Multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering simulations using 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique.
Leckey, Cara A C; Rogge, Matthew D; Miller, Corey A; Hinders, Mark K
2012-02-01
We have implemented three-dimensional (3D) elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations to model Lamb wave scattering for two flaw-types in an aircraft-grade aluminum plate, a rounded rectangle flat-bottom hole and a disbond of the same shape. The plate thickness and flaws explored in this work include frequency-thickness regions where several Lamb wave modes exist and sometimes overlap in phase and/or group velocity. For the case of the flat-bottom hole the depth was incrementally increased to explore progressive changes in multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering due to the damage. The flat-bottom hole simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining unexpected results in experimental waveforms. For the rounded rectangle disbond flaw, which would be difficult to implement experimentally, we found that Lamb wave behavior differed significantly from the flat-bottom hole flaw. Most of the literature in this field is restricted to low frequency-thickness regions due to difficulties in interpreting data when multiple modes exist. We found that benchmarked 3D EFIT simulations can yield an understanding of scattering behavior for these higher frequency-thickness regions and in cases that would be difficult to set up experimentally. Additionally, our results show that 2D simulations would not have been sufficient for modeling the complicated scattering that occurred. PMID:21908011
Accelerated finite element elastodynamic simulations using the GPU
Huthwaite, Peter
2014-01-15
An approach is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of elastodynamic problems on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy’ partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned’ partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The software is applied to three models from the fields of non-destructive testing, vibrations and geophysics, demonstrating a memory bandwidth of very close to the card's maximum, reflecting the bandwidth-limited nature of the algorithm. Comparison with Abaqus, a widely used commercial CPU equivalent, validated the accuracy of the results and demonstrated a speed improvement of around two orders of magnitude. A software package, Pogo, incorporating these developments, is released open source, downloadable from (http://www.pogo-fea.com/) to benefit the community. -- Highlights: •A novel memory arrangement approach is discussed for finite elements on the GPU. •The mesh is partitioned then nodes are arranged efficiently within each partition. •Models from ultrasonics, vibrations and geophysics are run. •The code is significantly faster than an equivalent commercial CPU package. •Pogo, the new software package, is released open source.
Accelerated finite element elastodynamic simulations using the GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huthwaite, Peter
2014-01-01
An approach is developed to perform explicit time domain finite element simulations of elastodynamic problems on the graphical processing unit, using Nvidia's CUDA. Of critical importance for this problem is the arrangement of nodes in memory, allowing data to be loaded efficiently and minimising communication between the independently executed blocks of threads. The initial stage of memory arrangement is partitioning the mesh; both a well established ‘greedy' partitioner and a new, more efficient ‘aligned' partitioner are investigated. A method is then developed to efficiently arrange the memory within each partition. The software is applied to three models from the fields of non-destructive testing, vibrations and geophysics, demonstrating a memory bandwidth of very close to the card's maximum, reflecting the bandwidth-limited nature of the algorithm. Comparison with Abaqus, a widely used commercial CPU equivalent, validated the accuracy of the results and demonstrated a speed improvement of around two orders of magnitude. A software package, Pogo, incorporating these developments, is released open source, downloadable from http://www.pogo-fea.com/ to benefit the community.
Elastodynamic models for extending GTD to penumbra and finite size flaws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamta Djakou, A.; Darmon, M.; Potel, C.
2016-01-01
The scattering of elastic waves from an obstacle is of great interest in ultrasonic Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). There exist two main scattering phenomena: specular reflection and diffraction. This paper is especially focused on possible improvements of the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD), one classical method used for modelling diffraction from scatterer edges. GTD notably presents two important drawbacks: it is theoretically valid for a canonical infinite edge and not for a finite one and presents discontinuities around the direction of specular reflection. In order to address the first drawback, a 3D hybrid method using both GTD and Huygens secondary sources has been developed to deal with finite flaws. ITD (Incremental Theory of Diffraction), a method developed in electromagnetism, has also been developed in elastodynamics to deal with small flaws. Experimental validation of these methods has been performed. As to the second drawback, a GTD uniform correction, the UTD (Uniform Theory of Diffraction) has been developed in the view of designing a generic model able to correctly simulate both specular reflection and diffraction. A comparison has been done between UTD numerical results and UAT (Uniform Asymptotic Theory of Diffraction) which is another uniform solution of GTD.
TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code
Mason, W.E.
1992-03-04
TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.
3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer
1992-02-01
TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less
3-D dynamic rupture simulations by a finite volume method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benjemaa, M.; Glinsky-Olivier, N.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.
2009-07-01
Dynamic rupture of a 3-D spontaneous crack of arbitrary shape is investigated using a finite volume (FV) approach. The full domain is decomposed in tetrahedra whereas the surface, on which the rupture takes place, is discretized with triangles that are faces of tetrahedra. First of all, the elastodynamic equations are described into a pseudo-conservative form for an easy application of the FV discretization. Explicit boundary conditions are given using criteria based on the conservation of discrete energy through the crack surface. Using a stress-threshold criterion, these conditions specify fluxes through those triangles that have suffered rupture. On these broken surfaces, stress follows a linear slip-weakening law, although other friction laws can be implemented. For The Problem Version 3 of the dynamic-rupture code verification exercise conducted by the SCEC/USGS, numerical solutions on a planar fault exhibit a very high convergence rate and are in good agreement with the reference one provided by a finite difference (FD) technique. For a non-planar fault of parabolic shape, numerical solutions agree satisfactorily well with those obtained with a semi-analytical boundary integral method in terms of shear stress amplitudes, stopping phases arrival times and stress overshoots. Differences between solutions are attributed to the low-order interpolation of the FV approach, whose results are particularly sensitive to the mesh regularity (structured/unstructured). We expect this method, which is well adapted for multiprocessor parallel computing, to be competitive with others for solving large scale dynamic ruptures scenarios of seismic sources in the near future.
Transient 3D elastodynamic field in an embedded multilayered anisotropic plate.
Mora, Pierric; Ducasse, Eric; Deschamps, Marc
2016-07-01
The aim of this paper is to study the ultrasonic response to a transient source that radiates ultrasonic waves in a 3D embedded multilayered anisotropic and dissipative plate. The source can be inside the plate or outside, in a fluid loading the plate for example. In the context of Non-Destructive Testing applied to composite materials, our goal is to create a robust algorithm to calculate ultrasonic field, irrespective of the source and receiver positions. The principle of the method described in this paper is well-established. This method is based on time analysis using the Laplace transform. In the present work, it has been customized for computing ultrasonic source interactions with multilayered dissipative anisotropic plates. The fields are transformed in the 2D Fourier wave-vector domain for the space variables related to the plate surface, and they are expressed in the partial-wave basis. Surprisingly, this method has been very little used in the ultrasonic community, while it is a useful tool which complements the much used technique based on generalized Lamb wave decomposition. By avoiding mode analysis - which can be problematic in some cases - exact numerical calculations (i.e., approximations by truncating infinite series that may be poorly convergent are not needed) can be made in a relatively short time for immersed plates and viscoelastic layers. Even for 3D cases, numerical costs are relatively low. Special attention is given to separate up- and down-going waves, which is a simple matter when using the Laplace transform. Numerical results show the effectiveness of this method. Three examples are presented here to investigate the quality of the model and the robustness of the algorithm: first, a comparison of experiment and simulation for a monolayer carbon-epoxy plate, where the diffracted field is due to a source located on the first free surface of the sample, for both dissipative and non-dissipative cases; second, the basic configuration of an
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
Modeling and simulation of free and forced structural vibrations is essential to an overall structural health monitoring capability. In the various embodiments, a first principles finite-difference approach is adopted in modeling a structural subsystem such as a mechanical gear by solving elastodynamic equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. Such a capability to generate a dynamic structural response is widely applicable in a variety of structural health monitoring systems. This capability (1) will lead to an understanding of the dynamic behavior of a structural system and hence its improved design, (2) will generate a sufficiently large space of normal and damage solutions that can be used by machine learning algorithms to detect anomalous system behavior and achieve a system design optimization and (3) will lead to an optimal sensor placement strategy, based on the identification of local stress maxima all over the domain.
3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.
Finite sampling corrected 3D noise with confidence intervals.
Haefner, David P; Burks, Stephen D
2015-05-20
When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. The goal was to decompose the 3D noise process into spatial and temporal components identify potential sources of origin. To characterize a sensor in terms of its 3D noise values, a finite number of samples in each of the three dimensions (two spatial, one temporal) were performed. In this correspondence, we developed the full sampling corrected 3D noise measurement and the corresponding confidence bounds. The accuracy of these methods was demonstrated through Monte Carlo simulations. Both the sampling correction as well as the confidence intervals can be applied a posteriori to the classic 3D noise calculation. The Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange ["Finite sampling corrected 3D noise with confidence intervals," https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/49657-finite-sampling-corrected-3d-noise-with-confidence-intervals.]. PMID:26192530
ATHENA 3D: A finite element code for ultrasonic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rose, C.; Rupin, F.; Fouquet, T.; Chassignole, B.
2014-04-01
The understanding of wave propagation phenomena requires use of robust numerical models. 3D finite element (FE) models are generally prohibitively time consuming. However, advances in computing processor speed and memory allow them to be more and more competitive. In this context, EDF R&D developed the 3D version of the well-validated FE code ATHENA2D. The code is dedicated to the simulation of wave propagation in all kinds of elastic media and in particular, heterogeneous and anisotropic materials like welds. It is based on solving elastodynamic equations in the calculation zone expressed in terms of stress and particle velocities. The particularity of the code relies on the fact that the discretization of the calculation domain uses a Cartesian regular 3D mesh while the defect of complex geometry can be described using a separate (2D) mesh using the fictitious domains method. This allows combining the rapidity of regular meshes computation with the capability of modelling arbitrary shaped defects. Furthermore, the calculation domain is discretized with a quasi-explicit time evolution scheme. Thereby only local linear systems of small size have to be solved. The final step to reduce the computation time relies on the fact that ATHENA3D has been parallelized and adapted to the use of HPC resources. In this paper, the validation of the 3D FE model is discussed. A cross-validation of ATHENA 3D and CIVA is proposed for several inspection configurations. The performances in terms of calculation time are also presented in the cases of both local computer and computation cluster use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oprsal, I.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.
2002-12-01
The disastrous Basel earthquake of October 18, 1356 (I0=X, M ≈ 6.9), appeared in, today seismically modest, Basel region (Upper Rhine Graben). The lack of strong ground motion seismic data can be effectively supplied by numerical modeling. We applied the 3D finite differences (FD) to predict ground motions which can be used for microzonation and hazard assessment studies. The FD method is formulated for topography models on irregular rectangular grids. It is a 3D explicit FD formulation of the hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE). Elastodynamic PDE is solved in the time domain. The Hooke's isotropic inhomogeneous medium contains discontinuities and a topographic free surface. The 3D elastic FD modeling is applied on a newly established P and S-wave velocities structure model. This complex structure contains main interfaces and gradients inside some layers. It is adjacent to the earth surface and includes topography (Kind, Faeh and Giardini, 2002, A 3D Reference Model for the Area of Basel, in prep.). The first attempt was done for a double-couple point source and relatively simple source function. Numerical tests are planned for several finite-extent source histories because the 1356 Basel earthquake source features have not been well determined, yet. The presumed finite-extent source is adjacent to the free surface. The results are compared to the macroseismic information of the Basel area.
Advances in 3D electromagnetic finite element modeling
Nelson, E.M.
1997-08-01
Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed.
3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro
Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J.
1995-07-01
The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D.
3D Finite Element Analysis of Particle-Reinforced Aluminum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, H.; Lissenden, C. J.
2002-01-01
Deformation in particle-reinforced aluminum has been simulated using three distinct types of finite element model: a three-dimensional repeating unit cell, a three-dimensional multi-particle model, and two-dimensional multi-particle models. The repeating unit cell model represents a fictitious periodic cubic array of particles. The 3D multi-particle (3D-MP) model represents randomly placed and oriented particles. The 2D generalized plane strain multi-particle models were obtained from planar sections through the 3D-MP model. These models were used to study the tensile macroscopic stress-strain response and the associated stress and strain distributions in an elastoplastic matrix. The results indicate that the 2D model having a particle area fraction equal to the particle representative volume fraction of the 3D models predicted the same macroscopic stress-strain response as the 3D models. However, there are fluctuations in the particle area fraction in a representative volume element. As expected, predictions from 2D models having different particle area fractions do not agree with predictions from 3D models. More importantly, it was found that the microscopic stress and strain distributions from the 2D models do not agree with those from the 3D-MP model. Specifically, the plastic strain distribution predicted by the 2D model is banded along lines inclined at 45 deg from the loading axis while the 3D model prediction is not. Additionally, the triaxial stress and maximum principal stress distributions predicted by 2D and 3D models do not agree. Thus, it appears necessary to use a multi-particle 3D model to accurately predict material responses that depend on local effects, such as strain-to-failure, fracture toughness, and fatigue life.
Finite-difference solutions of the 3-D eikonal equation
Fei, Tong; Fehler, M.C.; Hildebrand, S.T.
1995-12-31
Prestack Kirchhoff depth migration requires the computation of traveltimes from surface source and receiver locations to subsurface image locations. In 3-D problems, computational efficiency becomes important. Finite-difference solutions of the eikonal equation provide computationally efficient methods for generating the traveltime information. Here, a novel finite-difference solutions of the eikonal equation provide computationally efficient methods for generating the traveltime information. Here, a novel finite-difference method for computing the first arrival traveltime by solving the eikonal equation has been developed in Cartesian coordinates. The method, which is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, can handle instabilities due to caustics and provide information about head waves. The comparison of finite-difference solutions of the acoustic wave equation with the traveltime solutions from the eikonal equation in various structure models demonstrate that the method developed here can provide correct first arrival traveltime information even in areas of complex velocity structure.
3D Finite Element Trajectory Code with Adaptive Meshing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ives, Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Bauer, Andy; Shephard, Mark; Beal, Mark; Tran, Hien
2004-11-01
Beam Optics Analysis, a new, 3D charged particle program is available and in use for the design of complex, 3D electron guns and charged particle devices. The code reads files directly from most CAD and solid modeling programs, includes an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI), and a robust mesh generator that is fully automatic. Complex problems can be set up, and analysis initiated in minutes. The program includes a user-friendly post processor for displaying field and trajectory data using 3D plots and images. The electrostatic solver is based on the standard nodal finite element method. The magnetostatic field solver is based on the vector finite element method and is also called during the trajectory simulation process to solve for self magnetic fields. The user imports the geometry from essentially any commercial CAD program and uses the GUI to assign parameters (voltages, currents, dielectric constant) and designate emitters (including work function, emitter temperature, and number of trajectories). The the mesh is generated automatically and analysis is performed, including mesh adaptation to improve accuracy and optimize computational resources. This presentation will provide information on the basic structure of the code, its operation, and it's capabilities.
A finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.; Nayani, S.
1990-01-01
Computation of the flow field inside a space shuttle main engine (SSME) requires the application of state of the art computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. Several computer codes are under development to solve 3-D flow through the hot gas manifold. Some algorithms were designed to solve the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, either by implicit or explicit factorization methods, using several hundred or thousands of time steps to reach a steady state solution. A new iterative algorithm is being developed for the solution of the implicit finite element equations without assembling global matrices. It is an efficient iteration scheme based on a modified nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iteration with symmetric sweeps. The algorithm is analyzed for a model equation and is shown to be unconditionally stable. Results from a series of test problems are presented. The finite element code was tested for couette flow, which is flow under a pressure gradient between two parallel plates in relative motion. Another problem that was solved is viscous laminar flow over a flat plate. The general 3-D finite element code was used to compute the flow in an axisymmetric turnaround duct at low Mach numbers.
Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1986-01-01
The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.
Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D
J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau
2004-12-17
The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.
3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ožbolt, Joško; İrhan, Barış; Ruta, Daniela
2015-09-01
An explicit three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.
Beam and Truss Finite Element Verification for DYNA3D
Rathbun, H J
2007-07-16
The explicit finite element (FE) software program DYNA3D has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate the dynamic behavior of structures, systems, and components. This report focuses on verification of beam and truss element formulations in DYNA3D. An efficient protocol has been developed to verify the accuracy of these structural elements by generating a set of representative problems for which closed-form quasi-static steady-state analytical reference solutions exist. To provide as complete coverage as practically achievable, problem sets are developed for each beam and truss element formulation (and their variants) in all modes of loading and physical orientation. Analyses with loading in the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes are performed. For elastic loading, the FE results are within 1% of the reference solutions for all cases. For beam element bending and torsion loading in the plastic regime, the response is heavily dependent on the numerical integration rule chosen, with higher refinement yielding greater accuracy (agreement to within 1%). Axial loading in the plastic regime produces accurate results (agreement to within 0.01%) for all integration rules and element formulations. Truss elements are also verified to provide accurate results (within 0.01%) for elastic and elastic-plastic loading. A sample problem to verify beam element response in ParaDyn, the parallel version DYNA3D, is also presented.
3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field
Klamerus, E.W.; Ehgartner, B.L.
1999-02-01
Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.
3D finite-difference seismic migration with parallel computers
Ober, C.C.; Gjertsen, R.; Minkoff, S.; Womble, D.E.
1998-11-01
The ability to image complex geologies such as salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and thrusts in mountainous regions is essential for reducing the risk associated with oil exploration. Imaging these structures, however, is computationally expensive as datasets can be terabytes in size. Traditional ray-tracing migration methods cannot handle complex velocity variations commonly found near such salt structures. Instead the authors use the full 3D acoustic wave equation, discretized via a finite difference algorithm. They reduce the cost of solving the apraxial wave equation by a number of numerical techniques including the method of fractional steps and pipelining the tridiagonal solves. The imaging code, Salvo, uses both frequency parallelism (generally 90% efficient) and spatial parallelism (65% efficient). Salvo has been tested on synthetic and real data and produces clear images of the subsurface even beneath complicated salt structures.
3D finite element model for treatment of cleft lip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong
2009-02-01
Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic 3D finite element model (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a 3D geometrical model of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric model, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the model step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the model, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the model. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient model.
3D finite element simulation of TIG weld pool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, X.; Asserin, O.; Gounand, S.; Gilles, P.; Bergheau, J. M.; Medale, M.
2012-07-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a three-dimensional weld pool model for the moving gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, in order to understand the main factors that limit the weld quality and improve the productivity, especially with respect to the welding speed. Simulation is a very powerful tool to help in understanding the physical phenomena in the weld process. A 3D finite element model of heat and fluid flow in weld pool considering free surface of the pool and traveling speed has been developed for the GTAW process. Cast3M software is used to compute all the governing equations. The free surface of the weld pool is calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. The combined effects of surface tension gradient, buoyancy force, arc pressure, arc drag force to drive the fluid flow is included in our model. The deformation of the weld pool surface and the welding speed affect fluid flow, heat flow and thus temperature gradients and molten pool dimensions. Welding trials study is presented to compare our numerical results with macrograph of the molten pool.
Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows
Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel
2014-12-10
The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.
3D Finite Difference Modelling of Basaltic Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engell-Sørensen, L.
2003-04-01
The main purpose of the work was to generate realistic data to be applied for testing of processing and migration tools for basaltic regions. The project is based on the three - dimensional finite difference code (FD), TIGER, made by Sintef. The FD code was optimized (parallelized) by the author, to run on parallel computers. The parallel code enables us to model large-scale realistic geological models and to apply traditional seismic and micro seismic sources. The parallel code uses multiple processors in order to manipulate subsets of large amounts of data simultaneously. The general anisotropic code uses 21 elastic coefficients. Eight independent coefficients are needed as input parameters for the general TI medium. In the FD code, the elastic wave field computation is implemented by a higher order FD solution to the elastic wave equation and the wave fields are computed on a staggered grid, shifted half a node in one or two directions. The geological model is a gridded basalt model, which covers from 24 km to 37 km of a real shot line in horizontal direction and from the water surface to the depth of 3.5 km. The 2frac {1}{2}D model has been constructed using the compound modeling software from Norsk Hydro. The vertical parameter distribution is obtained from observations in two wells. At The depth of between 1100 m to 1500 m, a basalt horizon covers the whole sub surface layers. We have shown that it is possible to simulate a line survey in realistic (3D) geological models in reasonable time by using high performance computers. The author would like to thank Norsk Hydro, Statoil, GEUS, and SINTEF for very helpful discussions and Parallab for being helpful with the new IBM, p690 Regatta system.
