling temperature. The samples were resilient with elastic stain at 1.2MPa of stress also decreased from 0.33 to 0.23 with increase in gelatin concentration. The crosslinker HMDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate) yielded more resilient samples at 1.2MPa in comparison to glutaraldehyde. Increased crosslinking time from 2 to 4h in continuous compression cycle show no improvement in maximum elastic stain of 1.2MPa stress. This surface elasticity of the scaffold enables the capacity of these materials for adherent self renewal and cultivation of the NTERA-2 cL.D1 (NT2/D1), pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cell with biomechanical surface, as is shown here. Proliferation with MG-63, ALP activity and Alizarin red mineralization assay on optimized scaffold demonstrated ***p<0.001 between different time points thus showing its potential for bone healing. In pre-clinical study histological bone response of the scaffold construct displayed improved activity of bone regeneration in comparison to self healing of control groups (sham) up to week 07 after implantation in rabbit tibia critical-size defect. Therefore, this nHA-CMChNa-GEL scaffold composite exhibits inherent and efficient physicochemical, mechanical and biological

  4. Software to compute elastostatic Green's functions for sources in 3D homogeneous elastic layers above a (visco)elastic halfspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. M.; Segall, P.

    2012-12-01

    We describe software, in development, to calculate elastostatic displacement Green's functions and their derivatives for point and polygonal dislocations in three-dimensional homogeneous elastic layers above an elastic or a viscoelastic halfspace. The steps to calculate a Green's function for a point source at depth zs are as follows. 1. A grid in wavenumber space is chosen. 2. A six-element complex rotated stress-displacement vector x is obtained at each grid point by solving a two-point boundary value problem (2P-BVP). If the halfspace is viscoelastic, the solution is inverse Laplace transformed. 3. For each receiver, x is propagated to the receiver depth zr (often zr = 0) and then, 4, inverse Fourier transformed, with the Fourier component corresponding to the receiver's horizontal position. 5. The six elements are linearly combined into displacements and their derivatives. The dominant work is in step 2. The grid is chosen to represent the wavenumber-space solution with as few points as possible. First, the wavenumber space is transformed to increase sampling density near 0 wavenumber. Second, a tensor-product grid of Chebyshev points of the first kind is constructed in each quadrant of the transformed wavenumber space. Moment-tensor-dependent symmetries further reduce work. The numerical solution of the 2P-BVP problem in step 2 involves solving a linear equation A x = b. Half of the elements of x are of geophysical interest; the subset depends on whether zr ≤ zs. Denote these \\hat x. As wavenumber k increases, \\hat x can become inaccurate in finite precision arithmetic for two reasons: 1. The condition number of A becomes too large. 2. The norm-wise relative error (NWRE) in \\hat x is large even though it is small in x. To address this problem, a number of researchers have used determinants to obtain x. This may be the best approach for 6-dimensional or smaller 2P-BVP, where the combinatorial increase in work is still moderate. But there is an alternative

  5. Numerical Simulation of 3D Thermo-Elastic Fatigue Crack Growth Problems Using Coupled FE-EFG Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Himanshu; Singh, Akhilendra; Singh, Indra Vir

    2016-06-01

    In this work, finite element method (FEM) and element free Galerkin method (EFGM) are coupled for solving 3D crack domains subjected to cyclic thermal load of constant amplitude. Crack growth contours and fatigue life have been obtained for each of the considered numerical examples. Thermo-elastic problems are decoupled into thermal and elastic problems . Firstly, the unknown temperature field is obtained by solving heat conduction equation, then, it is used as the input load in the elastic problem to calculate the displacement and stress fields. The geometrical discontinuity across crack surface is modelled by extrinsically enriched EFGM and the remaining part of the domain is approximated by standard finite element method. At the crack interface, a ramp function based interpolation scheme has been implemented. This coupled approach combines the advantages of both EFGM and FEM. A linear successive crack increment approach is used to model crack growth. The growing crack surface is traced by level set function. Standard Paris law is used for life estimation of the three-dimensional crack models. Different cases of planar and non-planar crack problems have been solved and their results are compared with the results obtained using extended finite element method to check accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the coupled FE-EFG approach implemented in this study.

  6. Coseismic deformation due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: influence of 3-D elastic structure around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, Akinori; Becker, Thorsten W.; Freed, Andrew M.; Sato, Hiroshi; Okaya, David A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of elastic heterogeneity on coseismic deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, Japan, using a 3-D finite element model, incorporating the geometry of regional plate boundaries. Using a forward approach, we computed displacement fields for different elastic models with a given slip distribution. Three main structural models are considered to separate the effects of different kinds of heterogeneity: a homogeneous model, a two-layered model with crust-mantle stratification, and a crust-mantle layered model with a strong subducting slab. We observed two counteracting effects: (1) On large spatial scales, elastic layering with increasing rigidity with depth leads to a decrease in surface displacement. (2) An increase in rigidity from above the slab interface to below causes an increase in surface displacement, because the weaker hanging wall deforms to accommodate coseismic slip. Results for slip inversions associated with the Tohoku-oki earthquake show that slip patterns are modified when comparing homogeneous and heterogeneous models. However, the maximum slip only changes slightly: It increases from 38.5 m in the homogeneous to 39.6 m in the layered case and decreases to 37.3 m when slabs are introduced. Potency, i.e., the product of slip and fault area, changes accordingly. Layering leads to inferred slip distributions that are broader and deeper compared to the homogeneous case, particularly to the south of the overall slip maximum. The introduction of a strong slab leads to a reduction in slip around the slip maximum near the trench. We also find that details of the vertical deformation patterns for heterogeneous models are sensitive to the Poisson's ratio. While elastic heterogeneity does therefore not have a dramatic effect on bulk quantities such as inferred potency, the mechanical response of a layered medium with a slab does lead to a systematically modified slip response, and such effects may bias studies of

  7. Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    -Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.

  8. A 3D boundary integral equation method for ultrasonic scattering in a fluid-loaded elastic half space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, K.; Hirose, S.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a boundary integral equation method for 3D ultrasonic scattering problems in a fluid-loaded elastic half space. Since full scale of numerical calculation using finite element or boundary element method is still very expensive, we formulate a boundary integral equation for the scattered field, which is amenable to numerical treatment. In order to solve the problem using the integral equation, however, the wave field without scattering objects, so-called free field need to be given in advance. We calculate the free field by the plane wave spectral method where the asymptotic approximation is introduced for computational efficiency. To show the efficiency of our method, scattering by a spherical cavity near fluid-solid interface is solved and the validity of the results is discussed.

  9. Transport of iron oxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media: a large-scale 3D study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Micić, Vesna; Miyajima, Kumiko; Klaas, Norbert; Braun, Jürgen; Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (FeOxNp) have a high potential as electron acceptor for in situ microbial oxidation of a wide range of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants (Bosch et al., 2010). Tosco et al. (2012) reported on high colloidal stability of FeOxNp dispersed in water, their low deposition behavior, and consequently improved transport in column experiments compared to extensively studied zerovalent iron nanoparticles. However, determination of FeOxNp transport behavior at the field-relevant conditions has not been done before. The present work is aimed to evaluate different complementary methods for detection, quantification and transport characterization of FeOxNp in a large-scale three-dimensional (3D) model aquifer. Prior to that, batch-scale experiments were performed in order to elucidate the potential of the selected methods for direct and indirect characterization and detection of FeOxNp. Direct methods included measurements of particle size distribution, particle concentration, Fetot content and turbidity of the FeOxNp suspension. Indirect methods included measurements of particle zeta potential, as well as TOC content and pH of the FeOxNp suspension. The results of the batch experiments indicated that the most suitable approach for detecting and quantifying FeOxNp was measuring Fetot content and suspension turbidity, as well as particle size determined using dynamic light scattering principle. These complementary methods were further applied in a large-scale 3D study containing medium and coarse sand in order to 1) assess the transport of FeOxNp in saturated porous medium during injection (VFeOx = 6 m3, cparticle = 20 g/L, Qinj = 0.7 m3/h), and 2) illustrate their spatial distribution after injection. The outcomes of the large-scale 3D study confirmed that FeOxNp transport can be successfully investigated applying complementary methods. Monitoring data including Fetot content, turbidity and particle size showed the transport of particles towards the

  10. Broadband Near-Field Ground Motion Simulations in 3D Scattering Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperatori, Walter; Mai, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth's crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broadband ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or pure stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions using a 3D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3D media characterized by Von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wave-field at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine other relevant scattering-related phenomena, such as the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broadband ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic omega-squared spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both sub-shear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for PGV calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2-5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggest that Von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred meters and few kilometers, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5-10% range

  11. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Remediation in 3D Field-Scale Fractured Geologic Media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Thermal methods are promising for remediating fractured geologic media contaminated with volatile organic compounds, and the success of this process depends on the coupled heat transfer, multiphase flow, and thermodynamics. This study analyzed field-scale removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and heat transfer behavior in boiling fractured geologic media using the multiple interacting continua method. This method can resolve local gradients in the matrix and is less computationally demanding than alternative methods like discrete fracture-matrix models. A 2D axisymmetric model was used to simulate a single element of symmetry in a repeated pattern of extraction wells inside a large heated zone and evaluate effects of parameter sensitivity on contaminant recovery. The results showed that the removal of TCE increased with matrix permeability, and the removal rate was more sensitive to matrix permeability than any other parameter. Increasing fracture density promoted TCE removal, especially when the matrix permeability was low (e.g., <10(-17) m(2)). A 3D model was used to simulate an entire treatment zone and the surrounding groundwater in fractured material, with the interaction between them being considered. Boiling was initiated in the center of the upper part of the heated region and expanded toward the boundaries. This boiling process resulted in a large increase in the TCE removal rate and spread of TCE to the vadose zone and the peripheries of the heated zone. The incorporation of extraction wells helped control the contaminant from migrating to far regions. After 22 d, more than 99.3% of TCE mass was recovered in the simulation. PMID:25040727

  12. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Remediation in 3D Field-Scale Fractured Geologic Media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Thermal methods are promising for remediating fractured geologic media contaminated with volatile organic compounds, and the success of this process depends on the coupled heat transfer, multiphase flow, and thermodynamics. This study analyzed field-scale removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and heat transfer behavior in boiling fractured geologic media using the multiple interacting continua method. This method can resolve local gradients in the matrix and is less computationally demanding than alternative methods like discrete fracture-matrix models. A 2D axisymmetric model was used to simulate a single element of symmetry in a repeated pattern of extraction wells inside a large heated zone and evaluate effects of parameter sensitivity on contaminant recovery. The results showed that the removal of TCE increased with matrix permeability, and the removal rate was more sensitive to matrix permeability than any other parameter. Increasing fracture density promoted TCE removal, especially when the matrix permeability was low (e.g., <10(-17) m(2)). A 3D model was used to simulate an entire treatment zone and the surrounding groundwater in fractured material, with the interaction between them being considered. Boiling was initiated in the center of the upper part of the heated region and expanded toward the boundaries. This boiling process resulted in a large increase in the TCE removal rate and spread of TCE to the vadose zone and the peripheries of the heated zone. The incorporation of extraction wells helped control the contaminant from migrating to far regions. After 22 d, more than 99.3% of TCE mass was recovered in the simulation.

  13. A Hierarchical Bayesian Approcah for Earthquake Location and Data Uncertainty Estimation in 3D Heterogeneous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroucau, P.; Custodio, S.

    2014-12-01

    Solving inverse problems requires an estimate of data uncertainties. This usually takes the form of a data covariance matrix, which determines the shape of the model posterior distribution. Those uncertainties are yet not always known precisely and it is common practice to simply set them to a fixed, reasonable value. In the case of earthquake location, the hypocentral parameters (longitude, latitude, depth and origin time) are typically inverted for using seismic phase arrival times. But quantitative data variance estimates are rarely provided. Instead, arrival time catalogs usually associate phase picks with a quality factor, which is subsequently interpreted more or less arbitrarily in terms of data uncertainty in the location procedure. Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian algorithm for earthquake location in 3D heterogeneous media, in which not only the earthquake hypocentral parameters, but also the P- and S-wave arrival time uncertainties, are inverted for, hence allowing more realistic posterior model covariance estimates. Forward modeling is achieved by means of the Fast Marching Method (FMM), an eikonal solver which has the ability to take interfaces into account, so direct, reflected and refracted phases can be used in the inversion. We illustrate the ability of our algorithm to retrieve earthquake hypocentral parameters as well as data uncertainties through synthetic examples and using a subset of arrival time catalogs for mainland Portugal and its Atlantic margin.

  14. Full 3D dispersion curve solutions for guided waves in generally anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando Quintanilla, F.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Craster, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Dispersion curves of guided waves provide valuable information about the physical and elastic properties of waves propagating within a given waveguide structure. Algorithms to accurately compute these curves are an essential tool for engineers working in non-destructive evaluation and for scientists studying wave phenomena. Dispersion curves are typically computed for low or zero attenuation and presented in two or three dimensional plots. The former do not always provide a clear and complete picture of the dispersion loci and the latter are very difficult to obtain when high values of attenuation are involved and arbitrary anisotropy is considered in single or multi-layered systems. As a consequence, drawing correct and reliable conclusions is a challenging task in the modern applications that often utilize multi-layered anisotropic viscoelastic materials. These challenges are overcome here by using a spectral collocation method (SCM) to robustly find dispersion curves in the most complicated cases of high attenuation and arbitrary anisotropy. Solutions are then plotted in three-dimensional frequency-complex wavenumber space, thus gaining much deeper insight into the nature of these problems. The cases studied range from classical examples, which validate this approach, to new ones involving materials up to the most general triclinic class for both flat and cylindrical geometry in multi-layered systems. The apparent crossing of modes within the same symmetry family in viscoelastic media is also explained and clarified by the results. Finally, the consequences of the centre of symmetry, present in every crystal class, on the solutions are discussed.

  15. Finite-Difference Algorithm for Simulating 3D Electromagnetic Wavefields in Conductive Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wavefields are routinely used in geophysical exploration for detection and characterization of subsurface geological formations of economic interest. Recorded EM signals depend strongly on the current conductivity of geologic media. Hence, they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of saturated porous bodies. In order to enhance understanding of field-recorded data, we are developing a numerical algorithm for simulating three-dimensional (3D) EM wave propagation and diffusion in heterogeneous conductive materials. Maxwell's equations are combined with isotropic constitutive relations to obtain a set of six, coupled, first-order partial differential equations governing the electric and magnetic vectors. An advantage of this system is that it does not contain spatial derivatives of the three medium parameters electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and current conductivity. Numerical solution methodology consists of explicit, time-domain finite-differencing on a 3D staggered rectangular grid. Temporal and spatial FD operators have order 2 and N, where N is user-selectable. We use an artificially-large electric permittivity to maximize the FD timestep, and thus reduce execution time. For the low frequencies typically used in geophysical exploration, accuracy is not unduly compromised. Grid boundary reflections are mitigated via convolutional perfectly matched layers (C-PMLs) imposed at the six grid flanks. A shared-memory-parallel code implementation via OpenMP directives enables rapid algorithm execution on a multi-thread computational platform. Good agreement is obtained in comparisons of numerically-generated data with reference solutions. EM wavefields are sourced via point current density and magnetic dipole vectors. Spatially-extended inductive sources (current carrying wire loops) are under development. We are particularly interested in accurate representation of high-conductivity sub-grid-scale features that are common

  16. Downhole synthetic seismic profiles in elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X

    1990-02-01

    A multichannel lattice filter structure is utilized to represent seismic waves propagating in adjacent layers in an elastic medium. Using this model, an explicit time-domain solution for arbitrary source and receiver locations is obtained as an arma (autoregressive and moving-average) process. The lattice and arma structures have given rise to an effective algorithm for the calculation of offset/downhole synthetic seismograms. A large range of recently developed offset/downhole seismic survey geometries, such as the Yo-Yo arrangement, can thus be simulated. In addition, the explicit solutions for upgoing and downgoing waves provide new insight into the properties of general downhole seismic signals, including wave-mode conversion effects and multiple reflections. Furthermore, offset/downhole seismograms generated by a line source (i.e., 2D point source) can also be constructed by superposition of plane waves with different incidence angles.

  17. An efficient method of 3-D elastic full waveform inversion using a finite-difference injection method for time-lapse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Dmitry; Singh, Satish C.; Fuji, Nobuaki

    2015-09-01

    Seismic full waveform inversion is an objective method to estimate elastic properties of the subsurface and is an important area of research, particularly in seismic exploration community. It is a data-fitting approach, where the difference between observed and synthetic data is minimized iteratively. Due to a very high computational cost, the practical implementation of waveform inversion has so far been restricted to a 2-D geometry with different levels of physics incorporated in it (e.g. elasticity/viscoelasticity) or to a 3-D geometry but using an acoustic approximation. However, the earth is three-dimensional, elastic and heterogeneous and therefore a full 3-D elastic inversion is required in order to obtain more accurate and valuable models of the subsurface. Despite the recent increase in computing power, the application of 3-D elastic full waveform inversion to real-scale problems remains quite challenging on the current computer architecture. Here, we present an efficient method to perform 3-D elastic full waveform inversion for time-lapse seismic data using a finite-difference injection method. In this method, the wavefield is computed in the whole model and is stored on a surface above a finite volume where the model is perturbed and localized inversion is performed. Comparison of the final results using the 3-D finite-difference injection method and conventional 3-D inversion performed within the whole volume shows that our new method provides significant reductions in computational time and memory requirements without any notable loss in accuracy. Our approach shows a big potential for efficient reservoir monitoring in real time-lapse experiments.

  18. Rigorous 3-D coupled wave diffraction analysis of multiple superposed gratings in anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Glytsis, E N; Gaylord, T K

    1989-06-15

    The diffraction by two planar slanted fringe gratings superposed in the same volume of an anisotropic medium is treated using rigorous 3-D vector coupled wave analysis. Arbitrary angle of incidence and polarization are included. Both phase and/or amplitude slanted gratings in anisotropic media are treated in the analysis. The external boundary regions can be either isotropic (for bulk applications) or uniaxial anisotropic (for integrated applications). Both forward- and backward-diffracted orders are characterized by a number pair (i(l),i(2)), where i(l) and i(2) are integers. The Floquet condition is discussed for the case of two superposed gratings. When the external regions are anisotropic, each diffracted order has an ordinary (O), and an extraordinary (E) component. The analysis is also generalized for an arbitrary number of superposed gratings. The numerical complexity is discussed. In the case of equal grating periodicities along the boundaries, the diffracted orders become degenerate in the external regions. In this case, an alternative analysis that utilizes a cascaded stack of unslanted gratings can be used. Limiting cases are also presented. The various Bragg conditions are identified and quantified. Sample calculations presented include the quantification of the crosstalk between two superposed gratings, the evaluation of the effects of coupled Bragg conditions in beam combining applications, design and analysis of a beam splitter and a beam combiner, demonstration of the use of a cascaded stack of unslanted gratings of constant modulation to represent two superposed gratings that have the same periodicity along the boundaries, and finally evaluation of the effect of the phase difference between two gratings. The same analysis applies in the limiting cases of isotropic materials, single slanted gratings, etc. Applications of this analysis include optical storage, optical digital truth table look-up processing, neural nets, optical interconnects, beam

  19. From micro-scale 3D simulations to macro-scale model of periodic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevacore, Eleonora; Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Sethi, Rajandrea; Messina, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    In environmental engineering, the transport of colloidal suspensions in porous media is studied to understand the fate of potentially harmful nano-particles and to design new remediation technologies. In this perspective, averaging techniques applied to micro-scale numerical simulations are a powerful tool to extrapolate accurate macro-scale models. Choosing two simplified packing configurations of soil grains and starting from a single elementary cell (module), it is possible to take advantage of the periodicity of the structures to reduce the computation costs of full 3D simulations. Steady-state flow simulations for incompressible fluid in laminar regime are implemented. Transport simulations are based on the pore-scale advection-diffusion equation, that can be enriched introducing also the Stokes velocity (to consider the gravity effect) and the interception mechanism. Simulations are carried on a domain composed of several elementary modules, that serve as control volumes in a finite volume method for the macro-scale method. The periodicity of the medium involves the periodicity of the flow field and this will be of great importance during the up-scaling procedure, allowing relevant simplifications. Micro-scale numerical data are treated in order to compute the mean concentration (volume and area averages) and fluxes on each module. The simulation results are used to compare the micro-scale averaged equation to the integral form of the macroscopic one, making a distinction between those terms that could be computed exactly and those for which a closure in needed. Of particular interest it is the investigation of the origin of macro-scale terms such as the dispersion and tortuosity, trying to describe them with micro-scale known quantities. Traditionally, to study the colloidal transport many simplifications are introduced, such those concerning ultra-simplified geometry that usually account for a single collector. Gradual removal of such hypothesis leads to a

  20. Wide Aperture Imaging Strategies for 3D Elastic Full-waveform Inversion: Application to the Marmousi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    An application of the 3D elastic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to wide-aperture seismic data obtained for a complex geological setting is presented. Imaging is implemented in the Fourier domain, exploiting damped wave fields. The modeling part is solved with a finite-difference method. The non-linear conjugate gradient method is used for the inverse problem solution. The nonlinearity of FWI leads to the presence of local and multiple minima in the least-squares error functional especially for large offset problems. That leads to the shutdown of the inverse problem convergence and uncertainty in the solution. An accurate starting velocity model can avoid this problem, but in many cases may not be available. Hence other strategies are necessary to address the problem. We propose a robust inversion process for an arbitrary starting velocity model, which allows avoiding local minima and obtaining acceptable images of the deep seated structures defined by large offset data. We proceed from the assumption that decreasing data offset reduces local minima problems but decreases the depth of the recovered image. So, the inversion process is realized sequentially from small to large offsets, allowing recovery of geological structures over the entire depth range of interest from the near surface to deeper depths sensed only by large aperture offsets. Increasing of data offset is first performed at the lowest frequency and then proceeding with treatment of all data offsets from low to high frequencies. A reverse loop is also implemented in the laddering of frequencies, where after the inversion at high frequencies and all offsets we return to the lower frequencies data to continue the IP. Returning to lower frequency data provides helping to ameliorate multiple minima encountered in the inversion. The inversion then concludes by sweeping over higher frequency data, at all offsets. We demonstrate our strategies for treating wide aperture offset data on the Marmousi model, using

  1. DCM3D: A dual-continuum, three-dimensional, ground-water flow code for unsaturated, fractured, porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Updegraff, C.D. ); Lee, C.E. ); Gallegos, D.P. )

    1991-02-01

    This report constitutes the user's manual for DCM3D. DCM3D is a computer code for solving three-dimensional, ground-water flow problems in variably saturated, fractured porous media. The code is based on a dual-continuum model with porous media comprising one continuum and fractures comprising the other. The continua are connected by a transfer term that depends on the unsaturated permeability of the porous medium. An integrated finite-difference scheme is used to discretize the governing equations in space. The time-dependent term is allowed to remain continuous. The resulting set of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) is solved with a general ODE solver, LSODES. The code is capable of handling transient, spatially dependent source terms and boundary conditions. The boundary conditions can either prescribed head or prescribed flux. 24 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.

  3. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-12-10

    We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.

  4. Fast 3D optical reconstruction in turbid media using spatially modulated light

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Cosimo; Ducros, Nicolas; Bassi, Andrea; Arridge, Simon; Valentini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    A method to perform fast 3-D optical reconstruction, based on structured light, in thick samples is demonstrated and experimentally validated. The experimental and reconstruction procedure, based on Finite Elements Method, used to reconstruct absorbing heterogeneities, with arbitrary arrangement in space, is discussed. In particular we demonstrated that a 2D sampling of the source Fourier plane is required to improve the imaging capability. PMID:21258482

  5. PHT3D-UZF: A reactive transport model for variably-saturated porous media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Ming Zhi; Post, Vincent E. A.; Salmon, S. Ursula; Morway, Eric; Prommer, H.

    2016-01-01

    A modified version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS-based reactive transport model PHT3D was developed to extend current reactive transport capabilities to the variably-saturated component of the subsurface system and incorporate diffusive reactive transport of gaseous species. Referred to as PHT3D-UZF, this code incorporates flux terms calculated by MODFLOW's unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package. A volume-averaged approach similar to the method used in UZF-MT3DMS was adopted. The PHREEQC-based computation of chemical processes within PHT3D-UZF in combination with the analytical solution method of UZF1 allows for comprehensive reactive transport investigations (i.e., biogeochemical transformations) that jointly involve saturated and unsaturated zone processes. Intended for regional-scale applications, UZF1 simulates downward-only flux within the unsaturated zone. The model was tested by comparing simulation results with those of existing numerical models. The comparison was performed for several benchmark problems that cover a range of important hydrological and reactive transport processes. A 2D simulation scenario was defined to illustrate the geochemical evolution following dewatering in a sandy acid sulfate soil environment. Other potential applications include the simulation of biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated systems that track the transport and fate of agricultural pollutants, nutrients, natural and xenobiotic organic compounds and micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, as well as the evolution of isotope patterns.