Vector algorithms for geometrically nonlinear 3D finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, John D.
1989-01-01
Algorithms for geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis are presented which exploit the vector processing capability of the VPS-32, which is closely related to the CYBER 205. By manipulating vectors (which are long lists of numbers) rather than individual numbers, very high processing speeds are obtained. Long vector lengths are obtained without extensive replication or reordering by storage of intermediate results in strategic patterns at all stages of the computations. Comparisons of execution times with those from programs using either scalar or other vector programming techniques indicate that the algorithms presented are quite efficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dian-Sen; Fang, Dai-Ning; Lu, Zi-Xing; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Nan
2010-08-01
In the first part of the work, we have established a new parameterized three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) which precisely simulated the spatial configuration of the braiding yarns and considered the cross-section deformation as well as the surface contact relationship between the yarns. This paper presents a prediction of the effective elastic properties and the meso-scale mechanical response of 3D braided composites to verify the validation of the FEM. The effects of the braiding parameters on the mechanical properties are investigated in detail. By analyzing the deformation and stress nephogram of the model, a reasonable overall stress field is provided and the results well support the strength prediction. The results indicate it is convenient to predict all the elastic constants of 3D braided composites with different parameters simultaneously using the FEM. Moreover, the FEM can successfully predict the meso-scale mechanical response of 3D braided composites containing periodical structures.
An augmented Lagrangian finite element formulation for 3D contact of biphasic tissues.
Guo, Hongqiang; Spilker, Robert L
2014-01-01
Biphasic contact analysis is essential to obtain a complete understanding of soft tissue biomechanics, and the importance of physiological structure on the joint biomechanics has long been recognised; however, up to date, there are no successful developments of biphasic finite element contact analysis for three-dimensional (3D) geometries of physiological joints. The aim of this study was to develop a finite element formulation for biphasic contact of 3D physiological joints. The augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The biphasic contact method was implemented in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2(®) (COMSOL, Inc., Burlington, MA). The accuracy of the implementation was verified using 3D biphasic contact problems, including indentation with a flat-ended indenter and contact of glenohumeral cartilage layers. The ability of the method to model multibody biphasic contact of physiological joints was proved by a 3D knee model. The 3D biphasic finite element contact method developed in this study can be used to study the biphasic behaviours of the physiological joints. PMID:23181617
Finite Element Code For 3D-Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Equations (3-layer).
1992-03-24
HYFRACP3D is a finite element program for simulation of a pseudo three-dimensional fracture geometries with a two-dimensional planar solution. The model predicts the height, width and winglength over time for a hydraulic fracture propagating in a three-layered system of rocks with variable rock mechanics properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vos, R. G.; Straayer, J. W.
1975-01-01
The BOPACE 3-D is a finite element computer program, which provides a general family of three-dimensional isoparametric solid elements, and includes a new algorithm for improving the efficiency of the elastic-plastic-creep solution procedure. Theoretical, user, and programmer oriented sections are presented to describe the program.
A finite element analysis of a 3D auxetic textile structure for composite reinforcement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Zhaoyang; Hu, Hong; Liu, Yanping
2013-08-01
This paper reports the finite element analysis of an innovative 3D auxetic textile structure consisting of three yarn systems (weft, warp and stitch yarns). Different from conventional 3D textile structures, the proposed structure exhibits an auxetic behaviour under compression and can be used as a reinforcement to manufacture auxetic composites. The geometry of the structure is first described. Then a 3D finite element model is established using ANSYS software and validated by the experimental results. The deformation process of the structure at different compression strains is demonstrated, and the validated finite element model is finally used to simulate the auxetic behaviour of the structure with different structural parameters and yarn properties. The results show that the auxetic behaviour of the proposed structure increases with increasing compression strain, and all the structural parameters and yarn properties have significant effects on the auxetic behaviour of the structure. It is expected that the study could provide a better understanding of 3D auxetic textile structures and could promote their application in auxetic composites.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-05-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
3D finite element analysis of porous Ti-based alloy prostheses.
Mircheski, Ile; Gradišar, Marko
2016-11-01
In this paper, novel designs of porous acetabular cups are created and tested with 3D finite element analysis (FEA). The aim is to develop a porous acetabular cup with low effective radial stiffness of the structure, which will be near to the architectural and mechanical behavior of the natural bone. For the realization of this research, a 3D-scanner technology was used for obtaining a 3D-CAD model of the pelvis bone, a 3D-CAD software for creating a porous acetabular cup, and a 3D-FEA software for virtual testing of a novel design of the porous acetabular cup. The results obtained from this research reveal that a porous acetabular cup from Ti-based alloys with 60 ± 5% porosity has the mechanical behavior and effective radial stiffness (Young's modulus in radial direction) that meet and exceed the required properties of the natural bone. The virtual testing with 3D-FEA of a novel design with porous structure during the very early stage of the design and the development of orthopedic implants, enables obtaining a new or improved biomedical implant for a relatively short time and reduced price. PMID:27015664
Application of edge-based finite elements and vector ABCs in 3D scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
A finite element absorbing boundary condition (FE-ABC) solution of the scattering by arbitrary 3-D structures is considered. The computational domain is discretized using edge-based tetrahedral elements. In contrast to the node-based elements, edge elements can treat geometries with sharp edges, are divergence-less, and easily satisfy the field continuity condition across dielectric interfaces. They do, however, lead to a higher unknown count but this is balanced by the greater sparsity of the resulting finite element matrix. Thus, the computation time required to solve such a system iteratively with a given degree of accuracy is less than the traditional node-based approach. The purpose is to examine the derivation and performance of the ABC's when applied to 2-D and 3-D problems and to discuss the specifics of our FE-ABC implementation.
Numerical solution of 3-D magnetotelluric using vector finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prihantoro, Rudy; Sutarno, Doddy; Nurhasan
2015-09-01
Magnetotelluric (MT) is a passive electromagnetic (EM) method which measure natural variations of electric and magnetic vector fields at the Earth surface to map subsurface electrical conductivity/resistivity structure. In this study, we obtained numerical solution of three-dimensional (3-D) MT using vector finite element method by solving second order Maxwell differential equation describing diffusion of plane wave through the conductive earth. Rather than the nodes of the element, the edges of the element is used as a vector basis to overcome the occurrence of nonphysical solutions that usually faced by scalar (node based) finite element method. Electric vector fields formulation was used and the resulting system of equation was solved using direct solution method to obtain the electric vector field distribution throughout the earth resistivity model structure. The resulting MT response functions was verified with 1-D layered Earth and 3-D2 COMMEMI outcropping structure. Good agreement is achieved for both structure models.
3D modeling of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.
2012-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) system. The model is characterized by the E-J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the model in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the 3D model, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our model to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D models. The new 3D model could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.
Application of 3D X-ray CT data sets to finite element analysis
Bossart, P.L.; Martz, H.E.; Brand, H.R.; Hollerbach, K.
1995-08-31
Finite Element Modeling (FEM) is becoming more important as industry drives toward concurrent engineering. A fundamental hindrance to fully exploiting the power of FEM is the human effort required to acquire complex part geometry, particularly as-built geometry, as a FEM mesh. Many Quantitative Non Destructive Evaluation (QNDE) techniques that produce three-dimensional (3D) data sets provide a substantial reduction in the effort required to apply FEM to as-built parts. This paper describes progress at LLNL on the application of 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) data sets to more rapidly produce high-quality FEM meshes of complex, as-built geometries. Issues related to the volume segmentation of the 3D CT data as well as the use of this segmented data to tailor generic hexahedral FEM meshes to part specific geometries are discussed. The application of these techniques to FEM analysis in the medical field is reported here.
The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen
1992-01-01
In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.
Spatial parallelism of a 3D finite difference, velocity-stress elastic wave propagation code
Minkoff, S.E.
1999-12-01
Finite difference methods for solving the wave equation more accurately capture the physics of waves propagating through the earth than asymptotic solution methods. Unfortunately, finite difference simulations for 3D elastic wave propagation are expensive. The authors model waves in a 3D isotropic elastic earth. The wave equation solution consists of three velocity components and six stresses. The partial derivatives are discretized using 2nd-order in time and 4th-order in space staggered finite difference operators. Staggered schemes allow one to obtain additional accuracy (via centered finite differences) without requiring additional storage. The serial code is most unique in its ability to model a number of different types of seismic sources. The parallel implementation uses the MPI library, thus allowing for portability between platforms. Spatial parallelism provides a highly efficient strategy for parallelizing finite difference simulations. In this implementation, one can decompose the global problem domain into one-, two-, and three-dimensional processor decompositions with 3D decompositions generally producing the best parallel speedup. Because I/O is handled largely outside of the time-step loop (the most expensive part of the simulation) the authors have opted for straight-forward broadcast and reduce operations to handle I/O. The majority of the communication in the code consists of passing subdomain face information to neighboring processors for use as ghost cells. When this communication is balanced against computation by allocating subdomains of reasonable size, they observe excellent scaled speedup. Allocating subdomains of size 25 x 25 x 25 on each node, they achieve efficiencies of 94% on 128 processors. Numerical examples for both a layered earth model and a homogeneous medium with a high-velocity blocky inclusion illustrate the accuracy of the parallel code.
Spatial Parallelism of a 3D Finite Difference, Velocity-Stress Elastic Wave Propagation Code
MINKOFF,SUSAN E.
1999-12-09
Finite difference methods for solving the wave equation more accurately capture the physics of waves propagating through the earth than asymptotic solution methods. Unfortunately. finite difference simulations for 3D elastic wave propagation are expensive. We model waves in a 3D isotropic elastic earth. The wave equation solution consists of three velocity components and six stresses. The partial derivatives are discretized using 2nd-order in time and 4th-order in space staggered finite difference operators. Staggered schemes allow one to obtain additional accuracy (via centered finite differences) without requiring additional storage. The serial code is most unique in its ability to model a number of different types of seismic sources. The parallel implementation uses the MP1 library, thus allowing for portability between platforms. Spatial parallelism provides a highly efficient strategy for parallelizing finite difference simulations. In this implementation, one can decompose the global problem domain into one-, two-, and three-dimensional processor decompositions with 3D decompositions generally producing the best parallel speed up. Because i/o is handled largely outside of the time-step loop (the most expensive part of the simulation) we have opted for straight-forward broadcast and reduce operations to handle i/o. The majority of the communication in the code consists of passing subdomain face information to neighboring processors for use as ''ghost cells''. When this communication is balanced against computation by allocating subdomains of reasonable size, we observe excellent scaled speed up. Allocating subdomains of size 25 x 25 x 25 on each node, we achieve efficiencies of 94% on 128 processors. Numerical examples for both a layered earth model and a homogeneous medium with a high-velocity blocky inclusion illustrate the accuracy of the parallel code.
Finite Element Analysis of Thermo-Mechanical Properties of 3D Braided Composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Li-li; Xu, Guo-dong; Cheng, Su; Lu, Xia-mei; Zeng, Tao
2014-04-01
This paper presents a modified finite element model (FEM) to investigate the thermo-mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) braided composite. The effective coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) and the meso-scale mechanical response of 3D braided composites are predicted. The effects of the braiding angle and fiber volume fraction on the effective CTE are evaluated. The results are compared to the experimental data available in the literature to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the present method. The tensile stress distributions of the representative volume element (RVE) are also outlined. It is found that the stress of the braiding yarn has a significant increase with temperature rise; on the other hand, the temperature change has an insignificant effect on the stress of the matrix. In addition, a rapid decrease in the tensile strength of 3D braided composites is observed with the increase in temperature. It is revealed that the thermal conditions have a significant effect on the strength of 3D braided composites. The present method provides an effective tool to predict the stresses of 3D braided composites under thermo-mechanical loading.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1993-01-01
A computer program, surf3d, that uses the 3D finite-element method to calculate the stress-intensity factors for surface, corner, and embedded cracks in finite-thickness plates with and without circular holes, was developed. The cracks are assumed to be either elliptic or part eliptic in shape. The computer program uses eight-noded hexahedral elements to model the solid. The program uses a skyline storage and solver. The stress-intensity factors are evaluated using the force method, the crack-opening displacement method, and the 3-D virtual crack closure methods. In the manual the input to and the output of the surf3d program are described. This manual also demonstrates the use of the program and describes the calculation of the stress-intensity factors. Several examples with sample data files are included with the manual. To facilitate modeling of the user's crack configuration and loading, a companion program (a preprocessor program) that generates the data for the surf3d called gensurf was also developed. The gensurf program is a three dimensional mesh generator program that requires minimal input and that builds a complete data file for surf3d. The program surf3d is operational on Unix machines such as CRAY Y-MP, CRAY-2, and Convex C-220.
Charged-particle Gun Design with 3D Finite-element Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humphries, Stanley
2002-04-01
The DARHT second-axis injector poses a major challenge for computer simulation. The relativistic electrons are subject to strong beam-generated electric and magnetic forces. The beam and applied fields are fully three-dimensional. Furthermore, accurate field calculations at surfaces are critical to model Child-law emission. Although several 2D relativistic beam codes are available, there is presently no 3D tool that can address all important processes in the DARHT injector. As a result, we created the OmniTrak 3D finite-element code suite. This talk gives a basic tutorial on finite-element methods with emphasis on electron gun design via the ray-tracing technique. Four main areas are covered: 1) the mesh as a tool to organize space, 2) transformation of the Poisson equation through the minimum residual principle, 3) orbit tracking in a complex environment and 4) handling self-consistent beam-generated fields. The components of a volume mesh (elements, nodes and facets) are reviewed. We consider motivations for choosing a 3D mesh style: structured versus unstructured, tetrahedrons versus hexahedrons. We discuss methods for taking volume integrals over arbitrary hexahedrons through normal coordinates and shape functions, leading to the fundamental field equations. The special problems of 3D magnetic field solutions and the advantages of the reduced potential method are outlined. Accurate field interpolations for orbit calculations require fast identification of occupied elements. A method for fast element identification that also yields the orbit penetration point on the element surface is described. The final topics are the assignment of charge and current to meshes from calculated orbits and techniques for space-charge-limited emission from multiple arbitrary 3D surfaces.
Ground motion simulations in Marmara (Turkey) region from 3D finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aochi, Hideo; Ulrich, Thomas; Douglas, John
2016-04-01
In the framework of the European project MARSite (2012-2016), one of the main contributions from our research team was to provide ground-motion simulations for the Marmara region from various earthquake source scenarios. We adopted a 3D finite difference code, taking into account the 3D structure around the Sea of Marmara (including the bathymetry) and the sea layer. We simulated two moderate earthquakes (about Mw4.5) and found that the 3D structure improves significantly the waveforms compared to the 1D layer model. Simulations were carried out for different earthquakes (moderate point sources and large finite sources) in order to provide shake maps (Aochi and Ulrich, BSSA, 2015), to study the variability of ground-motion parameters (Douglas & Aochi, BSSA, 2016) as well as to provide synthetic seismograms for the blind inversion tests (Diao et al., GJI, 2016). The results are also planned to be integrated in broadband ground-motion simulations, tsunamis generation and simulations of triggered landslides (in progress by different partners). The simulations are freely shared among the partners via the internet and the visualization of the results is diffused on the project's homepage. All these simulations should be seen as a reference for this region, as they are based on the latest knowledge that obtained during the MARSite project, although their refinement and validation of the model parameters and the simulations are a continuing research task relying on continuing observations. The numerical code used, the models and the simulations are available on demand.
Finite-element 3D simulation tools for high-current relativistic electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humphries, Stanley; Ekdahl, Carl
2002-08-01
The DARHT second-axis injector is a challenge for computer simulations. Electrons are subject to strong beam-generated forces. The fields are fully three-dimensional and accurate calculations at surfaces are critical. We describe methods applied in OmniTrak, a 3D finite-element code suite that can address DARHT and the full range of charged-particle devices. The system handles mesh generation, electrostatics, magnetostatics and self-consistent particle orbits. The MetaMesh program generates meshes of conformal hexahedrons to fit any user geometry. The code has the unique ability to create structured conformal meshes with cubic logic. Organized meshes offer advantages in speed and memory utilization in the orbit and field solutions. OmniTrak is a versatile charged-particle code that handles 3D electric and magnetic field solutions on independent meshes. The program can update both 3D field solutions from the calculated beam space-charge and current-density. We shall describe numerical methods for orbit tracking on a hexahedron mesh. Topics include: 1) identification of elements along the particle trajectory, 2) fast searches and adaptive field calculations, 3) interpolation methods to terminate orbits on material surfaces, 4) automatic particle generation on multiple emission surfaces to model space-charge-limited emission and field emission, 5) flexible Child law algorithms, 6) implementation of the dual potential model for 3D magnetostatics, and 7) assignment of charge and current from model particle orbits for self-consistent fields.
Calculation by the finite element method of 3-D turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combes, J. F.
1992-02-01
In order to solve industrial flow problems in complex geometries, a finite element code, N3S, was developed. It allows the computation of a wide variety of 2-D or 3-D unsteady incompressible flows, by solving the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with a k-epsilon turbulence model. Some recent developments of this code concern turbomachinery flows, where one has to take into account periodic boundary conditions, as well as Coriolis and centrifugal forces. The numerical treatment is based on a fractional step method: at each time step, an advection step is solved successively by means of a characteristic method; a diffusion step for the scalar terms; and finally, a Generalized Stokes Problem by using a preconditioned Uzawa algorithm. The space discretization uses a standard Galerkin finite element method with a mixed formulation for the velocity and pressure. An application is presented of this code to the flow inside a centrifugal pump which was extensively tested on several air and water test rigs, and for which many quasi-3-D or Euler calculations were reported. The present N3S calculation is made on a finite element mesh comprising about 28000 tetrahedrons and 43000 nodes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.
1992-01-01
A computer program that generates three-dimensional (3D) finite element models for cracked 3D solids was written. This computer program, gensurf, uses minimal input data to generate 3D finite element models for isotropic solids with elliptic or part-elliptic cracks. These models can be used with a 3D finite element program called surf3d. This report documents this mesh generator. In this manual the capabilities, limitations, and organization of gensurf are described. The procedures used to develop 3D finite element models and the input for and the output of gensurf are explained. Several examples are included to illustrate the use of this program. Several input data files are included with this manual so that the users can edit these files to conform to their crack configuration and use them with gensurf.
Justification for a 2D versus 3D fingertip finite element model during static contact simulations.
Harih, Gregor; Tada, Mitsunori; Dolšak, Bojan
2016-10-01
The biomechanical response of a human hand during contact with various products has not been investigated in details yet. It has been shown that excessive contact pressure on the soft tissue can result in discomfort, pain and also cumulative traumatic disorders. This manuscript explores the benefits and limitations of a simplified two-dimensional vs. an anatomically correct three-dimensional finite element model of a human fingertip. Most authors still use 2D FE fingertip models due to their simplicity and reduced computational costs. However we show that an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model can provide additional insight into the biomechanical behaviour. The use of 2D fingertip FE models is justified when observing peak contact pressure values as well as displacement during the contact for the given studied cross-section. On the other hand, an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model provides a contact pressure distribution, which reflects the fingertip's anatomy. PMID:26856769
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakazawa, S.
1988-01-01
This annual status report presents the results of work performed during the fourth year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of new computer codes permitting more accurate and efficient 3-D analysis of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of math models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components. Volume 1 of this report discusses the special finite element models developed during the fourth year of the contract.
Dynamic Analysis of 2D Electromagnetic Resonant Optical Scanner Using 3D Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Katsuhiro; Hong, Sara; Maeda, Kengo
The optical scanner is a scanning device in which a laser beam is reflected by a mirror that can be rotated or oscillated. In this paper, we propose a new 2D electromagnetic resonant optical scanner that employs electromagnets and leaf springs. Torque characteristics and resonance characteristics of the scanner are analyzed using the 3D finite element method. The validity of the analysis is shown by comparing the characteristics inferred from the analysis with the characteristics of the prototype. Further, 2D resonance is investigated by introducing a superimposed-frequency current in a single coil.