  6. PHT3D-UZF: A Reactive Transport Model for Variably-Saturated Porous Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming Zhi; Post, Vincent E A; Salmon, S Ursula; Morway, Eric D; Prommer, Henning

    2016-01-01

    A modified version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS-based reactive transport model PHT3D was developed to extend current reactive transport capabilities to the variably-saturated component of the subsurface system and incorporate diffusive reactive transport of gaseous species. Referred to as PHT3D-UZF, this code incorporates flux terms calculated by MODFLOW's unsaturated-zone flow (UZF1) package. A volume-averaged approach similar to the method used in UZF-MT3DMS was adopted. The PHREEQC-based computation of chemical processes within PHT3D-UZF in combination with the analytical solution method of UZF1 allows for comprehensive reactive transport investigations (i.e., biogeochemical transformations) that jointly involve saturated and unsaturated zone processes. Intended for regional-scale applications, UZF1 simulates downward-only flux within the unsaturated zone. The model was tested by comparing simulation results with those of existing numerical models. The comparison was performed for several benchmark problems that cover a range of important hydrological and reactive transport processes. A 2D simulation scenario was defined to illustrate the geochemical evolution following dewatering in a sandy acid sulfate soil environment. Other potential applications include the simulation of biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated systems that track the transport and fate of agricultural pollutants, nutrients, natural and xenobiotic organic compounds and micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, as well as the evolution of isotope patterns. PMID:25628017

  7. Linking snow microstructure to its macroscopic elastic stiffness tensor: A numerical homogenization method and its application to 3-D images from X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wautier, A.; Geindreau, C.; Flin, F.

    2015-10-01

    The full 3-D macroscopic mechanical behavior of snow is investigated by solving kinematically uniform boundary condition problems derived from homogenization theories over 3-D images obtained by X-ray tomography. Snow is modeled as a porous cohesive material, and its mechanical stiffness tensor is computed within the framework of the elastic behavior of ice. The size of the optimal representative elementary volume, expressed in terms of correlation lengths, is determined through a convergence analysis of the computed effective properties. A wide range of snow densities is explored, and power laws with high regression coefficients are proposed to link the Young's and shear moduli of snow to its density. The degree of anisotropy of these properties is quantified, and Poisson's ratios are also provided. Finally, the influence of the main types of metamorphism (isothermal, temperature gradient, and wet snow metamorphism) on the elastic properties of snow and on their anisotropy is reported.

  8. 3D Observation and Evaluation of Induced Damaged Zones in Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Young, R.

    2009-05-01

    Rift zones, sites for dyke intrusion and supporting roof of a mine under tension, production enhancement and stimulation of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs are good examples to study the nature of interaction of propagating tensile fractures with pre-existing preferably oriented sets of geological structures. Such interactions cause anisotropy in transport and mechanical properties in rocks, eventually affecting the post strength, post-frictional and hydro-geological properties of resultant rock masses. In present study 3D micro CT images are used to understand the relationship between the test crack path propagation and structure of caused damage zones, with microstructural fabric orientation in a granite tested for fracture toughness under mode I along specific directions. X-ray CT scanning images were obtained on a volume of Barre granite when the test cracks were forced to propagate parallel (case 1) and perpendicular (case 2) to the preferably oriented microstructural fabric. These images were binarized to mineral grains and induced cracks by means of a neighborhood-based standard deviation thresholding algorithm. 3D objects counter algorithm was applied on these images to identify and compare the physical properties such as crack induced porosity, induced crack density, generated total surface area and contribution of individual mineral grains within the damaged zones in case 1 and 2 scenarios. Results showed that measured induced crack porosity for case 1 is more than ten times than that of case 2 which further justifies the reason for the fracture toughness in case 1 being almost twice of that of case 2. The type and structure of damage zones in these cases were found geometrically different. This study, linked with observations in field scale helps in better understanding of fracture propagation and its application to stability of underground openings, control of rock fragmentation, prediction of transport properties with divers flow regimes and

  9. Chemotaxis of Caenorhabditis elegans in complex media: crawling, burrowing, 2D and 3D swimming, and controlled fluctuations hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amar; Bilbao, Alejandro; Rahman, Mizanur; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful genetic model, essential for studies in diverse areas ranging from behavior to neuroscience to aging, and locomotion and chemotaxis are the two key observables used. We combine our recently developed theory of nematode locomotion and turning maneuvers [Phys. Fluids 25, 081902 (2013)] with simple models of chemosensation to analyze nematode chemotaxis strategies in 2D and 3D environments. We show that the sharp-turn (pirouette) chemotaxis mechanism is efficient in diverse media; in particular, the nematode does not need to adjust the sensing or motion-control parameters to efficiently chemotax in 2D crawling, 3D burrowing, and 2D or 3D swimming. In contrast, the graduate-turn mechanism becomes inefficient in swimming, unless a phase-shift is introduced between the sensing signal and modulation of body wave to generate the gradual turn. We hypothesize that there exists a new ``controlled fluctuations'' chemotaxis mechanism, in which the nematode changes the intensity of undulation fluctuations to adjust the persistence length of the trajectory in response to a variation in chemoattractant concentration. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET 1059745.

  10. 3D Staggered-Grid Finite-Difference Simulation of Acoustic Waves in Turbulent Moving Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, N. P.; Aldridge, D. F.; Marlin, D.; Wilson, D. K.; Sullivan, P.; Ostashev, V.

    2003-12-01

    Acoustic wave propagation in a three-dimensional heterogeneous moving atmosphere is accurately simulated with a numerical algorithm recently developed under the DOD Common High Performance Computing Software Support Initiative (CHSSI). Sound waves within such a dynamic environment are mathematically described by a set of four, coupled, first-order partial differential equations governing small-amplitude fluctuations in pressure and particle velocity. The system is rigorously derived from fundamental principles of continuum mechanics, ideal-fluid constitutive relations, and reasonable assumptions that the ambient atmospheric motion is adiabatic and divergence-free. An explicit, time-domain, finite-difference (FD) numerical scheme is used to solve the system for both pressure and particle velocity wavefields. The atmosphere is characterized by 3D gridded models of sound speed, mass density, and the three components of the wind velocity vector. Dependent variables are stored on staggered spatial and temporal grids, and centered FD operators possess 2nd-order and 4th-order space/time accuracy. Accurate sound wave simulation is achieved provided grid intervals are chosen appropriately. The gridding must be fine enough to reduce numerical dispersion artifacts to an acceptable level and maintain stability. The algorithm is designed to execute on parallel computational platforms by utilizing a spatial domain-decomposition strategy. Currently, the algorithm has been validated on four different computational platforms, and parallel scalability of approximately 85% has been demonstrated. Comparisons with analytic solutions for uniform and vertically stratified wind models indicate that the FD algorithm generates accurate results with either a vanishing pressure or vanishing vertical-particle velocity boundary condition. Simulations are performed using a kinematic turbulence wind profile developed with the quasi-wavelet method. In addition, preliminary results are presented

  11. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Liu, Feng (Inventor); Lax, Melvin (Inventor); Das, Bidyut B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: ##EQU1## wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/<.DELTA.Xj.DELTA.Xj> Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absoption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.

  12. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Gayen, Swapan K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/<.DELTA.Xj.DELTA.Xj> Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absorption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.

  13. Two parabolic equations for propagation in layered poro-elastic media.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Adam M; Siegmann, William L; Collins, Michael D; Collis, Jon M

    2013-07-01

    Parabolic equation methods for fluid and elastic media are extended to layered poro-elastic media, including some shallow-water sediments. A previous parabolic equation solution for one model of range-independent poro-elastic media [Collins et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1645-1656 (1995)] does not produce accurate solutions for environments with multiple poro-elastic layers. First, a dependent-variable formulation for parabolic equations used with elastic media is generalized to layered poro-elastic media. An improvement in accuracy is obtained using a second dependent-variable formulation that conserves dependent variables across interfaces between horizontally stratified layers. Furthermore, this formulation expresses conditions at interfaces using no depth derivatives higher than first order. This feature should aid in treating range dependence because convenient matching across interfaces is possible with discretized derivatives of first order in contrast to second order.

  14. Real-time 3D imaging of Haines jumps in porous media flow

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Steffen; Ott, Holger; Klapp, Stephan A.; Schwing, Alex; Neiteler, Rob; Brussee, Niels; Makurat, Axel; Leu, Leon; Enzmann, Frieder; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Kersten, Michael; Irvine, Sarah; Stampanoni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Newly developed high-speed, synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography enabled us to directly image pore-scale displacement events in porous rock in real time. Common approaches to modeling macroscopic fluid behavior are phenomenological, have many shortcomings, and lack consistent links to elementary pore-scale displacement processes, such as Haines jumps and snap-off. Unlike the common singular pore jump paradigm based on observations of restricted artificial capillaries, we found that Haines jumps typically cascade through 10–20 geometrically defined pores per event, accounting for 64% of the energy dissipation. Real-time imaging provided a more detailed fundamental understanding of the elementary processes in porous media, such as hysteresis, snap-off, and nonwetting phase entrapment, and it opens the way for a rigorous process for upscaling based on thermodynamic models. PMID:23431151

  15. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B; Jansen, Sanaz A; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12-20 weeks (n=12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20-25μL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (p<0.02) and significantly higher than that of contralateral mammary ducts that were not injected with contrast media (p<0.0001). The methods described here could be adapted for injection of specialized contrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers.

  16. Data-driven inversion of 3D GPR data for layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slob, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    The number of GPR applications is large and still increasing. In several applications fixed-offset measurements can be sufficient and many dedicated imaging and inversion methods have been developed. Because there is insufficient amounts of data, these are necessarily model-driven schemes. For problems where quantitative information is needed, usually it is better to record multi-offset and possibly multicomponent data. Even for this data inversion is usually model-driven. This means the inverse problem is formulated as an iterative forward modeling problem and is solved by minimizing the amplitude difference between modeled and measured data. The model is modified such that data computed from the model fits the measured data. The information in the measured data itself is not used, except as a measure of the model data fit. For multi-offset multicomponent data a data-driven scheme is here developed to perform full waveform inversion of 3D ground-penetrating radar reflection data acquired on the surface of a layered medium. For data-driven models to work well, the data has to be properly sampled. The advantage is that no model information is necessary to carry out the inversion. The inversion is carried out in three steps. First the data is decomposed into up- and downgoing wave modes. In a layered earth the two modes are separable and are treated separately. This step provides the reflection response of the layered medium. For 3D waves in a layered medium this requires knowledge of the horizontal electric and magnetic field components. If the data is properly sampled the solution is unique. The second step consists of wave field synthesis, where the reflection response is used to construct a focusing wave field that can focus in a virtual receiver position at any depth level. At this stage of the process the depth level is only known in terms of one-way travel time. This is the intercept time in the slowness domain obtained directly from the data. A virtual

  17. Using FUN3D for Aeroelastic, Sonic Boom, and AeroPropulsoServoElastic (APSE) Analyses of a Supersonic Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Connolly, Joseph; Kopasakis, George

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent applications of the FUN3D CFD code to computational aeroelastic, sonic boom, and aeropropulsoservoelasticity (APSE) analyses of a low-boom supersonic configuration is presented. The overview includes details of the computational models developed including multiple unstructured CFD grids suitable for aeroelastic and sonic boom analyses. In addition, aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models (ROMs) are generated and used to rapidly compute the aeroelastic response and utter boundaries at multiple flight conditions.

  18. Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media: 3D Visualization Using Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueck, C. L.; Meisenheimer, D.; Wildenschild, D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling colloid transport and deposition in the vadose zone is an important step in protecting our water resources. Not only may these particles themselves be undesirable contaminants, but they can also aid in the transport of smaller, molecular-scale contaminants by chemical attachment. In this research, we examined the influence that air-water interfaces (AWI) and air-water-solid contact lines (AWS) have on colloid deposition and mobilization in three-dimensional systems. We used x-ray microtomography to visualize the transport of hydrophobic colloids as they move through a partially saturated glass bead pack. Drainage and imbibition experiments were conducted using syringe pumps to control the flow of a colloid suspension through the porous media at 0.6 mL/hr. The high ionic strength fluid was adjusted to a pH of 9.5 and a concentration of 1.0 mol/L KI. During the drainage and imbibition, the flow was periodically halted and allowed to equilibrate before collecting the microtomography scans. Dopants were used to enhance the contrast between the four phases (water, air, beads, and colloids), including potassium iodide dissolved in the fluid, and an outer layer of silver coating the colloids. We hypothesized that AWIs and AWSs will scour and mobilize a significant percentage of colloids, and therefore reduce the concentration of colloids along the vertical profile of the column. The concentration of potassium iodide, and thus the ionic strength, necessary for adequate image segmentation was also explored in separate experiments so that the influence of ionic strength on colloid deposition and mobilization can be studied.

  19. Droplet fragmentation: 3D imaging of a previously unidentified pore-scale process during multiphase flow in porous media

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Tannaz; Butler, Ian B.; Geiger, Sebastian; van Dijke, Marinus I. J.; Sorbie, Ken S.

    2015-01-01

    Using X-ray computed microtomography, we have visualized and quantified the in situ structure of a trapped nonwetting phase (oil) in a highly heterogeneous carbonate rock after injecting a wetting phase (brine) at low and high capillary numbers. We imaged the process of capillary desaturation in 3D and demonstrated its impacts on the trapped nonwetting phase cluster size distribution. We have identified a previously unidentified pore-scale event during capillary desaturation. This pore-scale event, described as droplet fragmentation of the nonwetting phase, occurs in larger pores. It increases volumetric production of the nonwetting phase after capillary trapping and enlarges the fluid−fluid interface, which can enhance mass transfer between the phases. Droplet fragmentation therefore has implications for a range of multiphase flow processes in natural and engineered porous media with complex heterogeneous pore spaces. PMID:25646491

  20. Bending analysis of a general cross-ply laminate using 3D elasticity solution and layerwise theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani Sarvestani, H.; Naghashpour, A.; Heidari-Rarani, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the analytical solution of interlaminar stresses near the free edges of a general (symmetric and unsymmetric layups) cross-ply composite laminate subjected to pure bending loading is presented based on Reddy's layerwise theory (LWT) for the first time. First, the reduced form of displacement field is obtained for a general cross-ply composite laminate subjected to a bending moment by elasticity theory. Then, first-order shear deformation theory of plates and LWT is utilized to determine the global and local deformation parameters appearing in the displacement fields, respectively. One of the main advantages of the developed solution based on the LWT is exact prediction of interlaminar stresses at the boundary layer regions. To show the accuracy of this solution, three-dimensional elasticity bending problem of a laminated composite is solved for special set of boundary conditions as well. Finally, LWT results are presented for edge-effect problems of several symmetric and unsymmetric cross-ply laminates under the bending moment. The obtained results indicate high stress gradients of interlaminar stresses near the edges of laminates.

  1. Asymptotic analysis of mathematical models for elastic composite media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkov, S. K.

    The main subject of the thesis is the asymptotic analysis of models in mechanics of composite materials. It is based on the extension of the theory of the Polya-Szego tensors to the problems of homogenization and fracture. Such a technique allows one to obtain an asymptotic solution to a problem where most of numerical algorithms fail due to the presence of a singular perturbation. As a result of this work, a number of interesting effects have been found in optimization of composites and inverse problems of crack-inclusion interaction. Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter that contains the main definitions and bibliographical remarks. In Chapter 2 the Polya-Szego dipole tensors are employed for analysis of plane elasticity problems in non-homogeneous media. Classes of equivalence for defects (cavities and rigid inclusions) are specified for the Laplace and Navier operators: composite materials with defects of the same class have the same effective elastic moduli. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the effective compliance matrices of dilute composites are obtained. The problem of the optimal cavity shape is analyzed in Chapter 3. The analysis uses the Polya-Szego tensors calculated in Chapter 2. A new type of structure which is optimal for shear loading has been found. Properties of the optimal cavity are described. The crack-inclusion interaction problem considered in Chapter 4 has been solved by the asymptotic methods. An analysis of crack trajectories is performed in Chapter 5 for different types of defects and interface conditions. The algorithm employs the Polya-Szego tensors as integral characteristics describing the defect. Comparison with experimental data (Ceramic Centre, Bologna) is presented. In Chapter 6 we use the method of compound asymptotic expansions to treat the homogenization problem for thin-walled composites. The technique of boundary layer fields is employed to derive the junction condition in the region connecting thin walls. The asymptotic

  2. OpenHVSR: imaging the subsurface 2D/3D elastic properties through multiple HVSR modeling and inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignardi, S.; Mantovani, A.; Abu Zeid, N.

    2016-08-01

    OpenHVSR is a computer program developed in the Matlab environment, designed for the simultaneous modeling and inversion of large Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR or H/V) datasets in order to construct 2D/3D subsurface models (topography included). The program is designed to provide a high level of interactive experience to the user and still to be of intuitive use. It implements several effective and established tools already present in the code ModelHVSR by Herak (2008), and many novel features such as: -confidence evaluation on lateral heterogeneity -evaluation of frequency dependent single parameter impact on the misfit function -relaxation of Vp/Vs bounds to allow for water table inclusion -a new cost function formulation which include a slope dependent term for fast matching of peaks, which greatly enhances convergence in case of low quality HVSR curves inversion -capability for the user of editing the subsurface model at any time during the inversion and capability to test the changes before acceptance. In what follows, we shall present many features of the program and we shall show its capabilities on both simulated and real data. We aim to supply a powerful tool to the scientific and professional community capable of handling large sets of HSVR curves, to retrieve the most from their microtremor data within a reduced amount of time and allowing the experienced scientist the necessary flexibility to integrate into the model their own geological knowledge of the sites under investigation. This is especially desirable now that microtremor testing has become routinely used. After testing the code over different datasets, both simulated and real, we finally decided to make it available in an open source format. The program is available by contacting the authors.

  3. 3D Virtual Worlds as Art Media and Exhibition Arenas: Students' Responses and Challenges in Contemporary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lilly

    2013-01-01

    3D virtual worlds (3D VWs) are considered one of the emerging learning spaces of the 21st century; however, few empirical studies have investigated educational applications and student learning aspects in art education. This study focused on students' responses to and challenges with 3D VWs in both aspects. The findings show that most…

  4. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that and OH* are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or ‑80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors.

  5. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that and OH* are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or −80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors. PMID:26898904

  6. A two-scale model for frictional cracks in 3D fractured brittle media with the extended finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Borja, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Stress concentration induced by the heterogeneity in brittle geomaterials is generally considered as the driving force in the evolution of the microstructure (such as the crack and pore microstructure). Specifically, modeling heterogeneity is key to properly predicting the nucleation, coalescence and propagation of micro-cracks in brittle solids. In this paper, we propose a two-scale model for frictional cracks in fractured brittle media. The major crack in the study domain is modeled at a macro level, while the micro-cracks are modeled at a finer scale. The macro-scale behavior is described by a standard boundary value problem. The finer-scale problem is modeled using the notion of representative elementary volume (REV) consisting of a solid volume with distributed micro-cracks. Periodic boundary condition and small strain formulation are assumed in the finer-scale analysis. The scale bridging mechanism is borrowed from the standard homogenization technique. The proposed model is implemented with the extended finite element method. The macro stress at each Gauss point in the finite element formulation is computed as the volume average of finer-scale stresses in each corresponding REV. The macro tangent operator is computed using a perturbation method. For 3D problems, six independent linear perturbation analyses are carried out for each numerical integration point. Our numerical examples capture the nucleation and coalescence of micro-cracks, which can be used to infer the potential propagation direction of the major crack.

  7. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that and OH* are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or -80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors.

  8. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that O(2)(-)* and OH* are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or -80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors. PMID:26898904

  9. Extended displacement discontinuity boundary integral equation and boundary element method for cracks in thermo-magneto-electro-elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Dang, HuaYang; Xu, GuangTao; Fan, CuiYing; Zhao, MingHao

    2016-08-01

    The extended displacement discontinuity boundary integral equation (EDDBIE) and boundary element method is developed for the analysis of planar cracks of arbitrary shape in the isotropic plane of three-dimensional (3D) transversely isotropic thermo-magneto-electro-elastic (TMEE) media. The extended displacement discontinuities (EDDs) include conventional displacement discontinuity, electric potential discontinuity, magnetic potential discontinuity, as well as temperature discontinuity across crack faces; correspondingly, the extended stresses represent conventional stress, electric displacement, magnetic induction and heat flux. Employing a Hankel transformation, the fundamental solutions for unit point EDDs in 3D transversely isotropic TMEE media are derived. The EDDBIEs for a planar crack of arbitrary shape in the isotropic plane of a 3D transversely isotropic TMEE medium are then established. Using the boundary integral equation method, the singularities of near-crack border fields are obtained and the extended stress field intensity factors are expressed in terms of the EDDs on crack faces. According to the analogy between the EDDBIEs for an isotropic thermoelastic material and TMEE medium, an analogical solution method for crack problems of a TMEE medium is proposed for coupled multi-field loadings. Employing constant triangular elements, the EDDBIEs are discretized and numerically solved. As an application, the problems of an elliptical crack subjected to combined mechanical-electric-magnetic-thermal loadings are investigated.

  10. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; Fu, Shubin; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. We therefore propose a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite element methods for simulating elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that is similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity where the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.

  11. An elastic/viscoelastic finite element analysis method for crustal deformation using a 3-D island-scale high-fidelity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Hori, Muneo; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the accumulation of high-resolution observation data, 3-D high-fidelity crustal structure data for large domains are becoming available. However, it has been difficult to use such data to perform elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses in large domains with quality assurance of the numerical simulation that guarantees convergence of the numerical solution with respect to the discretization size because the costs of analysis are significantly high. This paper proposes a method of constructing a high-fidelity crustal structure finite element (FE) model using high-fidelity crustal structure data and fast FE analysis to reduce the costs of analysis (based on automatic FE model generation for parallel computation, OpenMP/MPI hybrid parallel computation on distributed memory computers, a geometric multigrid, variable preconditioning and multiple precision arithmetic). Using the proposed methods, we construct 10 billion degree-of-freedom high-fidelity crustal structure FE models for the entire Japan, and conduct elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analysis using this model with enough high accuracy of the numerical simulation.

  12. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; Fu, Shubin; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. We therefore propose a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite element methods for simulating elasticmore » wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that is similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity where the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.« less

  13. Rn3D: A finite element code for simulating gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. User`s manual, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Holford, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a user`s manual for the Rn3D finite element code. Rn3D was developed to simulate gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. The Rn3D model is applicable to a wide range of problems involving radon transport in soil because it can simulate either steady-state or transient flow and transport in one-, two- or three-dimensions (including radially symmetric two-dimensional problems). The porous materials may be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This manual describes all pertinent mathematics related to the governing, boundary, and constitutive equations of the model, as well as the development of the finite element equations used in the code. Instructions are given for constructing Rn3D input files and executing the code, as well as a description of all output files generated by the code. Five verification problems are given that test various aspects of code operation, complete with example input files, FORTRAN programs for the respective analytical solutions, and plots of model results. An example simulation is presented to illustrate the type of problem Rn3D is designed to solve. Finally, instructions are given on how to convert Rn3D to simulate systems other than radon, air, and water.

  14. Wide-angle elastic wave one-way propagation in heterogeneous media and an elastic wave complex-screen method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ru-Shan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a system of equations for wide-angle one-way elastic wave propagation in arbitrarily heterogeneous media is formulated in both the space and wavenumber domains using elastic Rayleigh integrals and local elastic Born scattering theory. The wavenumber domain formulation leads to compact solutions to one-way propagation and scattering problems. It is shown that wide-angle scattering in heterogeneous elastic media cannot be formulated as passage through regular phase-screens, since the interaction between the incident wavefield and the heterogeneities is not local in both the space domain and the wavenumber domain. Our more generally valid formulation is called the 'thin-slap; formulation. After applying the small-angle approximation, the thin slab effect degenerates to that of an elastic complex-screen (or generalized phase-screen). For the complex-screen method the cross-coupling term is neglected because it is higher order small quantity for small-angle scattering. Relative to prior derivations of vector phase-screen method, our method can correctly treat the conversion between P and S waves and the cross-coupling between differently polarized S waves. A comparison with solutions from three-dimensional finite difference and exact solutions using eigenfunctions expansion is made for two special cases. One is for a solid sphere with only P velocity pertubation; the other is with only S velocity perturbation. The Elastic complex-screen method generally agrees well with the three-dimensional finite difference method and the exact solutions. In the limiting case of scalar waves, the derivation in this paper leads to a move generally valid new method, namely, a scaler thin-slab method. When making the small-angle approximation to the interaction term while keeping the propagation term unchanged, the thin-slab method approaches the currently available scalar wide-angle phase screen method.