Parallel goal-oriented adaptive finite element modeling for 3D electromagnetic exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Key, K.; Ovall, J.; Holst, M.
2014-12-01
We present a parallel goal-oriented adaptive finite element method for accurate and efficient electromagnetic (EM) modeling of complex 3D structures. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh allows this approach to accommodate arbitrarily complex 3D conductivity variations and a priori known boundaries. The total electric field is approximated by the lowest order linear curl-conforming shape functions and the discretized finite element equations are solved by a sparse LU factorization. Accuracy of the finite element solution is achieved through adaptive mesh refinement that is performed iteratively until the solution converges to the desired accuracy tolerance. Refinement is guided by a goal-oriented error estimator that uses a dual-weighted residual method to optimize the mesh for accurate EM responses at the locations of the EM receivers. As a result, the mesh refinement is highly efficient since it only targets the elements where the inaccuracy of the solution corrupts the response at the possibly distant locations of the EM receivers. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of two approaches for estimating the primary residual error required at the core of this method: one uses local element and inter-element residuals and the other relies on solving a global residual system using a hierarchical basis. For computational efficiency our method follows the Bank-Holst algorithm for parallelization, where solutions are computed in subdomains of the original model. To resolve the load-balancing problem, this approach applies a spectral bisection method to divide the entire model into subdomains that have approximately equal error and the same number of receivers. The finite element solutions are then computed in parallel with each subdomain carrying out goal-oriented adaptive mesh refinement independently. We validate the newly developed algorithm by comparison with controlled-source EM solutions for 1D layered models and with 2D results from our earlier 2D goal oriented
Isoparametric 3-D Finite Element Mesh Generation Using Interactive Computer Graphics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kayrak, C.; Ozsoy, T.
1985-01-01
An isoparametric 3-D finite element mesh generator was developed with direct interface to an interactive geometric modeler program called POLYGON. POLYGON defines the model geometry in terms of boundaries and mesh regions for the mesh generator. The mesh generator controls the mesh flow through the 2-dimensional spans of regions by using the topological data and defines the connectivity between regions. The program is menu driven and the user has a control of element density and biasing through the spans and can also apply boundary conditions, loads interactively.
Equivalent Body Force Finite Elements Method and 3-D Earth Model Applied In 2004 Sumatra Earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, W.; Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.
2015-12-01
The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-dynamic-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four models, and the confidences are according to different models. In the whole four models, the Chlieh model (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip model not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip model, Chlieh model to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real 3-D heterogeneous earth model (Crust 1.0 model and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of 3-D heterogeneous earth model are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of 3-D crust model are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the 3-D mantle model are much smaller than that of 3-D crust model but with wider impacting area.
A 3D finite element ALE method using an approximate Riemann solution
Chiravalle, V. P.; Morgan, N. R.
2016-08-09
Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian finite volume methods that solve a multidimensional Riemann-like problem at the cell center in a staggered grid hydrodynamic (SGH) arrangement have been proposed. This research proposes a new 3D finite element arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian SGH method that incorporates a multidimensional Riemann-like problem. Here, two different Riemann jump relations are investigated. A new limiting method that greatly improves the accuracy of the SGH method on isentropic flows is investigated. A remap method that improves upon a well-known mesh relaxation and remapping technique in order to ensure total energy conservation during the remap is also presented. Numerical details and test problemmore » results are presented.« less
Parallel 3D Finite Element Numerical Modelling of DC Electron Guns
Prudencio, E.; Candel, A.; Ge, L.; Kabel, A.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; /SLAC
2008-02-04
In this paper we present Gun3P, a parallel 3D finite element application that the Advanced Computations Department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is developing for the analysis of beam formation in DC guns and beam transport in klystrons. Gun3P is targeted specially to complex geometries that cannot be described by 2D models and cannot be easily handled by finite difference discretizations. Its parallel capability allows simulations with more accuracy and less processing time than packages currently available. We present simulation results for the L-band Sheet Beam Klystron DC gun, in which case Gun3P is able to reduce simulation time from days to some hours.
Viscous Effects in the Elastodynamics of Thick Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, A. R.; Tessler, A.
1997-01-01
A viscoelastic higher-order thick beam finite element formulation is extended to include elastodynamic deformations. The material constitutive law is a special differential form of the Maxwell solid. In the constitutive model, the elastic strains and the conjugate viscous strains are coupled through a system of first- order ordinary differential equations. The total time-dependent stress is the superposition of its elastic and viscous components. The elastodynamic equations of motion are derived from the virtual work principle. Computational examples are carried out for a thick orthotropic cantilevered beam. A quasi-static relaxation problem is employed as a validation test for the elastodynamic algorithm. The elastodynamic code is demonstrated by analyzing the damped vibrations of the beam which is deformed and then released to freely vibrate.
Glacial isostatic adjustment on 3-D Earth models: a finite-volume formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latychev, Konstantin; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Tromp, Jeroen; Tamisiea, Mark E.; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Christara, Christina C.
2005-05-01
We describe and present results from a finite-volume (FV) parallel computer code for forward modelling the Maxwell viscoelastic response of a 3-D, self-gravitating, elastically compressible Earth to an arbitrary surface load. We implement a conservative, control volume discretization of the governing equations using a tetrahedral grid in Cartesian geometry and a low-order, linear interpolation. The basic starting grid honours all major radial discontinuities in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), and the models are permitted arbitrary spatial variations in viscosity and elastic parameters. These variations may be either continuous or discontinuous at a set of grid nodes forming a 3-D surface within the (regional or global) modelling domain. In the second part of the paper, we adopt the FV methodology and a spherically symmetric Earth model to generate a suite of predictions sampling a broad class of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) data types (3-D crustal motions, long-wavelength gravity anomalies). These calculations, based on either a simple disc load history or a global Late Pleistocene ice load reconstruction (ICE-3G), are benchmarked against predictions generated using the traditional normal-mode approach to GIA. The detailed comparison provides a guide for future analyses (e.g. what grid resolution is required to obtain a specific accuracy?) and it indicates that discrepancies in predictions of 3-D crustal velocities less than 0.1 mm yr-1 are generally obtainable for global grids with ~3 × 106 nodes; however, grids of higher resolution are required to predict large-amplitude (>1 cm yr-1) radial velocities in zones of peak post-glacial uplift (e.g. James bay) to the same level of absolute accuracy. We conclude the paper with a first application of the new formulation to a 3-D problem. Specifically, we consider the impact of mantle viscosity heterogeneity on predictions of present-day 3-D crustal motions in North America. In these tests, the
El-Anwar, Mohamed; Ghali, Rami; Aboelnagga, Mona
2016-01-01
AIM: This study aimed to estimate the stress patterns induced by the masticatory loads on a removable prosthesis supported and retained by bar splinted implants placed in the reconstructed mandible with two different clip materials and without clip, in the fibula-jaw bone and prosthesis using finite element analysis. METHODS: Two 3D finite element models were constructed, that models components were modeled on commercial CAD/CAM software then assembled into finite element package. Vertical loads were applied simulating the masticatory forces unilaterally in the resected site and bilaterally in the central fossa of the lower first molar as 100N (tension and compression). Analysis was based on the assumption full osseointegration between different types of bones, and between implants and fibula while fixing the top surface of the TMJ in place. RESULTS: The metallic bar connecting the three implants is insensitive to the clips material. Its supporting implants showed typical behavior with maximum stress values at the neck region. Fibula and jaw bone showed stresses within physiologic, while clips material effect seems to be very small due to its relatively small size. CONCLUSION: Switching loading force direction from tensile to compression did-not change the stresses and deformations distribution, but reversed their sign from positive to negative. PMID:27275353
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shengsun; Guo, Chaobo; Wang, Dongpo; Wang, Zhijiang
2016-07-01
The nonuniform distributions of the residual stress were simulated by a 3D finite element model to analyze the elastic-plastic dynamic ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) process of multiple impacts on the 2024 aluminum alloy. The evolution of the stress during the impact process was discussed. The successive impacts during the UIT process improve the uniformity of the plastic deformation and decrease the maximum compressive residual stress beneath the former impact indentations. The influences of different controlled parameters, including the initial impact velocity, pin diameter, pin tip, device moving, and offset distances, on the residual stress distributions were analyzed. The influences of the controlled parameters on the residual stress distributions are apparent in the offset direction due to the different surface coverage in different directions. The influences can be used to understand the UIT process and to obtain the desired residual stress by optimizing the controlled parameters.
A least-squares finite element method for 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Hou, Lin-Jun; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations, and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system. An additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. The flow in a half of 3D cubic cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 52 x 25 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Gortler-like vortices are observed at Re = 1,000.
Description of a parallel, 3D, finite element, hydrodynamics-diffusion code
Milovich, J L; Prasad, M K; Shestakov, A I
1999-04-11
We describe a parallel, 3D, unstructured grid finite element, hydrodynamic diffusion code for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications and the ancillary software used to run it. The code system is divided into two entities, a controller and a stand-alone physics code. The code system may reside on different computers; the controller on the user's workstation and the physics code on a supercomputer. The physics code is composed of separate hydrodynamic, equation-of-state, laser energy deposition, heat conduction, and radiation transport packages and is parallelized for distributed memory architectures. For parallelization, a SPMD model is adopted; the domain is decomposed into a disjoint collection of subdomains, one per processing element (PE). The PEs communicate using MPI. The code is used to simulate the hydrodynamic implosion of a spherical bubble.
An accurate quadrature technique for the contact boundary in 3D finite element computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duong, Thang X.; Sauer, Roger A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a new numerical integration technique for 3D contact finite element implementations, focusing on a remedy for the inaccurate integration due to discontinuities at the boundary of contact surfaces. The method is based on the adaptive refinement of the integration domain along the boundary of the contact surface, and is accordingly denoted RBQ for refined boundary quadrature. It can be used for common element types of any order, e.g. Lagrange, NURBS, or T-Spline elements. In terms of both computational speed and accuracy, RBQ exhibits great advantages over a naive increase of the number of quadrature points. Also, the RBQ method is shown to remain accurate for large deformations. Furthermore, since the sharp boundary of the contact surface is determined, it can be used for various purposes like the accurate post-processing of the contact pressure. Several examples are presented to illustrate the new technique.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakazawa, S.
1987-01-01
This Annual Status Report presents the results of work performed during the third year of the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components program (NASA Contract NAS3-23697). The objective of the program is to produce a series of new computer codes that permit more accurate and efficient three-dimensional analysis of selected hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The computer codes embody a progression of mathematical models and are streamlined to take advantage of geometrical features, loading conditions, and forms of material response that distinguish each group of selected components. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 describes effort performed under Task 4B, Special Finite Element Special Function Models, while Volume 2 concentrates on Task 4C, Advanced Special Functions Models.
3D frequency-domain finite-difference modeling of acoustic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Operto, S.; Virieux, J.
2006-12-01
We present a 3D frequency-domain finite-difference method for acoustic wave propagation modeling. This method is developed as a tool to perform 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. For wide-angle data, frequency-domain full-waveform inversion can be applied only to few discrete frequencies to develop reliable velocity model. Frequency-domain finite-difference (FD) modeling of wave propagation requires resolution of a huge sparse system of linear equations. If this system can be solved with a direct method, solutions for multiple sources can be computed efficiently once the underlying matrix has been factorized. The drawback of the direct method is the memory requirement resulting from the fill-in of the matrix during factorization. We assess in this study whether representative problems can be addressed in 3D geometry with such approach. We start from the velocity-stress formulation of the 3D acoustic wave equation. The spatial derivatives are discretized with second-order accurate staggered-grid stencil on different coordinate systems such that the axis span over as many directions as possible. Once the discrete equations were developed on each coordinate system, the particle velocity fields are eliminated from the first-order hyperbolic system (following the so-called parsimonious staggered-grid method) leading to second-order elliptic wave equations in pressure. The second-order wave equations discretized on each coordinate system are combined linearly to mitigate the numerical anisotropy. Secondly, grid dispersion is minimized by replacing the mass term at the collocation point by its weighted averaging over all the grid points of the stencil. Use of second-order accurate staggered- grid stencil allows to reduce the bandwidth of the matrix to be factorized. The final stencil incorporates 27 points. Absorbing conditions are PML. The system is solved using the parallel direct solver MUMPS developed for distributed
GPU-accelerated 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method
Xu, Q.; Yu, G.; Wang, K.
2012-07-01
Finite difference method, as a traditional numerical solution to neutron diffusion equation, although considered simpler and more precise than the coarse mesh nodal methods, has a bottle neck to be widely applied caused by the huge memory and unendurable computation time it requires. In recent years, the concept of General-Purpose computation on GPUs has provided us with a powerful computational engine for scientific research. In this study, a GPU-Accelerated multi-group 3D neutron diffusion code based on finite difference method was developed. First, a clean-sheet neutron diffusion code (3DFD-CPU) was written in C++ on the CPU architecture, and later ported to GPUs under NVIDIA's CUDA platform (3DFD-GPU). The IAEA 3D PWR benchmark problem was calculated in the numerical test, where three different codes, including the original CPU-based sequential code, the HYPRE (High Performance Pre-conditioners)-based diffusion code and CITATION, were used as counterpoints to test the efficiency and accuracy of the GPU-based program. The results demonstrate both high efficiency and adequate accuracy of the GPU implementation for neutron diffusion equation. A speedup factor of about 46 times was obtained, using NVIDIA's Geforce GTX470 GPU card against a 2.50 GHz Intel Quad Q9300 CPU processor. Compared with the HYPRE-based code performing in parallel on an 8-core tower server, the speedup of about 2 still could be observed. More encouragingly, without any mathematical acceleration technology, the GPU implementation ran about 5 times faster than CITATION which was speeded up by using the SOR method and Chebyshev extrapolation technique. (authors)
Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition
Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.
2012-01-01
We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Sutton, M. A.; Wu, X. R.; Shivakumar, K. N.
1995-01-01
Stress intensity factors for quarter-elliptical corner cracks emanating from a circular hole are determined using a 3-D weight function method combined with a 3-D finite element method. The 3-D finite element method is used to analyze uncracked configuration and provide stress distribution in the region where crack is to occur. Using this stress distribution as input, the 3-D weight function method is used to determine stress intensity factors. Three different loading conditions, i.e. remote tension, remote bending and wedge loading, are considered for a wide range in geometrical parameters. The significance in using 3-D uncracked stress distribution and the difference between single and double corner cracks are studied. Typical crack opening displacements are also provided. Comparisons are made with solutions available in the literature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakazawa, Shohei
1989-01-01
The user options available for running the MHOST finite element analysis package is described. MHOST is a solid and structural analysis program based on the mixed finite element technology, and is specifically designed for 3-D inelastic analysis. A family of 2- and 3-D continuum elements along with beam and shell structural elements can be utilized, many options are available in the constitutive equation library, the solution algorithms and the analysis capabilities. The outline of solution algorithms is discussed along with the data input and output, analysis options including the user subroutines and the definition of the finite elements implemented in the program package.
Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A.
1994-12-31
The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.
Hamilton, Ritz, and elastodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, C. D.
1976-01-01
The theory of Ritz is applied to the equation that Hamilton called the 'Law of Varying Action'. Direct analytical solutions are obtained for the transient motion of beams, both conservative and nonconservative. The results obtained are compared to exact solutions obtained by the use of rigorously exact free-vibration modes in the differential equations of Lagrange and to an approximate solution obtained through the application of Gurtin's principles for linear elastodynamics. A brief discussion of Hamilton's law and Hamilton's principle is followed by examples of results for both free-free and cantilever beams with various loadings.
A Multi-Compartment 3-D Finite Element Model of Rectocele and Its Interaction with Cystocele
Luo, Jiajia; Chen, Luyun; Fenner, Dee E.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.
2015-01-01
We developed a subject-specific 3-D finite element model to understand the mechanics underlying formation of female pelvic organ prolapse, specifically a rectocele and its interaction with a cystocele. The model was created from MRI 3-D geometry of a healthy 45 year-old multiparous woman. It included anterior and posterior vaginal walls, levator ani muscle, cardinal and uterosacral ligaments, anterior and posterior arcus tendineus fascia pelvis, arcus tendineus levator ani, perineal body, perineal membrane and anal sphincter. Material properties were mostly from the literature. Tissue impairment was modeled as decreased tissue stiffness based on previous clinical studies. Model equations were solved using Abaqus v 6.11. The sensitivity of anterior and posterior vaginal wall geometry was calculated for different combinations tissue impairments under increasing intraabdominal pressure. Prolapse size was reported as POP-Q point at point Bp for rectocele and point Ba for cystocele. Results show that a rectocele resulted from impairments of the levator ani and posterior compartment support. For 20% levator and 85% posterior support impairments, simulated rectocele size (at POP-Q point: Bp) increased 0.29 mm/cm H2O without apical impairment and 0.36 mm/cm H2O with 60% apical impairment, as intraabdominal pressures increased from 0 to 150 cm H2O. Apical support impairment could result in the development of either a cystocele or rectocele. Simulated repair of posterior compartment support decreased rectocele but increased a preexisting cystocele. We conclude that development of rectocele and cystocele depend on the presence of anterior, posterior, levator and/or or apical support impairments, as well as the interaction of the prolapse with the opposing compartment. PMID:25757664
Accurate, finite-volume methods for 3D MHD on unstructured Lagrangian meshes
Barnes, D.C.; Rousculp, C.L.
1998-10-01
Previous 2D methods for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) have contributed both to development of core code capability and to physics applications relevant to AGEX pulsed-power experiments. This strategy is being extended to 3D by development of a modular extension of an ASCI code. Extension to 3D not only increases complexity by problem size, but also introduces new physics, such as magnetic helicity transport. The authors have developed a method which incorporates all known conservation properties into the difference scheme on a Lagrangian unstructured mesh. Because the method does not depend on the mesh structure, mesh refinement is possible during a calculation to prevent the well known problem of mesh tangling. Arbitrary polyhedral cells are decomposed into tetrahedrons. The action of the magnetic vector potential, A {center_dot} {delta}l, is centered on the edges of this extended mesh. For ideal flow, this maintains {del} {center_dot} B = 0 to round-off error. Vertex forces are derived by the variation of magnetic energy with respect to vertex positions, F = {minus}{partial_derivative}W{sub B}/{partial_derivative}r. This assures symmetry as well as magnetic flux, momentum, and energy conservation. The method is local so that parallelization by domain decomposition is natural for large meshes. In addition, a simple, ideal-gas, finite pressure term has been included. The resistive diffusion part is calculated using the support operator method, to obtain an energy conservative, symmetric method on an arbitrary mesh. Implicit time difference equations are solved by preconditioned, conjugate gradient methods. Results of convergence tests are presented. Initial results of an annular Z-pinch implosion problem illustrate the application of these methods to multi-material problems.
Development of a 3D finite element model of lens microcirculation
2012-01-01
Background It has been proposed that in the absence of a blood supply, the ocular lens operates an internal microcirculation system. This system delivers nutrients, removes waste products and maintains ionic homeostasis in the lens. The microcirculation is generated by spatial differences in membrane transport properties; and previously has been modelled by an equivalent electrical circuit and solved analytically. While effective, this approach did not fully account for all the anatomical and functional complexities of the lens. To encapsulate these complexities we have created a 3D finite element computer model of the lens. Methods Initially, we created an anatomically-correct representative mesh of the lens. We then implemented the Stokes and advective Nernst-Plank equations, in order to model the water and ion fluxes respectively. Next we complemented the model with experimentally-measured surface ionic concentrations as boundary conditions and solved it. Results Our model calculated the standing ionic concentrations and electrical potential gradients in the lens. Furthermore, it generated vector maps of intra- and extracellular space ion and water fluxes that are proposed to circulate throughout the lens. These fields have only been measured on the surface of the lens and our calculations are the first 3D representation of their direction and magnitude in the lens. Conclusion Values for steady state standing fields for concentration and electrical potential plus ionic and fluid fluxes calculated by our model exhibited broad agreement with observed experimental values. Our model of lens function represents a platform to integrate new experimental data as they emerge and assist us to understand how the integrated structure and function of the lens contributes to the maintenance of its transparency. PMID:22992294
A 3-D implicit finite-volume model of shallow water flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Weiming; Lin, Qianru
2015-09-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) model has been developed to simulate shallow water flows in large water bodies, such as coastal and estuarine waters. The eddy viscosity is determined using a newly modified mixing length model that uses different mixing length functions for the horizontal and vertical shear strain rates. The 3-D shallow water flow equations with the hydrostatic pressure assumption are solved using an implicit finite-volume method based on a quadtree (telescoping) rectangular mesh on the horizontal plane and the sigma coordinate in the vertical direction. The quadtree technique can locally refine the mesh around structures or in high-gradient regions by splitting a coarse cell into four child cells. The grid nodes are numbered with a one-dimensional index system that has unstructured grid feature for better grid flexibility. All the primary variables are arranged in a non-staggered grid system. Fluxes at cell faces are determined using a Rhie and Chow-type momentum interpolation, to avoid the possible spurious checkerboard oscillations caused by linear interpolation. Each of the discretized governing equations is solved iteratively using the flexible GMRES method with ILUT preconditioning, and coupling of water level and velocity among these equations is achieved by using the SIMPLEC algorithm with under-relaxation. The model has been tested in four cases, including steady flow near a spur-dyke, tidal flows in San Francisco Bay and Gironde Estuary, and wind-induced current in a flume. The calculated water levels and velocities are in good agreement with the measured values.
FERM3D: A finite element R-matrix electron molecule scattering code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tonzani, Stefano
2007-01-01
FERM3D is a three-dimensional finite element program, for the elastic scattering of a low energy electron from a general polyatomic molecule, which is converted to a potential scattering problem. The code is based on tricubic polynomials in spherical coordinates. The electron-molecule interaction is treated as a sum of three terms: electrostatic, exchange, and polarization. The electrostatic term can be extracted directly from ab initio codes ( GAUSSIAN 98 in the work described here), while the exchange term is approximated using a local density functional. A local polarization potential based on density functional theory [C. Lee, W. Yang, R.G. Parr, Phys. Rev. B 37 (1988) 785] describes the long range attraction to the molecular target induced by the scattering electron. Photoionization calculations are also possible and illustrated in the present work. The generality and simplicity of the approach is important in extending electron-scattering calculations to more complex targets than it is possible with other methods. Program summaryTitle of program:FERM3D Catalogue identifier:ADYL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYL_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested:Intel Xeon, AMD Opteron 64 bit, Compaq Alpha Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:HP Tru64 Unix v5.1, Red Hat Linux Enterprise 3 Programming language used:Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data:900 MB (neutral CO 2), 2.3 GB (ionic CO 2), 1.4 GB (benzene) No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized?:No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:58 383 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:561 653 Distribution format:tar.gzip file CPC Program library subprograms used:ADDA, ACDP Nature of physical problem:Scattering of an
Numerical modeling of elastodynamic radiation and scattering
Savic, M.; Ziolkowski, A.M.
1994-12-31
This paper presents a study on two problems: the two-dimensional distributed surface load problem, and the scattering of elastodynamic waves from fractures. The analysis is done with the aid of the finite-difference technique. If the dimensions of a surface mechanical source (vibrator or piezoelectric transducer) are not small compared to the wavelength, one should not use the point source or plane wave representation when modeling radiation from such sources. Here the authors demonstrate the solution of the uniformly distributed surface load problem using the finite-difference (FD) technique. The scattering of transient elasto-dynamic waves from a fracture whose extent is large compared with the wavelength and whose width is small compared with the wavelength and whose width is small compared with the wavelength is one of the classical problems in seismology and non-destructive testing (NDT). Many researchers have provided analytical solutions based on different approximations for the unknown field (displacement or particle velocity) scattered from an idealized half-plane or the a strip of finite extent. Again, the authors demonstrate the full wavefield solution using the finite-difference technique. The technique presented here is aimed for the interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments.
Acceleration of 3D Finite Difference AWP-ODC for seismic simulation on GPU Fermi Architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, J.; Cui, Y.; Choi, D.
2011-12-01
AWP-ODC, a highly scalable parallel finite-difference application, enables petascale 3D earthquake calculations. This application generates realistic dynamic earthquake source description and detailed physics-based anelastic ground motions at frequencies pertinent to safe building design. In 2010, the code achieved M8, a full dynamical simulation of a magnitude-8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault up to 2-Hz, the largest-ever earthquake simulation. Building on the success of the previous work, we have implemented CUDA on AWP-ODC to accelerate wave propagation on GPU platform. Our CUDA development aims on aggressive parallel efficiency, optimized global and shared memory access to make the best use of GPU memory hierarchy. The benchmark on NVIDIA Tesla C2050 graphics cards demonstrated many tens of speedup in single precision compared to serial implementation at a testing problem size, while an MPI-CUDA implementation is in the progress to extend our solver to multi-GPU clusters. Our CUDA implementation has been carefully verified for accuracy.
A NURBS-based generalized finite element scheme for 3D simulation of heterogeneous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safdari, Masoud; Najafi, Ahmad R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Geubelle, Philippe H.
2016-08-01
A 3D NURBS-based interface-enriched generalized finite element method (NIGFEM) is introduced to solve problems with complex discontinuous gradient fields observed in the analysis of heterogeneous materials. The method utilizes simple structured meshes of hexahedral elements that do not necessarily conform to the material interfaces in heterogeneous materials. By avoiding the creation of conforming meshes used in conventional FEM, the NIGFEM leads to significant simplification of the mesh generation process. To achieve an accurate solution in elements that are crossed by material interfaces, the NIGFEM utilizes Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to enrich the solution field locally. The accuracy and convergence of the NIGFEM are tested by solving a benchmark problem. We observe that the NIGFEM preserves an optimal rate of convergence, and provides additional advantages including the accurate capture of the solution fields in the vicinity of material interfaces and the built-in capability for hierarchical mesh refinement. Finally, the use of the NIGFEM in the computational analysis of heterogeneous materials is discussed.
Finite element modeling of a 3D coupled foot-boot model.
Qiu, Tian-Xia; Teo, Ee-Chon; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei
2011-12-01
Increasingly, musculoskeletal models of the human body are used as powerful tools to study biological structures. The lower limb, and in particular the foot, is of interest because it is the primary physical interaction between the body and the environment during locomotion. The goal of this paper is to adopt the finite element (FE) modeling and analysis approaches to create a state-of-the-art 3D coupled foot-boot model for future studies on biomechanical investigation of stress injury mechanism, foot wear design and parachute landing fall simulation. In the modeling process, the foot-ankle model with lower leg was developed based on Computed Tomography (CT) images using ScanIP, Surfacer and ANSYS. Then, the boot was represented by assembling the FE models of upper, insole, midsole and outsole built based on the FE model of the foot-ankle, and finally the coupled foot-boot model was generated by putting together the models of the lower limb and boot. In this study, the FE model of foot and ankle was validated during balance standing. There was a good agreement in the overall patterns of predicted and measured plantar pressure distribution published in literature. The coupled foot-boot model will be fully validated in the subsequent works under both static and dynamic loading conditions for further studies on injuries investigation in military and sports, foot wear design and characteristics of parachute landing impact in military. PMID:21676642
Rigorous interpolation near tilted interfaces in 3-D finite-difference EM modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shantsev, Daniil V.; Maaø, Frank A.
2015-02-01
We present a rigorous method for interpolation of electric and magnetic fields close to an interface with a conductivity contrast. The method takes into account not only a well-known discontinuity in the normal electric field, but also discontinuity in all the normal derivatives of electric and magnetic tangential fields. The proposed method is applied to marine 3-D controlled-source electromagnetic modelling (CSEM) where sources and receivers are located close to the seafloor separating conductive seawater and resistive formation. For the finite-difference scheme based on the Yee grid, the new interpolation is demonstrated to be much more accurate than alternative methods (interpolation using nodes on one side of the interface or interpolation using nodes on both sides, but ignoring the derivative jumps). The rigorous interpolation can handle arbitrary orientation of interface with respect to the grid, which is demonstrated on a marine CSEM example with a dipping seafloor. The interpolation coefficients are computed by minimizing a misfit between values at the nearest nodes and linear expansions of the continuous field components in the coordinate system aligned with the interface. The proposed interpolation operators can handle either uniform or non-uniform grids and can be applied to interpolation for both sources and receivers.
Validation Studies of the Finite Orbit Width version of the CQL3D code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Yu. V.; Harvey, R. W.
2014-10-01
The Finite-Orbit-Width (FOW) version of the CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck (FP) code has been further developed and tested. The neoclassical radial transport appears naturally in this version by averaging the local collision coefficients along guiding center orbits, with a proper transformation matrix from local (R,Z) coordinates to the midplane computational coordinates, where the FP equation is solved. In a similar way, the local quasilinear rf diffusion terms give rise to additional radial transport of orbits. The main challenge is the internal boundary conditions (IBC) which add many elements into the matrix of coefficients for the solution of FPE on the computational grid, effectively making it a non-banded matrix (but still sparse). Steady state runs have been achieved at NERSC supercomputers in typically 10 time steps. Validation tests are performed for NSTX conditions, but using different scaling factors of equilibrium magnetic field, from 0.5 to 8.0. The bootstrap current calculations for ions show a reasonable agreement of current density profiles with Sauter et al. model equations which are based on 1st order expansion, although the magnitudes of currents may differ by up to 30%. Supported by USDOE grants SC0006614, ER54744, and ER44649.
FDFD: A 3D Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Code for Electromagnetic Induction Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champagne, Nathan J.; Berryman, James G.; Buettner, H. Michael
2001-07-01
A new 3D code for electromagnetic induction tomography with intended applications to environmental imaging problems has been developed. The approach consists of calculating the fields within a volume using an implicit finite-difference frequency-domain formulation. The volume is terminated by an anisotropic perfectly matched layer region that simulates an infinite domain by absorbing outgoing waves. Extensive validation of this code has been done using analytical and semianalytical results from other codes, and some of those results are presented in this paper. The new code is written in Fortran 90 and is designed to be easily parallelized. Finally, an adjoint field method of data inversion, developed in parallel for solving the fully nonlinear inverse problem for electrical conductivity imaging (e.g., for mapping underground conducting plumes), uses this code to provide solvers for both forward and adjoint fields. Results obtained from this inversion method for high-contrast media are encouraging and provide a significant improvement over those obtained from linearized inversion methods.
A new 3D finite element model of the IEC 60318-1 artificial ear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, Agustín; Barham, Richard; Ruiz, Mariano; López, Juan Manuel; DeArcas, Guillermo; Recuero, Manuel
2008-08-01
The artificial ear specified in IEC 60318-1 is used for the measurement of headphones and has been designed to present an acoustic load equivalent to that of normal human ears. In this respect it is specified in terms of an acoustical impedance, and modelled by a lumped parameter approach. However, this has some inherent frequency limitations and becomes less valid as the acoustic wavelength approaches the characteristic dimensions within the device. In addition, when sound propagates through structures such as narrow tubes, annular slits or over sharp corners, noticeable thermal and viscous effects take place causing further departure from the lumped parameter model. A new numerical model has therefore been developed, which gives proper consideration to the aforementioned effects. Both kinds of losses can be simulated by means of the LMS Virtual Lab acoustic software which facilitates finite and boundary element modelling of the whole artificial ear. A full 3D model of the artificial ear has therefore been developed based on key dimensional data found in IEC 60318-1. The model has been used to calculate the acoustical impedance, and the results compared with the corresponding data determined from the lumped parameter model. The numerical simulation of the artificial ear has been shown to provide realistic results, and is a powerful tool for developing a detailed understanding of the device. It is also proving valuable in the revision of IEC 60318-1 that is currently in progress.
3D finite element simulation of effects of deflection rate on energy absorption for TRIP steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Asuka; Pham, Hang; Iwamoto, Takeshi
2015-09-01
Recently, with the requirement of lighter weight and more safety for a design of automobile, energy absorption capability of structural materials has become important. TRIP (Transformation-induced Plasticity) steel is expected to apply to safety members because of excellent energy absorption capability and ductility. Past studies proved that such excellent characteristics in TRIP steel are dominated by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) during plastic deformation. Because SIMT strongly depends on deformation rate and temperature, an investigation of the effects of deformation rate and temperature on energy absorption in TRIP is essential. Although energy absorption capability of material can be estimated by J-integral experimentally by using pre-cracked specimen, it is difficult to determine volume fraction of martensite and temperature rise during the crack extension. In addition, their effects on J-integral, especially at high deformation rate in experiment might be quite hard. Thus, a computational prediction needs to be performed. In this study, bending deformation behavior of pre-cracked specimen until the onset point of crack extension are predicted by 3D finite element simulation based on the transformation kinetics model proposed by Iwamoto et al. (1998). It is challenged to take effects of temperature, volume fraction of martensite and deformation rate into account. Then, the mechanism for higher energy absorption characteristic will be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakazawa, Shohei
1989-01-01
The internal structure is discussed of the MHOST finite element program designed for 3-D inelastic analysis of gas turbine hot section components. The computer code is the first implementation of the mixed iterative solution strategy for improved efficiency and accuracy over the conventional finite element method. The control structure of the program is covered along with the data storage scheme and the memory allocation procedure and the file handling facilities including the read and/or write sequences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, T. S.; Miller, R.; Greenfield, R.; Fisk, D.
2002-12-01
The propagation of seismic waves through regions of complex topography is not thoroughly understood. Surface waves, are of particular interest, as they are large in amplitude and can characterize the source depth, magnitude, and frequency content. The amplitude and frequency content of seismic waves that propagate in regions with large topographical variations are affected by both the scattering and blockage of the wave energy. The ability to predict the 3-d scattering due to topography will improve the understanding of both regional scale surface wave magnitudes, and refine surface wave discriminants as well as at the local scale (<2 km ) where it will aid in the development of rule of thumb guide lines for array sensor placement for real time sensing technologies. Ideally, when validating the numerical accuracy of a propagation model against field data, the input geologic parameters would be known and thus eliminates geology as a source of error in the calculation. In March of 2001, Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) performed a detailed seismic site characterization at the Smart Weapons Test Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The result of the KGS characterization study is a high-resolution 3-d model that is used in our seismic simulations. The velocities Vs, Vp are calculated by tomography and refraction, attenuation coefficients estimated from the surface wave and from p-waves and are provided in a model with attributes resolved in 3-d to 0.5 meters. In the present work, we present comparisons of synthetic data with seismic data collected at the Smart Weapons Test Range to benchmark the accuracy achieved in simulating 3-d wave propagation in the vicinity of a topographical anomaly (trench). Synthetic seismograms are generated using a 3-d 8th order staggered grid visco-elastic finite difference code that accounts for topography. The geologic model is based on the Yuma site characterization. The size of these calculations required use of the DoD High Performance
A 3D, finite element model for baroclinic circulation on the Vancouver Island continental shelf
Walters, R.A.; Foreman, M.G.G.
1992-01-01
This paper describes the development and application of a 3-dimensional model of the barotropic and baroclinic circulation on the continental shelf west of Vancouver Island, Canada. A previous study with a 2D barotropic model and field data revealed that several tidal constituents have a significant baroclinic component (the K1 in particular). Thus we embarked on another study with a 3D model to study the baroclinic effects on the residual and several selected tidal constituents. The 3D model uses a harmonic expansion in time and a finite element discretization in space. All nonlinear terms are retained, including quadratic bottom stress, advection and wave transport (continuity nonlinearity). The equations are solved as a global and a local problem, where the global problem is the solution of the wave equation formulation of the shallow water equations, and the local problem is the solution of the momentum equation for the vertical velocity profile. These equations are coupled to the advection-diffusion equation for density so that density gradient forcing is included in the momentum equations. However, the study presented here describes diagnostic calculations for the baroclinic residual circulation only. The model is sufficiently efficient that it encourages sensitivity testing with a large number of model runs. In this sense, the model is akin to an extension of analytical solutions to the domain of irregular geometry and bottom topography where this parameter space can be explored in some detail. In particular, the consequences of the sigma coordinate system used by the model are explored. Test cases using an idealized representation of the continental shelf, shelf break and shelf slope, lead to an estimation of the velocity errors caused by interpolation errors inherent in the sigma coordinate system. On the basis of these estimates, the computational grid used in the 2D model is found to have inadequate resolution. Thus a new grid is generated with increased
Finite-Difference Algorithm for Simulating 3D Electromagnetic Wavefields in Conductive Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.
2013-12-01
Electromagnetic (EM) wavefields are routinely used in geophysical exploration for detection and characterization of subsurface geological formations of economic interest. Recorded EM signals depend strongly on the current conductivity of geologic media. Hence, they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of saturated porous bodies. In order to enhance understanding of field-recorded data, we are developing a numerical algorithm for simulating three-dimensional (3D) EM wave propagation and diffusion in heterogeneous conductive materials. Maxwell's equations are combined with isotropic constitutive relations to obtain a set of six, coupled, first-order partial differential equations governing the electric and magnetic vectors. An advantage of this system is that it does not contain spatial derivatives of the three medium parameters electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and current conductivity. Numerical solution methodology consists of explicit, time-domain finite-differencing on a 3D staggered rectangular grid. Temporal and spatial FD operators have order 2 and N, where N is user-selectable. We use an artificially-large electric permittivity to maximize the FD timestep, and thus reduce execution time. For the low frequencies typically used in geophysical exploration, accuracy is not unduly compromised. Grid boundary reflections are mitigated via convolutional perfectly matched layers (C-PMLs) imposed at the six grid flanks. A shared-memory-parallel code implementation via OpenMP directives enables rapid algorithm execution on a multi-thread computational platform. Good agreement is obtained in comparisons of numerically-generated data with reference solutions. EM wavefields are sourced via point current density and magnetic dipole vectors. Spatially-extended inductive sources (current carrying wire loops) are under development. We are particularly interested in accurate representation of high-conductivity sub-grid-scale features that are common
Robust and scalable 3-D geo-electromagnetic modelling approach using the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grayver, Alexander V.; Bürg, Markus
2014-07-01
We present a robust and scalable solver for time-harmonic Maxwell's equations for problems with large conductivity contrasts, wide range of frequencies, stretched grids and locally refined meshes. The solver is part of the fully distributed adaptive 3-D electromagnetic modelling scheme which employs the finite element method and unstructured non-conforming hexahedral meshes for spatial discretization using the open-source software deal.II. We use the complex-valued electric field formulation and split it into two real-valued equations for which we utilize an optimal block-diagonal pre-conditioner. Application of this pre-conditioner requires the solution of two smaller real-valued symmetric problems. We solve them by using either a direct solver or the conjugate gradient method pre-conditioned with the recently introduced auxiliary space technique. The auxiliary space pre-conditioner reformulates the original problem in form of several simpler ones, which are then solved using highly efficient algebraic multigrid methods. In this paper, we consider the magnetotelluric case and verify our numerical scheme by using COMMEMI 3-D models. Afterwards, we run a series of numerical experiments and demonstrate that the solver converges in a small number of iterations for a wide frequency range and variable problem sizes. The number of iterations is independent of the problem size, but exhibits a mild dependency on frequency. To test the stability of the method on locally refined meshes, we have implemented a residual-based a posteriori error estimator and compared it with uniform mesh refinement for problems up to 200 million unknowns. We test the scalability of the most time consuming parts of our code and show that they fulfill the strong scaling assumption as long as each MPI process possesses enough degrees of freedom to alleviate communication overburden. Finally, we refer back to a direct solver-based pre-conditioner and analyse its complexity in time. The results show
3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.
2011-01-01
Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.
SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)
Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...
The numerical integration and 3-D finite element formulation of a viscoelastic model of glass
Chambers, R.S.