  15. Geostatistical analysis of 3D microCT images of porous media for stochastic upscaling of spatially variable reactive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The 3D imaging of porous media through micro tomography allows the characterization of porous space and mineral abundances with unprecedented resolution. Such images can be used to perform computational determination of permeability and to obtain a realistic measure of the mineral surfaces exposed to fluid flow and thus to chemical interactions. However, the volume of the plugs that can be analysed with such detail is in the order of 1 cm3, so that their representativity at a larger scale, i.e. as needed for reactive transport modelling at Darcy scale, is questionable at best. In fact, the fine scale heterogeneity (from plug to plug at few cm distance within the same core) would originate substantially different readings of the investigated properties. Therefore, a comprehensive approach including the spatial variability and heterogeneity at the micro- and plug scale needs to be adopted to gain full advantage from the high resolution images in view of the upscaling to Darcy scale. In the framework of the collaborative project H2STORE, micro-CT imaging of different core samples from potential H2-storage sites has been performed by partners at TU Clausthal and Jena University before and after treatment with H2/CO2 mixtures in pressurized autoclaves. We present here the workflow which has been implemented to extract the relevant features from the available data concerning the heterogeneity of the medium at the microscopic and plug scale and to correlate the observed chemical reactions and changes in the porous structure with the geometrical features of the medium. First, a multivariate indicator-based geostatistical model for the microscopic structure of the plugs has been built and fitted to the available images. This involved the implementation of exploratory analysis algorithms such as experimental indicator variograms and cross-variograms. The implemented methods are able to efficiently deal with images in the order of 10003 voxels making use of parallelization

  16. Elastic-plastic-brittle transitions and avalanches in disordered media.

    PubMed

    Kale, Sohan; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2014-01-31

    A spring lattice model with the ability to simulate elastic-plastic-brittle transitions in a disordered medium is presented. The model is based on bilinear constitutive law defined at the spring level and power-law-type disorder introduced in the yield and failure limits of the springs. The key parameters of the proposed model effectively control the disorder distribution, significantly affecting the stress-strain response, the damage accumulation process, and the fracture surfaces. The model demonstrates a plastic strain avalanche behavior for perfectly plastic as well as hardening materials with a power-law distribution, in agreement with the experiments and related models. The strength of the model is in its generality and ability to interpolate between elastic-plastic hardening and elastic-brittle transitions.

  17. Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel

    2005-10-01

    When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime.

  18. Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media.

    PubMed

    Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel

    2005-10-01

    When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime.

  19. Nonlinear coda wave analysis of hysteretic elastic behavior in strongly scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouarabi, M. Ait; Boubenider, F.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Scalerandi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Strongly scattering elastic media, such as consolidated granular materials, respond to ultrasonic pulse excitations with a long response signal with peculiar properties. The portion of the signal at late times, termed coda, is due to multiple scattering. It contains information about the elastic properties of the material, and it has been proven to be very sensitive to small variations in the modulus. Here we propose a technique based on a nonlinear analysis of the coda of a signal, which might be applied to quantify the nonlinear elastic response in consolidated granular media exhibiting a hysteretic elastic behavior. The method proposed allows for an intrinsic definition of the reference signal which is normally needed for applying coda-based methods.

  20. Dynamic elastic moduli during isotropic densification of initially granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-03-01

    The elastic properties of homogeneous, isotropic materials are well constrained. However, in heterogeneous and evolving materials, these essential properties are less well-explored. During sintering of volcanic ash particles by viscous processes as well as during compaction and cementation of sediments, microstructure and porosity undergo changes that affect bulk dynamic elastic properties. Here using a model system of glass particles as an analogue for initially granular rock-forming materials, we have determined porosity and P-wave velocity during densification. Using these results, we test models for the kinetics of densification and the resultant evolution of the elastic properties to derive a quantitative description of the coupling between the kinetics of isotropic densification and the evolving dynamic elastic moduli. We demonstrate the power of the resultant model on a wide range of data for non-coherent sediments as well as sedimentary and volcanic rocks. We propose that such constraints be viewed as an essential ingredient of time-dependent models for the deformation of evolving materials in volcanoes and sedimentary basins.

  1. Geodesy-based estimates of loading rates on faults beneath the Los Angeles basin with a new, computationally efficient method to model dislocations in 3D heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Avouac, J. P.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.

    2015-12-01

    North-south compression across the Los Angeles basin is accommodated by slip on thrust faults beneath the basin that may present significant seismic hazard to Los Angeles. Previous geodesy-based efforts to constrain the distributions and rates of elastic strain accumulation on these faults [Argus et al 2005, 2012] have found that the elastic model used has a first-order impact on the inferred distribution of locking and creep, underlining the need to accurately incorporate the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure and complex fault geometries of the Los Angeles basin into this analysis. We are using Gamra [Landry and Barbot, in prep.], a newly developed adaptive-meshing finite-difference solver, to compute elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the full 3D regional elastic structure provided by the SCEC Community Velocity Model. Among preliminary results from benchmarks, forward models and inversions, we find that: 1) for a modeled creep source on the edge dislocation geometry from Argus et al [2005], the use of the SCEC CVM material model produces surface velocities in the hanging wall that are up to ~50% faster than those predicted in an elastic halfspace model; 2) in sensitivity-modulated inversions of the Argus et al [2005] GPS velocity field for slip on the same dislocation source, the use of the CVM deepens the inferred locking depth by ≥3 km compared to an elastic halfspace model; 3) when using finite-difference or finite-element models with Dirichlet boundary conditions (except for the free surface) for problems of this scale, it is necessary to set the boundaries at least ~100 km away from any slip source or data point to guarantee convergence within 5% of analytical solutions (a result which may be applicable to other static dislocation modeling problems and which may scale with the size of the area of interest). Here we will present finalized results from inversions of an updated GPS velocity field [Argus et al, AGU 2015] for the inferred

  2. Observation of shock transverse waves in elastic media.

    PubMed

    Catheline, S; Gennisson, J-L; Tanter, M; Fink, M

    2003-10-17

    We report the first experimental observation of a shock transverse wave propagating in an elastic medium. This observation was possible because the propagation medium, a soft solid, allows one to reach a very high Mach number. In this extreme configuration, the shock formation is observed over a distance of less than a few wavelengths, thanks to a prototype of an ultrafast scanner (that acquires 5000 frames per second). A comparison of these new experimental data with theoretical predictions, based on a modified Burger's equation, shows good agreement.

  3. Unstable slippage across a fault that separates elastic media of different elastic constants

    SciTech Connect

    Weertman, J.

    1980-03-10

    In this study it is demonstrated that relatively slow, quasi-static slippage on a fault that separates 2 half-spaces of different elastic constants can become unstable if the slippage is governed by the Amontons-Coulomb friction law.(The shear stress across a fault required for slipping motion is proportional to the normal compressive stress across the fault.) If the 2 half-spaces have identical properties, unstable slippage is not possible under this friction law. The unstable slippage that is investigated in this work is a consequences of the existence of a short-range normal traction stress that gliding edge dislocations produce across an interface between 2 half-spaces of different elastic constants. This normal traction stress does not exist if the 2 half-spaces have identical properties. (Recent work of Dundurs, Comninous et al. has revealed the importance of the short-range traction stress components to crack problems.) 30 references.

  4. Cellular automata and complex dynamics of driven elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, S.N.; Littlewodd, P.B.; Sibani, P.

    1995-12-01

    Several systems of importance in condensed matter physics can be modelled as an elastic medium in a disordered environment and driven by an external force. In the simplest cases, the equation of motion involves competition between a local non-linear potential (fluctuating in space) and elastic coupling, as well as relaxational (inertialess) dynamics. Despite a simple mathematical description, the interactions between many degrees of freedom lead to the emergence of time and length scales much longer than those set by the microscopic dynamics. Extensive computations have improved the understanding of the behavior of such models, but full solutions of the equations of motion for very large systems are time-consuming and may obscure important physical principles in a massive volume of output. The development of cellular automata models has been crucial, both in conceptual simplification and in allowing the collection of data on many replicas of very large systems. We will discuss how the marriage of cellular automata models and parallel computation on a MasPar MP-1216 computer has helped to elucidate the dynamical properties of these many-degree-of-freedom systems.

  5. Supersymmetric sigma model of disordered, isotropic, elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Photiadis, Douglas

    The supersymmetry method proposed by Efetov in 1983 has been enormously successful at describing a broad range of phenomena involving disorder, providing a framework for understanding and going beyond the successes of random matrix theory and allowing a calculation of the slowing of diffusion as the Anderson transition is approached. The original model described the propagation of a scalar wave in a disordered medium, and subsequent work extended these ideas to classical waves, optical or elastic, with the approximation that the wave propagation can be similarly described by a scalar theory. Such a theory cannot however account correctly for scattering between different polarizations. A direct attempt to derive a supersymmetric model describing elastic waves results in a non-renormalizable field theory, and poses substantial difficulties. We have obtained a supersymmetric sigma model by considering the dual model which describes a generalized superstress field. The model enables one to fully account for the different wave types and polarizations in the medium. We will present our recent results in this area, including model predictions for the obtained diffusion constants, and the effects of renormalization to first order. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  6. RESEARCH NOTE: Propagators and Feynman diagrams for laterally heterogeneous elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minkyu; Odom, Robert I.

    2005-01-01

    The propagator for coupled-mode elastic waves can be cast into a number of different representations, which emphasize particular aspects of the wave propagation in a laterally heterogeneous medium. One representation has the form of a generalized scattering operator and contains a quantity that can be interpreted as the lateral impedance. Another representation reduces naturally to the JWKB approximation for smoothly varying media with no mode coupling. The propagator solution for the fields in a laterally heterogeneous elastic medium with weak random boundary fluctuations leads naturally to the application of Feynman diagram techniques for the derivation of Dyson's equation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the propagator mean and covariance, respectively. The diagram techniques are reviewed and their utility for solution of random media elastic wave problems is demonstrated.

  7. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  8. Wrinkling of plates coupled with soft elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, Jan

    2001-09-01

    If a rigid plate is subjected to stress and attached to a soft elastic medium, it is very likely that this stress is relieved by wrinkling: The plate buckles into a large number of waves. First the basic equation for wrinkling is rederived. Then the more complicated case of isotropic wrinkling is discussed, i.e., wrinkling resulting from isotropic compression of the plate. Wrinkles with different directions coexist while creating defects. A simple model describing the order in the direction of the wrinkles is presented in this paper. Near an edge the order is anomalously large. The measurements done by Bowden and coworkers (Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 (1999) 2558) on order near an edge are explained quantitatively by this model.

  9. Experimental investigation of compound-specific dilution of solute plumes in saturated porous media: 2-D vs. 3-D flow-through systems.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Cirpka, Olaf; Grathwohl, Peter; Rolle, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Dilution of solute plumes in groundwater strongly depends on transverse mixing. Thus, the correct parameterization of transverse dispersion is of critical importance for the quantitative description of solute transport. In this study we perform flow-through laboratory experiments to investigate the influence of transport dimensionality on transverse mixing. We present a high-resolution experimental setup to study solute dilution and transverse dispersion in three-dimensional porous media. We conduct multi-tracer experiments in the new 3-D setup and compare the results with the outcomes of analogous tracer experiments performed in a quasi 2-D system. We work under steady-state flow and transport conditions and consider a range of velocities relevant for groundwater flow (0.5-8 m/day). Transverse dispersion coefficients are determined from high-resolution concentration profiles at the outlet of the flow-through chambers (7×7 ports in the 3-D setup and 7 ports in the quasi 2-D system), considering conservative tracers with significantly different aqueous diffusion coefficients, namely fluorescein and dissolved oxygen. To quantify dilution in the 2-D and 3-D systems, we experimentally determine the flux-related dilution index using the flow rates and the concentrations measured at the inlet and outlet ports, and we propose semi-analytical expressions to predict its evolution with travel distance in uniform groundwater flow. The experimental results in the quasi 2-D and 3-D flow-through systems are consistent and show a compound-specific behavior of the transverse dispersion coefficient and its non-linear dependence on the seepage velocity in both setups. The degree of dilution and the compound-specific effects of transverse dispersion are considerably more pronounced in 3-D than in quasi 2-D transport systems.

  10. Dispersion properties of helical waves in radially inhomogeneous elastic media.

    PubMed

    Syresin, D E; Zharnikov, T V; Tyutekin, V V

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a method describing dispersion curve calculation for waves propagating in radially layered, inhomogeneous isotropic elastic waveguides is developed. Particular emphasis is placed on the helical waves with noninteger azimuthal wavenumbers, which can be potentially applied in such fields as nondestructive evaluation, acoustic tomography, etc., stipulating their practical importance. To solve the problem under consideration, the matrix Riccati equation is formulated for an impedance matrix. The use of the latter yields a simple form of the dispersion equation. Numerical computation of dispersion curves can encounter difficulties, which are due to potential singularities of the impedance matrix and the necessity to separate roots of the dispersion equation. These difficulties are overcome by employing the Cayley transform and invoking the parametric continuation method. The method developed by the authors is demonstrated by calculating dispersion diagrams in support of helical waves for several models of practical interest. Such computations for an inhomogeneous layer and its approximation by a set of homogeneous layers using a transfer matrix and Riccati equation methods revealed higher computational accuracy of the latter. Dispersion curves calculated for layers with different types of inhomogeneity demonstrated significant discrepancies at low frequencies. PMID:22712901

  11. Freeze fracturing of elastic porous media: a mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Vlahou, I.; Worster, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a mathematical model of the fracturing of water-saturated rocks and other porous materials in cold climates. Ice growing inside porous rocks causes large pressures to develop that can significantly damage the rock. We study the growth of ice inside a penny-shaped cavity in a water-saturated porous rock and the consequent fracturing of the medium. Premelting of the ice against the rock, which results in thin films of unfrozen water forming between the ice and the rock, is one of the dominant processes of rock fracturing. We find that the fracture toughness of the rock, the size of pre-existing faults and the undercooling of the environment are the main parameters determining the susceptibility of a medium to fracturing. We also explore the dependence of the growth rates on the permeability and elasticity of the medium. Thin and fast-fracturing cracks are found for many types of rocks. We consider how the growth rate can be limited by the existence of pore ice, which decreases the permeability of a medium, and propose an expression for the effective ‘frozen’ permeability. PMID:25792954

  12. Dispersion properties of helical waves in radially inhomogeneous elastic media.

    PubMed

    Syresin, D E; Zharnikov, T V; Tyutekin, V V

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a method describing dispersion curve calculation for waves propagating in radially layered, inhomogeneous isotropic elastic waveguides is developed. Particular emphasis is placed on the helical waves with noninteger azimuthal wavenumbers, which can be potentially applied in such fields as nondestructive evaluation, acoustic tomography, etc., stipulating their practical importance. To solve the problem under consideration, the matrix Riccati equation is formulated for an impedance matrix. The use of the latter yields a simple form of the dispersion equation. Numerical computation of dispersion curves can encounter difficulties, which are due to potential singularities of the impedance matrix and the necessity to separate roots of the dispersion equation. These difficulties are overcome by employing the Cayley transform and invoking the parametric continuation method. The method developed by the authors is demonstrated by calculating dispersion diagrams in support of helical waves for several models of practical interest. Such computations for an inhomogeneous layer and its approximation by a set of homogeneous layers using a transfer matrix and Riccati equation methods revealed higher computational accuracy of the latter. Dispersion curves calculated for layers with different types of inhomogeneity demonstrated significant discrepancies at low frequencies.

  13. Implicit finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods for multicomponent flow in unstructured 3D fractured porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moortgat, Joachim; Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza

    2016-10-01

    We present a new implicit higher-order finite element (FE) approach to efficiently model compressible multicomponent fluid flow on unstructured grids and in fractured porous subsurface formations. The scheme is sequential implicit: pressures and fluxes are updated with an implicit Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) method, and the transport of each species is approximated with an implicit second-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) FE method. Discrete fractures are incorporated with a cross-flow equilibrium approach. This is the first investigation of all-implicit higher-order MHFE-DG for unstructured triangular, quadrilateral (2D), and hexahedral (3D) grids and discrete fractures. A lowest-order implicit finite volume (FV) transport update is also developed for the same grid types. The implicit methods are compared to an Implicit-Pressure-Explicit-Composition (IMPEC) scheme. For fractured domains, the unconditionally stable implicit transport update is shown to increase computational efficiency by orders of magnitude as compared to IMPEC, which has a time-step constraint proportional to the pore volume of discrete fracture grid cells. However, when lowest-order Euler time-discretizations are used, numerical errors increase linearly with the larger implicit time-steps, resulting in high numerical dispersion. Second-order Crank-Nicolson implicit MHFE-DG and MHFE-FV are therefore presented as well. Convergence analyses show twice the convergence rate for the DG methods as compared to FV, resulting in two to three orders of magnitude higher computational efficiency. Numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency and robustness in modeling compressible multicomponent flow on irregular and fractured 2D and 3D grids, even in the presence of fingering instabilities.

  14. Pore-scale modeling of Capillary Penetration of Wetting Liquid into 3D Fibrous Media: A Critical Examination of Equivalent Capillary Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar; Ghia, Urmila; Comer, Ken

    2013-11-01

    Capillary penetration of liquid through fibrous porous media is important in many applications such as printing, drug delivery patches, sanitary wipes, and performance fabrics. Historically, capillary transport (with a distinct liquid propagating front) in porous media is modeled using capillary-bundle theory. However, it is not clear if the capillary model (Washburn equation) describes the fluid transport in porous media accurately, as it assumes uniformity of pore sizes in the porous medium. The present work investigates the limitations of the applicability of the capillary model by studying liquid penetration through virtual fibrous media with uniform and non-uniform pore-sizes. For the non-uniform-pore fibrous medium, the effective capillary radius of the fibrous medium was estimated from the pore-size distribution curve. Liquid penetration into the 3D virtual fibrous medium at micro-scale was simulated using OpenFOAM, and the numerical results were compared with the Washburn-equation capillary-model predictions. Preliminary results show that the Washburn equation over-predicts the height rise in the early stages (purely inertial and visco-inertial stages) of capillary transport.

  15. Observations of Chemical Transport and Reaction in Porous Media in 3D with Applications to Understanding the Role of Heterogeneity in Reactive Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, M.; Niu, B.; Krevor, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Processes involving feedbacks between chemical reaction and fluid flow through porous media are poorly understood. Non-reactive and reactive core flooding experiments have been carried out in sandstone and two carbonate cores with varying degrees of heterogeneity. The dispersion, mixing and reaction of chemical components in an aqueous solution injected into rock cores were visualised in 3D with the use of chemical dopants and a medical x-ray CT scanner. With regards to solid-fluid reactions, the impact of rock dissolution on subsequent chemical transport was observed by injecting a carefully selected acidic solution. Simultaneous observations of the permeability evolution were made along with analysis of the effluent chemistry using an ICP-MS. This has resulted in a high quality 3D data set of the space and time evolution of the concentration of aqueous chemical components in non-reactive and reactive core-flooding experiments in rocks with different degrees of heterogeneity in combination with precise data of the effluent composition and rock permeability. This will allow us to assess the effect of flow and transport heterogeneity on upscaled effective reaction rates. Furthermore, these observations can be used as a future benchmark test for numerical models for chemical transport and fluid-solid reactions and in the development of upscaling techniques for accurate and efficient modelling of chemical processes during flow in porous media.

  16. Insulin and heparin co-immobilized 3D polyester fabrics for the cultivation of fibroblasts in low-serum media.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu Saşmazel, Hilal; Aday, Sezin; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2007-08-01

    Insulin and/or heparin immobilized/co-immobilized non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF) discs were developed for the cultivation of L929 mouse fibroblasts in low-serum media. At first, NWPF discs were hydrolyzed to obtain a carboxylic acid group-introduced matrix (NWPF-hydrolyzed). Insulin and heparin co-immobilized NWPF (NWPF-insulin-heparin) was prepared by the grafting of PEO onto NWPF-hydrolyzed disc (NWPF-PEO), followed by the reaction first with insulin and then heparin. In the presence of spacer arm, PEO, the amount of immobilized insulin molecules significantly increased from 6.96 to 84.45 microg/cm(2). The amount of heparin bound to the NWPF-PEO (5.93 microg/cm(2)) was higher than that of the insulin immobilized surface (4.59 microg/cm(2)). Insulin and heparin immobilized NWPF discs were observed with fluorescence microscopy by labeling the insulin and heparin with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), respectively. L929 fibroblasts were used to check the cell adhesion and cell growth capabilities of modified NWPF discs in low-serum media (containing 5% fetal bovine serum). Optical photographs showed that after 2nd day of the culture, fibroblastic cells spread along the length of modified fibers, eventually filling the interfiber space. At the end of 6-day growth period, cell yield in the presence of immobilized heparin was a little bit higher than that of the immobilized insulin. Co-immobilized (insulin/heparin) NWPF discs did not accelerate the cell growth as well as insulin or heparin immobilized discs. PMID:17576003

  17. Studies of elasticity, sound propagation and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media: final report

    SciTech Connect

    Makse, Hernan A.; Johnson, David L.

    2014-09-03

    This is the final report describing the results of DOE Grant # DE-FG02-03ER15458 with original termination date of April 31, 2013, which has been extended to April 31, 2014. The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical and experimental understanding of sound propagation, elasticity and dissipation in granular materials. The topic is relevant for the efficient production of hydrocarbon and for identifying and characterizing the underground formation for storage of either CO2 or nuclear waste material. Furthermore, understanding the basic properties of acoustic propagation in granular media is of importance not only to the energy industry, but also to the pharmaceutical, chemical and agricultural industries. We employ a set of experimental, theoretical and computational tools to develop a study of acoustics and dissipation in granular media. These include the concept effective mass of granular media, normal modes analysis, statistical mechanics frameworks and numerical simulations based on Discrete Element Methods. Effective mass measurements allow us to study the mechanisms of the elastic response and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media. We perform experiments and simulations under varying conditions, including humidity and vacuum, and different interparticle force-laws to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of damping and acoustic propagation in granular media. A theoretical statistical approach studies the necessary phase space of configurations in pressure, volume fraction to classify granular materials.

  18. Ultrasonic imaging of the stress distribution in elastic media due to an external compressor.

    PubMed

    Ponnekanti, H; Ophir, J; Cespedes, I

    1994-01-01

    We describe an experimental ultrasonic method capable of imaging the two-dimensional distribution of longitudinal stress in an elastic, tissue-like material due to an external compressor of arbitrary size or shape and boundary conditions. The method involves the use of a compressor and an opposing ultrasonic transducer. Local strains are derived from the ultrasonic backscatter signals before and after compression using cross correlation analysis. The strain distribution is converted to a stress map by assuming a linear stress-strain relationship. The technique is useful for quantifying the corrections that must be made to images of the elastic modulus of tissue (elastograms) due to the effects of compressor size and shape, depth and boundary conditions. It is also useful for experimental modeling of stress distributions in elastic media.

  19. Constraints on elastic parameters and implications for lithology on VTI media

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.

    1995-06-02

    Energy considerations provide constraints on elastic stiffnesses in media exhibiting transverse isotropy with a vertical axis of symmetry. If the anisotropy is due to thin layers, additional constraints hold. The constraints can be used to provide insight into the mechanisms causing the anisotropy, which in turn gives information about the lithology. These ideas are illustrated by some examples of anisotropic sedimentary rocks and sediments from the literature.

  20. Flow above and within granular media composed of spherical and non-spherical particles - using a 3D numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously

  1. Vibration damping of elastic waves in electrically conducting media subjected to high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, T. G.

    1992-05-01

    The propagation of vibrational energy in bulk, torsional, and flexural modes, in electrically conducting media can undergo strong attenuation if subjected to high magnetic fields in certain spatial arrangements. The reasons for this are induced Eddy currents which are generated by the volume elements in the media moving transversally to the magnetic field at acoustic velocities. In magnetic fields achievable with superconductors, the non-conservative (dissipative) forces are compared to the elastic and inertial forces for most metals. Strong dissipation of vibrational energy in the form of heat takes place as a result. A simplified theory is presented based on engineering representations of electrodynamics, attenuation values for representative metals are calculated, and problems encountered in formulating a generalized theory based on electrodynamics of moving media are discussed. General applications as well as applications specific to maglev are discussed.

  2. Acoustic localization in weakly compressible elastic media containing random air bubbles.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2007-01-01

    We study theoretically the propagation of longitudinal wave in weakly compressible elastic media containing random air bubbles by using a self-consistent method. By inspecting the scattering cross section of an individual bubble and estimating the mean free paths of the elastic wave propagating in the bubbly weakly compressible media, the mode conversion is numerically proved negligible as the longitudinal wave is scattered by the bubbles. On the basis of the bubble dynamic equation, the wave propagation is solved rigorously with the multiple scattering effects incorporated. In a range of frequency slightly above the bubble resonance frequency, the acoustic localization in such a class of media is theoretically identified with even a very small volume fraction of bubbles. We present a method by analyzing the spatial correlation of wave field to identify the phenomenon of localization, which turns out to be effective. The sensibility of the features of localization to the structure parameters is numerically investigated. The spatial distribution of acoustic energy is also studied and the results show that the waves are trapped within a spatial domain adjacent to the source when localization occurs.

  3. Simulation of elastic wave propagation in geological media: Intercomparison of three numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, V. A.; Miryakha, V. A.; Petrov, I. B.; Khokhlov, N. I.

    2016-06-01

    For wave propagation in heterogeneous media, we compare numerical results produced by grid-characteristic methods on structured rectangular and unstructured triangular meshes and by a discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured triangular meshes as applied to the linear system of elasticity equations in the context of direct seismic exploration with an anticlinal trap model. It is shown that the resulting synthetic seismograms are in reasonable quantitative agreement. The grid-characteristic method on structured meshes requires more nodes for approximating curved boundaries, but it has a higher computation speed, which makes it preferable for the given class of problems.

  4. The impact of pore structure and surface roughness on capillary trapping for 2-D and 3-D porous media: Comparison with percolation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geistlinger, Helmut; Ataei-Dadavi, Iman; Mohammadian, Sadjad; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-11-01

    We study the impact of pore structure and surface roughness on capillary trapping of nonwetting gas phase during imbibition with water for capillary numbers between 10-7 and 5 × 10-5, within glass beads, natural sands, glass beads monolayers, and 2-D micromodels. The materials exhibit different roughness of the pore-solid interface. We found that glass beads and natural sands, which exhibit nearly the same grain size distribution, pore size distribution, and connectivity, showed a significant difference of the trapped gas phase of about 15%. This difference can be explained by the microstructure of the pore-solid interface. Based on the visualization of the trapping dynamics within glass beads monolayers and 2-D micromodels, we could show that bypass trapping controls the trapping process in glass beads monolayers, while snap-off trapping controls the trapping process in 2-D micromodels. We conclude that these different trapping processes are the reason for the different trapping efficiency, when comparing glass beads packs with natural sand packs. Moreover, for small capillary numbers of 10-6, we found that the cluster size distribution of trapped gas clusters of all 2-D and 3-D porous media can be described by a universal power law behavior predicted from percolation theory. This cannot be expected a priori for 2-D porous media, because bicontinuity of the two bulk phases is violated. Obviously, bicontinuity holds for the thin-film water phase and the bulk gas phase. The snap-off trapping process leads to ordinary bond percolation in front of the advancing bulk water phase and is the reason for the observed universal power law behavior in 2-D micromodels with rough surfaces.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of elastic wave multiple scattering in polycrystalline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Turner, Joseph A.

    2005-09-01

    The scattering of elastic waves in polycrystalline media is primarily due to the orientation distribution of the crystal axes of the grains. This scattering may be used to extract microstructural parameters of the material such as grain size and grain texture. In particular, diffuse ultrasonic backscatter measurements have been especially useful for extracting microstructural information. Diffuse backscatter is often modeled analytically under a single scattering assumption. Beyond single scattering, the elastic radiative transfer equation (RTE) governs the evolution of diffuse energy and includes all multiple scattering effects. In this presentation, a rigorous connection between the RTE theory and the backscatter experiments is discussed. Specific solutions are obtained for a specimen excited by a normally incident longitudinal wave. Results are compared with previous backscatter theories. In addition, numerical results are presented using Monte Carlo simulations including various levels of scattering to observe differences between single and multiple scattering solutions. The Monte Carlo solutions are based on the analogy between the RTE and the Boltzmann theory of gas. Relevant applications for materials of common interest are discussed. These results are anticipated to impact ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of polycrystalline media. [Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  6. Lifetime and strength of periodic bond clusters between elastic media under inclined loading.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Wang, Jizeng; Lin, Yuan; Gao, Huajian

    2009-11-01

    Focal adhesions are clusters of specific receptor-ligand bonds that link an animal cell to an extracellular matrix. To understand the mechanical responses of focal adhesions, here we develop a stochastic-elasticity model of a periodic array of adhesion clusters between two dissimilar elastic media subjected to an inclined tensile stress, in which stochastic descriptions of molecular bonds and elastic descriptions of interfacial traction are unified in a single modeling framework. We first establish a fundamental scaling law of interfacial traction distribution and derive a stress concentration index that governs the transition between uniform and cracklike singular distributions of the interfacial traction within molecular bonds. Guided by this scaling law, we then perform Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of cluster size, cell/extracellular matrix modulus, and loading direction on lifetime and strength of the adhesion clusters. The results show that intermediate adhesion size, stiff substrate, cytoskeleton stiffening, and low-angle pulling are factors that contribute to the stability of focal adhesions. The predictions of our model provide feasible explanations for a wide range of experimental observations and suggest possible mechanisms by which cells can modulate adhesion and deadhesion via cytoskeletal contractile machinery and sense mechanical properties of their surroundings.

  7. Holographic Interferometry based on photorefractive crystal to measure 3D thermo-elastic distortion of composite structures and comparison with finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thizy, C.; Eliot, F.; Ballhause, D.; Olympio, K. R.; Kluge, R.; Shannon, A.; Laduree, G.; Logut, D.; Georges, M. P.

    2013-04-01

    Thermo-elastic distortions of composite structures have been measured by a holographic camera using a BSO photorefractive crystal as the recording medium. The first test campaign (Phase 1) was performed on CFRP struts with titanium end-fittings glued to the tips of the strut. The samples were placed in a vacuum chamber. The holographic camera was located outside the chamber and configured with two illuminations to measure the relative out-of-plane and in-plane (in one direction) displacements. The second test campaign (Phase 2) was performed on a structure composed of a large Silicon Carbide base plate supported by 3 GFRP struts with glued Titanium end-fittings. Thermo-elastic distortions have been measured with the same holographic camera used in phase 1, but four illuminations, instead of two, have been used to provide the three components of displacement. This technique was specially developed and validated during the phase 2 in CSL laboratory. The system has been designed to measure an object size of typically 250x250 mm2; the measurement range is such that the sum of the largest relative displacements in the three measurement directions is maximum 20 μm. The validation of the four-illuminations technique led to measurement uncertainties of 120 nm for the relative in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, 230 nm for the absolute in-plane displacement and 400 nm for the absolute out-of-plane displacement. For both campaigns, the test results have been compared to the predictions obtained by finite element analyses and the correlation of these results was good.

  8. Carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of aortas in normotensive children of hypertensive parents.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ali; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Sahin, Fezan Mutlu; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    A significant correlation between hypertension history and high blood pressure has been observed with regard to age, race and gender. Investigating carotid intima-media thickness and aortic stiffness prior to the development of hypertension in children of hypertensive parents enabled us to evaluate these patients for subclinical atherosclerosis. We compared carotid intima-media thickness, aortic strain, distensibility, stiffness indices and elastic modulus in 67 normotensive children whose parents had a diagnosis of essential hypertension and 39 normotensive children with no parental history of hypertension. Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, average blood pressure and pulse pressure (P>0.05), systolic blood pressures were higher among patients 15 years and older in the study group. No significant differences were noted between the control and study groups regarding interventricular septal thickness, left-ventricular posterior wall thickness, left-ventricular systolic and diastolic diameter and aortic annulus diameter (P>0.05). The left atrium diameter was larger in the study group compared with that in the control group, mainly because of the values of the 15-year-old and older children (P=0.01). The mean, maximum and minimum values of carotid intima-media thickness were significantly different in the study group compared with the control group among all age groups (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.006, respectively). Aortic systolic and diastolic diameters were larger in normotensive children of hypertensive parents compared with the control group (P=0.014, P=0.001, respectively). Although there were no differences between the study and control groups regarding aortic strain, aortic distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness indices (P>0.05), aortic distensibility was lower, and aortic stiffness indices were higher among children 15 years and older in the study group. An

  9. OREGANO_VE: a new parallelised 3D solver for the general (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic problem: validation and application to the calculation of surface deformation in the earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations

  10. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media

    PubMed Central

    Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium. PMID:27112961

  11. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media.

    PubMed

    Aragones, J L; Steimel, J P; Alexander-Katz, A

    2016-04-26

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.

  12. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.

    2016-04-01

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.

  13. Elastic wave propagation in variable media using a discontinuous Galerkin method.

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, Curtis Curry; Smith, Thomas Michael; Collis, Samuel Scott; Overfelt, James Robert; Schwaiger, Hans

    2010-04-01

    Motivated by the needs of seismic inversion and building on our prior experience for fluid-dynamics systems, we present a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Runge-Kutta method applied to isotropic, linearized elasto-dynamics. Unlike other DG methods recently presented in the literature, our method allows for inhomogeneous material variations within each element that enables representation of realistic earth models - a feature critical for future use in seismic inversion. Likewise, our method supports curved elements and hybrid meshes that include both simplicial and nonsimplicial elements. We demonstrate the capabilities of this method through a series of numerical experiments including hybrid mesh discretizations of the Marmousi2 model as well as a modified Marmousi2 model with a oscillatory ocean bottom that is exactly captured by our discretization. A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the equations of linear isotropic elasticity has been presented. The formulation is designed to accommodate variation of media parameters within elements, curved elements and unstructured heterogeneous meshes. We have demonstrated that each of these important features of the formulation can produce results that are significantly different from formulations that do not possess these capabilities suggesting that each of these capabilities may be important for effective full waveform inversion of elastic medium.

  14. A 3-dimensional micro- and nanoparticle transport and filtration model (MNM3D) applied to the migration of carbon-based nanomaterials in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Carlo; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2016-10-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment can act both as contaminants, when they are unintentionally released, and as remediation agents when injected on purpose at contaminated sites. In this work two carbon-based NPs are considered, namely CARBO-IRON®, a new material developed for contaminated site remediation, and single layer graphene oxide (SLGO), a potential contaminant of the next future. Understanding and modeling the transport and deposition of such NPs in aquifer systems is a key aspect in both cases, and numerical models capable to simulate NP transport in groundwater in complex 3D scenarios are necessary. To this aim, this work proposes a modeling approach based on modified advection-dispersion-deposition equations accounting for the coupled influence of flow velocity and ionic strength on particle transport. A new modeling tool (MNM3D - Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries) is presented for the simulation of NPs injection and transport in 3D scenarios. MNM3D is the result of the integration of the numerical code MNMs (Micro and Nanoparticle transport, filtration and clogging Model - Suite) in the well-known transport model RT3D (Clement et al., 1998). The injection in field-like conditions of CARBO-IRON® (20 g/l) amended by CMC (4 g/l) in a 2D vertical tank (0.7 × 1.0 × 0.12 m) was simulated using MNM3D, and compared to experimental results under the same conditions. Column transport tests of SLGO at a concentration (10 mg/l) representative of a possible spill of SLGO-containing waste water were performed at different values of ionic strength (0.1 to 35 mM), evidencing a strong dependence of SLGO transport on IS, and a reversible blocking deposition. The experimental data were fitted using the numerical code MNMs and the ionic strength-dependent transport was up-scaled for a full scale 3D simulation of SLGO release and long-term transport in a heterogeneous aquifer. MNM3D showed to potentially represent a valid tool for

  15. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the shading and hidden line/surface removal capabilities of the Apollo DN10000. Although this implementation does not offer a capability for putting text on plots, it does support the use of a mouse to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. The version 3.6b+ Apollo implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12789) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12785) were developed for use on Apollo computers running UNIX System V with BSD 4.3 extensions and the graphics library GMR3D Version 2.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: 1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); 2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); 3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    Apollo's 3-dimensional graphics hardware, but does not take advantage of the shading and hidden line/surface removal capabilities of the Apollo DN10000. Although this implementation does not offer a capability for putting text on plots, it does support the use of a mouse to translate, rotate, or zoom in on views. The version 3.6b+ Apollo implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12789) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12785) were developed for use on Apollo computers running UNIX System V with BSD 4.3 extensions and the graphics library GMR3D Version 2.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: 1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); 2) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); 3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D workstations (ARC-12783, ARC-12782). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  18. A permeability model for coal and other fractured, sorptive-elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.; Christiansen, R.L.

    2008-09-15

    This paper describes the derivation of a new equation that can be used to model the permeability behavior of a fractured, sorptive-elastic medium, such as coal, under variable stress conditions. The equation is applicable to confinement pressure schemes commonly used during the collection of permeability data in the laboratory. The model is derived for cubic geometry under biaxial or hydrostatic confining pressures. The model is designed to handle changes in permeability caused by adsorption and desorption of gases onto and from the matrix blocks in fractured media. The model equations can be used to calculate permeability changes caused by the production of methane (CH{sub 4}) from coal as well as the injection of gases, such as carbon dioxide, for sequestration in coal. Sensitivity analysis of the model found that each of the input variables can have a significant impact on the outcome of the permeability forecast as a function of changing pore pressure, thus, accurate input data are essential. The permeability model also can be used as a tool to determine input parameters for field simulations by curve fitting laboratory-generated permeability data. The new model is compared to two other widely used coal-permeability models using a hypothetical coal with average properties.

  19. A Permeability Model for Coal and Other Fractured, Sorptive-Elastic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the derivation of a new equation that can be used to model the permeability behavior of a fractured, sorptive-elastic media, such as coal, under variable stress conditions commonly used during measurement of permeability data in the laboratory. The model is derived for cubic geometry under biaxial or hydrostatic confining pressures. The model is also designed to handle changes in permeability caused by adsorption and desorption of gases from the matrix blocks. The model equations can be used to calculate permeability changes caused by the production of methane from coal as well as the injection of gases, such as carbon dioxide, for sequestration in coal. Sensitivity analysis of the model found that each of the input variables can have a significant impact on the outcome of the permeability forecast as a function of changing pore pressure; thus, accurate input data are essential. The permeability model can also be used as a tool to determine input parameters for field simulations by curve-fitting laboratory-generated permeability data. The new model is compared to two other widely used coal permeability models using a hypothetical coal with average properties.

  20. Acoustic probing of elastic behavior and damage in weakly cemented granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, V.; Jia, X.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the elastic behavior and damage of weakly cemented granular media under external load with ultrasound. The cementation controlled experiments are performed by freezing the capillary liquid at the bead contact in a dense glass or polymeric [poly(methyl methacrylate)] bead pack wet by tetradecane of volume fraction ϕ = 0.1%-4%. When the pendular rings are solidified, an abrupt increase by a factor of 2 in the compressional wave velocity is observed. We interpret the data in terms of effective medium models in which the contact stiffnesses are derived by either a bonded contact model [P. J. Digby, J. Appl. Mech. 48, 803 (1981), 10.1115/1.3157738] or a cemented contact model [J. Dvorkin, A. Nur, and H. Yin, Mech. Mater. 18, 351 (1994), 10.1016/0167-6636(94)90044-2]. The former fails to quantitatively account for the results with a soft cement relative to the grain, whereas the latter considering the mechanical properties of the cement does apply. Moreover, we monitor the irreversible behavior of the cemented granular packs under moderate uniaxial loading (<1.3 MPa) with the correlation method of ultrasound scattering. The damage of the cemented materials is accompanied by a compressional wave velocity decrease up to 60%, likely due to the fractures induced at the grain-cement interfaces.

  1. Acoustic probing of elastic behavior and damage in weakly cemented granular media.

    PubMed

    Langlois, V; Jia, X

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the elastic behavior and damage of weakly cemented granular media under external load with ultrasound. The cementation controlled experiments are performed by freezing the capillary liquid at the bead contact in a dense glass or polymeric [poly(methyl methacrylate)] bead pack wet by tetradecane of volume fraction ϕ = 0.1%-4%. When the pendular rings are solidified, an abrupt increase by a factor of 2 in the compressional wave velocity is observed. We interpret the data in terms of effective medium models in which the contact stiffnesses are derived by either a bonded contact model [P. J. Digby, J. Appl. Mech. 48, 803 (1981)] or a cemented contact model [J. Dvorkin, A. Nur, and H. Yin, Mech. Mater. 18, 351 (1994)]. The former fails to quantitatively account for the results with a soft cement relative to the grain, whereas the latter considering the mechanical properties of the cement does apply. Moreover, we monitor the irreversible behavior of the cemented granular packs under moderate uniaxial loading (1.3 MPa) with the correlation method of ultrasound scattering. The damage of the cemented materials is accompanied by a compressional wave velocity decrease up to 60%, likely due to the fractures induced at the grain-cement interfaces. PMID:25353594

  2. Theoretical development of a magnetic force and an induced motion in elastic media for a magneto-motive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, In Gweon; Park, Suhyun; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-08-01

    The theoretical development of a magnetic force and an induced motion while applying a magnetic field to magnetic nanoparticles in elastic media is described. An analytical expression for tissue-surface displacement derived from Mindlin's theory of elasticity in semi-infinite media was used to analyze the magneto-motive technique. The initial motion of the magnetic nanoparticles is driven by a constant magnetic force that displays a dampened transient motion before steady-state movement at twice the modulation frequency of the applied sinusoidal magnetic field. The motion of the nanoparticles at double the modulation frequency originated from the magnetic force being proportional to the product of the magnetic flux density and its gradient. Finally, we demonstrate the detection of iron-oxide nanoparticles taken up by liver parenchymal Kupffer cells and macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques by using a differential-phase optical coherence tomography (DP-OCT) system to compare simulation results with experimental data.

  3. Performance of the BacT Alert 3D System Versus Solid Media for Recovery and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Tertiary Hospital in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seoung-Cheol; Kim, Jin-Sook; Choi, In Hwan; Kim, Jiro; Woo, Jeongim; Kim, Soojin; Lee, Hyeong Woo; Sezim, Monoldorova; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem, and accurate and rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended drug-resistant (XDR) TB is important for appropriate treatment. In this study, performances of solid and liquid culture methods were compared with respect to MDR- and XDR-TB isolate recovery and drug susceptibility testing. Methods Sputum specimens from 304 patients were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen method. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates were tested for recovery on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and the BacT Alert 3D system. For drug susceptibility testing of Mtb, isolates were evaluated on M-KIT plates and the BacT Alert 3D system. Results The recovery rates were 94.9% (206/217) and 98.2% (213/217) for LJ medium and the BacT Alert 3D system, respectively (kappa coefficient, 0.884). The rate of drug resistance was 13.4% for at least one or more drugs, 6.0% for MDR-TB and 2.3% for XDR-TB. M-KIT plate and BacT 3D Alert 3D system were comparable in drug susceptibility testing for isoniazid (97.7%; kappa coefficient, 0.905) and rifampin (98.6%; kappa coefficient, 0.907). Antibiotic resistance was observed using M-KIT plates for 24 of the total 29 Mtb isolates (82.8%). Conclusion The liquid culture system showed greater reduction in the culture period, as compared with LJ medium; however, drug susceptibility testing using M-KIT plates was advantageous for simultaneous testing against multiple drug targets. PMID:27790280

  4. Pore-scale investigation of micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microspheres (MPEMs) transport and retention in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chuanjin; Lei, Guanglun; Cathles, Lawrence M; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of micrometer-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) transport and retention mechanisms in porous media is essential for the application of MPEMs as a smart sweep improvement and profile modification agent in improving oil recovery. A transparent micromodel packed with translucent quartz sand was constructed and used to investigate the pore-scale transport, surface deposition-release, and plugging deposition-remigration mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media. The results indicate that the combination of colloidal and hydrodynamic forces controls the deposition and release of MPEMs on pore-surfaces; the reduction of fluid salinity and the increase of Darcy velocity are beneficial to the MPEM release from pore-surfaces; the hydrodynamic forces also influence the remigration of MPEMs in pore-throats. MPEMs can plug pore-throats through the mechanisms of capture-plugging, superposition-plugging, and bridge-plugging, which produces resistance to water flow; the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring in the interior of porous media can enhance the plugging effect of MPEMs; while the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring at the surface of low-permeability layer can prevent the low-permeability layer from being damaged by MPEMs. MPEMs can remigrate in pore-throats depending on their elasticity through four steps of capture-plugging, elastic deformation, steady migration, and deformation recovery.

  5. Pore-scale investigation of micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microspheres (MPEMs) transport and retention in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chuanjin; Lei, Guanglun; Cathles, Lawrence M; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of micrometer-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) transport and retention mechanisms in porous media is essential for the application of MPEMs as a smart sweep improvement and profile modification agent in improving oil recovery. A transparent micromodel packed with translucent quartz sand was constructed and used to investigate the pore-scale transport, surface deposition-release, and plugging deposition-remigration mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media. The results indicate that the combination of colloidal and hydrodynamic forces controls the deposition and release of MPEMs on pore-surfaces; the reduction of fluid salinity and the increase of Darcy velocity are beneficial to the MPEM release from pore-surfaces; the hydrodynamic forces also influence the remigration of MPEMs in pore-throats. MPEMs can plug pore-throats through the mechanisms of capture-plugging, superposition-plugging, and bridge-plugging, which produces resistance to water flow; the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring in the interior of porous media can enhance the plugging effect of MPEMs; while the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring at the surface of low-permeability layer can prevent the low-permeability layer from being damaged by MPEMs. MPEMs can remigrate in pore-throats depending on their elasticity through four steps of capture-plugging, elastic deformation, steady migration, and deformation recovery. PMID:24749927

  6. The 2D versus 3D imaging trade-off: The impact of over- or under-estimating small throats for simulating permeability in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Crandell, L. E.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical reactions in the subsurface can alter the porosity and permeability of a porous medium through mineral precipitation and dissolution. While effects on porosity are relatively well understood, changes in permeability are more difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling is used to estimate the permeability of a porous medium using pore and throat size distributions. These distributions can be determined from 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections or from 3D X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images of small cores. Each method has unique advantages as well as unique sources of error. 3D CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network without the inherent geometry-based biases of 2D images but is limited by resolutions around 1 μm. 2D SEM imaging has the advantage of higher resolution, and the ability to examine sub-grain scale variations in porosity and mineralogy, but is limited by the small size of the sample of pores that are quantified. A pore network model was created to estimate flow permeability in a sand-packed experimental column investigating reaction of sediments with caustic radioactive tank wastes in the context of the Hanford, WA site. Before, periodically during, and after reaction, 3D images of the porous medium in the column were produced using the X2B beam line facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Lab. These images were interpreted using 3DMA-Rock to characterize the pore and throat size distributions. After completion of the experiment, the column was sectioned and imaged using 2D SEM in backscattered electron mode. The 2D images were interpreted using erosion-dilation to estimate the pore and throat size distributions. A bias correction was determined by comparison with the 3D image data. A special image processing method was developed to infer the pore space before reaction by digitally removing the precipitate. The different sets of pore

  7. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  8. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  9. Monitoring of injected CO2 using the seismic full waveform inversion for 2-D elastic VTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. K.; Min, D. J.; KIM, S.; Shin, Y.; Moon, S.

    2014-12-01

    To monitor the injected CO2 in the subsurface, seismic monitoring techniques are extensively applied because of its high resolution. Among the seismic monitoring techniques, seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) has high applicability because it can delineate parameter changes by injected CO2. When seismic FWIs are applied, subsurface media can be generally assumed to be isotropic. However, most subsurface media are not isotropic, and shale is a representative anisotropic medium, particularly vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) medium, which is often encountered as a barrier to injected CO2. Thus, anisotropic properties of subsurface media are important for monitoring of injected CO2. For these issues, we need to consider anisotropy of subsurface media when seismic FWIs are applied as a monitoring tool for CO2 sequestration. In this study, we performed seismic FWI for 2-D elastic VTI media to investigate the effects of anisotropic properties in CO2 monitoring. For this numerical test, we assumed a geological model, which copies after one of CO2 storage prospects in Korea. We also applied seismic FWI algorithm for 2-D elastic isotropic media for comparison. From this comparison, we noticed that we can obtain more reliable results when we apply the anisotropic FWI algorithm. Numerical examples indicate that we should apply the anisotropic FWI algorithm rather than the isotropic FWI algorithm when we interpret seismic monitoring data acquired in anisotropic media to increase the success of monitoring for injected CO2. Our numerical results can also be used as references for real seismic monitoring of the Korea CO2 sequestration projects in the near future. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program (No. 20134010200510) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korean government Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy and by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine

  10. 3-D FDTD simulation of shear waves for evaluation of complex modulus imaging.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Marko; Wang, Yue; Insana, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The Navier equation describing shear wave propagation in 3-D viscoelastic media is solved numerically with a finite differences time domain (FDTD) method. Solutions are formed in terms of transverse scatterer velocity waves and then verified via comparison to measured wave fields in heterogeneous hydrogel phantoms. The numerical algorithm is used as a tool to study the effects on complex shear modulus estimation from wave propagation in heterogeneous viscoelastic media. We used an algebraic Helmholtz inversion (AHI) technique to solve for the complex shear modulus from simulated and experimental velocity data acquired in 2-D and 3-D. Although 3-D velocity estimates are required in general, there are object geometries for which 2-D inversions provide accurate estimations of the material properties. Through simulations and experiments, we explored artifacts generated in elastic and dynamic-viscous shear modulus images related to the shear wavelength and average viscosity.