1994-08-01
The use of glasses is widespread in making hermetic, insulating seals for many electronic components. Flat panel displays and fiber optic connectors are other products utilizing glass as a structural element. When glass is cooled from sealing temperatures, residual stresses are generated due to mismatches in thermal shrinkage created by the dissimilar material properties of the adjoining materials. Because glass is such a brittle material at room temperature, tensile residual stresses must be kept small to ensure durability and avoid cracking. Although production designs and the required manufacturing process development can be deduced empirically, this is an expensive and time consuming process that does not necessarily lead to an optimal design. Agile manufacturing demands that analyses be used to reduce development costs and schedules by providing insight and guiding the design process through the development cycle. To make these gains, however, viscoelastic models of glass must be available along with the right tool to use them. A viscoelastic model of glass can be used to simulate the stress and volume relaxation that occurs at elevated temperatures as the molecular structure of the glass seeks to equilibrate to the state of the supercooled liquid. The substance of the numerical treatment needed to support the implementation of the model in a 3-D finite element program is presented herein. An accurate second-order, central difference integrator is proposed for the constitutive equations, and numerical solutions are compared to those obtained with other integrators. Inherent convergence problems are reviewed and fixes are described. The resulting algorithms are generally applicable to the broad class of viscoelastic material models. First-order error estimates are used as a basis for developing a scheme for automatic time step controls, and several demonstration problems are presented to illustrate the performance of the methodology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayona, Victor; Kindelan, Manuel
2013-10-01
Laminar flame propagation is an important problem in combustion modelling for which great advances have been achieved both in its theoretical understanding and in the numerical solution of the governing equations in 2D and 3D. Most of these numerical simulations use finite difference techniques on simple geometries (channels, ducts, ...) with equispaced nodes. The objective of this work is to explore the applicability of the radial basis function generated finite difference (RBF-FD) method to laminar flame propagation modelling. This method is specially well suited for the solution of problems with complex geometries and irregular boundaries. Another important advantage is that the method is independent of the dimension of the problem and, therefore, it is very easy to apply in 3D problems with complex geometries. In this work we use the RBF-FD method to compute 2D and 3D numerical results that simulate premixed laminar flames with different Lewis numbers propagating in open ducts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Sutton, M. A.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Wu, X. R.
1995-01-01
Parallel with the work in Part-1, stress intensity factors for semi-elliptical surface cracks emanating from a circular hole are determined. The 3-D weight function method with the 3D finite element solutions for the uncracked stress distribution as in Part-1 is used for the analysis. Two different loading conditions, i.e. remote tension and wedge loading, are considered for a wide range in geometrical parameters. Both single and double surface cracks are studied and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Typical crack opening displacements are also provided.
Elastodynamic image forces on dislocations
Gurrutxaga-Lerma, Beñat; Balint, Daniel S.; Dini, Daniele; Sutton, Adrian P.
2015-01-01
The elastodynamic image forces on edge and screw dislocations in the presence of a planar-free surface are derived. The explicit form of the elastodynamic fields of an injected, quiescent screw dislocation are also derived. The resulting image forces are affected by retardation effects: the dislocations experience no image force for a period of time defined by the arrival and reflection at the free surface of the dislocation fields. For the case of injected, stationary dislocations, it is shown that the elastodynamic image force tends asymptotically to the elastotatic prediction. For the case of injected, moving dislocations, it is shown that the elastodynamic image force on both the edge and the screw dislocations is magnified by inertial effects, and becomes increasingly divergent with time; this additional effect, missing in the elastostatic description, is shown to be substantial even for slow moving dislocations. Finally, it is shown that the elastodynamic image force of an edge dislocation moving towards the surface at the Rayleigh wave speed becomes repulsive, rather than attractive; this is suggestive of instabilities at the core of the dislocation, and likely resonances with the free surface. PMID:26528080
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhi-Qian; Liu, G. R.; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2013-02-01
A three-dimensional immersed smoothed finite element method (3D IS-FEM) using four-node tetrahedral element is proposed to solve 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. The 3D IS-FEM is able to determine accurately the physical deformation of the nonlinear solids placed within the incompressible viscous fluid governed by Navier-Stokes equations. The method employs the semi-implicit characteristic-based split scheme to solve the fluid flows and smoothed finite element methods to calculate the transient dynamics responses of the nonlinear solids based on explicit time integration. To impose the FSI conditions, a novel, effective and sufficiently general technique via simple linear interpolation is presented based on Lagrangian fictitious fluid meshes coinciding with the moving and deforming solid meshes. In the comparisons to the referenced works including experiments, it is clear that the proposed 3D IS-FEM ensures stability of the scheme with the second order spatial convergence property; and the IS-FEM is fairly independent of a wide range of mesh size ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.
2015-12-01
Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.
A feasibility study of a 3-D finite element solution scheme for aeroengine duct acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abrahamson, A. L.
1980-01-01
The advantage from development of a 3-D model of aeroengine duct acoustics is the ability to analyze axial and circumferential liner segmentation simultaneously. The feasibility of a 3-D duct acoustics model was investigated using Galerkin or least squares element formulations combined with Gaussian elimination, successive over-relaxation, or conjugate gradient solution algorithms on conventional scalar computers and on a vector machine. A least squares element formulation combined with a conjugate gradient solver on a CDC Star vector computer initially appeared to have great promise, but severe difficulties were encountered with matrix ill-conditioning. These difficulties in conditioning rendered this technique impractical for realistic problems.
Hallquist, J.O.
1981-01-01
A user's manual is provided for NIKE3D, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation static and dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node constant pressure solid elements. Bandwidth minimization is optional. Post-processors for NIKE3D include GRAPE for plotting deformed shapes and stress contours and DYNAP for plotting time histories.
3-d finite element model development for biomechanics: a software demonstration
Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.M.; Ashby, E.
1997-03-01
Finite element analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of biomechanics and orthopedic research, as computational resources become more powerful, and data handling algorithms become more sophisticated. Until recently, tools with sufficient power did not exist or were not accessible to adequately model complicated, three-dimensional, nonlinear biomechanical systems. In the past, finite element analyses in biomechanics have often been limited to two-dimensional approaches, linear analyses, or simulations of single tissue types. Today, we have the resources to model fully three-dimensional, nonlinear, multi-tissue, and even multi-joint systems. The authors will present the process of developing these kinds of finite element models, using human hand and knee examples, and will demonstrate their software tools.
A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1998-01-01
Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.
Edge-based finite elements and vector ABCs applied to 3D scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
An edge based finite element formulation with vector absorbing boundary conditions is presented for scattering by composite structures having boundaries satisfying impedance and/or transition conditions. Remarkably accurate results are obtained by placing the mesh a small fraction of a wavelength away from the scatterer.
3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing
2016-05-01
The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.
3D Finite Element Analysis of Spider Non-isothermal Forging Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Ling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Kun Xia; Alexandrov, Igor V.; Hu, Jing
2016-06-01
The differences of effective stress, effective strain, velocity field, and the load-time curves between the spider isothermal and non-isothermal forging processes are investigated by making full use of 3D FEA, and verified by the production experiment of spider forging. Effective stress is mainly concentrated on the pin, and becomes lower closer to the front of the pin. The maximum effective strain in the non-isothermal forging is lower than that in the isothermal. The great majority of strain in the non-isothermal forging process is 1.76, which is larger than the strain of 1.31 in the isothermal forging. The maximum load required in the isothermal forging is higher than that in the non-isothermal. The maximum experimental load and deformation temperature in the spider production are in good agreement with those in the non-isothermal FEA. The results indicate that the non-isothermal 3D FEA results can guide the design of the spider forging process.
Simulation of 3D tumor cell growth using nonlinear finite element method.
Dong, Shoubing; Yan, Yannan; Tang, Liqun; Meng, Junping; Jiang, Yi
2016-06-01
We propose a novel parallel computing framework for a nonlinear finite element method (FEM)-based cell model and apply it to simulate avascular tumor growth. We derive computation formulas to simplify the simulation and design the basic algorithms. With the increment of the proliferation generations of tumor cells, the FEM elements may become larger and more distorted. Then, we describe a remesh and refinement processing of the distorted or over large finite elements and the parallel implementation based on Message Passing Interface to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation. We demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the FEM model and the parallelization methods in simulations of early tumor growth. PMID:26213205
A 3-D Finite-Volume Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jin
2014-05-01
The Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Model (NIM) formulates the latest numerical innovation of the three-dimensional finite-volume control volume on the quasi-uniform icosahedral grid suitable for ultra-high resolution simulations. NIM's modeling goal is to improve numerical accuracy for weather and climate simulations as well as to utilize the state-of-art computing architecture such as massive parallel CPUs and GPUs to deliver routine high-resolution forecasts in timely manner. NIM dynamic corel innovations include: * A local coordinate system remapped spherical surface to plane for numerical accuracy (Lee and MacDonald, 2009), * Grid points in a table-driven horizontal loop that allow any horizontal point sequence (A.E. MacDonald, et al., 2010), * Flux-Corrected Transport formulated on finite-volume operators to maintain conservative positive definite transport (J.-L, Lee, ET. Al., 2010), *Icosahedral grid optimization (Wang and Lee, 2011), * All differentials evaluated as three-dimensional finite-volume integrals around the control volume. The three-dimensional finite-volume solver in NIM is designed to improve pressure gradient calculation and orographic precipitation over complex terrain. NIM dynamical core has been successfully verified with various non-hydrostatic benchmark test cases such as internal gravity wave, and mountain waves in Dynamical Cores Model Inter-comparisons Projects (DCMIP). Physical parameterizations suitable for NWP are incorporated into NIM dynamical core and successfully tested with multimonth aqua-planet simulations. Recently, NIM has started real data simulations using GFS initial conditions. Results from the idealized tests as well as real-data simulations will be shown in the conference.
Binary 3-D Markov Chain Random Fields: Finite-size Scaling Analysis of Percolation Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harter, T.
2004-12-01
Percolation phenomena in random media have been extensively studied in a wide variety of fields in physics, chemistry, engineering, bio-, earth-, and environmental sciences. Most work has focused on uncorrelated random fields. The critical behavior in media with short-range correlations is thought to be identical to that in uncorrelated systems. However, the percolation threshold, pc, which is 0.3116 in uncorrelated media, has been observed to vary with the correlation scale and also with the random field type. Here, we present percolation properties and finite-size scaling effects in three-dimensional binary cubic lattices represented by correlated Markov-chain random fields and compare them to those in sequential Gaussian and sequential indicator random fields. We find that the computed percolation threshold in correlated random fields is significantly lower than in the uncorrelated lattice and decreases with increasing correlation scale. The rate of decrease rapidly flattens out for correlation lengths larger than 2-3 grid-blocks. At correlation scales of 5-6 grid blocks, pc is found to be 0.126 for the Markov chain random fields and slightly higher for sequential Gaussian and indicator random fields. The universal scaling constants for mean cluster size, backbone fraction, and connectivity are found to be consistent with results on uncorrelated lattices. For numerical studies, it is critical to understand finite-size effects on the percolation and associated phase connectivity properties of lattices. We present detailed statistical results on the percolation properties in finite sized lattice and their dependence on correlation scale. We show that appropriate grid resolution and choice of simulation boundaries is critical to properly simulate correlated natural geologic systems, which may display significant finite-size effects.
Finite-difference model for 3-D flow in bays and estuaries
Smith, Peter E.; Larock, Bruce E.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a semi-implicit finite-difference model for the numerical solution of three-dimensional flow in bays and estuaries. The model treats the gravity wave and vertical diffusion terms in the governing equations implicitly, and other terms explicitly. The model achieves essentially second-order accurate and stable solutions in strongly nonlinear problems by using a three-time-level leapfrog-trapezoidal scheme for the time integration.
A 3D finite element simulation model for TBM tunnelling in soft ground
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasper, Thomas; Meschke, Günther
2004-12-01
A three-dimensional finite element simulation model for shield-driven tunnel excavation is presented. The model takes into account all relevant components of the construction process (the soil and the ground water, the tunnel boring machine with frictional contact to the soil, the hydraulic jacks, the tunnel lining and the tail void grouting). The paper gives a detailed description of the model components and the stepwise procedure to simulate the construction process. The soil and the grout material are modelled as saturated porous media using a two-field finite element formulation. This allows to take into account the groundwater, the grouting pressure and the fluid interaction between the soil and slurry at the cutting face and between the soil and grout around the tail void. A Cam-Clay plasticity model is used to describe the material behaviour of cohesive soils. The cementitious grouting material in the tail void is modelled as an ageing elastic material with time-dependent stiffness and permeability. To allow for an automated computation of arbitrarily long and also curvilinear driving paths with suitable finite element meshes, the simulation procedure has been fully automated. The simulation of a tunnel advance in soft cohesive soil below the ground water table is presented and the results are compared with measurements taken from the literature. Copyright
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhrig, Matthias P.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.
2016-02-01
This research presents a 3D numerical finite element (FE) model which, previously developed, precisely simulates non-contact, air-coupled measurements of nonlinear Rayleigh wave propagation. The commercial FE-solver ABAQUS is used to perform the simulations. First, frequency dependent pressure wave attenuation is investigated numerically to reconstruct the sound pressure distribution along the active surface of the non-contact receiver. Second, constitutive law and excitation source properties are optimized to match nonlinear ultrasonic experimental data. Finally, the FE-model data are fit with analytical solutions showing a good agreement and thus, indicating the significance of the study performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, J. P.; Duarte, C. A.; Jiao, X.; Guoy, D.
2009-06-01
This paper presents a study of generalized enrichment functions for 3D curved crack fronts. Two coordinate systems used in the definition of singular curved crack front enrichment functions are analyzed. In the first one, a set of Cartesian coordinate systems defined along the crack front is used. In the second case, the geometry of the crack front is approximated by a set of curvilinear coordinate systems. A description of the computation of derivatives of enrichment functions and curvilinear base vectors is presented. The coordinate systems are automatically defined using geometrical information provided by an explicit representation of the crack surface. A detailed procedure to accurately evaluate the surface normal, conormal and tangent vectors along curvilinear crack fronts in explicit crack surface representations is also presented. An accurate and robust definition of orthonormal vectors along crack fronts is crucial for the proper definition of enrichment functions. Numerical experiments illustrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed approaches.
Image forces on 3d dislocation structures in crystals of finite volume
El-Azab, A.
1999-07-01
The present work aims at studying the image stress and image Peach-Koehler force fields for three-dimensional dislocation configurations in a single crystal of finite volume. It is shown that the image stress field is significant within the entire crystal volume, and that the image Peach-Koehler force can be of the same order of magnitude as the direct interaction force calculated from the infinite domain solution. The results demonstrate that image stress gives rise to long-range interaction forces that are important in meso-scale dynamics of dislocation structures.
Image Forces on 3-D Dislocation Structures in Crystals of Finite Volume
El-Azab, Anter ); V.V. Bulatov
1999-01-01
The present work aims at studying the image stress and image Peach-Koehler force fields for three-dimensional dislocation configurations in a single crystal of finite volume. It is shown that the image stress field is significant within the entire crystal volume, and that the image Peach-Koehler force can be of the same order of magnitude as the direct interaction force calculated from the infinite domain solution. The results demonstrate that image stress gives rise to long-range interaction forces that are important in meso-scale dynamics of dislocation structures.
A Lagrange-Galerkin hp-Finite Element Method for a 3D Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galán del Sastre, Pedro; Bermejo, Rodolfo
2016-03-01
We introduce in this paper a Lagrange-Galerkin hp-finite element method to calculate the numerical solution of a nonhydrostatic ocean model. The Lagrange-Galerkin method yields a Stokes-like problem the solution of which is computed by a second-order rotational splitting scheme that separates the calculation of the velocity and pressure, the latter is decomposed into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components. We have tested the method in flows where the nonhydrostatic effects are important. The results are very encouraging.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leser, Patrick E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Leser, William P.; Warner, James E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2015-01-01
Utilizing inverse uncertainty quantification techniques, structural health monitoring can be integrated with damage progression models to form probabilistic predictions of a structure's remaining useful life. However, damage evolution in realistic structures is physically complex. Accurately representing this behavior requires high-fidelity models which are typically computationally prohibitive. In the present work, a high-fidelity finite element model is represented by a surrogate model, reducing computation times. The new approach is used with damage diagnosis data to form a probabilistic prediction of remaining useful life for a test specimen under mixed-mode conditions.
Kılıç, Emre Eibert, Thomas F.
2015-05-01
An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.
Finite Orbit Width versions of the CQL3D code: Hybrid-FOW and Full-FOW
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Yu. V.; Harvey, R. W.
2012-10-01
Finite-Orbit-Width (FOW) effects are being added into the CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code [1] using two main options. In the Hybrid-FOW option, partial FOW capabilities are implemented which add FOW features into the particle source (NB) operator, RF quasilinear operator, diagnostics, and guiding center orbit losses with gyro-radius correction. Collisions remain Zero-Orbit-Width (ZOW). The Hybrid-FOW version provides a greatly improved agreement with signals measured by the NSTX Fast Ion Diagnostic [2]. The advantage of the Hybrid-FOW version is that run time increases by only a factor of two compared to ZOW runs. The Full-FOW option further adds neoclassical radial transport features into the FP coding. The collisional coefficients are averaged along guiding center orbits, with a proper transformation matrix from local coordinates to the midplane coordinates, where the FP equation is solved. All radial terms are included. The computations are parallelized in velocity-grid index, typically using 128 CPU cores. We emphasize that this theory includes nonthermal and full-orbit, not first order correction, neoclassical theory. [4pt] [1] R.W. Harvey and M. McCoy, ``The CQL3D Fokker Planck Code,'' www.compxco.com/cql3d [0pt] [2] R.W. Harvey, Yu. Petrov, D. Liu, W. Heidbrink, P. Bonoli, this mtg (2012)
The Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method applied to the Study of Rock Fracturing Behavior in 3D
Rougier, Esteban; Bradley, Christopher R.; Broom, Scott T.; Knight, Earl E.; Munjiza, Ante; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swift, Robert P.
2011-01-01
Since its introduction the combined finite-discrete element method (FEM/DEM), has become an excellent tool to address a wide range of problems involving fracturing and fragmentation of solids. Within the context of rock mechanics, the FEM/DEM method has been applied to many complex industrial problems such as block caving, deep mining techniques, rock blasting, seismic waves, packing problems, rock crushing problems, etc. In the real world most of the problems involving fracture and fragmentation of solids are three dimensional problems. With the aim of addressing these problems an improved 2D/3D FEM/DEM capability has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These capabilities include state of the art 3D contact detection, contact interaction, constitutive material models, and fracture models. In this paper, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) Brazilian experiments are simulated using this improved 2D/3D FEM/DEM approach which is implemented in LANL's MUNROU (Munjiza-Rougier) code. The results presented in this work show excellent agreement with both the SHPB experiments and previous 2D numerical simulations performed by other FEM/DEM research groups.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddag, B.; Kagnaya, T.; Nouari, M.; Cutard, T.
2013-01-01
Modelling machining operations allows estimating cutting parameters which are difficult to obtain experimentally and in particular, include quantities characterizing the tool-workpiece interface. Temperature is one of these quantities which has an impact on the tool wear, thus its estimation is important. This study deals with a new modelling strategy, based on two steps of calculation, for analysis of the heat transfer into the cutting tool. Unlike the classical methods, considering only the cutting tool with application of an approximate heat flux at the cutting face, estimated from experimental data (e.g. measured cutting force, cutting power), the proposed approach consists of two successive 3D Finite Element calculations and fully independent on the experimental measurements; only the definition of the behaviour of the tool-workpiece couple is necessary. The first one is a 3D thermomechanical modelling of the chip formation process, which allows estimating cutting forces, chip morphology and its flow direction. The second calculation is a 3D thermal modelling of the heat diffusion into the cutting tool, by using an adequate thermal loading (applied uniform or non-uniform heat flux). This loading is estimated using some quantities obtained from the first step calculation, such as contact pressure, sliding velocity distributions and contact area. Comparisons in one hand between experimental data and the first calculation and at the other hand between measured temperatures with embedded thermocouples and the second calculation show a good agreement in terms of cutting forces, chip morphology and cutting temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Xuejun; Jelen, Urszula; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.