  11. A high order discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic wave propagation in arbitrary heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, Nathalie; Mercerat, Diego

    2013-04-01

    High-order numerical methods allow accurate simulations of ground motion using unstructured and relatively coarse meshes. In realistic media (sedimentary basins for example), we have to include strong variations of the material properties. For such configurations, the hypothesis that material properties are set constant in each element of the mesh can be a severe limitation since we need to use very fine meshes resulting in very small time steps for explicit time integration schemes. Moreover, smooth models are approximated by piecewise constant materials. For these reasons, we present an improvement of a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) allowing non constant material properties in the elements of the mesh for a better approximation of arbitrary heterogeneous media. We consider an isotropic, linearly elastic two-dimensional medium (characterized by ?, ? and μ) and solve the first-order velocity-stress system. As the stress tensor is symmetrical, let W? = (?V,?-?)t contain the velocity vector ?-V = (vx,vy)t and the stress components ?-? = (?xx,?yy,?xy)t, then, the system writes t ?-W + Ax (?,?,μ) ^xW?- + Ay(?,?,μ) ^yW ?- = 0, where Ax and Ay are 5x5 matrices depending of the material properties. We apply a discontinuous Galerkin method based on centered fluxes and a leap-frog time scheme to this system. We consider a bounded polyhedral domain discretized by triangles. The approximation of W?- is defined locally on each element by considering the Lagrange nodal interpolants. The system is multiplied by a test function t and integrated on each element Ti. To avoid computing extra terms, related to the variable properties within Ti, we introduce a change of variables on the stress components ( )t ?-? = (?xx,?yy,?xy)t ? ??? = 1(?xx + ?yy), 1 (?xx - ?yy),?xy 2 2 which allows writing the system in a pseudo-conservative form in the variable ?-W? = (?-V,???)t ? (?,?,μ) ^tW ?? + ?Ax x ??W + A?y y ??W = 0 , where the constant matrices Ãx and Ãy do not depend

  12. Change in Elasticity Caused by Flow-Mediated Dilation Measured Only for Intima-Media Region of Brachial Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Masataka; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of arteriosclerosis [R. Ross: N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2004) 115]. For the assessment of the endothelium function, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) caused by increased blood flow has been evaluated with ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. In the case of conventional methods, the change in artery diameter caused by FMD is measured [M. Hashimoto et al.: Circulation 92 (1995) 3431]. Although the arterial wall has a layered structure (intima, media, and adventitia), such a structure is not taken into account in conventional methods because the change in diameter depends on the characteristic of the entire wall. However, smooth muscle present only in the media contributes to FMD, whereas the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not contribute. In this study, we measure the change in elasticity of only the intima-media region including smooth muscle using the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791]. From the change in elasticity, FMD measured only for the intima-media region by our proposed method was found to be more sensitive than that measured for the entire wall by the conventional method.

  13. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  14. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  15. Higher-order compositional modeling of three-phase flow in 3D fractured porous media based on cross-flow equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Moortgat, Joachim Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulation of multiphase compositional flow in fractured porous media, when all the species can transfer between the phases, is a real challenge. Despite the broad applications in hydrocarbon reservoir engineering and hydrology, a compositional numerical simulator for three-phase flow in fractured media has not appeared in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we present a three-phase fully compositional simulator for fractured media, based on higher-order finite element methods. To achieve computational efficiency, we invoke the cross-flow equilibrium (CFE) concept between discrete fractures and a small neighborhood in the matrix blocks. We adopt the mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to approximate convective Darcy fluxes and the pressure equation. This approach is the most natural choice for flow in fractured media. The mass balance equations are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, which is perhaps the most efficient approach to capture physical discontinuities in phase properties at the matrix-fracture interfaces and at phase boundaries. In this work, we account for gravity and Fickian diffusion. The modeling of capillary effects is discussed in a separate paper. We present the mathematical framework, using the implicit-pressure-explicit-composition (IMPEC) scheme, which facilitates rigorous thermodynamic stability analyses and the computation of phase behavior effects to account for transfer of species between the phases. A deceptively simple CFL condition is implemented to improve numerical stability and accuracy. We provide six numerical examples at both small and larger scales and in two and three dimensions, to demonstrate powerful features of the formulation.

  16. Extra dissipation and flow uniformization due to elastic instabilities of shear-thinning polymer solutions in model porous media.

    PubMed

    Machado, Anaïs; Bodiguel, Hugues; Beaumont, Julien; Clisson, Gérald; Colin, Annie

    2016-07-01

    We study flows of hydrolized polyacrylamide solutions in two dimensional porous media made using microfluidics, for which elastic effects are dominant. We focus on semi-dilute solutions (0.1%-0.4%) which exhibit a strong shear thinning behavior. We systematically measure the pressure drop and find that the effective permeability is dramatically higher than predicted when the Weissenberg number is greater than about 10. Observations of the streamlines of the flow reveal that this effect coincides with the onset of elastic instabilities. Moreover, and importantly for applications, we show using local measurements that the mean flow is modified: it appears to be more uniform at high Weissenberg number than for Newtonian fluids. These observations are compared and discussed using pore network simulations, which account for the effect of disorder and shear thinning on the flow properties. PMID:27478522

  17. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  18. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  19. Ni nanowire supported 3D flower-like Pd nanostructures as an efficient electrocatalyst for electrooxidation of ethanol in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Maksudul; Newcomb, Simon B.; Rohan, James F.; Razeeb, Kafil M.

    2012-11-01

    A Ni nanowire array (NiNWA) supported three-dimensional flower-like Pd nano-electrocatalyst with high electrocatalytic performance for the electrooxidation of ethanol in alkaline media has been fabricated by borohydride hydrothermal reduction method. This novel hybrid NiNWA/PdNF (nanoflowers) electrocatalyst exhibits large electrochemically active surface area (EASA, 45 m2 g-1(Pd)), excellent electrocatalytic activity (765 mA mg-1(Pd)), and high level of the poisoning tolerance (If/Ib = 1.2) to the carbonaceous oxidative intermediates for the electrooxidation reaction in alkaline media. In addition, the electrochemical stability of NiNWA/PdNF is significantly higher than that of NiNWA/PdNP (nanoparticles) electrocatalyst, as evidenced by chronoamperometry experiments in which the electrooxidation current of nanoflowers is controlled by the diffusion transport of ethanol species rather than the carbonaceous poisoning. This high electrocatalytic activity can be attributed to the more open structure with higher electrochemically active sites and shape of Pd nanoflowers. This is further enhanced by the core support NiNWA with a very large surface area and the open interspaces that ensure easy alcohol access even to remote active sites for fast ion adsorption/desorption.

  20. Generalized multiscale finite-element method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Gibson, Richard L.; Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-04-14

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.

  1. Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Gibson, Richard L.; Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-08-15

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.

  2. Generalized multiscale finite-element method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Gibson, Richard L.; Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-04-14

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale mediummore » property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.« less

  3. Time reversal of continuous-wave, monochromatic signals in elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian E; Guyer, Robert A; Ulrich, Timothy J; Johnson, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Experimental observations of spatial focusing of continuous-wave, steady-state elastic waves in a reverberant elastic cavity using time reversal are reported here. Spatially localized focusing is achieved when multiple channels are employed, while a single channel does not yield such focusing. The amplitude of the energy at the focal location increases as the square of the number of channels used, while the amplitude elsewhere in the medium increases proportionally with the number of channels used. The observation is important in the context of imaging in solid laboratory samples as well as problems involving continuous-wave signals in Earth.

  4. Envelope synthesis of a cylindrical outgoing wavelet in layered random elastic media based on the Markov approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emoto, Kentaro; Sato, Haruo; Nishimura, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    In the heterogeneous earth medium, short period seismograms of an earthquake are well characterized by their smooth envelopes with random phases. The Markov approximation has often been used for the practical synthesis of their envelopes for a given frequency band. It is a stochastic extension of the phase screen method to synthesize wave envelopes in media with random fluctuations under the condition that the wavelength is shorter than the correlation distance of the fluctuation. We propose an extension of the Markov approximation for the envelope synthesis to the case that an isotropically outgoing wavelet is radiated from a point source in horizontal layered random elastic media, where different layers have different randomness and different background velocities. In each layer, we solve the master equation for the two frequency mutual coherence function (TFMCF) which contains the information of the intensity in the frequency domain. Just below each layer boundary, we calculate the angular spectrum which is the expression of the TFMCF in the transverse wavenumber domain for up-going wavelets. The angular spectrum shows the ray angle distribution of intensities of scattered waves. Multiplying it by the square of transmission coefficients calculated from the background velocity contrast at the boundary, we evaluate the angular spectrum just above it. We neglect P to S (S to P) conversion scattering inside of each layer; however, we take into account the mode conversion at the layer boundary. Different from the vertical incidence of a plane wavelet, the wavefront expands with time and its curvature is modified at the layer boundary due to the Snell's law. Approximating the wavefront in the second layer by a circle for a small incidence angle, we may shift the real origin to the pseudo-origin of the wavefront circle, which leads to the change in geometrical spreading factor. Finally, we calculate the mean square envelope from the TFMCF by using an FFT. By

  5. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  6. 3D quantification of dynamic fluid-fluid interfaces in porous media with fast x-ray microtomography: A comparison with quasi-equilibrium methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisenheimer, D.; Brueck, C. L.; Wildenschild, D.

    2015-12-01

    X-ray microtomography imaging of fluid-fluid interfaces in three-dimensional porous media allows for the testing of thermodynamically derived predictions that seek a unique relationship between capillary pressure, fluid saturation, and specific interfacial area (Pc-Sw-Anw). Previous experimental studies sought to test this functional dependence under quasi-equilibrium conditions (assumed static on the imaging time-scale); however, applying predictive models developed under static conditions for dynamic scenarios can lead to substantial flaws in predicted outcomes. Theory and models developed using dynamic data can be verified using fast x-ray microtomography which allows for the unprecedented measurement of developing interfacial areas, curvatures, and trapping behaviors of fluid phases in three-dimensional systems. We will present results of drainage and imbibition experiments of air and water within a mixture of glass beads. The experiments were performed under both quasi-equilibrium and dynamic conditions at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Fast x-ray microtomography was achieved by utilizing the high brilliance of the x-ray beam at the APS under pink-beam conditions where the white beam is modified with a 4 mm Al absorber and a 0.8 mrad Pt-coated mirror to eliminate low and high-energy photons, respectively. We present a comparison of the results from the quasi-equilibrium and dynamic experiments in an effort to determine if the Pc-Sw-Anw relationship is comparable under either experimental condition and to add to the discussion on whether the Pc-Sw-Anw relationship is unique as hypothesized by existing theory.

  7. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  8. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  9. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  10. Velocity and attenuation of scalar and elastic waves in random media: a spectral function approach.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

    2012-03-01

    This paper investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic waves in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's function in the frequency-wavenumber domain (ω, p), also known as the spectral function, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Comparisons with other approaches are presented for both scalar and elastic waves. PMID:22423683

  11. The Evolution of Stress Intensity Factors and the Propagation of Cracks in Elastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Hu, Bei; Velazquez, Juan J. L.

    When a crack Γs propagates in an elastic medium the stress intensity factors evolve with the tip x(s) of Γs. In this paper we derive formulae which describe the evolution of these stress intensity factors for a homogeneous isotropic elastic medium under plane strain conditions. Denoting by ψ=ψ(x,s) the stress potential (ψ is biharmonic and has zero traction along the crack Γs) and by κ(s) the curvature of the crack at the tip x(s), we prove that the stress intensity factors A1(s), A2(s), as functions of s, satisfy: where , are stress intensity factors of the tangential derivative of in the polar coordinate system at x(s) with θ=0 in the direction of the crack at x(s). The case of antiplane shearing is also briefly considered; in this case ψ is harmonic.

  12. Numerical simulation of elastic wave propagation in isotropic media considering material and geometrical nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauter, N.; Lammering, R.

    2015-04-01

    In order to detect micro-structural damages accurately new methods are currently developed. A promising tool is the generation of higher harmonic wave modes caused by the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation in plate like structures. Due to the very small amplitudes a cumulative effect is used. To get a better overview of this inspection method numerical simulations are essential. Previous studies have developed the analytical description of this phenomenon which is based on the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory. The analytical solution has been approved by numerical simulations. In this work first the nonlinear cumulative wave propagation is simulated and analyzed considering micro-structural cracks in thin linear elastic isotropic plates. It is shown that there is a cumulative effect considering the S1-S2 mode pair. Furthermore the sensitivity of the relative acoustical nonlinearity parameter regarding those damages is validated. Furthermore, an influence of the crack size and orientation on the nonlinear wave propagation behavior is observed. In a second step the micro-structural cracks are replaced by a nonlinear material model. Instead of the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory hyperelastic material models that are implemented in commonly used FEM software are used to simulate the cumulative effect of the higher harmonic Lamb wave generation. The cumulative effect as well as the different nonlinear behavior of the S1-S2 and S2-S4 mode pairs are found by using these hyperelastic material models. It is shown that, both numerical simulations, which take into account micro-structural cracks on the one hand and nonlinear material on the other hand, lead to comparable results. Furthermore, in comparison to the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory the use of the well established hyperelastic material models like Neo-Hooke and Mooney-Rivlin are a suitable alternative to simulate the cumulative higher harmonic generation.

  13. Venus in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  14. 3D reservoir visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Van, B.T.; Pajon, J.L.; Joseph, P. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper shows how some simple 3D computer graphics tools can be combined to provide efficient software for visualizing and analyzing data obtained from reservoir simulators and geological simulations. The animation and interactive capabilities of the software quickly provide a deep understanding of the fluid-flow behavior and an accurate idea of the internal architecture of a reservoir.

  15. Stiffness matrix method with improved efficiency for elastic wave propagation in layered anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Eng Leong

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the recursive algorithm of stiffness matrix method with improved efficiency for computing the total and surface stiffness matrices for a general multilayered anisotropic media. Based on the eigensolutions commonly available for analysis of such media, the recursive algorithm deals with eigen-submatrices directly and bypasses all intermediate layer stiffness submatrices. The improved algorithm obviates the need to compute certain inverse of the original scheme and makes the stiffness matrix recursion more robust. In situation where transfer matrix is numerically stable and easily accessible, an improved recursive algorithm is also given directly in terms of transfer submatrices without involving their explicit inverse.

  16. Effect of Viscous Cross Coupling between two Immiscible Fluids on Elastic Wave Propagation and Attenuation in Unsaturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, WeiCheng; Lee, JheWei; Lee, ChengHaw

    2015-04-01

    A central issue in the theoretical treatment of a multiphase system is the proper mathematical description of momentum transfer across fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfaces. Although recent studies have advanced our knowledge on modeling the coupling behavior between a porous framework and the fluids permeating it, the effect of viscous resistance caused by two-fluid flow on elastic wave behavior in unsaturated porous media still remains unaddressed. In the present study, we generalize the theory of dynamic poroelasticity to incorporate viscous cross coupling arising from the velocity difference between two adjacent fluids for examining the dynamic behavior of fluid flow in deformable porous media related to harmonic wave perturbation. The corresponding dispersion relations that characterize three compressional waves and one shear wave are precisely formulated, with the coefficients featuring all elasticity, inertial coupling, and viscous coupling parameters, for describing how wave number changes as excitation frequency is stipulated. To evaluate quantitatively this as-yet unknown effect, numerical simulations are implemented to solve the dispersion relations for Columbia fine sandy loam bearing an oil-water mixture with respect to three representative wave excitation frequencies. Our results show that the phase speed and attenuation coefficient of the third compressional wave which has the smallest speed is strongly sensitive to the presence of viscous cross coupling, as expected for this wave being attributed primarily to the out-of-phase motion of the two pore fluids. Viscous cross coupling also exerts an impact on the attenuation coefficient of the shear wave and the first compressional wave whose speed is greatest, which exhibits two opposite trends at different ranges of low and high water contents. A sensitivity analysis is further conducted to provide information on the importance of the coupling parameter, revealing that the effect becomes more

  17. Modeling elastic waves in coupled media: Estimate of soft tissue influence and application to quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangang; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing; Qin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    The effect of medium coupling on propagation of elastic waves is a general concern in a variety of engineering and bio-medical applications. Although some theories and analytical models are available for describing waves in multi-layered engineering structures, they do not focus on canvassing ultrasonic waves in human bones with coupled soft tissues, where the considerable differences in acoustic impedance between bone and soft tissue may pose a challenge in using these models (the soft tissues having an acoustic impedance around 80% less than that of a typical bone). Without proper treatment of this coupling effect, the precision of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) for clinical bone assessment can be compromised. The coupling effect of mimicked soft tissues on the first-arriving signal (FAS) and second-arriving signal (SAS) in a series of synthesized soft-tissue-bone phantoms was investigated experimentally and calibrated quantitatively. Understanding of the underlying mechanism of the coupling effect was supplemented by a dedicated finite element analysis. As revealed, the medium coupling impacts influence on different wave modes to different degrees: for FAS and SAS, the most significant changes take place when the soft tissues are initially introduced, and the decrease in signal peak energy continues with increase in the thickness or elastic modulus of the soft tissues, but the changes in propagation velocity fluctuate within 5% regardless of further increase in the thickness or elastic modulus of the soft tissues. As an application, the calibrated effects were employed to enhance the precision of SAS-based QUS when used for predicting the simulated healing status of a mimicked bone fracture, to find prediction of healing progress of bone fracture based on changes in velocity of the FAS or the SAS is inaccurate without taking into account the effect of soft tissue coupling, entailing appropriate compensation for the coupling effect.

  18. Scaling Laws for the Response of Nonlinear Elastic Media with Implications for Cell Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokef, Yair; Safran, Samuel A.

    2012-04-01

    We show how strain stiffening affects the elastic response to internal forces, caused either by material defects and inhomogeneities or by active forces that molecular motors generate in living cells. For a spherical force dipole in a material with a strongly nonlinear strain energy density, strains change sign with distance, indicating that, even around a contractile inclusion or molecular motor, there is radial compression; it is only at a long distance that one recovers the linear response in which the medium is radially stretched. Scaling laws with irrational exponents relate the far-field renormalized strain to the near-field strain applied by the inclusion or active force.

  19. Surface Waves in Fibre-Reinforced Anisotropic Solid Elastic Media under the Influence of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, M.; Gupta, K. C.; Gupta; Manisha, D.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate surface waves in an anisotropic, elastic solid medium under the influence of gravity. First, a theory of generalised surface waves was developed and then it was employed to investigate particular cases of waves, viz., Stoneley and Rayleigh, Love type. The wave velocity equations were obtained for different cases and they are in well agreement with the corresponding classical result, when the effect of gravity, viscosity as well as parameters for fibre-reinforcement of the material medium are ignored.

  20. 3D rapid mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksson, Folke; Borg, Johan; Haglund, Leif

    2008-04-01

    In this paper the performance of passive range measurement imaging using stereo technique in real time applications is described. Stereo vision uses multiple images to get depth resolution in a similar way as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses multiple measurements to obtain better spatial resolution. This technique has been used in photogrammetry for a long time but it will be shown that it is now possible to do the calculations, with carefully designed image processing algorithms, in e.g. a PC in real time. In order to get high resolution and quantitative data in the stereo estimation a mathematical camera model is used. The parameters to the camera model are settled in a calibration rig or in the case of a moving camera the scene itself can be used for calibration of most of the parameters. After calibration an ordinary TV camera has an angular resolution like a theodolite, but to a much lower price. The paper will present results from high resolution 3D imagery from air to ground. The 3D-results from stereo calculation of image pairs are stitched together into a large database to form a 3D-model of the area covered.

  1. Surface elastic waves in granular media under gravity and their relation to booming avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, L.; Andreotti, B.; Clément, E.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the nonlinearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound c in granular matter is expected to increase with pressure as P1/6 . A static layer of grains under gravity is thus stratified so that the bulk waves are refracted toward the surface. The reflection at the surface being total, there is a discrete number of modes (both in the sagittal plane and transverse to it) localized close to the free surface. The shape of these modes and the corresponding dispersion relation are investigated in the framework of an elastic description taking into account the main features of granular matter: Nonlinearity between stress and strain and the existence of a yield transition. We show in this context that the surface modes localized at the free surface exhibit a waveguide effect related to the nonlinear Hertz contact. Recent results about the song of dunes are reinterpreted in light of the theoretical results. The predicted propagation speed is compared with measurements performed in the field. Taking into account the finite depth effects, we show that the booming instability threshold can be explained quantitatively by a waveguide cutoff frequency below which no sound can propagate. Therefore, we propose another look at a recent controversy, confirming that the song of dunes can well originate from a coupling between avalanching grains and surface elastic waves once the specificity of surface waves (we baptized Rayleigh-Hertz) is correctly taken into account.

  2. Thermal stresses in chemically hardening elastic media with application to the molding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitsky, M.; Shaffer, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    A method has been formulated for the determination of thermal stresses in materials which harden in the presence of an exothermic chemical reaction. Hardening is described by the transformation of the material from an inviscid liquid-like state into an elastic solid, where intermediate states consist of a mixture of the two, in a ratio which is determined by the degree of chemical reaction. The method is illustrated in terms of an infinite slab cast between two rigid mold surfaces. It is found that the stress component normal to the slab surfaces vanishes in the residual state, so that removal of the slab from the mold leaves the remaining residual stress unchanged. On the other hand, the residual stress component parallel to the slab surfaces does not vanish. Its distribution is described as a function of the parameters of the hardening process.

  3. Morphological study of elastic-plastic-brittle transitions in disordered media.

    PubMed

    Kale, Sohan; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2014-10-01

    We use a spring lattice model with springs following a bilinear elastoplastic-brittle constitutive behavior with spatial disorder in the yield and failure thresholds to study patterns of plasticity and damage evolution. The elastic-perfectly plastic transition is observed to follow percolation scaling with the correlation length critical exponent ν≈1.59, implying the universality class corresponding to the long-range correlated percolation. A quantitative analysis of the plastic strain accumulation reveals a dipolar anisotropy (for antiplane loading) which vanishes with increasing hardening modulus. A parametric study with hardening modulus and ductility controlled through the spring level constitutive response demonstrates a wide spectrum of behaviors with varying degree of coupling between plasticity and damage evolution. PMID:25375508

  4. A Unified Finite Element Method for Arbitrary Elastic and Acoustic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglu, H.; Bielak, J.

    2011-12-01

    This study reports on a mixed finite element formulation that overcomes certain limitations faced by low-order primal-based formulations. A primal-based formulation with displacement as the variable is a widely used method to solve wave-propagation problems. It has been observed, however, that its accuracy deteriorates badly with increasing contrast between the P- and S-wave velocities (a situation often referred to, inaccurately, as almost incompressible). The extreme case for this contrast is an ideal, compressible fluid medium with S-wave velocity equals to zero. This extreme case creates problems in the equations of compressible elasticity. By using a dual-based formulation, we develop a method that is robust within the entire range of an elastic solid with moderate contrast between the P- and S-wave velocities up to the limiting case of an acoustic medium for which the S-wave velocity is zero. By solving a constrained variational problem with the Lagrange-Multiplier Method, we developed the dual-based (mixed) formulation with pressure and displacement as the variables.This is similar to earlier mixed displacement-pressure formulations, except that we introduce the methodology as a global one applicable to different domains rather than being limited to certain extreme cases. The variational problem makes a wider range of interpolation functions permissible for pressure including discontinuous functions across element boundaries. We verify the method and illustrate the general principles with an application in Southern California of the 1994 Northridge earthquake. We also discuss the possible extension of the method to fluid-structure interaction problems with dry interface conditions.

  5. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  6. Thermomechanical properties of 3d transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Karaoglu, B.; Rahman, S.M.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1994-05-15

    The authors have investigated the density variation of the Einstein temperatures and elastic constants of the 3d transition metals. In this respect they have employed the transition metal (TM) pair potentials involving the sp contribution with an appropriate exchange and correlation function, the d-band broadening contribution and the d-band hybridization term. These calculations are aimed at testing the TM pair potentials in generating the quasilocal and local thermomechanical properties.

  7. Taming supersymmetric defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-07-01

    We study knots in 3d Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group {SL}(N,{{C}}), in the context of its relation with 3d { N }=2 theory (the so-called 3d-3d correspondence). The defect has either co-dimension 2 or co-dimension 4 inside the 6d (2,0) theory, which is compactified on a 3-manifold \\hat{M}. We identify such defects in various corners of the 3d-3d correspondence, namely in 3d {SL}(N,{{C}}) CS theory, in 3d { N }=2 theory, in 5d { N }=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and in the M-theory holographic dual. We can make quantitative checks of the 3d-3d correspondence by computing partition functions at each of these theories. This Letter is a companion to a longer paper [1], which contains more details and more results.

  8. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  9. Role of interparticle friction and particle-scale elasticity in the shear-strength mechanism of three-dimensional granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, S. J.; Kruyt, N. P.