2011-06-01
Targeting at the development of an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on graphics processing unit (GPU). This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework (Gu et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97). Dosimetric evaluations against Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on ten IMRT treatment plans (five head-and-neck cases and five lung cases). For all cases, there is improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm and for most cases the improvement is significant. Regarding the efficiency, because of the appropriate arrangement of memory access and the usage of GPU intrinsic functions, the dose calculation for an IMRT plan can be accomplished well within 1 s (except for one case) with this new GPU-based FSPB algorithm. Compared to the previous GPU-based FSPB algorithm without 3D-density correction, this new algorithm, though slightly sacrificing the computational efficiency (~5-15% lower), has significantly improved the dose calculation accuracy, making it more suitable for online IMRT replanning.
Gu, Xuejun; Jelen, Urszula; Li, Jinsheng; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B
2011-06-01
Targeting at the development of an accurate and efficient dose calculation engine for online adaptive radiotherapy, we have implemented a finite-size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm with a 3D-density correction method on graphics processing unit (GPU). This new GPU-based dose engine is built on our previously published ultrafast FSPB computational framework (Gu et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6287-97). Dosimetric evaluations against Monte Carlo dose calculations are conducted on ten IMRT treatment plans (five head-and-neck cases and five lung cases). For all cases, there is improvement with the 3D-density correction over the conventional FSPB algorithm and for most cases the improvement is significant. Regarding the efficiency, because of the appropriate arrangement of memory access and the usage of GPU intrinsic functions, the dose calculation for an IMRT plan can be accomplished well within 1 s (except for one case) with this new GPU-based FSPB algorithm. Compared to the previous GPU-based FSPB algorithm without 3D-density correction, this new algorithm, though slightly sacrificing the computational efficiency (∼5-15% lower), has significantly improved the dose calculation accuracy, making it more suitable for online IMRT replanning. PMID:21558589
Orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors: a 3D finite element method study
Saga, Armando Yukio; Maruo, Hiroshi; Argenta, Marco André; Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro
2016-01-01
Objective: In orthodontic treatment, intrusion movement of maxillary incisors is often necessary. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to evaluate the initial distribution patterns and magnitude of compressive stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) in a simulation of orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors, considering the points of force application. Methods: Anatomic 3D models reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to simulate maxillary incisors intrusion loading. The points of force application selected were: centered between central incisors brackets (LOAD 1); bilaterally between the brackets of central and lateral incisors (LOAD 2); bilaterally distal to the brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 3); bilaterally 7 mm distal to the center of brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 4). Results and Conclusions: Stress concentrated at the PDL apex region, irrespective of the point of orthodontic force application. The four load models showed distinct contour plots and compressive stress values over the midsagittal reference line. The contour plots of central and lateral incisors were not similar in the same load model. LOAD 3 resulted in more balanced compressive stress distribution. PMID:27007765
3D finite element modelling of guided wave scattering at delaminations in composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murat, Bibi Intan Suraya; Fromme, Paul
2016-02-01
Carbon fiber laminate composites are increasingly used for aerospace structures as they offer a number of advantages including a good strength to weight ratio. However, impact during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the impact, delaminations can occur, reducing the load carrying capacity of the structure. Efficient nondestructive testing of composite panels can be achieved using guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the structure. The guided wave (A0 Lamb wave mode) scattering at delaminations was modeled using full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) simulations. The influence of the delamination size was systematically investigated from a parameter study. A significant influence of the delamination width on the guided wave scattering was found, especially on the angular dependency of the scattered guided wave amplitude. The sensitivity of guided ultrasonic waves for the detection of delamination damage in composite panels is discussed.
Active tectonics in Taiwan: insights from a 3-D viscous finite element model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yujun; Liu, Mian; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin
2015-12-01
Taiwan is a young orogenic belt with complex spatial distributions of deformation and earthquakes. We have constructed a three-dimensional finite element model to explore how the interplays between lithospheric structure and plate boundary processes control the distribution of stress and strain rates in the Taiwan region. The model assumes a liberalized power-law rheology and incorporates main lithospheric structures; the model domain is loaded by the present-day crustal velocity applied at its boundaries. The model successfully reproduces the main features of the GPS-measured strain rate patterns and the earthquake-indicated stress states in the Taiwan region. The best fitting model requires the viscosity of the lower crust to be two orders of magnitude lower than that of the upper crust and lithospheric mantle. The calculated deviatoric stress is high in regions of thrust faulting and low in regions of extensional and strike-slip faulting, consistent with the spatial pattern of seismic intensity in Taiwan.
Finite element methods of analysis for 3D inviscid compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peraire, Jaime
1990-01-01
The applicants have developed a finite element based approach for the solution of three-dimensional compressible flows. The procedure enables flow solutions to be obtained on tetrahedral discretizations of computational domains of complex form. A further development was the incorporation of a solution adaptive mesh strategy in which the adaptivity is achieved by complete remeshing of the solution domain. During the previous year, the applicants were working with the Advanced Aerodynamics Concepts Branch at NASA Ames Research Center with an implementation of the basic meshing and solution procedure. The objective of the work to be performed over this twelve month period was the transfer of the adaptive mesh technology and also the undertaking of basic research into alternative flow algorithms for the Euler equations on unstructured meshes.
Simulation of dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes using 3D finite element analysis.
Berger, S D; McGruer, N E; Adams, G G
2015-04-17
One of the most important methods for selective and repeatable assembly of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is alternating current dielectrophoresis (DEP). This method has been demonstrated experimentally as a viable technique for nano-scale manufacturing of novel CNT based devices. Previous numerical analyses have studied the motion of nanotubes, the volume from which they are assembled, and the rate of assembly, but have been restricted by various simplifying assumptions. In this paper we present a method for simulating the motion and behavior of CNTs subjected to dielectrophoresis using a three-dimensional electrostatic finite element analysis. By including the CNT in the finite element model, we can accurately predict the effect of the CNT on the electric field and the resulting force distribution across the CNT can be determined. We have used this information to calculate the motion of CNTs assembling onto the electrodes, and show how they tend to move towards the center of an electrode and come into contact at highly skewed angles. Our analysis suggests that the CNTs move to the electrode gap only after initially contacting the electrodes. We have also developed a model of the elastic deformation of CNTs as they approach the electrodes demonstrating how the induced forces can significantly alter the CNT shape during assembly. These results show that the CNT does not behave as a rigid body when in close proximity to the electrodes. In the future this method can be applied to a variety of real electrode geometries on a case-by-case basis and will provide more detailed insight into the specific motion and assembly parameters necessary for effective DEP assembly. PMID:25804394
Simulation of dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotubes using 3D finite element analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, S. D.; McGruer, N. E.; Adams, G. G.
2015-04-01
One of the most important methods for selective and repeatable assembly of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is alternating current dielectrophoresis (DEP). This method has been demonstrated experimentally as a viable technique for nano-scale manufacturing of novel CNT based devices. Previous numerical analyses have studied the motion of nanotubes, the volume from which they are assembled, and the rate of assembly, but have been restricted by various simplifying assumptions. In this paper we present a method for simulating the motion and behavior of CNTs subjected to dielectrophoresis using a three-dimensional electrostatic finite element analysis. By including the CNT in the finite element model, we can accurately predict the effect of the CNT on the electric field and the resulting force distribution across the CNT can be determined. We have used this information to calculate the motion of CNTs assembling onto the electrodes, and show how they tend to move towards the center of an electrode and come into contact at highly skewed angles. Our analysis suggests that the CNTs move to the electrode gap only after initially contacting the electrodes. We have also developed a model of the elastic deformation of CNTs as they approach the electrodes demonstrating how the induced forces can significantly alter the CNT shape during assembly. These results show that the CNT does not behave as a rigid body when in close proximity to the electrodes. In the future this method can be applied to a variety of real electrode geometries on a case-by-case basis and will provide more detailed insight into the specific motion and assembly parameters necessary for effective DEP assembly.
A Simulation of crustal deformation around sourthwest Japan using 3D Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oma, T.; Ito, T.; Sasajima, R.
2015-12-01
In southwest Japan, the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian plate at the Nankai Trough. Megathrust earthquakes have been occurred with recurrence intervals of about 100-150 years. Previous studies have estimated co-seismic slip distribution at the 1944 Tokankai and the 1946 Nankai earthquakes and interplate plate coupling along the Nankai Trough. Many of previous studies employed a homogeneous elastic half space or elastic and viscoelastic layers structure. However, these assumptions as mentioned above are inadequate, since inhomogeneous structure is exceled in the real earth result from subducting plate. Therefore, in order to estimate the effect of inhomogeneous structure on the crustal deformation, we calculate crustal deformation due to Megathrust earthquake using 3-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). We use FEM software PyLith v2.1. In this study, we construct a finite element mesh with the region of 3000km(SW) × 2300km(NS) × 400km(depth) cover Japanese Islands, using Cubit 13.0. This mesh is considered topography, the Philippine Sea plate, the Pacific plate, Moho discontinuity, and curvature of the earth. In order to examine differences of surface displacement between inhomogeneous and homogeneous structures, we use co-seismic slip distribution of the 1944 and 1946 earthquakes estimated by Sagiya and Thatcher (1999). In result, surface elastic response under inhomogeneous structure becomes 30% larger than it's homogeneous structure at the Muroto cape. This difference indicates that co-seismic slip or plate coupling distribution estimated from Green's function under an assumption of homogeneous structure is overestimated. Then, we calculate viscoelastic response assuming Maxwell rheology model and viscosity as 1×1019. As a result, predicted horizontal velocity of viscoelastic response due to the events corresponds to 10 % of observed present deformation. It suggest that spatial pattern of plate coupling might be change when we
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, J.; Firoozabadi, A.
2013-12-01
Most problems of interest in hydrogeology and subsurface energy resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most naturally represented in numerical reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods are a natural choice to describe fluid flow on unstructured meshes, because the governing equations can be readily discretized for any grid-element geometry. In this work, we consider the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by tetrahedra, prisms, or hexahedra, and compare to simulations on 3D structured grids. We employ a combination of mixed hybrid finite element methods to solve for the pressure and flux fields in a fractional flow formulation, and higher-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for the mass transport equations. These methods are well suited to simulate flow in heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide a globally continuous pressure and flux field, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in the phase properties, such as compositions and saturations. The increased accuracy from using higher-order methods improves the modeling of highly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We present several numerical examples to study convergence rates and the (lack of) sensitivity to gridding/mesh orientation, and mesh quality. These examples consider gravity depletion, water and gas injection in oil saturated subsurface reservoirs with species exchange between up to three fluid phases. The examples demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods in the study of challenging multiphase flow problems in porous, geometrically complex, subsurface media.
Sutradhar, Alok; Park, Jaejong; Carrau, Diana; Miller, Michael J
2014-09-01
With the dawn of 3D printing technology, patient-specific implant designs are set to have a paradigm shift. A topology optimization method in designing patient-specific craniofacial implants has been developed to ensure adequate load transfer mechanism and restore the form and function of the mid-face. Patient-specific finite element models are used to design these implants and to validate whether they are viable for physiological loading such as mastication. Validation of these topology optimized finite element models using mechanical testing is a critical step. Instead of inserting the implants into a cadaver or patient, we embed the implants into the computer-aided skull model of a patient and, fuse them together to 3D print the complete skull model with the implant. Masticatory forces are applied in the molar region to simulate chewing and measure the stress-strain trajectory. Until recently, strain gages have been used to measure strains for validation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is a relatively new technique for full-field strain measurement which provides a continuous deformation field data. The main objective of this study is to validate the finite element model of patient-specific craniofacial implants against the strain data from the DIC obtained during the mastication simulation and show that the optimized shapes provide adequate load-transfer mechanism. Patient-specific models are obtained from CT scans. The principal maximum and minimum strains are compared. The computational and experimental approach to designing patient-specific implants proved to be a viable technique for mid-face craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:24992729
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnet, Marc; Aquino, Wilkins
2014-10-01
This work is concerned with large-scale three-dimensional inversion under transient elastodynamic conditions by means of the modified error in constitutive relation (MECR), an energy-based cost functional. A peculiarity of time-domain MECR formulations is that each evaluation involves the computation of two elastodynamic states (one forward, one backward) which moreover are coupled. This coupling creates a major computational bottleneck, making MECR-based inversion difficult for spatially 2D or 3D configurations. To overcome this obstacle, we propose an approach whose main ingredients are (a) setting the entire computational procedure in a consistent time-discrete framework that incorporates the chosen time-stepping algorithm, and (b) using an iterative SOR-like method for the resulting stationarity equations. The resulting MECR-based inversion algorithm is demonstrated on a 3D transient elastodynamic example involving over 500,000 unknown elastic moduli.
Study of Multi Pass Equal Channel Angular Pressing Using 3D Finite Element Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setia, Rajat; Sharma, Rahul Swarup; Sharma, Shanti Swarup; Raj, K. Hans
2011-01-01
Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) has emerged as most prominent Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) technique used to produce an ultrafine grained (UFG) structure in metals in order to improve their mechanical and physical properties. In this work Finite Element modeling of ECAP is attempted in FORGE 2007 environment. Four passes of the ECAP process of 10mm square shaped AL 6061 billet were carried out for routes A, BA and C for different channel angles and values of coefficient of friction to investigate their influence on the billet. The models were developed assuming a range of friction conditions at the billet-die contact region considering eight distinct friction coefficient (μ) values of 0.0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The simulations are carried out using three distinct situations of die channel angles (Φ), 90°, 105°, and 120° respectively. Route `BA' emerged as a better method among the three routes studied and 90° channel angle appeared to be optimal in terms of producing high equivalent strain.
Accurate 3-D finite difference computation of traveltimes in strongly heterogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noble, M.; Gesret, A.; Belayouni, N.
2014-12-01
Seismic traveltimes and their spatial derivatives are the basis of many imaging methods such as pre-stack depth migration and tomography. A common approach to compute these quantities is to solve the eikonal equation with a finite-difference scheme. If many recently published algorithms for resolving the eikonal equation do now yield fairly accurate traveltimes for most applications, the spatial derivatives of traveltimes remain very approximate. To address this accuracy issue, we develop a new hybrid eikonal solver that combines a spherical approximation when close to the source and a plane wave approximation when far away. This algorithm reproduces properly the spherical behaviour of wave fronts in the vicinity of the source. We implement a combination of 16 local operators that enables us to handle velocity models with sharp vertical and horizontal velocity contrasts. We associate to these local operators a global fast sweeping method to take into account all possible directions of wave propagation. Our formulation allows us to introduce a variable grid spacing in all three directions of space. We demonstrate the efficiency of this algorithm in terms of computational time and the gain in accuracy of the computed traveltimes and their derivatives on several numerical examples.
Bone stress and strain modification in diastema closure: 3D analysis using finite element method.
Geramy, Allahyar; Bouserhal, Joseph; Martin, Domingo; Baghaeian, Pedram
2015-09-01
The aim of this study was to analyse the stress and strain distribution in the alveolar bone between two central incisors in the process of diastema closure with a constant force. A 3-dimensional computer modeling based on finite element techniques was used for this purpose. A model of an anterior segment of the mandible containing cortical bone, spongy bone, gingivae, PDL and two central incisors with a bracket in the labial surface of each tooth were designed. The von Mises stress and strain was evaluated in alveolar bone along a path of nodes defined in a cresto-apical direction in the midline between two teeth. It was observed that stress and strain of alveolar bone increased in midline with a constant force to close the diastema regardless of the type of movement in gradual steps of diastema closure, however the stress was higher in the tipping movement than the bodily so it can be suggested that a protocol of force system modification should be introduced to compensate for the stress and strain changes caused by the reduced distance to avoid the unwanted stress alteration during the diastema closure. PMID:26277458
Electron scattering from large molecules: a 3d finite element R-matrix approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tonzani, Stefano; Greene, Chris H.
2005-05-01
To solve the Schr"odinger equation for scattering of a low energy electron from a molecule, we present a three-dimensional finite element R-matrix method [S. Tonzani and C. H. Greene, J. Chem. Phys. 122 01411, (2005)]. Using the static exchange and local density approximations, we can use directly the molecular potentials extracted from ab initio codes (GAUSSIAN 98 in the work described here). A local polarization potential based on density functional theory [F. A. Gianturco and A. Rodriguez-Ruiz, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1075 (1993)] approximately describes the long range attraction to the molecular target induced by the scattering electron without adjustable parameters. We have used this approach successfully in calculations of cross sections for small and medium sized molecules (like SF6, XeF6, C60 and Uracil). This method will be useful to treat the electron-induced dynamics of extended molecular systems, possibly of biological interest, where oth er more complex ab initio methods are difficult to apply.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korneev, V. G.
2012-09-01
BPS is a well known an efficient and rather general domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioner, suggested in the famous series of papers Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz (1986-1989). Since then, it has been serving as the origin for the whole family of domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioners-solvers as for h so hp discretizations of elliptic problems. For its original version, designed for h discretizations, the named authors proved the bound O(1 + log2 H/ h) for the relative condition number under some restricting conditions on the domain decomposition and finite element discretization. Here H/ h is the maximal relation of the characteristic size H of a decomposition subdomain to the mesh parameter h of its discretization. It was assumed that subdomains are images of the reference unite cube by trilinear mappings. Later similar bounds related to h discretizations were proved for more general domain decompositions, defined by means of coarse tetrahedral meshes. These results, accompanied by the development of some special tools of analysis aimed at such type of decompositions, were summarized in the book of Toselli and Widlund (2005). This paper is also confined to h discretizations. We further expand the range of admissible domain decompositions for constructing BPS preconditioners, in which decomposition subdomains can be convex polyhedrons, satisfying some conditions of shape regularity. We prove the bound for the relative condition number with the same dependence on H/ h as in the bound given above. Along the way to this result, we simplify the proof of the so called abstract bound for the relative condition number of the domain decomposition preconditioner. In the part, related to the analysis of the interface sub-problem preconditioning, our technical tools are generalization of those used by Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz.
Simulating hydroplaning of submarine landslides by quasi 3D depth averaged finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Blasio, Fabio; Battista Crosta, Giovanni
2014-05-01
G.B. Crosta, H. J. Chen, and F.V. De Blasio Dept. Of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy Klohn Crippen Berger, Calgary, Canada Subaqueous debris flows/submarine landslides, both in the open ocean as well as in fresh waters, exhibit extremely high mobility, quantified by a ratio between vertical to horizontal displacement of the order 0.01 or even much less. It is possible to simulate subaqueous debris flows with small-scale experiments along a flume or a pool using a cohesive mixture of clay and sand. The results have shown a strong enhancement of runout and velocity compared to the case in which the same debris flow travels without water, and have indicated hydroplaning as a possible explanation (Mohrig et al. 1998). Hydroplaning is started when the snout of the debris flow travels sufficiently fast. This generates lift forces on the front of the debris flow exceeding the self-weight of the sediment, which so begins to travel detached from the bed, literally hovering instead of flowing. Clearly, the resistance to flow plummets because drag stress against water is much smaller than the shear strength of the material. The consequence is a dramatic increase of the debris flow speed and runout. Does the process occur also for subaqueous landslides and debris flows in the ocean, something twelve orders of magnitude larger than the experimental ones? Obviously, no experiment will ever be capable to replicate this size, one needs to rely on numerical simulations. Results extending a depth-integrated numerical model for debris flows (Imran et al., 2001) indicate that hydroplaning is possible (De Blasio et al., 2004), but more should be done especially with alternative numerical methodologies. In this work, finite element methods are used to simulate hydroplaning using the code MADflow (Chen, 2014) adopting a depth averaged solution. We ran some simulations on the small scale of the laboratory experiments, and secondly
3D Finite-Difference Modeling of Acoustic Radiation from Seismic Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chael, E. P.; Aldridge, D. F.; Jensen, R. P.
2013-12-01
Shallow seismic events, earthquakes as well as explosions, often generate acoustic waves in the atmosphere observable at local or even regional distances. Recording both the seismic and acoustic signals can provide additional constraints on source parameters such as epicenter coordinates, depth, origin time, moment, and mechanism. Recent advances in finite-difference (FD) modeling methods enable accurate numerical treatment of wave propagation across the ground surface between the (solid) elastic and (fluid) acoustic domains. Using a fourth-order, staggered-grid, velocity-stress FD algorithm, we are investigating the effects of various source parameters on the acoustic (or infrasound) signals transmitted from the solid earth into the atmosphere. Compressional (P), shear (S), and Rayleigh waves all radiate some acoustic energy into the air at the ground surface. These acoustic wavefronts are typically conical in shape, since their phase velocities along the surface exceed the sound speed in air. Another acoustic arrival with a spherical wavefront can be generated from the vicinity of the epicenter of a shallow event, due to the strong vertical ground motions directly above the buried source. Images of acoustic wavefields just above the surface reveal the radiation patterns and relative amplitudes of the various arrivals. In addition, we compare the relative effectiveness of different seismic source mechanisms for generating acoustic energy. For point sources at a fixed depth, double-couples with almost any orientation produce stronger acoustic signals than isotropic explosions, due to higher-amplitude S and Rayleigh waves. Of course, explosions tend to be shallower than most earthquakes, which can offset the differences due to mechanism. Low-velocity material in the shallow subsurface acts to increase vertical seismic motions there, enhancing the coupling to acoustic waves in air. If either type of source breaks the surface (e.g., an earthquake with surface rupture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, Hirotaka; Urakawa, Fumihiro; Aikawa, Akira; Namura, Akira
The vibration of concrete sleepers is an important factor engendering track deterioration. In this paper, we created a three-dimensional finite element model to reproduce a prestressed concrete (PC) sleeper in detail, expressing influence of ballast layers with a 3D spring series and dampers to reproduce their vibration and dynamic characteristics. Determination of these parameters bases on the experimental modal analysis using an impact excitation technique for PC sleepers by adjusting the accelerance between the analytical results and experimental results. Furthermore, we compared the difference of these characteristics between normal sleepers and those with some structural modifications. Analytical results clarified that such means as sleeper width extension and increased sleeper thickness will influence the reduction of ballasted track vibration as improvements of PC sleepers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vattré, A.; Devincre, B.; Feyel, F.; Gatti, R.; Groh, S.; Jamond, O.; Roos, A.
2014-02-01
A unified model coupling 3D dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations with the finite element (FE) method is revisited. The so-called Discrete-Continuous Model (DCM) aims to predict plastic flow at the (sub-)micron length scale of materials with complex boundary conditions. The evolution of the dislocation microstructure and the short-range dislocation-dislocation interactions are calculated with a DD code. The long-range mechanical fields due to the dislocations are calculated by a FE code, taking into account the boundary conditions. The coupling procedure is based on eigenstrain theory, and the precise manner in which the plastic slip, i.e. the dislocation glide as calculated by the DD code, is transferred to the integration points of the FE mesh is described in full detail. Several test cases are presented, and the DCM is applied to plastic flow in a single-crystal Nickel-based superalloy.
Finite-Orbit-Width version of the CQL3D for description of RF-enhanced neoclassical transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Yu. V.; Harvey, R. W.
2015-12-01
The CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck (FP) code [l] has been upgraded to include Finite-Orbit-Width (FOW) effects. The calculations can be done either with a fast Hybrid-FOW option or with a slower but neoclassically complete full-FOW option. The neoclassical radial transport appears naturally in the full-FOW version by averaging the local collision coefficients along guiding center orbits, with a proper transformation matrix from local (R, Z) coordinates to the midplane computational coordinates, where the FP equation is solved. In a similar way, the local quasilinear rf diffusion terms give rise to additional radial transport of orbits. The results of validation tests for the full-FOW version are presented.
Edge-based finite element approach to the simulation of geoelectromagnetic induction in a 3-D sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimura, Ryokei; Oshiman, Naoto
2002-02-01
We present a new simulator based on an edge-based finite element method (FEM) for computing the global-scale electromagnetic (EM) induction responses in a 3-D conducting sphere excited by an external source current for a variety of frequencies. The formulation is in terms of the magnetic vector potential. The edge-element approach assigns the degrees of freedom to the edges rather than to the nodes of the element. This edge-element strictly satisfies the discontinuity of the normal boundary conditions without considering the enforced normal boundary conditions that are usually practiced in a node-based FEM. To verify our simulation code, we compare our results with those of other solvers for two test computations, corresponding to azimuthally symmetric and asymmetric models. The results are in good agreement with one another.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giasin, Khaled; Ayvar-Soberanis, Sabino; French, Toby; Phadnis, Vaibhav
2016-07-01
Machining Glass fibre aluminium reinforced epoxy (GLARE) is cumbersome due to distinctively different mechanical and thermal properties of its constituents, which makes it challenging to achieve damage-free holes with the acceptable surface quality. The proposed work focuses on the study of the machinability of thin (~2.5 mm) GLARE laminate. Drilling trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed rate and spindle speed on the cutting forces and hole quality. The resulting hole quality metrics (surface roughness, hole size, circularity error, burr formation and delamination) were assessed using surface profilometry and optical scanning techniques. A three dimensional (3D) finite-element (FE) model of drilling GLARE laminate was also developed using ABAQUS/Explicit to help understand the mechanism of drilling GLARE. The homogenised ply-level response of GLARE laminate was considered in the FE model to predict cutting forces in the drilling process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umar Alkali, Adam; Lenggo Ginta, Turnad; Majdi Abdul-Rani, Ahmad
2015-04-01
This paper presents a 3D transient finite element modelling of the workpiece temperature field produced during the travelling heat sourced from oxyacetylene flame. The proposed model was given in terms of preheat-only test applicable during thermally enhanced machining using the oxyacetylene flame as a heat source. The FEA model as well as the experimental test investigated the surface temperature distribution on 316L stainless steel at scanning speed of 100mm/min, 125mm/min 160mm/min, 200mm/min and 250mm/min. The parametric properties of the heat source maintained constant are; lead distance Ld =10mm, focus height Fh=7.5mm, oxygen gas pressure Poxy=15psi and acetylene gas pressure Pacty=25psi. An experimental validation of the temperature field induced on type 316L stainless steel reveal that temperature distribution increases when the travelling speed decreases.
ZIP3D: An elastic and elastic-plastic finite-element analysis program for cracked bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1990-01-01
ZIP3D is an elastic and an elastic-plastic finite element program to analyze cracks in three dimensional solids. The program may also be used to analyze uncracked bodies or multi-body problems involving contacting surfaces. For crack problems, the program has several unique features including the calculation of mixed-mode strain energy release rates using the three dimensional virtual crack closure technique, the calculation of the J integral using the equivalent domain integral method, the capability to extend the crack front under monotonic or cyclic loading, and the capability to close or open the crack surfaces during cyclic loading. The theories behind the various aspects of the program are explained briefly. Line-by-line data preparation is presented. Input data and results for an elastic analysis of a surface crack in a plate and for an elastic-plastic analysis of a single-edge-crack-tension specimen are also presented.
3D Finite Element Model for Writing Long-Period Fiber Gratings by CO2 Laser Radiation
Coelho, João M. P.; Nespereira, Marta; Abreu, Manuel; Rebordão, José
2013-01-01
In the last years, mid-infrared radiation emitted by CO2 lasers has become increasing popular as a tool in the development of long-period fiber gratings. However, although the development and characterization of the resulting sensing devices have progressed quickly, further research is still necessary to consolidate functional models, especially regarding the interaction between laser radiation and the fiber's material. In this paper, a 3D finite element model is presented to simulate the interaction between laser radiation and an optical fiber and to determine the resulting refractive index change. Dependence with temperature of the main parameters of the optical fiber materials (with special focus on the absorption of incident laser radiation) is considered, as well as convection and radiation losses. Thermal and residual stress analyses are made for a standard single mode fiber, and experimental results are presented. PMID:23941908
Iterative methods for 3D implicit finite-difference migration using the complex Padé approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Carlos A. N.; Campos, Itamara S.; Costa, Jessé C.; Neto, Francisco A.; Schleicher, Jörg; Novais, Amélia
2013-08-01
Conventional implementations of 3D finite-difference (FD) migration use splitting techniques to accelerate performance and save computational cost. However, such techniques are plagued with numerical anisotropy that jeopardises the correct positioning of dipping reflectors in the directions not used for the operator splitting. We implement 3D downward continuation FD migration without splitting using a complex Padé approximation. In this way, the numerical anisotropy is eliminated at the expense of a computationally more intensive solution of a large-band linear system. We compare the performance of the iterative stabilized biconjugate gradient (BICGSTAB) and that of the multifrontal massively parallel direct solver (MUMPS). It turns out that the use of the complex Padé approximation not only stabilizes the solution, but also acts as an effective preconditioner for the BICGSTAB algorithm, reducing the number of iterations as compared to the implementation using the real Padé expansion. As a consequence, the iterative BICGSTAB method is more efficient than the direct MUMPS method when solving a single term in the Padé expansion. The results of both algorithms, here evaluated by computing the migration impulse response in the SEG/EAGE salt model, are of comparable quality.
On the Finite-Time Splash and Splat Singularities for the 3-D Free-Surface Euler Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coutand, Daniel; Shkoller, Steve
2014-01-01
We prove that the 3-D free-surface incompressible Euler equations with regular initial geometries and velocity fields have solutions which can form a finite-time "splash" (or "splat") singularity first introduced in Castro et al. (Splash singularity for water waves, http://arxiv.org/abs/1106.2120v2, 2011), wherein the evolving 2-D hypersurface, the moving boundary of the fluid domain, self-intersects at a point (or on surface). Such singularities can occur when the crest of a breaking wave falls unto its trough, or in the study of drop impact upon liquid surfaces. Our approach is founded upon the Lagrangian description of the free-boundary problem, combined with a novel approximation scheme of a finite collection of local coordinate charts; as such we are able to analyze a rather general set of geometries for the evolving 2-D free-surface of the fluid. We do not assume the fluid is irrotational, and as such, our method can be used for a number of other fluid interface problems, including compressible flows, plasmas, as well as the inclusion of surface tension effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, W. A.; Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.
2014-02-01
We analyse the time-stepping stability for the 3-D acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two types of methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method. Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog time-stepping scheme, which is second-order accurate and conditionally stable, leads to a fully explicit scheme. We provide estimates of its stability limit for simple cases, namely, the reference element with Neumann boundary conditions, its distorted version of arbitrary shape, the unit cube that can be partitioned into six tetrahedra with periodic boundary conditions and its distortions. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability limit contains an element diameter for which we considered different options. The one based on the sum of the eigenvalues of the spatial operator for the first-degree mass-lumped element gives the best results. It resembles the diameter of the inscribed sphere but is slightly easier to compute. The stability estimates show that the mass-lumped continuous and the discontinuous Galerkin finite elements of degree 2 have comparable stability conditions, whereas the mass-lumped elements of degree one and three allow for larger time steps.
Desai, Shrikar R.; Karthikeyan, I.; Gaddale, Reetika
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stresses, strains, and displacements of double versus single implant in immediate loading for replacing mandibular molar. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM (finite element method) models were made to simulate implant designs. The first model used 5-mm-wide diameter implant to support a single molar crown. The second model used 3.75-3.75 double implant design. Anisotropic properties were assigned to bone model. Each model was analyzed with single force magnitude (100 N) in vertical axis. Results: This FEM study suggested that micromotion can be controlled better for double implants compared to single wide-diameter implants. The Von Mises stress for double implant showed 74.44% stress reduction compared to that of 5-mm implant. The Von Mises elastic strain was reduced by 61% for double implant compared to 5-mm implant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, when the mesiodistal space for artificial tooth is more than 12.5 mm, under immediate loading, the double implant support should be considered. PMID:24554890
Preliminary simulation of a M6.5 earthquake on the Seattle Fault using 3D finite-difference modeling
Stephenson, William J.; Frankel, Arthur D.
2000-01-01
A three-dimensional finite-difference simulation of a moderate-sized (M 6.5) thrust-faulting earthquake on the Seattle fault demonstrates the effects of the Seattle Basin on strong ground motion in the Puget lowland. The model area includes the cities of Seattle, Bremerton and Bellevue. We use a recently developed detailed 3D-velocity model of the Seattle Basin in these simulations. The model extended to 20-km depth and assumed rupture on a finite fault with random slip distribution. Preliminary results from simulations of frequencies 0.5 Hz and lower suggest amplification can occur at the surface of the Seattle Basin by the trapping of energy in the Quaternary sediments. Surface waves generated within the basin appear to contribute to amplification throughout the modeled region. Several factors apparently contribute to large ground motions in downtown Seattle: (1) radiation pattern and directivity from the rupture; (2) amplification and energy trapping within the Quaternary sediments; and (3) basin geometry and variation in depth of both Quaternary and Tertiary sediments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaa, R.; Gross, L.; du Plessis, J.
2016-04-01
We present a general finite-element solver, escript, tailored to solve geophysical forward and inverse modeling problems in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) with suitable boundary conditions. Escript’s abstract interface allows geoscientists to focus on solving the actual problem without being experts in numerical modeling. General-purpose finite element solvers have found wide use especially in engineering fields and find increasing application in the geophysical disciplines as these offer a single interface to tackle different geophysical problems. These solvers are useful for data interpretation and for research, but can also be a useful tool in educational settings. This paper serves as an introduction into PDE-based modeling with escript where we demonstrate in detail how escript is used to solve two different forward modeling problems from applied geophysics (3D DC resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics). Based on these two different cases, other geophysical modeling work can easily be realized. The escript package is implemented as a Python library and allows the solution of coupled, linear or non-linear, time-dependent PDEs. Parallel execution for both shared and distributed memory architectures is supported and can be used without modifications to the scripts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.
2016-09-01
We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schultz, A.
2010-12-01
describe our ongoing efforts to achieve massive parallelization on a novel hybrid GPU testbed machine currently configured with 12 Intel Westmere Xeon CPU cores (or 24 parallel computational threads) with 96 GB DDR3 system memory, 4 GPU subsystems which in aggregate contain 960 NVidia Tesla GPU cores with 16 GB dedicated DDR3 GPU memory, and a second interleved bank of 4 GPU subsystems containing in aggregate 1792 NVidia Fermi GPU cores with 12 GB dedicated DDR5 GPU memory. We are applying domain decomposition methods to a modified version of Weiss' (2001) 3D frequency domain full physics EM finite difference code, an open source GPL licensed f90 code available for download from www.OpenEM.org. This will be the core of a new hybrid 3D inversion that parallelizes frequencies across CPUs and individual forward solutions across GPUs. We describe progress made in modifying the code to use direct solvers in GPU cores dedicated to each small subdomain, iteratively improving the solution by matching adjacent subdomain boundary solutions, rather than iterative Krylov space sparse solvers as currently applied to the whole domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koldan, Jelena; Puzyrev, Vladimir; de la Puente, Josep; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Cela, José María
2014-06-01
We present an elaborate preconditioning scheme for Krylov subspace methods which has been developed to improve the performance and reduce the execution time of parallel node-based finite-element (FE) solvers for 3-D electromagnetic (EM) numerical modelling in exploration geophysics. This new preconditioner is based on algebraic multigrid (AMG) that uses different basic relaxation methods, such as Jacobi, symmetric successive over-relaxation (SSOR) and Gauss-Seidel, as smoothers and the wave front algorithm to create groups, which are used for a coarse-level generation. We have implemented and tested this new preconditioner within our parallel nodal FE solver for 3-D forward problems in EM induction geophysics. We have performed series of experiments for several models with different conductivity structures and characteristics to test the performance of our AMG preconditioning technique when combined with biconjugate gradient stabilized method. The results have shown that, the more challenging the problem is in terms of conductivity contrasts, ratio between the sizes of grid elements and/or frequency, the more benefit is obtained by using this preconditioner. Compared to other preconditioning schemes, such as diagonal, SSOR and truncated approximate inverse, the AMG preconditioner greatly improves the convergence of the iterative solver for all tested models. Also, when it comes to cases in which other preconditioners succeed to converge to a desired precision, AMG is able to considerably reduce the total execution time of the forward-problem code-up to an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the tests have confirmed that our AMG scheme ensures grid-independent rate of convergence, as well as improvement in convergence regardless of how big local mesh refinements are. In addition, AMG is designed to be a black-box preconditioner, which makes it easy to use and combine with different iterative methods. Finally, it has proved to be very practical and efficient in the
Eraslan, Oğuz; Inan, Ozgür
2010-08-01
The biomechanical behavior of implant thread plays an important role on stresses at implant-bone interface. Information about the effect of different thread profiles upon the bone stresses is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different implant thread designs on stress distribution characteristics at supporting structures. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) stress-analysis method was used. Four types of 3D mathematical models simulating four different thread-form configurations for a solid screw implant was prepared with supporting bone structure. V-thread (1), buttress (2), reverse buttress (3), and square thread designs were simulated. A 100-N static axial occlusal load was applied to occlusal surface of abutment to calculate the stress distributions. Solidworks/Cosmosworks structural analysis programs were used for FE modeling/analysis. The analysis of the von Mises stress values revealed that maximum stress concentrations were located at loading areas of implant abutments and cervical cortical bone regions for all models. Stress concentration at cortical bone (18.3 MPa) was higher than spongious bone (13.3 MPa), and concentration of first thread (18 MPa) was higher than other threads (13.3 MPa). It was seen that, while the von Mises stress distribution patterns at different implant thread models were similar, the concentration of compressive stresses were different. The present study showed that the use of different thread form designs did not affect the von Mises concentration at supporting bone structure. However, the compressive stress concentrations differ by various thread profiles. PMID:19543925
Hsu, Christina M. L.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Segars, W. Paul; Veress, Alexander I.; Dobbins, James T.
2011-01-01
Purpose: The authors previously introduced a methodology to generate a realistic three-dimensional (3D), high-resolution, computer-simulated breast phantom based on empirical data. One of the key components of such a phantom is that it provides a means to produce a realistic simulation of clinical breast compression. In the current study, they have evaluated a finite element (FE) model of compression and have demonstrated the effect of a variety of mechanical properties on the model using a dense mesh generated from empirical breast data. While several groups have demonstrated an effective compression simulation with lower density finite element meshes, the presented study offers a mesh density that is able to model the morphology of the inner breast structures more realistically than lower density meshes. This approach may prove beneficial for multimodality breast imaging research, since it provides a high level of anatomical detail throughout the simulation study. Methods: In this paper, the authors describe methods to improve the high-resolution performance of a FE compression model. In order to create the compressible breast phantom, dedicated breast CT data was segmented and a mesh was generated with 4-noded tetrahedral elements. Using an explicit FE solver to simulate breast compression, several properties were analyzed to evaluate their effect on the compression model including: mesh density, element type, density, and stiffness of various tissue types, friction between the skin and the compression plates, and breast density. Following compression, a simulated projection was generated to demonstrate the ability of the compressible breast phantom to produce realistic simulated mammographic images. Results: Small alterations in the properties of the breast model can change the final distribution of the tissue under compression by more than 1 cm; which ultimately results in different representations of the breast model in the simulated images. The model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Sarantos, M.