    2009-03-01

    The interlink between particle-scale properties and macroscopic behavior of three-dimensional granular media subjected to mechanical loading is studied intensively by scientists and engineers, but not yet well understood. Here we study the role of key particle-scale properties, such as interparticle friction and particle elastic modulus, in the functioning of dual contact force networks, viz., strong and weak contacts, in mobilizing shear strength in dense granular media subjected to quasistatic shearing. The study is based on three-dimensional discrete element method in which particle-scale constitutive relations are based on well-established nonlinear theories of contact mechanics. The underlying distinctive contributions of these force networks to the macroscopic stress tensor of sheared granular media are examined here in detail to find out how particle-scale friction and particle-scale elasticity (or particle-scale stiffness) affect the mechanism of mobilization of macroscopic shear strength and other related properties. We reveal that interparticle friction mobilizes shear strength through bimodal contribution, i.e., through both major and minor principal stresses. However, against expectation, the contribution of particle-scale elasticity is mostly unimodal, i.e., through the minor principal stress component, but hardly by the major principal stress. The packing fraction and the geometric stability of the assemblies (expressed by the mechanical coordination number) increase for decrease in interparticle friction and elasticity of particles. Although peak shear strength increases with interparticle friction, the deviator strain level at which granular systems attain peak shear strength is mostly independent of interparticle friction. Granular assemblies attain peak shear strength (and maximum fabric anisotropy of strong contacts) when a critical value of the mechanical coordination number is attained. Irrespective of the interparticle friction and elasticity

  10. Spatial mapping of the electrical and elastic properties of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeney, Nathan S.

    The goal of this research is to design a set of methods to spatially map the electrical and physical properties of a spatially complex granular material. Aiming for a resolution of sub-millimeter allows the the possibility for developing a relationship between the electrical and physical properties at this scale as well as the ability to upscale to larger scales. Spatial mapping at this scale fills a unique niche between existing methods in the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Using methods analogous with optical near-field scanning, we develop a millimeter near-field scanning system. This system spatially scans thin samples between two dielectric probes to map the spatially varying dielectric properties of the sample. Using a millimeter wave vector network analyzer allows us to directly measure the phase and amplitude of the reflected and transmitted fields allowing mapping of both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric properties. With this system we achieve a resolution of 100 mum (smaller than lambda/10). This resolution is not limited by diffraction but limited by the size of our probe and has the possibility of improvement. In order to develop a high resolution spatial mapping of the physical properties we developed an unconventional laser ultrasound scanning system. This system measures the travel time of shear waves directly through the sample to localize measurements allowing high resolution mapping of the spatially varying elastic properties of the sample. Using a focused infrared laser and laser Doppler vibrometer on opposite sides of a thin sample, we are able to achieve sub-millimeter resolution limited by the spot size and thickness of the sample. In testing these systems we looked at various applications. We have mapped the mineralogy of heterogeneous granite and have looked into a correlation between electrical and mechanical properties properties. By looking at maps of oil shale we are able to see the spatial hydrocarbon content before

  11. Antiplane wave scattering from a cylindrical cavity in pre-stressed nonlinear elastic media

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Tom; Parnell, William J.; Abrahams, I. David

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a longitudinal stretch and a pressure-induced inhomogeneous radial deformation on the scattering of antiplane elastic waves from a cylindrical cavity is determined. Three popular nonlinear strain energy functions are considered: the neo-Hookean, the Mooney–Rivlin and a two-term Arruda–Boyce model. A new method is developed to analyse and solve the governing wave equations. It exploits their properties to determine an asymptotic solution in the far-field, which is then used to derive a boundary condition to numerically evaluate the equations local to the cavity. This method could be applied to any linear ordinary differential equation whose inhomogeneous coefficients tend to a constant as its independent variable tends to infinity. The effect of the pre-stress is evaluated by considering the scattering cross section. A longitudinal stretch is found to decrease the scattered power emanating from the cavity, whereas a compression increases it. The effect of the pressure difference depends on the strain energy function employed. For a Mooney–Rivlin material, a cavity inflation increases the scattered power and a deflation decreases it; for a neo-Hookean material, the scattering cross section is unaffected by the radial deformation; and for a two-term Arruda–Boyce material, both inflation and deflation are found to decrease the scattered power. PMID:26543398

  12. Universal correlations between shocks in the ground state of elastic interfaces in disordered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Thimothée; Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2016-07-01

    The ground state of an elastic interface in a disordered medium undergoes collective jumps upon variation of external parameters. These mesoscopic jumps are called shocks, or static avalanches. Submitting the interface to a parabolic potential centered at w , we study the avalanches which occur as w is varied. We are interested in the correlations between the avalanche sizes S1 and S2 occurring at positions w1 and w2. Using the functional renormalization group (FRG), we show that correlations exist for realistic interface models below their upper critical dimension. Notably, the connected moment c is up to a prefactor exactly the renormalized disorder correlator, itself a function of | w2-w1| . The latter is the universal function at the center of the FRG; hence, correlations between shocks are universal as well. All moments and the full joint probability distribution are computed to first nontrivial order in an ɛ expansion below the upper critical dimension. To quantify the local nature of the coupling between avalanches, we calculate the correlations of their local jumps. We finally test our predictions against simulations of a particle in random-bond and random-force disorder, with surprisingly good agreement.

  13. Universal correlations between shocks in the ground state of elastic interfaces in disordered media.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Thimothée; Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2016-07-01

    The ground state of an elastic interface in a disordered medium undergoes collective jumps upon variation of external parameters. These mesoscopic jumps are called shocks, or static avalanches. Submitting the interface to a parabolic potential centered at w, we study the avalanches which occur as w is varied. We are interested in the correlations between the avalanche sizes S_{1} and S_{2} occurring at positions w_{1} and w_{2}. Using the functional renormalization group (FRG), we show that correlations exist for realistic interface models below their upper critical dimension. Notably, the connected moment 〈S_{1}S_{2}〉^{c} is up to a prefactor exactly the renormalized disorder correlator, itself a function of |w_{2}-w_{1}|. The latter is the universal function at the center of the FRG; hence, correlations between shocks are universal as well. All moments and the full joint probability distribution are computed to first nontrivial order in an ε expansion below the upper critical dimension. To quantify the local nature of the coupling between avalanches, we calculate the correlations of their local jumps. We finally test our predictions against simulations of a particle in random-bond and random-force disorder, with surprisingly good agreement. PMID:27575080

  14. Effect of viscous cross coupling between two immiscible fluids on elastic wave propagation and attenuation in unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Yeh, Chao-Lung; Lee, Jhe-Wei

    2015-09-01

    A central issue in the theoretical treatment of a multiphase system is the proper mathematical description of momentum transfer across fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfaces. Although recent studies have advanced our knowledge on modeling the coupling behavior between a porous framework and the fluids permeating it, the effect of viscous resistance caused by two-fluid flow on elastic wave behavior in unsaturated porous media still remains elusive. In the present study, the theoretical model developed for describing immiscible two-phase fluid flows in a deformable porous medium related to harmonic wave perturbation is generalized to account for viscous cross coupling due to relative velocity between two adjacent fluids. The corresponding dispersion relations whose coefficients feature all elasticity, inertial-drag, and viscous-drag parameters are then precisely formulated, in a physical context characterizing three compressional waves and one shear wave. To evaluate quantitatively this as-yet unknown effect, numerical calculations are conducted to solve the dispersion relations for Columbia fine sandy loam bearing an oil-water mixture as a function of water saturation and excitation frequency. Our results show that the phase speed and attenuation coefficient of the P3 wave which has the smallest speed is strongly sensitive to the presence of viscous cross coupling, as expected since this wave is attributed primarily to the out-of-phase motion of the two pore fluids. Viscous cross coupling also exerts an impact on the attenuation coefficient of the shear wave and the P1 wave whose speed is greatest, which exhibits two opposite trends at different ranges of low and high water contents. Relative differences in these wave attributes are principally independent of excitation frequency. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess how changes in viscous cross coupling affect these differences, revealing that some of them become more significant as viscous cross

  15. High-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method for wave propagation simulation in complex geophysical media (elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic); an unifying framework to couple continuous Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrana, Sebastien; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Guillot, Laurent; Mariotti, Christian

    2015-04-01

    assessed against classical SEMs and DGMs through two-dimensional geophysical examples, as well as the coupling between hybridized SEMs and DGMs in the same computational domain. Finally on-going extension of this HDG method for three-dimensional wave propagation phenomena will be outlined in conclusion. References: Chaljub, E., Komatitsch, D., Vilotte, J.-P., Capdeville, Y., Valette, B., Festa, G., Spectral Element analysis in seismology, Advances in Geophysics, 48, 365-419, 2006. Cockburn, B., Gopalakrishnan, J., Lazarov, R., Unified hybridization of discontinuous Galerkin, mixed and continuous Galerkin methods for second order elliptic problems, SIAM J. Num. Anal., 47, 2, 1319-1365, 2009. Dumbser, M. and M. Käser, An abitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic waves on unstructured meshes II : the three-dimensional isotropic case, Geophys. J. Int., 167 (1), 319-336, 2006. Etienne, V., Chaljub, E., Virieux, J., Glinsky N., A hp-adaptative Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for 3-D elastic wave modelling, Geophys. J. Int., 183, 941-962, 2010. Komatitsch, D. and J.-P. Vilotte, The Spectral Element Method : An efficient tool to simulate the seismic response of 2-D and 3-D geological structures, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 88, 368-392, 1998. Nguyen, N., Peraire, J., Cockburn, B., High-order implicit hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin methods for acoustics and elastodynamics, J. Comp. Physics, 230, 10, 3695-3718, 2011. Wilcox, L., Stadler, G., Burstede, C., Ghattas, O., A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media, J. Comp. Phys., 229, 9379-9386, 2010.

  16. Probabilistic point source inversion of strong-motion data in 3-D media using pattern recognition: A case study for the 2008 Mw 5.4 Chino Hills earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käufl, Paul; Valentine, Andrew P.; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-08-01

    Despite the ever increasing availability of computational power, real-time source inversions based on physical modeling of wave propagation in realistic media remain challenging. We investigate how a nonlinear Bayesian approach based on pattern recognition and synthetic 3-D Green's functions can be used to rapidly invert strong-motion data for point source parameters by means of a case study for a fault system in the Los Angeles Basin. The probabilistic inverse mapping is represented in compact form by a neural network which yields probability distributions over source parameters. It can therefore be evaluated rapidly and with very moderate CPU and memory requirements. We present a simulated real-time inversion of data for the 2008 Mw 5.4 Chino Hills event. Initial estimates of epicentral location and magnitude are available ˜14 s after origin time. The estimate can be refined as more data arrive: by ˜40 s, fault strike and source depth can also be determined with relatively high certainty.

  17. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  18. SB3D User Manual, Santa Barbara 3D Radiative Transfer Model

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hirok, William

    1999-01-01

    SB3D is a three-dimensional atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer model for the Solar spectrum. The microphysics employed in the model are the same as used in the model SBDART. It is assumed that the user of SB3D is familiar with SBDART and IDL. SB3D differs from SBDART in that computations are conducted on media in three-dimensions rather than a single column (i.e. plane-parallel), and a stochastic method (Monte Carlo) is employed instead of a numerical approach (Discrete Ordinates) for estimating a solution to the radiative transfer equation. Because of these two differences between SB3D and SBDART, the input and running of SB3D is more unwieldy and requires compromises between model performance and computational expense. Hence, there is no one correct method for running the model and the user must develop a sense to the proper input and configuration of the model.

  19. Towards the Next Generation Upper-Mantle 3D Anelastic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglu, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to distinguish the thermal and compositional heterogeneities in the mantle, it is crucial to resolve the lateral variations not only in seismic velocities but also in intrinsic attenuation. Indeed, the high sensitivity of intrinsic attenuation to temperature and water content, governed by a form of Arrhenius equation, contrasts with the quasi-linear dependence of velocities on both temperature and major element composition. The major challenge in imaging attenuation lies in separating its effects on seismic waves from the elastic ones. The latter originate from the wave propagation in media with strong lateral elastic gradients causing (de)focusing and scattering. We have previously developed a 3D upper-mantle shear attenuation model based on time domain waveform inversion of long period (T > 60s) fundamental and overtone surface wave data (Gung & Romanowicz, 2004). However, at that time, resolution was limited to very long wavelength structure, because elastic models were still rather smooth, and the effects of focusing could only be estimated approximately, using asymptotic normal mode perturbation theory.With recent progress in constraining global mantle shear velocity from waveform tomography based on the Spectral Element Method (e.g. SEMUCB_WM1, French & Romanowicz, 2014), we are now in a position to develop an improved global 3D model of shear attenuation in the upper mantle. In doing so, we use a similar time domain waveform inversion approach, but (1) start with a higher resolution elastic model with better constraints on lateral elastic gradients and (2) jointly invert, in an iterative fashion, for shear attenuation and elastic parameters. Here, we present the results of synthetic tests that confirm our inversion strategy, as well as preliminary results towards the construction of the next generation upper-mantle anelastic model.

  20. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  2. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in bilinear elastic-plastic media, and the implications to short-pulsed laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujan, E.-A.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.

  4. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  5. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  6. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  7. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  8. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-03-24

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell-matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  9. Elastic behavior of MFI-type zeolites: Compressibility of H-ZSM-5 in penetrating and non-penetrating media

    SciTech Connect

    Quartieri, Simona; Montagna, Gabriele; Arletti, Rossella; Vezzalini, Giovanna

    2011-06-15

    The elastic behavior of H-ZSM-5 was investigated by in-situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, using both silicone oil (s.o.) and (16:3:1) methanol:ethanol:water (m.e.w.) as 'non-penetrating' and 'penetrating' pressure transmitting media, respectively. From P{sub amb} to 6.2 GPa the volume reduction observed in s.o. is 16.6%. This testifies that H-ZSM-5 is one of the most flexible microporous materials up to now compressed in s.o. Volume reduction observed in m.e.w. up to 7.6 GPa is 14.6%. A strong increase in the total electron number of the extraframework system, due to the penetration of water/alcohol molecules in the pores, is observed in m.e.w. This effect is the largest up to now observed in zeolites undergoing this phenomenon without cell volume expansion. The higher compressibility in s.o. than in m.e.w. can be ascribed to the penetration of the extra-water/alcohol molecules, which stiffen the structure and contrast the channel deformations. - Graphical abstract: High-pressure behavior of H-ZSM-5 compressed in (16:3:1) methanol:ethanol:water: (a) projection of the structure along the [0 1 0] direction at P{sub amb}, 2 GPa and after pressure release to original ambient conditions (P{sub amb} (rev)), and (b) P-dependence of the extraframework content expressed as total number of electrons (gray square represents the number of the extraframework electrons at P{sub amb} after decompression). Highlights: > X-ray powder diffraction study of H-ZSM-5 compressibility. > H-ZSM-5 is one of the softest porous material compressed in silicon oil. > Penetration of additional water/alcohol molecules upon compression in m.e.w. > Extra molecules contribute to stiffen the structure and to contrast HP effects.

  10. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  11. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  12. ATHENA 3D: A finite element code for ultrasonic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, C.; Rupin, F.; Fouquet, T.; Chassignole, B.

    2014-04-01

    The understanding of wave propagation phenomena requires use of robust numerical models. 3D finite element (FE) models are generally prohibitively time consuming. However, advances in computing processor speed and memory allow them to be more and more competitive. In this context, EDF R&D developed the 3D version of the well-validated FE code ATHENA2D. The code is dedicated to the simulation of wave propagation in all kinds of elastic media and in particular, heterogeneous and anisotropic materials like welds. It is based on solving elastodynamic equations in the calculation zone expressed in terms of stress and particle velocities. The particularity of the code relies on the fact that the discretization of the calculation domain uses a Cartesian regular 3D mesh while the defect of complex geometry can be described using a separate (2D) mesh using the fictitious domains method. This allows combining the rapidity of regular meshes computation with the capability of modelling arbitrary shaped defects. Furthermore, the calculation domain is discretized with a quasi-explicit time evolution scheme. Thereby only local linear systems of small size have to be solved. The final step to reduce the computation time relies on the fact that ATHENA3D has been parallelized and adapted to the use of HPC resources. In this paper, the validation of the 3D FE model is discussed. A cross-validation of ATHENA 3D and CIVA is proposed for several inspection configurations. The performances in terms of calculation time are also presented in the cases of both local computer and computation cluster use.

  13. 3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi

    2001-09-14

    T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.

  14. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  15. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  16. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  17. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  18. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible.

  19. Invertible authentication for 3D meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Benedens, Oliver

    2003-06-01

    Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. Based on the introduced media independent protocol schemes for invertible data authentication in references 2, 4 and 5 we discuss the design of a new 3D invertible labeling technique to ensure and require high data integrity. We combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable integrity. Furthermore the protocol steps in the other papers to ensure that the original data can only be reproduced with a secret key is adopted for 3D meshes. The goal is to show how the existing protocol can be used for 3D meshes to provide solutions for authentication watermarking. In our design concept and evaluation we see that due to the nature of 3D meshes the invertible function are different from the image and audio concepts to achieve invertibility to guaranty reversibility of the original. Therefore we introduce a concept for distortion free invertibility and a concept for adjustable minimum distortion invertibility.

  20. 3-D Numerical Modeling of a Complex Salt Structure

    SciTech Connect

    House, L.; Larsen, S.; Bednar, J.B.

    2000-02-17

    Reliably processing, imaging, and interpreting seismic data from areas with complicated structures, such as sub-salt, requires a thorough understanding of elastic as well as acoustic wave propagation. Elastic numerical modeling is an essential tool to develop that understanding. While 2-D elastic modeling is in common use, 3-D elastic modeling has been too computationally intensive to be used routinely. Recent advances in computing hardware, including commodity-based hardware, have substantially reduced computing costs. These advances are making 3-D elastic numerical modeling more feasible. A series of example 3-D elastic calculations were performed using a complicated structure, the SEG/EAGE salt structure. The synthetic traces show that the effects of shear wave propagation can be important for imaging and interpretation of images, and also for AVO and other applications that rely on trace amplitudes. Additional calculations are needed to better identify and understand the complex wave propagation effects produced in complicated structures, such as the SEG/EAGE salt structure.

  1. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  2. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  3. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  4. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Tensorial analysis of Eshelby stresses in 3D supercooled liquids.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Anaël

    2015-10-28

    It was recently proposed that the local rearrangements governing relaxation in supercooled liquids impress on the liquid medium long-ranged (Eshelby) stress fluctuations that accumulate over time. From this viewpoint, events must be characterized by elastic dipoles, which are second order tensors, and Eshelby fields are expected to show up in stress and stress increment correlations, which are fourth order tensor fields. We construct here an analytical framework that permits analyzing such tensorial correlations in isotropic media in view of accessing Eshelby fields. Two spherical bases are introduced, which correspond to Cartesian and spherical coordinates for tensors. We show how they can be used to decompose stress correlations and thus test such properties as isotropy and power-law scalings. Eshelby fields and the predicted stress correlations in an infinite medium are shown to belong to an algebra that can conveniently be described using the spherical tensor bases. Using this formalism, we demonstrate that the inherent stress field of 3D supercooled liquids is power law correlated and carries the signature of Eshelby fields, thus supporting the idea that relaxation events give rise to Eshelby stresses that accumulate over time. PMID:26520535

  6. Effect of Stiffness on Reflection and Transmission of Waves at an Interface between Heat Conducting Elastic Solid and Micropolar Fluid Media.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Rajvanshi, S C; Kaur, Mandeep

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the propagation of waves at an imperfect boundary of heat conducting elastic solid and micropolar fluid media. The amplitude ratios of various reflected and transmitted waves are obtained in a closed form due to incidence of longitudinal wave (P-wave), thermal wave (T-wave), and transverse wave (SV-wave). The variation of various amplitude ratios with angle of incidence is obtained for normal force stiffness, transverse force stiffness, thermal contact conductance, and perfect bonding. Numerical results are shown graphically to depict the effect of stiffness and thermal relaxation times on resulting quantities. Some particular cases are also deduced in the present investigation.

  7. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  8. Modeling the Properties of 3D Woven Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian N.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive study has been completed of the internal geometry, the mechanisms of failure, and the micromechanics of local failure events in graphite/epoxy composites with three dimensional (3D) woven reinforcement. This work has led to the development of models for predicting elastic constants, strength, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life. A summary is presented here.

  9. Spatially resolved 3D noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, David P.; Preece, Bradley L.; Doe, Joshua M.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2016-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. In this correspondence, we describe how the confidence intervals for the 3D noise measurement allows for determination of the sampling necessary to reach a desired precision. We then apply that knowledge to create a smaller cube that can be evaluated spatially across the 2D image giving the noise as a function of position. The method presented here allows for both defective pixel identification and implements the finite sampling correction matrix. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  10. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  11. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. If ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is installed on the user's VAX, the VMS/DISSPLA version of PLOT3D can also be used to create files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program capable of animating and recording images on film. The version 3.6b+ VMS/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12777) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12781) were developed for use on VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC12782); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. If ARCGRAPH (ARC-12350) is installed on the user's VAX, the VMS/DISSPLA version of PLOT3D can also be used to create files for use in GAS (Graphics Animation System, ARC-12379), an IRIS program capable of animating and recording images on film. The version 3.6b+ VMS/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12777) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12781) were developed for use on VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0. The standard distribution media for each of these programs is a 9-track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, and Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC12782); (3) generic UNIX and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12788, ARC-12778); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a

  14. Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Lee E., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Intended for secondary English teachers, the materials and ideas presented here suggest ways to use media in the classroom in teaching visual and auditory discrimination while enlivening classes and motivating students. Contents include "Media Specialists Need Not Apply," which discusses the need for preparation of media educators with…

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. The version 3.6b+ UNIX/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12788) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12778) were developed for use on computers running UNIX SYSTEM 5 with BSD 4.3 extensions. The standard distribution media for each ofthese programs is a 9track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (3) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. System 5 is a trademark of Bell Labs, Incorporated. BSD4.3 is a trademark of the University of California at Berkeley. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, GENERIC UNIX VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    well as 2-D and 3-D lines, but does not support graphics features requiring 3-D polygons (shading and hidden line removal, for example). Views can be manipulated using keyboard commands. This version of PLOT3D is potentially able to produce files for a variety of output devices; however, site-specific capabilities will vary depending on the device drivers supplied with the user's DISSPLA library. The version 3.6b+ UNIX/DISSPLA implementations of PLOT3D (ARC-12788) and PLOT3D/TURB3D (ARC-12778) were developed for use on computers running UNIX SYSTEM 5 with BSD 4.3 extensions. The standard distribution media for each ofthese programs is a 9track, 6250 bpi magnetic tape in TAR format. Customers purchasing one implementation version of PLOT3D or PLOT3D/TURB3D will be given a $200 discount on each additional implementation version ordered at the same time. Version 3.6b+ of PLOT3D and PLOT3D/TURB3D are also supported for the following computers and graphics libraries: (1) generic UNIX Supercomputer and IRIS, suitable for CRAY 2/UNICOS, CONVEX, Alliant with remote IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12779, ARC-12784); (2) Silicon Graphics IRIS 2xxx/3xxx or IRIS 4D (ARC-12783, ARC-12782); (3) VAX computers running VMS Version 5.0 and DISSPLA Version 11.0 (ARC-12777, ARC-12781); and (4) Apollo computers running UNIX and GMR3D Version 2.0 (ARC-12789, ARC-12785 which have no capabilities to put text on plots). Silicon Graphics Iris, IRIS 4D, and IRIS 2xxx/3xxx are trademarks of Silicon Graphics Incorporated. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Electronics Corporation. DISSPLA is a trademark of Computer Associates. CRAY 2 and UNICOS are trademarks of CRAY Research, Incorporated. CONVEX is a trademark of Convex Computer Corporation. Alliant is a trademark of Alliant. Apollo and GMR3D are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard, Incorporated. System 5 is a trademark of Bell Labs, Incorporated. BSD4.3 is a trademark of the University of California at Berkeley. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.

  17. Beam and Truss Finite Element Verification for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, H J

    2007-07-16

    The explicit finite element (FE) software program DYNA3D has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate the dynamic behavior of structures, systems, and components. This report focuses on verification of beam and truss element formulations in DYNA3D. An efficient protocol has been developed to verify the accuracy of these structural elements by generating a set of representative problems for which closed-form quasi-static steady-state analytical reference solutions exist. To provide as complete coverage as practically achievable, problem sets are developed for each beam and truss element formulation (and their variants) in all modes of loading and physical orientation. Analyses with loading in the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes are performed. For elastic loading, the FE results are within 1% of the reference solutions for all cases. For beam element bending and torsion loading in the plastic regime, the response is heavily dependent on the numerical integration rule chosen, with higher refinement yielding greater accuracy (agreement to within 1%). Axial loading in the plastic regime produces accurate results (agreement to within 0.01%) for all integration rules and element formulations. Truss elements are also verified to provide accurate results (within 0.01%) for elastic and elastic-plastic loading. A sample problem to verify beam element response in ParaDyn, the parallel version DYNA3D, is also presented.

  18. Elastic properties of model 3-D porous ceramics and foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Anthony; Garboczi, Edward

    2000-03-01

    The novel properties of many new porous materials are related to their interesting internal microstructure. Apart from simple cases, there exist no theoretical means of predicting the bulk properties of these materials. This limits our ability to guide microstructure optimization for a particular purpose. We use a large scale finite element method to demonstrate the complex relationship between microstructure and the effective properties of realistic three-dimensional model porous ceramics and foams. We find that pore-shape and interconnectivity strongly influence the properties of sintered ceramics. For porous foams we have studied the role of coordination number, random disorder, and strut shape on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We find that that Voronoi tesselations, commonly used to model solid foams, show unphysical behavior, in particular they are incompressible (rubber-like) at low densities. Deletion of just 10% of the bonds in the model reduces the bulk modulus by 75%, more in line with experimental evidence. The FEM results are generally in good agreement with experimental data for ceramics and foams, and can be used as both a predictive and interpretative tool by experimentalists.

  19. LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2004-01-01

    Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

  20. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  1. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  2. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  3. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  4. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  5. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  6. Balance and coordination after viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4–82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261

  7. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  8. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-04-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online.

  9. 3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.

  10. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  11. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  12. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  13. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  14. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  15. FY08 LDRD Final Report A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media LDRD Project Tracking Code: 05-ERD-079

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, A

    2009-01-29

    The LDRD project 'A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media' developed several improvements to the traditional finite difference technique for seismic wave propagation, including a summation-by-parts discretization which is provably stable for arbitrary heterogeneous materials, an accurate treatment of non-planar topography, local mesh refinement, and stable outflow boundary conditions. This project also implemented these techniques in a parallel open source computer code called WPP, and participated in several seismic modeling efforts to simulate ground motion due to earthquakes in Northern California. This research has been documented in six individual publications which are summarized in this report. Of these publications, four are published refereed journal articles, one is an accepted refereed journal article which has not yet been published, and one is a non-refereed software manual. The report concludes with a discussion of future research directions and exit plan.

  16. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  17. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  18. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  19. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  20. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  1. A fully coupled constitutive model for thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis in elastic media with double porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Selvadurai, A. P. S.

    2003-12-01

    The partial differential equations governing non-isothermal flow and deformation in an elastic medium with double porosity are presented. The governing equations satisfy an effective stress concept, Darcy's law, Fourier' law and the equations of Hookean thermoelasticity. The equations are derived using a systematic macroscopic approach that satisfies conservation laws applicable to balance of linear momentum, mass and energy. The Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical coupling take into account processes associated with: thermal expansion, thermal convection by moving fluid, fluid flux due to temperature gradients, heat flux due to pressure gradients, fluid and heat exchange between the two pore system, and the heat of phase compression.

  2. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  3. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  4. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  5. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  6. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  7. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  8. Mathematical modeling and simulation analysis of hydraulic fracture propagation in three-layered poro-elastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, H.Y. ); Advani, S.H.; Lee, T.S. )

    1992-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing plays a pivotal role in the enhancement of oil and gas production recovery from low permeability reservoirs. The process of hydraulic fracturing entails the generation of a fracture by pumping fluids blended with special chemicals and proppants into the payzone at high injection rates and pressures to extend and wedge fractures. The mathematical modeling of hydraulically induced fractures generally incorporates coupling between the formation elasticity, fracture fluid flow, and fracture mechanics equations governing the formation structural responses, fluid pressure profile, and fracture growth. Two allied unsymmetric elliptic fracture models are developed for fracture configuration evolutions in three-layered rock formations. The first approach is based on a Lagrangian formulation incorporating pertinent energy components associated with the formation structural responses and fracture fluid flow. The second model is based on a generalized variational principle, introducing an energy rate related functional. These models initially simulate a penny-shaped fracture, which becomes elliptic if the crack tips encounters (upper and/or lower) barriers with differential reservoir properties (in situ stresses, 16 elastic moduli, and fracture toughness-contrasts and fluid leak-off characteristics). The energy rate component magnitudes are determined to interpret the governing hydraulic fracture mechanisms during fracture evolution. The variational principle is extended to study the phenomenon and consequences of fluid lag in fractures. Finally, parametric sensitivity and energy rate investigations to evaluate the roles of controllable hydraulic treatment variables and uncontrollable reservoir property characterization parameters are performed. The presented field applications demonstrate the overall capabilities of the developed models. These studies provide stimulation treatment guidelines for fracture configuration design, control, and optimization.

  9. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  10. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  11. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  12. MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; Levatin, J L

    2006-08-14

    Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.

  13. Preference for motion and depth in 3D film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, Brittney; Lugtigheid, Arthur; Kazimi, Ali; Allison, Robert S.; Wilcox, Laurie M.

    2015-03-01

    While heuristics have evolved over decades for the capture and display of conventional 2D film, it is not clear these always apply well to stereoscopic 3D (S3D) film. Further, while there has been considerable recent research on viewer comfort in S3D media, little attention has been paid to audience preferences for filming parameters in S3D. Here we evaluate viewers' preferences for moving S3D film content in a theatre setting. Specifically we examine preferences for combinations of camera motion (speed and direction) and stereoscopic depth (IA). The amount of IA had no impact on clip preferences regardless of the direction or speed of camera movement. However, preferences were influenced by camera speed, but only in the in-depth condition where viewers preferred faster motion. Given that previous research shows that slower speeds are more comfortable for viewing S3D content, our results show that viewing preferences cannot be predicted simply from measures of comfort. Instead, it is clear that viewer response to S3D film is complex and that film parameters selected to enhance comfort may in some instances produce less appealing content.

  14. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  15. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  16. Gravitation in 3D Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubenstein, John; Cockream, Kandi

    2009-05-01

    3D spacetime was developed by the IWPD Scale Metrics (SM) team using a coordinate system that translates n dimensions to n-1. 4-vectors are expressed in 3D along with a scaling factor representing time. Time is not orthogonal to the three spatial dimensions, but rather in alignment with an object's axis-of-motion. We have defined this effect as the object's ``orientation'' (X). The SM orientation (X) is equivalent to the orientation of the 4-velocity vector positioned tangent to its worldline, where X-1=θ+1 and θ is the angle of the 4-vector relative to the axis-of -motion. Both 4-vectors and SM appear to represent valid conceptualizations of the relationship between space and time. Why entertain SM? Scale Metrics gravity is quantized and may suggest a path for the full unification of gravitation with quantum theory. SM has been tested against current observation and is in agreement with the age of the universe, suggests a physical relationship between dark energy and dark matter, is in agreement with the accelerating expansion rate of the universe, contributes to the understanding of the fine-structure constant and provides a physical explanation of relativistic effects.

  17. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  18. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  19. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  1. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  2. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  3. Multi-component seismic modeling and robust pre-stack seismic waveform inversion for elastic anisotropic media parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao

    Consideration of azimuthal anisotropy, at least to an orthorhombic symmetry is important in exploring the naturally fractured and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Full waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data can, in principle, provide more robust estimates of subsurface elastic parameters and density than the inversion of single component (P wave) seismic data. In addition, azimuthally dependent anisotropy can only be resolved by carefully studying the multicomponent seismic displacement data acquired and processed along different azimuths. Such an analysis needs an inversion algorithm capable of simultaneously optimizing multiple objectives, one for each data component along each azimuth. In this dissertation, I propose a novel multiobjective methodology using a parallelized version of NSGA II for waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data along two azimuths. The proposed methodology is also an improvement of the original NSGA II in overall computational efficiency, preservation of population diversity, and rapid sampling of the model space. Next, the proposed methodology is applied on wide azimuth and multicomponent vertical seismic profile (VSP) data to provide reliable estimation of subsurface anisotropy at and near the well location. Prestack waveform inversion was applied to the wide-azimuth multicomponent VSP data acquired at the Wattenberg Field, located in Denver Basin of northeastern Colorado, USA, to characterize the Niobrara formation for azimuthal anisotropy. By comparing the waveform inversion results with an independent study that used a joint slowness-polarization approach to invert the same data, we conclude that the waveform inversion is a reliable tool for inverting the wide-azimuth multicomponent VSP data for anisotropy estimation. Last but not least, an anisotropic elastic three-dimensional scheme for modeling the elastodynamic wavefield is developed in order to go beyond the 1D layering assumption being used in previous

  4. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  5. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  6. Development of a 3D CT scanner using cone beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masahiro; Kamagata, Nozomu; Sato, Kazumasa; Hattori, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Shigeo; Mizuno, Shinichi; Jimbo, Masao; Kusakabe, Masahiro

    1995-05-01

    In order to acquire 3D data of high contrast objects such as bone, lung and vessels enhanced by contrast media for use in 3D image processing, we have developed a 3D CT-scanner using cone beam x ray. The 3D CT-scanner consists of a gantry and a patient couch. The gantry consists of an x-ray tube designed for cone beam CT and a large area two-dimensional detector mounted on a single frame and rotated around an object in 12 seconds. The large area detector consists of a fluorescent plate and a charge coupled device video camera. The size of detection area was 600 mm X 450 mm capable of covering the total chest. While an x-ray tube was rotated around an object, pulsed x ray was exposed 30 times a second and 360 projected images were collected in a 12 second scan. A 256 X 256 X 256 matrix image (1.25 mm X 1.25 mm X 1.25 mm voxel) was reconstructed by a high-speed reconstruction engine. Reconstruction time was approximately 6 minutes. Cylindrical water phantoms, anesthetized rabbits with or without contrast media, and a Japanese macaque were scanned with the 3D CT-scanner. The results seem promising because they show high spatial resolution in three directions, though there existed several point to be improved. Possible improvements are discussed.

  7. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  8. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Castillo-León, Jaime; Emnéus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements. PMID:22163508

  9. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  10. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  11. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qian

    2008-01-01

    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  12. BEST3D user's manual: Boundary Element Solution Technology, 3-Dimensional Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical basis and programming strategy utilized in the construction of the computer program BEST3D (boundary element solution technology - three dimensional) and detailed input instructions are provided for the use of the program. An extensive set of test cases and sample problems is included in the manual and is also available for distribution with the program. The BEST3D program was developed under the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components contract (NAS3-23697). The overall objective of this program was the development of new computer programs allowing more accurate and efficient three-dimensional thermal and stress analysis of hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The BEST3D program allows both linear and nonlinear analysis of static and quasi-static elastic problems and transient dynamic analysis for elastic problems. Calculation of elastic natural frequencies and mode shapes is also provided.

  13. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2012-04-30

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  14. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:22547408

  15. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  16. Sketch-driven mental 3D object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoléon, Thibault; Sahbi, Hichem

    2010-02-01

    3D object recognition and retrieval recently gained a big interest because of the limitation of the "2D-to-2D" approaches. The latter suffer from several drawbacks such as the lack of information (due for instance to occlusion), pose sensitivity, illumination changes, etc. Our main motivation is to gather both discrimination and easy interaction by allowing simple (but multiple) 2D specifications of queries and their retrieval into 3D gallery sets. We introduce a novel "2D sketch-to-3D model" retrieval framework with the following contributions: (i) first a novel generative approach for aligning and normalizing the pose of 3D gallery objects and extracting their 2D canonical views is introduced. (ii) Afterwards, robust and compact contour signatures are extracted using the set of 2D canonical views. We also introduce a pruning approach to speedup the whole search process in a coarseto- fine way. (iii) Finally, object ranking is performed using our variant of elastic dynamic programming which considers only a subset of possible matches thereby providing a considerable gain in performance for the same amount of errors. Our experiments are reported/compared through the Princeton Shape Benchmark; clearly showing the good performance of our framework w.r.t. the other approaches. An iPhone demo of this method is available and allows us to achieve "2D sketch to 3D object" querying and interaction.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Properties of 3D Four-directional Rectangular Braided Composites—Part 2: Validation of the 3D Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dian-Sen; Fang, Dai-Ning; Lu, Zi-Xing; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Nan

    2010-08-01

    In the first part of the work, we have established a new parameterized three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) which precisely simulated the spatial configuration of the braiding yarns and considered the cross-section deformation as well as the surface contact relationship between the yarns. This paper presents a prediction of the effective elastic properties and the meso-scale mechanical response of 3D braided composites to verify the validation of the FEM. The effects of the braiding parameters on the mechanical properties are investigated in detail. By analyzing the deformation and stress nephogram of the model, a reasonable overall stress field is provided and the results well support the strength prediction. The results indicate it is convenient to predict all the elastic constants of 3D braided composites with different parameters simultaneously using the FEM. Moreover, the FEM can successfully predict the meso-scale mechanical response of 3D braided composites containing periodical structures.

  18. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  19. Double porosity in fluid-saturated elastic media: deriving effective parameters by hierarchical homogenization of static problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohan, Eduard; Naili, Salah; Lemaire, Thibault

    2016-09-01

    We propose a model of complex poroelastic media with periodic or locally periodic structures observed at microscopic and mesoscopic scales. Using a two-level homogenization procedure, we derive a model coherent with the Biot continuum, describing effective properties of such a hierarchically structured poroelastic medium. The effective material coefficients can be computed using characteristic responses of the micro- and mesostructures which are solutions of local problems imposed in representative volume elements describing the poroelastic medium at the two levels of heterogeneity. In the paper, we discus various combinations of the interface between the micro- and mesoscopic porosities, influence of the fluid compressibility, or solid incompressibility. Gradient of porosity is accounted for when dealing with locally periodic structures. Derived formulae for computing the poroelastic material coefficients characterize not only the steady-state responses with static fluid, but are relevant also for quasistatic problems. The model is applicable in geology, or in tissue biomechanics, in particular for modeling canalicular-lacunar porosity of bone which can be characterized at several levels.

  20. Double porosity in fluid-saturated elastic media: deriving effective parameters by hierarchical homogenization of static problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohan, Eduard; Naili, Salah; Lemaire, Thibault

    2015-09-01

    We propose a model of complex poroelastic media with periodic or locally periodic structures observed at microscopic and mesoscopic scales. Using a two-level homogenization procedure, we derive a model coherent with the Biot continuum, describing effective properties of such a hierarchically structured poroelastic medium. The effective material coefficients can be computed using characteristic responses of the micro- and mesostructures which are solutions of local problems imposed in representative volume elements describing the poroelastic medium at the two levels of heterogeneity. In the paper, we discus various combinations of the interface between the micro- and mesoscopic porosities, influence of the fluid compressibility, or solid incompressibility. Gradient of porosity is accounted for when dealing with locally periodic structures. Derived formulae for computing the poroelastic material coefficients characterize not only the steady-state responses with static fluid, but are relevant also for quasistatic problems. The model is applicable in geology, or in tissue biomechanics, in particular for modeling canalicular-lacunar porosity of bone which can be characterized at several levels.

  1. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  2. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  3. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  4. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  5. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  6. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  7. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  8. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  9. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  10. Time reversed acoustics techniques for elastic imaging in reverberant and nonreverberant media: An experimental study of the chaotic cavity transducer concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Damme, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Li, YiFeng; Matar, Olivier Bou

    2011-05-01

    In view of emerging imaging technologies based on the combination of Time Reversed Acoustics (TRA) with Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) for the detection and localization of micro-damage in solids, we have investigated the benefits of chirped source signal excitation, inverse filtering techniques, and the implementation of chaotic cavity transducers to improve the quality of energy focusing, especially for weakly reverberant media. Chaotic cavity transducer focusing is defined as the hardware-software combination of a piezoelectric ceramic glued on a cavity of chaotic shape on the one hand with the reciprocal Time Reversal (or Inverse Filter) technique on the other hand. Experimental data for reverberant and nonreverberant composite plates show that the use of chirps, inverse filtering and chaotic cavity transducers significantly enhances the focusing process, and enables focusing in a nonreverberant medium using only one transducer. As a potential exploitation, the application of the chaotic cavity transducer concept for synthetic imaging is examined, revealing several properties similar to phased arrays.

  11. Forward ramp in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.

    The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  12. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  13. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  14. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  15. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  16. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  17. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  18. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  19. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  20. Radiation Transport in 3D Heterogeneous Materials: DNS

    SciTech Connect

    Graziani, F

    2003-07-09

    In order to develop a phenomenological approach to transport in 3D heterogeneous media, we have performed direct numerical simulation studies. Using an algorithm based on the lattice random walk to generate random media, we have performed radiographic shots of the sample and digitized both the chord length and optical depth distributions. The optical depth distribution is then used to compute an effective mean free path. As theory predicts, the atomically averaged mean free path is always a minimum value. We have also demonstrated a dependency of mean free path on the distribution of random material.

  1. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  2. Reconfigurable 3D plasmonic metamolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyk, Anton; Schreiber, Robert; Zhang, Hui; Govorov, Alexander O.; Liedl, Tim; Liu, Na

    2014-09-01

    A reconfigurable plasmonic nanosystem combines an active plasmonic structure with a regulated physical or chemical control input. There have been considerable efforts on integration of plasmonic nanostructures with active platforms using top-down techniques. The active media include phase-transition materials, graphene, liquid crystals and carrier-modulated semiconductors, which can respond to thermal, electrical and optical stimuli. However, these plasmonic nanostructures are often restricted to two-dimensional substrates, showing desired optical response only along specific excitation directions. Alternatively, bottom-up techniques offer a new pathway to impart reconfigurability and functionality to passive systems. In particular, DNA has proven to be one of the most versatile and robust building blocks for construction of complex three-dimensional architectures with high fidelity. Here we show the creation of reconfigurable three-dimensional plasmonic metamolecules, which execute DNA-regulated conformational changes at the nanoscale. DNA serves as both a construction material to organize plasmonic nanoparticles in three dimensions, as well as fuel for driving the metamolecules to distinct conformational states. Simultaneously, the three-dimensional plasmonic metamolecules can work as optical reporters, which transduce their conformational changes in situ into circular dichroism changes in the visible wavelength range.

  3. Reconfigurable 3D plasmonic metamolecules.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Anton; Schreiber, Robert; Zhang, Hui; Govorov, Alexander O; Liedl, Tim; Liu, Na

    2014-09-01

    A reconfigurable plasmonic nanosystem combines an active plasmonic structure with a regulated physical or chemical control input. There have been considerable efforts on integration of plasmonic nanostructures with active platforms using top-down techniques. The active media include phase-transition materials, graphene, liquid crystals and carrier-modulated semiconductors, which can respond to thermal, electrical and optical stimuli. However, these plasmonic nanostructures are often restricted to two-dimensional substrates, showing desired optical response only along specific excitation directions. Alternatively, bottom-up techniques offer a new pathway to impart reconfigurability and functionality to passive systems. In particular, DNA has proven to be one of the most versatile and robust building blocks for construction of complex three-dimensional architectures with high fidelity. Here we show the creation of reconfigurable three-dimensional plasmonic metamolecules, which execute DNA-regulated conformational changes at the nanoscale. DNA serves as both a construction material to organize plasmonic nanoparticles in three dimensions, as well as fuel for driving the metamolecules to distinct conformational states. Simultaneously, the three-dimensional plasmonic metamolecules can work as optical reporters, which transduce their conformational changes in situ into circular dichroism changes in the visible wavelength range.

  4. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  5. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  6. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  7. 3D Inhabited Virtual Worlds: Interactivity and Interaction between Avatars, Autonomous Agents, and Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jens F.

    This paper addresses some of the central questions currently related to 3-Dimensional Inhabited Virtual Worlds (3D-IVWs), their virtual interactions, and communication, drawing from the theory and methodology of sociology, interaction analysis, interpersonal communication, semiotics, cultural studies, and media studies. First, 3D-IVWs--seen as a…

  8. Literary and Historical 3D Digital Game-Based Learning: Design Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.

    2010-01-01

    As 3D digital game-based learning (3D-DGBL) for the teaching of literature and history gradually gains acceptance, important questions will need to be asked regarding its method of design, development, and deployment. This article offers a synthesis of contemporary pedagogical, instructional design, new media, and literary-historical theories to…

  9. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  10. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  11. Fabricating gradient hydrogel scaffolds for 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Young, Marian F; Simon, Carl G

    2011-05-01

    Optimizing cell-material interactions is critical for maximizing regeneration in tissue engineering. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods can be used to systematically screen tissue scaffolds to identify optimal biomaterial properties. Previous CHT platforms in tissue engineering have involved a two-dimensional (2D) cell culture format where cells were cultured on material surfaces. However, these platforms are inadequate to predict cellular response in a three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffold. We have developed a simple CHT platform to screen cell-material interactions in 3D culture format that can be applied to screen hydrogel scaffolds. Herein we provide detailed instructions on a method to prepare gradients in elastic modulus of photopolymerizable hydrogels.

  12. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  13. Automatic 3D video format detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  14. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  15. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  16. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  17. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  18. [3D reconstructions in radiotherapy planning].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, W

    1991-10-01

    3D Reconstructions from tomographic images are used in the planning of radiation therapy to study important anatomical structures such as the body surface, target volumes, and organs at risk. The reconstructed anatomical models are used to define the geometry of the radiation beams. In addition, 3D voxel models are used for the calculation of the 3D dose distributions with an accuracy, previously impossible to achieve. Further uses of 3D reconstructions are in the display and evaluation of 3D therapy plans, and in the transfer of treatment planning parameters to the irradiation situation with the help of digitally reconstructed radiographs. 3D tomographic imaging with subsequent 3D reconstruction must be regarded as a completely new basis for the planning of radiation therapy, enabling tumor-tailored radiation therapy of localized target volumes with increased radiation doses and improved sparing of organs at risk. 3D treatment planning is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in connection with the new treatment techniques of conformation radiotherapy. Early experience with 3D treatment planning shows that its clinical importance in radiotherapy is growing, but will only become a standard radiotherapy tool when volumetric CT scanning, reliable and user-friendly treatment planning software, and faster and cheaper PACS-integrated medical work stations are accessible to radiotherapists.

  19. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  20. A method to fabricate disconnected silver nanostructures in 3D.

    PubMed

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Mazur, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The standard nanofabrication toolkit includes techniques primarily aimed at creating 2D patterns in dielectric media. Creating metal patterns on a submicron scale requires a combination of nanofabrication tools and several material processing steps. For example, steps to create planar metal structures using ultraviolet photolithography and electron-beam lithography can include sample exposure, sample development, metal deposition, and metal liftoff. To create 3D metal structures, the sequence is repeated multiple times. The complexity and difficulty of stacking and aligning multiple layers limits practical implementations of 3D metal structuring using standard nanofabrication tools. Femtosecond-laser direct-writing has emerged as a pre-eminent technique for 3D nanofabrication.(1,2) Femtosecond lasers are frequently used to create 3D patterns in polymers and glasses.(3-7) However, 3D metal direct-writing remains a challenge. Here, we describe a method to fabricate silver nanostructures embedded inside a polymer matrix using a femtosecond laser centered at 800 nm. The method enables the fabrication of patterns not feasible using other techniques, such as 3D arrays of disconnected silver voxels.(8) Disconnected 3D metal patterns are useful for metamaterials where unit cells are not in contact with each other,(9) such as coupled metal dot(10,11)or coupled metal rod(12,13) resonators. Potential applications include negative index metamaterials, invisibility cloaks, and perfect lenses. In femtosecond-laser direct-writing, the laser wavelength is chosen such that photons are not linearly absorbed in the target medium. When the laser pulse duration is compressed to the femtosecond time scale and the radiation is tightly focused inside the target, the extremely high intensity induces nonlinear absorption. Multiple photons are absorbed simultaneously to cause electronic transitions that lead to material modification within the focused region. Using this approach, one can

  1. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  2. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  3. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  4. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  5. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  6. Estimation of Nonlinear Elasticity Parameter of Tissues by Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, a new parameter that quantifies the intensity of tissue nonlinear elasticity is introduced as the nonlinear elasticity parameter. This parameter is defined based on the empirical information that the nonlinear elastic behavior of soft tissues exhibits an exponential character. To visualize the quantitative nonlinear elasticity parameter, an ultrasonic imaging procedure involving the three-dimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is presented. Experimental investigations that visualize the nonlinear elasticity parameter distribution of a chicken gizzard and a pig kidney embedded in a gelatin-based phantom were performed. The values extracted by ultrasound and 3-D FEM were compared with those measured by the direct mechanical compression test. Experimental results revealed that the nonlinear elasticity parameter values extracted by ultrasound and 3-D FEM exhibited good agreement with those measured by the mechanical compression test, and that the intensity of tissue nonlinear elasticity could be visualized quantitatively by the defined nonlinear elasticity parameter.

  7. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  8. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  9. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  10. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  11. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  12. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  13. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  14. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  15. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  16. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  17. Viewing 3D TV over two months produces no discernible effects on balance, coordination or eyesight.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Godfrey, Alan; Bohr, Iwo; Simonotto, Jennifer; Galna, Brook; Smulders, Tom V

    2016-08-01

    With the rise in stereoscopic 3D media, there has been concern that viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content could have long-term adverse effects, but little data are available. In the first study to address this, 28 households who did not currently own a 3D TV were given a new TV set, either S3D or 2D. The 116 members of these households all underwent tests of balance, coordination and eyesight, both before they received their new TV set, and after they had owned it for 2 months. We did not detect any changes which appeared to be associated with viewing 3D TV. We conclude that viewing 3D TV does not produce detectable effects on balance, coordination or eyesight over the timescale studied. Practitioner Summary: Concern has been expressed over possible long-term effects of stereoscopic 3D (S3D). We looked for any changes in vision, balance and coordination associated with normal home S3D TV viewing in the 2 months after first acquiring a 3D TV. We find no evidence of any changes over this timescale.

  18. Viewing 3D TV over two months produces no discernible effects on balance, coordination or eyesight

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C.A.; Godfrey, Alan; Bohr, Iwo; Simonotto, Jennifer; Galna, Brook; Smulders, Tom V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the rise in stereoscopic 3D media, there has been concern that viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content could have long-term adverse effects, but little data are available. In the first study to address this, 28 households who did not currently own a 3D TV were given a new TV set, either S3D or 2D. The 116 members of these households all underwent tests of balance, coordination and eyesight, both before they received their new TV set, and after they had owned it for 2 months. We did not detect any changes which appeared to be associated with viewing 3D TV. We conclude that viewing 3D TV does not produce detectable effects on balance, coordination or eyesight over the timescale studied. Practitioner Summary: Concern has been expressed over possible long-term effects of stereoscopic 3D (S3D). We looked for any changes in vision, balance and coordination associated with normal home S3D TV viewing in the 2 months after first acquiring a 3D TV. We find no evidence of any changes over this timescale. PMID:26758965

  19. Inverse modeling of InSAR and ground leveling data for 3D volumetric strain distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L. A.; Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.

    2015-12-01

    Wide availability of modern Interferometric Synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) data have made possible the extensive observation of differential surface displacements and are becoming an efficient tool for the detailed monitoring of terrain subsidence associated to reservoir dynamics, volcanic deformation and active tectonism. Unfortunately, this increasing popularity has not been matched by the availability of automated codes to estimate underground deformation, since many of them still rely on trial-error subsurface model building strategies. We posit that an efficient algorithm for the volumetric modeling of differential surface displacements should match the availability of current leveling and InSAR data and have developed an algorithm for the joint inversion of ground leveling and dInSAR data in 3D. We assume the ground displacements are originated by a stress free-volume strain distribution in a homogeneous elastic media and determined the displacement field associated to an ensemble of rectangular prisms. This formulation is then used to develop a 3D conjugate gradient inversion code that searches for the three-dimensional distribution of the volumetric strains that predict InSAR and leveling surface displacements simultaneously. The algorithm is regularized applying discontinuos first and zero order Thikonov constraints. For efficiency, the resulting computational code takes advantage of the resulting convolution integral associated to the deformation field and some basic tools for multithreading parallelization. We extensively test our algorithm on leveling and InSAR test and field data of the Northwest of Mexico and compare to some feasible geological scenarios of underground deformation.

  20. A review on the systematic formulation of 3D multiparameter full waveform inversion in viscoelastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengliang; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Virieux, Jean

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study 3D multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) in viscoelastic media based on the generalized Maxwell/Zener body (GMB/GZB) including arbitrary number of attenuation mechanisms. We present a frequency-domain energy analysis to establish the stability condition of a full anisotropic viscoelastic system, according to zero-valued boundary condition and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle: the real-valued stiffness matrix becomes a complex-valued one in Fourier domain when seismic attenuation is taken into account. We develop a least-squares optimization approach to linearly relate the quality factor with the anelastic coefficients by estimating a set of constants which are independent of the spatial coordinates, which supplies an explicit incorporation of the parameter Q in the general viscoelastic wave equation. By introducing the Lagrangian multipliers into the matrix expression of the wave equation with implicit time integration, we build a systematic formulation of multiparameter full waveform inversion for full anisotropic viscoelastic wave equation, while the equivalent form of the state and adjoint equation with explicit time integration is available to be resolved efficiently. In particular, this formulation lays the foundation for the inversion of the parameter Q in the time domain with full anisotropic viscoelastic properties. In the 3D isotropic viscoelastic settings, the anelastic coefficients and the quality factors using bulk and shear moduli parameterization can be related to the counterparts using P- and S- velocity. Gradients with respect to any other parameter of interest can be found by chain rule. Pioneering numerical validations as well as the real applications of this most generic framework will be carried out to disclose the potential of viscoelastic FWI when adequate high performance computing resources and the field data are available.

  1. A review on the systematic formulation of 3-D multiparameter full waveform inversion in viscoelastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengliang; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Virieux, Jean

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study 3-D multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) in viscoelastic media based on the generalized Maxwell/Zener body including arbitrary number of attenuation mechanisms. We present a frequency-domain energy analysis to establish the stability condition of a full anisotropic viscoelastic system, according to zero-valued boundary condition and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle: the real-valued stiffness matrix becomes a complex-valued one in Fourier domain when seismic attenuation is taken into account. We develop a least-squares optimization approach to linearly relate the quality factor with the anelastic coefficients by estimating a set of constants which are independent of the spatial coordinates, which supplies an explicit incorporation of the parameter Q in the general viscoelastic wave equation. By introducing the Lagrangian multipliers into the matrix expression of the wave equation with implicit time integration, we build a systematic formulation of multiparameter FWI for full anisotropic viscoelastic wave equation, while the equivalent form of the state and adjoint equation with explicit time integration is available to be resolved efficiently. In particular, this formulation lays the foundation for the inversion of the parameter Q in the time domain with full anisotropic viscoelastic properties. In the 3-D isotropic viscoelastic settings, the anelastic coefficients and the quality factors using bulk and shear moduli parametrization can be related to the counterparts using P and S velocity. Gradients with respect to any other parameter of interest can be found by chain rule. Pioneering numerical validations as well as the real applications of this most generic framework will be carried out to disclose the potential of viscoelastic FWI when adequate high-performance computing resources and the field data are available.

  2. Virtual reality and 3D animation in forensic visualization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minhua; Zheng, Huiru; Lallie, Harjinder

    2010-09-01

    Computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) animation is an ideal media to accurately visualize crime or accident scenes to the viewers and in the courtrooms. Based upon factual data, forensic animations can reproduce the scene and demonstrate the activity at various points in time. The use of computer animation techniques to reconstruct crime scenes is beginning to replace the traditional illustrations, photographs, and verbal descriptions, and is becoming popular in today's forensics. This article integrates work in the areas of 3D graphics, computer vision, motion tracking, natural language processing, and forensic computing, to investigate the state-of-the-art in forensic visualization. It identifies and reviews areas where new applications of 3D digital technologies and artificial intelligence could be used to enhance particular phases of forensic visualization to create 3D models and animations automatically and quickly. Having discussed the relationships between major crime types and level-of-detail in corresponding forensic animations, we recognized that high level-of-detail animation involving human characters, which is appropriate for many major crime types but has had limited use in courtrooms, could be useful for crime investigation.

  3. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  4. Virtual reality and 3D animation in forensic visualization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minhua; Zheng, Huiru; Lallie, Harjinder

    2010-09-01

    Computer-generated three-dimensional (3D) animation is an ideal media to accurately visualize crime or accident scenes to the viewers and in the courtrooms. Based upon factual data, forensic animations can reproduce the scene and demonstrate the activity at various points in time. The use of computer animation techniques to reconstruct crime scenes is beginning to replace the traditional illustrations, photographs, and verbal descriptions, and is becoming popular in today's forensics. This article integrates work in the areas of 3D graphics, computer vision, motion tracking, natural language processing, and forensic computing, to investigate the state-of-the-art in forensic visualization. It identifies and reviews areas where new applications of 3D digital technologies and artificial intelligence could be used to enhance particular phases of forensic visualization to create 3D models and animations automatically and quickly. Having discussed the relationships between major crime types and level-of-detail in corresponding forensic animations, we recognized that high level-of-detail animation involving human characters, which is appropriate for many major crime types but has had limited use in courtrooms, could be useful for crime investigation. PMID:20533989

  5. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  6. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  7. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  8. New world of 3-D printing offers "completely new ways of thinking": Q&A with author, engineer, and 3-D printing expert Hod Lipson.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Hod

    2013-01-01

    With stories about everything from a three-?dimensional (3-D)-printed tracheal implant used in an infant to a 3-D-printed replacement for 75% of a man?s skull, a media firestorm is swirling around this seemingly new technology, but what exactly is 3-D printing? How is it being used today, and what is its true potential in the biomedical arena? Renowned robotics engineer Hod Lipson, coauthor of Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing [1], and director of the Creative Machines Lab at Cornell University?s Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in Ithaca, New York, spent some time with IEEE Pulse in a wide-ranging conversation about the past, present, and future of 3-D printing and its implications for biomedical engineering.

  9. New world of 3-D printing offers "completely new ways of thinking": Q&A with author, engineer, and 3-D printing expert Hod Lipson.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Hod

    2013-01-01

    With stories about everything from a three-?dimensional (3-D)-printed tracheal implant used in an infant to a 3-D-printed replacement for 75% of a man?s skull, a media firestorm is swirling around this seemingly new technology, but what exactly is 3-D printing? How is it being used today, and what is its true potential in the biomedical arena? Renowned robotics engineer Hod Lipson, coauthor of Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing [1], and director of the Creative Machines Lab at Cornell University?s Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in Ithaca, New York, spent some time with IEEE Pulse in a wide-ranging conversation about the past, present, and future of 3-D printing and its implications for biomedical engineering. PMID:24215725

  10. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  11. Low-cost 3D rangefinder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bor-Tow; Lou, Wen-Shiou; Chen, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    1998-06-01

    Nowadays, 3D data are popularly performed in computer, and 3D browsers manipulate 3D model in the virtual world. Yet, till now, 3D digitizer is still a high-cost product and not a familiar equipment. In order to meet the requirement of 3D fancy world, in this paper, the concept of a low-cost 3D digitizer system is proposed to catch 3D range data from objects. The specified optical design of the 3D extraction is effective to depress the size, and the processing software of the system is compatible with PC to promote its portable capability. Both features contribute a low-cost system in PC environment in contrast to a large system bundled in an expensive workstation platform. In the structure of 3D extraction, laser beam and CCD camera are adopted to construct a 3D sensor. Instead of 2 CCD cameras for capturing laser lines twice before, a 2-in-1 system is proposed to merge 2 images in one CCD which still retains the information of two fields of views to inhibit occlusion problems. Besides, optical paths of two camera views are reflected by mirror in order that the volume of the system can be minified with one rotary axis only. It makes a portable system be more possible to work. Combined with the processing software executable in PC windows system, the proposed system not only saves hardware cost but also processing time of software. The system performance achieves 0.05 mm accuracy. It shows that a low- cost system is more possible to be high-performance.

  12. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  13. Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in 3D Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, R. C.; Hall, S. A.; Andrade, J. E.; Wright, J.

    2016-08-01

    Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (3D), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines 3D x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising inverse relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system.

  14. Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in 3D Granular Materials.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R C; Hall, S A; Andrade, J E; Wright, J

    2016-08-26

    Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (3D), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines 3D x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising inverse relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system.

  15. Soft 3D acoustic metamaterial with negative index.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Thomas; Merlin, Aurore; Mascaro, Benoit; Zimny, Kevin; Leng, Jacques; Poncelet, Olivier; Aristégui, Christophe; Mondain-Monval, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to the design and achievement of negative-refractive-index metamaterials since the 2000s. One of the challenges at present is to extend that field beyond electromagnetism by realizing three-dimensional (3D) media with negative acoustic indices. We report a new class of locally resonant ultrasonic metafluids consisting of a concentrated suspension of macroporous microbeads engineered using soft-matter techniques. The propagation of Gaussian pulses within these random distributions of 'ultra-slow' Mie resonators is investigated through in situ ultrasonic experiments. The real part of the acoustic index is shown to be negative (up to almost - 1) over broad frequency bandwidths, depending on the volume fraction of the microbeads as predicted by multiple-scattering calculations. These soft 3D acoustic metamaterials open the way for key applications such as sub-wavelength imaging and transformation acoustics, which require the production of acoustic devices with negative or zero-valued indices. PMID:25502100

  16. Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in 3D Granular Materials.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R C; Hall, S A; Andrade, J E; Wright, J

    2016-08-26

    Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (3D), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines 3D x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising inverse relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system. PMID:27610890

  17. 3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Anxionnat, R; Bracard, S; Macho, J; Da Costa, E; Vaillant, R; Launay, L; Trousset, Y; Romeas, R; Picard, L

    1998-12-01

    3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame

  18. Design of 3D isotropic metamaterial device using smart transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Yoo, Do-Sik; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-08-24

    We report here a design method for a 3 dimensional (3D) isotropic transformation optical device using smart transformation optics. Inspired by solid mechanics, smart transformation optics regards a transformation optical medium as an elastic solid and deformations as coordinate transformations. Further developing from our previous work on 2D smart transformation optics, we introduce a method of 3D smart transformation optics to design 3D transformation optical devices by maintaining isotropic materials properties for all types of polarizations imposing free or nearly free boundary conditions. Due to the material isotropy, it is possible to fabricate such devices with structural metamaterials made purely of common dielectric materials. In conclusion, the practical importance of the method reported here lies in the fact that it enables us to fabricate, without difficulty, arbitrarily shaped 3D devices with existing 3D printing technology.

  19. Design of 3D isotropic metamaterial device using smart transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Yoo, Do-Sik; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-08-24

    We report here a design method for a 3 dimensional (3D) isotropic transformation optical device using smart transformation optics. Inspired by solid mechanics, smart transformation optics regards a transformation optical medium as an elastic solid and deformations as coordinate transformations. Further developing from our previous work on 2D smart transformation optics, we introduce a method of 3D smart transformation optics to design 3D transformation optical devices by maintaining isotropic materials properties for all types of polarizations imposing free or nearly free boundary conditions. Due to the material isotropy, it is possible to fabricate such devices with structural metamaterials made purely of common dielectric materials. In conclusion, the practical importance of the method reported here lies in the fact that it enables us to fabricate, without difficulty, arbitrarily shaped 3D devices with existing 3D printing technology. PMID:26368165

  20. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  2. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  3. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  4. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  5. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  6. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  7. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. VALIDATION OF IMPROVED 3D ATR MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Soon Sam Kim; Bruce G. Schnitzler

    2005-11-01

    A full-core Monte Carlo based 3D model of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was previously developed. [1] An improved 3D model has been developed by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) to eliminate homogeneity of fuel plates of the old model, incorporate core changes into the new model, and to validate against a newer, more complicated core configuration. This new 3D model adds capability for fuel loading design and azimuthal power peaking studies of the ATR fuel elements.

  16. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  17. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  18. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  19. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  20. Investigations in massive 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Morais, Jefferson; Turcati, Rodrigo; Scatena, Eslley

    2011-05-15

    Some interesting gravitational properties of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend model (massive 3D gravity), such as the presence of a short-range gravitational force in the nonrelativistic limit and the existence of an impact-parameter-dependent gravitational deflection angle, are studied. Interestingly enough, these phenomena have no counterpart in the usual Einstein 3D gravity. In order to better understand the two aforementioned gravitational properties, they are also analyzed in the framework of 3D higher-derivative gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert term with the 'wrong sign'.

  1. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  2. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  3. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  4. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  5. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  6. Identification of couple-stress moduli of vertebral trabecular bone based on the 3D internal architectures.

    PubMed

    Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a homogeneous, orthotropic couple-stress continuum model as a substitute of the 3D periodic heterogeneous cellular solid model of vertebral trabecular bone. Vertebral trabecular bone is modeled as a porous material with an idealized periodic structure made of 3D open cubic cells, which is effectively orthotropic. The chosen architecture is based on studies of samples taken from the central part of vertebral bodies. The effective properties are obtained based on the response of the representative volume element under prescribed boundary conditions. Mixed boundary conditions comprising both traction and displacement boundary conditions are applied on the structure boundaries. In this contribution, the effective mechanical constants of the effective couple-stress continuum are deduced by an equivalent strain energy method. The characteristic lengths for bending and torsion are identified from the resulting homogenized orthotropic moduli. We conduct this study computationally using a finite element approach. Vertebral trabecular bone is modeled either as a cellular solid or as a two-phase material consisting of bone tissue (stiff phase) forming a trabecular network, and a surrounding soft tissue referring to the bone marrow present in the pores. Both the bone tissue forming the network and the pores are assumed to be homogeneous linear elastic, and isotropic media. The scale effects on the predicted couple stress moduli of these networks are investigated by varying the size of the bone specimens over which the boundary conditions are applied. The analysis using mixed boundary conditions gives results that are independent of unit cell size when computing the first couple stress tensor, while it is dependent on the cell size as to the second couple stress tensor moduli. This study provides overall guidance on how the size of the trabecular specimen influence couple stresses elastic moduli of cellular materials, with focus on bones

  7. Real-time auto-stereoscopic visualization of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portoni, Luisa; Patak, Alexandre; Noirard, Pierre; Grossetie, Jean-Claude; van Berkel, Cees

    2000-04-01

    The work here described regards multi-viewer auto- stereoscopic visualization of 3D models of anatomical structures and organs of the human body. High-quality 3D models of more than 1600 anatomical structures have been reconstructed using the Visualization Toolkit, a freely available C++ class library for 3D graphics and visualization. 2D images used for 3D reconstruction comes from the Visible Human Data Set. Auto-stereoscopic 3D image visualization is obtained using a prototype monitor developed at Philips Research Labs, UK. This special multiview 3D-LCD screen has been connected directly to a SGI workstation, where 3D reconstruction and medical imaging applications are executed. Dedicated software has been developed to implement multiview capability. A number of static or animated contemporary views of the same object can simultaneously be seen on the 3D-LCD screen by several observers, having a real 3D perception of the visualized scene without the use of extra media as dedicated glasses or head-mounted displays. Developed software applications allow real-time interaction with visualized 3D models, didactical animations and movies have been realized as well.

  8. Spilling the beans on java 3D: a tool for the virtual anatomist.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G D

    1999-04-15

    The computing world has just provided the anatomist with another tool: Java 3D, within the Java 2 platform. On December 9, 1998, Sun Microsystems released Java 2. Java 3D classes are now included in the jar (Java Archive) archives of the extensions directory of Java 2. Java 3D is also a part of the Java Media Suite of APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). But what is Java? How does Java 3D work? How do you view Java 3D objects? A brief introduction to the concepts of Java and object-oriented programming is provided. Also, there is a short description of the tools of Java 3D and of the Java 3D viewer. Thus, the virtual anatomist has another set of computer tools to use for modeling various aspects of anatomy, such as embryological development. Also, the virtual anatomist will be able to assist the surgeon with virtual surgery using the tools found in Java 3D. Java 3D will be able to fulfill gaps, such as the lack of platform independence, interactivity, and manipulability of 3D images, currently existing in many anatomical computer-aided learning programs.

  9. BOPACE 3-D (the Boeing Plastic Analysis Capability for 3-dimensional Solids Using Isoparametric Finite Elements)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The BOPACE 3-D is a finite element computer program, which provides a general family of three-dimensional isoparametric solid elements, and includes a new algorithm for improving the efficiency of the elastic-plastic-creep solution procedure. Theoretical, user, and programmer oriented sections are presented to describe the program.

  10. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  11. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  12. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  13. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  14. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  15. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  16. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  17. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  18. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  19. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  20. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  1. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  2. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  3. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  4. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  5. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  6. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  7. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  8. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  9. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  10. Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K

    2003-07-01

    Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.

  11. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  12. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  13. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  14. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  15. On some problems in a theory of thermally and mechanically interacting continuous media. Ph.D. Thesis; [linearized theory of interacting mixture of elastic solid and viscous fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. M.

    1971-01-01

    Using a linearized theory of thermally and mechanically interacting mixture of linear elastic solid and viscous fluid, we derive a fundamental relation in an integral form called a reciprocity relation. This reciprocity relation relates the solution of one initial-boundary value problem with a given set of initial and boundary data to the solution of a second initial-boundary value problem corresponding to a different initial and boundary data for a given interacting mixture. From this general integral relation, reciprocity relations are derived for a heat-conducting linear elastic solid, and for a heat-conducting viscous fluid. An initial-boundary value problem is posed and solved for the mixture of linear elastic solid and viscous fluid. With the aid of the Laplace transform and the contour integration, a real integral representation for the displacement of the solid constituent is obtained as one of the principal results of the analysis.

  16. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  17. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  18. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  19. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. PMID:26732049

  20. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.

  1. Preliminary comparison of 3D synthetic aperture imaging with Explososcan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Hansen, Jens Munk; Férin, Guillaume; Dufait, Rémi; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    Explososcan is the 'gold standard' for real-time 3D medical ultrasound imaging. In this paper, 3D synthetic aperture imaging is compared to Explososcan by simulation of 3D point spread functions. The simulations mimic a 32×32 element prototype transducer. The transducer mimicked is a dense matrix phased array with a pitch of 300 μm, made by Vermon. For both imaging techniques, 289 emissions are used to image a volume spanning 60° in both the azimuth and elevation direction and 150mm in depth. This results for both techniques in a frame rate of 18 Hz. The implemented synthetic aperture technique reduces the number of transmit channels from 1024 to 256, compared to Explososcan. In terms of FWHM performance, was Explososcan and synthetic aperture found to perform similar. At 90mm depth is Explososcan's FWHM performance 7% better than that of synthetic aperture. Synthetic aperture improved the cystic resolution, which expresses the ability to detect anechoic cysts in a uniform scattering media, at all depths except at Explososcan's focus point. Synthetic aperture reduced the cyst radius, R20dB, at 90mm depth by 48%. Synthetic aperture imaging was shown to reduce the number of transmit channels by four and still, generally, improve the imaging quality.

  2. 3D temperature field reconstruction using ultrasound sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ma, Tong; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    3D temperature field reconstruction is of practical interest to the power, transportation and aviation industries and it also opens up opportunities for real time control or optimization of high temperature fluid or combustion process. In our paper, a new distributed optical fiber sensing system consisting of a series of elements will be used to generate and receive acoustic signals. This system is the first active temperature field sensing system that features the advantages of the optical fiber sensors (distributed sensing capability) and the acoustic sensors (non-contact measurement). Signals along multiple paths will be measured simultaneously enabled by a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique. Then a proposed Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (GRBF)-based approach can approximate the temperature field as a finite summation of space-dependent basis functions and time-dependent coefficients. The travel time of the acoustic signals depends on the temperature of the media. On this basis, the Gaussian functions are integrated along a number of paths which are determined by the number and distribution of sensors. The inversion problem to estimate the unknown parameters of the Gaussian functions can be solved with the measured times-of-flight (ToF) of acoustic waves and the length of propagation paths using the recursive least square method (RLS). The simulation results show an approximation error less than 2% in 2D and 5% in 3D respectively. It demonstrates the availability and efficiency of our proposed 3D temperature field reconstruction mechanism.

  3. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  4. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  5. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  6. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  7. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  8. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  9. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  10. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  11. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  12. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  13. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  14. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  15. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  16. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  17. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  18. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  19. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  20. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  1. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  2. Shell Element Verification & Regression Problems for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, E

    2008-02-01

    A series of quasi-static regression/verification problems were developed for the triangular and quadrilateral shell element formulations contained in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's explicit finite element program DYNA3D. Each regression problem imposes both displacement- and force-type boundary conditions to probe the five independent nodal degrees of freedom employed in the targeted formulation. When applicable, the finite element results are compared with small-strain linear-elastic closed-form reference solutions to verify select aspects of the formulations implementation. Although all problems in the suite depict the same geometry, material behavior, and loading conditions, each problem represents a unique combination of shell formulation, stabilization method, and integration rule. Collectively, the thirty-six new regression problems in the test suite cover nine different shell formulations, three hourglass stabilization methods, and three families of through-thickness integration rules.

  3. Edge singularities and structure of the 3-D Williams expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Thomas; Leguillon, Dominique; Pester, Cornelia; Yosibash, Zohar

    2008-08-01

    The elastic solution in a vicinity of a re-entrant wedge can be described by a Williams like expansion in terms of powers of the distance to a point on the edge. This expansion has a particular structure due to the invariance of the problem by translation parallel to the edge. We show here that some terms, so-called primary solutions, derive directly from solutions to the 2-D corner problem posed in the orthogonal cross section of the domain. The others, baptized shadow functions, derive of the primary solutions by integration along the axis parallel to the edge. This 3-D Williams expansion is shown to be equivalent to the edge expansion proposed by Costabel et al. [M. Costabel, M. Dauge, Z. Yosibash, A quasidual function method for extracting edge stress intensity functions, SIAM J. Math. Anal. 35 (5) (2004) 1177-1202]. To cite this article: T. Apel et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  4. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  5. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  6. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Kučinskas, A.

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  7. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  8. Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

  9. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  10. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  11. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  12. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  14. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  15. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  16. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  17. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  18. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  19. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.

  20. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.