2012-12-01
In this report we discuss the results of a 3D hybrid modeling of the interaction between Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's atmosphere/ionosphere for the T5 encounter. The T5 flyby is the only encounter when the two main ionizing sources of Titan's atmosphere, solar radiation and corotating plasma, align quasi-anti-parallel. The model is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements during the T5 flyby through Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere [1,2]. Magnetic field data was used from the MAG instrument [3]. In our model the background ions (O+, H+), all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid (see e.g. [4]). Inhomogeneous photoionization (in the dayside ionosphere), electron-impact ionization, and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperature of the background electrons and pickup electrons was also incorporated into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account collisions between ions and neutrals. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. The first results of our hybrid modeling show a strong asymmetry in the background (H+, O+) and pickup (H2+, N2+, CH4+) ion density profiles. Such strong asymmetry cannot be explained by a single-fluid multi-species 3D MHD model [5], which includes complex chemistry but does not produce finite gyroradius and kinetic effects. References [1] Sittler, et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton, J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds., Springer, (Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York), pp. 393-455, 2010. [2] Agren, K., et al., On magnetosphere electron impact ionization and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere -- a Cassini case study, Ann. Geophys., 25, 2359
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonetsu, Daigo; Tanaka, Kazufumi; Hara, Takehisa
In recent years, induction-heating (IH) cookers that can be used to heat nonmagnetic metals such as aluminum have been produced. Occasionally, a light pan moves on a glass plate due to buoyancy when heated by an IH cooker. In some IH cookers, an aluminum plate is mounted between the glass plate and the coil in order to reduce the buoyancy effect. The objective of this research is to evaluate the buoyancy-reduction effect and the heating effect of buoyancy-reduction plates. Eddy current analysis is carried out by 3D finite element method, and the electromagnetic force and the heat distribution on the heating plate are calculated. After this calculation is performed, the temperature distribution of the heating plate is calculated by heat transfer analysis. It is found that the shape, area, and the position of the buoyancy reduction plate strongly affect the buoyancy and the heat distribution. The impact of the shape, area, and position of the buoyancy reduction plate was quantified. The phenomena in the heating were elucidated qualitatively.
Application of the Finite Orbit Width Version of the CQL3D Code to NBI +RF Heating of NSTX Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrov, Yu. V.; Harvey, R. W.
2015-11-01
The CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck (FP) code has been upgraded to include Finite-Orbit-Width (FOW) effects. The calculations can be done either with a fast Hybrid-FOW option or with a slower but neoclassically complete full-FOW option. The banana regime neoclassical radial transport appears naturally in the full-FOW version by averaging the local collision coefficients along guiding center orbits, with a proper transformation matrix from local (R, Z) coordinates to the midplane computational coordinates, where the FP equation is solved. In a similar way, the local quasilinear rf diffusion terms give rise to additional radial transport of orbits. The full-FOW version is applied to simulation of ion heating in NSTX plasma. It is demonstrated that it can describe the physics of transport phenomena in plasma with auxiliary heating, in particular, the enhancement of the radial transport of ions by RF heating and the occurrence of the bootstrap current. Because of the bounce-averaging on the FPE, the results are obtained in a relatively short computational time. A typical full-FOW run time is 30 min using 140 MPI cores. Due to an implicit solver, calculations with a large time step (tested up to dt = 0.5 sec) remain stable. Supported by USDOE grants SC0006614, ER54744, and ER44649.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi-Hua
2015-10-01
Finite element generation of complicated fracture networks is the core issue and source of technical difficulty in three-dimensional (3-D) discrete fracture network (DFN) flow models. Due to the randomness and uncertainty in the configuration of a DFN, the intersection lines (traces) are arbitrarily distributed in each face (fracture and other surfaces). Hence, subdivision of the fractures is an issue relating to subdivision of two-dimensional (2-D) domains with arbitrarily-distributed constraints. When the DFN configuration is very complicated, the well-known approaches (e.g. Voronoi Delaunay-based methods and advancing-front techniques) cannot operate properly. This paper proposes an algorithm to implement end-to-end connection between traces to subdivide 2-D domains into closed loops. The compositions of the vertices in the common edges between adjacent loops (which may belong to a single fracture or two connected fractures) are thus ensured to be topologically identical. The paper then proposes an approach for triangulating arbitrary loops which does not add any nodes to ensure consistency of the meshes at the common edges. In addition, several techniques relating to tolerance control and improving code robustness are discussed. Finally, the equivalent permeability of the rock mass is calculated for some very complicated DFNs (the DFN may contain 1272 fractures, 633 connected fractures, and 16,270 closed loops). The results are compared with other approaches to demonstrate the veracity and efficiency of the approach proposed in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakazawa, Shohei
1991-01-01
Formulations and algorithms implemented in the MHOST finite element program are discussed. The code uses a novel concept of the mixed iterative solution technique for the efficient 3-D computations of turbine engine hot section components. The general framework of variational formulation and solution algorithms are discussed which were derived from the mixed three field Hu-Washizu principle. This formulation enables the use of nodal interpolation for coordinates, displacements, strains, and stresses. Algorithmic description of the mixed iterative method includes variations for the quasi static, transient dynamic and buckling analyses. The global-local analysis procedure referred to as the subelement refinement is developed in the framework of the mixed iterative solution, of which the detail is presented. The numerically integrated isoparametric elements implemented in the framework is discussed. Methods to filter certain parts of strain and project the element discontinuous quantities to the nodes are developed for a family of linear elements. Integration algorithms are described for linear and nonlinear equations included in MHOST program.
2013-01-01
PURPOSE This study was accomplished to assess the biomechanical state of different retaining methods of bar implant-overdenture. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two 3D finite element models were designed. The first model included implant overdenture retained by Hader-clip attachment, while the second model included two extracoronal resilient attachment (ERA) studs added distally to Hader splint bar. A non-linear frictional contact type was assumed between overdentures and mucosa to represent sliding and rotational movements among different attachment components. A 200 N was applied at the molar region unilaterally and perpendicular to the occlusal plane. Additionally, the mandible was restrained at their ramus ends. The maximum equivalent stress and strain (von Mises) were recorded and analyzed at the bone-implant interface level. RESULTS The values of von Mises stress and strain of the first model at bone-implant interface were higher than their counterparts of the second model. Stress concentration and high value of strain were recognized surrounding implant of the unloaded side in both models. CONCLUSION There were different patterns of stress-strain distribution at bone-implant interface between the studied attachment designs. Hader bar-clip attachment showed better biomechanical behavior than adding ERA studs distal to hader bar. PMID:24049576
Elastodynamics and resonances in elliptical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ancey, S.; Bazzali, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Mercier, M.
2013-11-01
The resonant modes of two-dimensional elastic elliptical objects are studied from a modal formalism by emphasizing the role of the symmetries of the objects. More precisely, as the symmetry is broken in the transition from the circular disc to the elliptical one, the splitting up of resonances and level crossings are observed. From the mathematical point of view, this observation can be explained by the broken invariance of the continuous symmetry group { {O}(2)} associated with the circular disc. The elliptical disc is however invariant under the finite group { {C}}_{2v} and the resonances are classified and associated with a given irreducible representation of this group. The main difficulty arises in the application of the group theory in elastodynamics where the vectorial formalism is used to express the physical quantities (elastic displacement and stress) involved in the boundary conditions. However, this method significantly simplifies the numerical treatment of the problem which is uncoupled over the four irreducible representations of { {C} }_{2v}. This provides a full classification of the resonances. They are tagged and tracked as the eccentricity of the elliptical disc increases. Then, the splitting up of resonances, which occurs in the transition from the circular disc to the elliptic one, is emphasized. The computation of displacement normal modes also highlights the mode splittings. A physical interpretation of resonances in terms of geometrical paths is provided.
Sotelo, Julio; Urbina, Jesus; Valverde, Israel; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Hurtado, Daniel E
2016-06-01
Several 2D methods have been proposed to estimate WSS and OSI from PC-MRI, neglecting the longitudinal velocity gradients that typically arise in cardiovascular flow, particularly on vessel geometries whose cross section and centerline orientation strongly vary in the axial direction. Thus, the contribution of longitudinal velocity gradients remains understudied. In this work, we propose a 3D finite-element method for the quantification of WSS and OSI from 3D-CINE PC-MRI that accounts for both in-plane and longitudinal velocity gradients. We demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the method on cylindrical geometries using a synthetic phantom based on the Poiseuille flow equation. We also show that, in the presence of noise, the method is both stable and accurate. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, we show that the proposed 3D method results in more accurate WSS estimates than those obtained from a 2D analysis not considering out-of-plane velocity gradients. Further, we conclude that for irregular geometries the accurate prediction of WSS requires the consideration of longitudinal gradients in the velocity field. Additionally, we compute 3D maps of WSS and OSI for 3D-CINE PC-MRI data sets from an aortic phantom and sixteen healthy volunteers and two patients. The OSI values show a greater dispersion than WSS, which is strongly dependent on the PC-MRI resolution. We envision that the proposed 3D method will improve the estimation of WSS and OSI from 3D-CINE PC-MRI images, allowing for more accurate estimates in vessels with pathologies that induce high longitudinal velocity gradients, such as coarctations and aneurisms. PMID:26780787
Väänänen, Sami P; Grassi, Lorenzo; Flivik, Gunnar; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna
2015-08-01
Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), predicts hip fracture risk only moderately. Simulation of bone mechanics based on DXA imaging of the proximal femur, may help to improve the prediction accuracy. Therefore, we collected three (1-3) image sets, including CT images and DXA images of 34 proximal cadaver femurs (set 1, including 30 males, 4 females), 35 clinical patient CT images of the hip (set 2, including 27 males, 8 females) and both CT and DXA images of clinical patients (set 3, including 12 female patients). All CT images were segmented manually and landmarks were placed on both femurs and pelvises. Two separate statistical appearance models (SAMs) were built using the CT images of the femurs and pelvises in sets 1 and 2, respectively. The 3D shape of the femur was reconstructed from the DXA image by matching the SAMs with the DXA images. The orientation and modes of variation of the SAMs were adjusted to minimize the sum of the absolute differences between the projection of the SAMs and a DXA image. The mesh quality and the location of the SAMs with respect to the manually placed control points on the DXA image were used as additional constraints. Then, finite element (FE) models were built from the reconstructed shapes. Mean point-to-surface distance between the reconstructed shape and CT image was 1.0 mm for cadaver femurs in set 1 (leave-one-out test) and 1.4 mm for clinical subjects in set 3. The reconstructed volumetric BMD showed a mean absolute difference of 140 and 185 mg/cm(3) for set 1 and set 3 respectively. The generation of the SAM and the limitation of using only one 2D image were found to be the most significant sources of errors in the shape reconstruction. The noise in the DXA images had only small effect on the accuracy of the shape reconstruction. DXA-based FE simulation was able to explain 85% of the CT-predicted strength of the femur in stance loading. The present method can be used to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kis, M.; Detzky, G.; Koppán, A.
2012-04-01
phenomenon in general. Authors calculated the deformations of a simple-geometry 3D cavity, which is caused by variable gravity loads. Dependence of the cavity effect on changing of distinct elastic properties in categorized models has been investigated. Authors introduced qualifying parameter fields calculated using the results of the FE modelling (nodal displacements as a model answer for the gravity load), in order to characterize the effect. Modelling results can be used as an estimation not only for the absolute cavity effect rate of the intended arrangement, furthermore the sensitivity of the given system against a particular geometric property. As an application example finite element modelling were carried out in order to estimate the influence of the complicated cavity system surrounding the "Budapest-Matyashegy" Gravity and Geodynamical Observatory of the Eotvos Lorand Geophysical Institute of Hungary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan
2013-01-01
Purpose: The authors aimed to design a distributed lambda model (DLM), which is well adapted to implement three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element descriptions of muscles. Method: A muscle element model was designed. Its stress-strain relationships included the active force-length characteristics of the ? model along the muscle fibers, together…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanellopoulos, V. N.; Webb, J. P.
1993-03-01
A 3D vector analysis of plane wave scattering by a metallic sphere using finite elements and Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABCs) is presented. The ABCs are applied on the outer surface that truncates the infinitely extending domain. Mixed order curvilinear covariantprojection elements are used to avoid spurious corruptions. The second order ABC is superior to the first at no extra computational cost. The errors due to incomplete absorption decrease as the outer surface is moved further away from the scatterer. An error of about 1% in near-field values was obtained with the second order ABC, when the outer surface was less than half a wavelength from the scatterer. Une analyse tridimensionnelle vectorielle de la diffusion d'onde plane sur une sphère métallique utilisant des éléments finis et des Conditions aux Limites Absorbantes (CLA) est présentée. Les CLA sont appliquées sur la surface exteme tronquant le domaine s'étendant à l'infini. Des éléments curvilignes mixtes utilisant des projections covariantes sont utilisés pour éviter des solutions parasites. La CLA de second ordre est supérieure à celle de premier ordre sans effort de calcul additionnel. Les erreurs dues à l'absorption incomplète décroissent à mesure que l'on déplace la surface externe à une distance croissante du diffuseur. Un taux d'erreur d'environ 1 % dans les valeurs du champ proche a été obtenu avec les CLA de second ordre lorsque la surface externe était placée à une distance inférieure à une demi-longueur de la source de diffusion.
Lin, Jie; Zheng, Zhiqiang; Shinya, Akikazu; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Botelho, Michael George; Shinya, Akiyoshi
2015-09-01
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the stress distribution and natural frequency of different shape and thickness retainer designs for maxillary posterior resin-bonded prostheses using finite element (FE) method. A 3D FE model of a three unit posterior resin-bonded prosthesis analysis model was generated. Three different shaped retainer designs, viz. C-shaped (three axial surface wraparounds), D-shaped (three axial surface wraparounds with central groove) and O-shaped (360° wraparounds), and three different thicknesses, viz., 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mm, resin-bonded prostheses were used in this study. The resin-bonded prosthesis analysis model was imported into an FE analysis software (ANSYS 10.0, ANSYS, USA) and attribution of material properties. The nodes at the bottom surface of the roots were assigned fixed zero displacement in the three spatial dimensions. A simulated angle of 45° loading of a 100 N force was applied to the node of the pontic lingual cusp surface. The stress distributions and corresponding natural frequencies were analyzed and resolved. The C-shaped retainer for 0.4 mm thickness recorded the greatest von Mises stresses of 71.4 MPa for all three groups. C-shaped, D-shaped and O-shaped retainer presented natural frequencies 3,988, 7,754, and 10,494 Hz, respectively. D-shaped retainer and O-shaped retainer increased natural frequencies and structural rigidity over the traditional C-shaped retainer. The maximum von Mises stresses values of the remaining tooth and prosthesis decreased with greater retainer thickness. D-shaped retainer and O-shaped retainer increased natural frequencies and structural rigidity over the traditional C-shaped retainer. PMID:25200313
Holford, D.J.
1994-01-01
This document is a user`s manual for the Rn3D finite element code. Rn3D was developed to simulate gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. The Rn3D model is applicable to a wide range of problems involving radon transport in soil because it can simulate either steady-state or transient flow and transport in one-, two- or three-dimensions (including radially symmetric two-dimensional problems). The porous materials may be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This manual describes all pertinent mathematics related to the governing, boundary, and constitutive equations of the model, as well as the development of the finite element equations used in the code. Instructions are given for constructing Rn3D input files and executing the code, as well as a description of all output files generated by the code. Five verification problems are given that test various aspects of code operation, complete with example input files, FORTRAN programs for the respective analytical solutions, and plots of model results. An example simulation is presented to illustrate the type of problem Rn3D is designed to solve. Finally, instructions are given on how to convert Rn3D to simulate systems other than radon, air, and water.
Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.
1993-11-01
This report is the User Manual for the 1993 version of DYNA3D, and also serves as a User Guide. DYNA3D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of three-dimensional solids and structures. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA3D includes solid, shell, beam, and truss elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding and single surface contact. Rigid materials provide added modeling flexibility. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA3D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. Along with the DYNA3D Example Problem Manual, this document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA3D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, J.; Belahcen, A.; Detoni, J. G.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a coupled Finite Element Model in order to study the vibrations in induction motors under steady-state. The model utilizes a weak coupling strategy between both magnetic and elastodynamic fields on the structure. Firstly, the problem solves the magnetic vector potential in an axial cut and secondly the former solution is coupled to a three dimensional model of the stator. The coupling is performed using projection based algorithms between the computed magnetic solution and the three-dimensional mesh. The three-dimensional model of the stator includes both end-windings and end-shields in order to give a realistic picture of the motor. The present model is validated using two steps. Firstly, a modal analysis hammer test is used to validate the material characteristic of this complex structure and secondly an array of accelerometer sensors is used in order to study the rotating waves using multi-dimensional spectral techniques. The analysis of the radial vibrations presented in this paper firstly concludes that slot harmonic components are visible when the motor is loaded. Secondly, the multidimensional spectrum presents the most relevant mechanical waves on the stator such as the ones produced by the space harmonics or the saturation of the iron core. The direct retrieval of the wave-number in a multi-dimensional spectrum is able to show the internal current distribution in a non-intrusive way. Experimental results for healthy induction motors are showing mechanical imbalances in a multi-dimensional spectrum in a more straightforward form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald
1990-01-01
A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid generation, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid generation program, called VGRID3D, generates grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element generation is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free solution. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow solutions were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.
2011-09-01
Most conventional finite-difference methods adopt second-order temporal and (2M)th-order spatial finite-difference stencils to solve the 3D acoustic wave equation. When spatial finite-difference stencils devised from the time-space domain dispersion relation are used to replace these conventional spatial finite-difference stencils devised from the space domain dispersion relation, the accuracy of modelling can be increased from second-order along any directions to (2M)th-order along 48 directions. In addition, the conventional high-order spatial finite-difference modelling accuracy can be improved by using a truncated finite-difference scheme. In this paper, we combine the time-space domain dispersion-relation-based finite difference scheme and the truncated finite-difference scheme to obtain optimised spatial finite-difference coefficients and thus to significantly improve the modelling accuracy without increasing computational cost, compared with the conventional space domain dispersion-relation-based finite difference scheme. We developed absorbing boundary conditions for the 3D acoustic wave equation, based on predicting wavefield values in a transition area by weighing wavefield values from wave equations and one-way wave equations. Dispersion analyses demonstrate that high-order spatial finite-difference stencils have greater accuracy than low-order spatial finite-difference stencils for high frequency components of wavefields, and spatial finite-difference stencils devised in the time-space domain have greater precision than those devised in the space domain under the same discretisation. The modelling accuracy can be improved further by using the truncated spatial finite-difference stencils. Stability analyses show that spatial finite-difference stencils devised in the time-space domain have better stability condition. Numerical modelling experiments for homogeneous, horizontally layered and Society of Exploration Geophysicists/European Association of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borisov, Dmitry; Singh, Satish C.; Fuji, Nobuaki
2015-09-01
Seismic full waveform inversion is an objective method to estimate elastic properties of the subsurface and is an important area of research, particularly in seismic exploration community. It is a data-fitting approach, where the difference between observed and synthetic data is minimized iteratively. Due to a very high computational cost, the practical implementation of waveform inversion has so far been restricted to a 2-D geometry with different levels of physics incorporated in it (e.g. elasticity/viscoelasticity) or to a 3-D geometry but using an acoustic approximation. However, the earth is three-dimensional, elastic and heterogeneous and therefore a full 3-D elastic inversion is required in order to obtain more accurate and valuable models of the subsurface. Despite the recent increase in computing power, the application of 3-D elastic full waveform inversion to real-scale problems remains quite challenging on the current computer architecture. Here, we present an efficient method to perform 3-D elastic full waveform inversion for time-lapse seismic data using a finite-difference injection method. In this method, the wavefield is computed in the whole model and is stored on a surface above a finite volume where the model is perturbed and localized inversion is performed. Comparison of the final results using the 3-D finite-difference injection method and conventional 3-D inversion performed within the whole volume shows that our new method provides significant reductions in computational time and memory requirements without any notable loss in accuracy. Our approach shows a big potential for efficient reservoir monitoring in real time-lapse experiments.
Djoudi, Farid
2013-01-01
Two separate themes are presented in this paper. Aims The first theme is to present a graphical modeling approach of human anatomical structures namely, the femur and the tibia. The second theme involves making a finite element analysis of stresses, displacements and deformations in prosthetic implants (the femoral implant and the polyethylene insert). Objectives The graphical modeling approach comes in two parts. The first is the segmentation of MRI scanned images, retrieved in DICOM format for edge detection. In the second part, 3D-CAD models are generated from the results of the segmentation stage. The finite element analysis is done by first extracting the prosthetic implants from the reconstructed 3D-CAD model, then do a finite element analysis of these implants under objectively determined conditions such as; forces, allowed displacements, the materials composing implant, and the coefficient of friction. Conclusion The objective of this work is to implement an interface for exchanging data between 2D MRI images obtained from a medical diagnosis of a patient and the 3D-CAD model used in various applications, such as; the extraction of the implants, stress analysis at the knee joint and can serve as an aid to surgery, also predict the behavior of the prosthetic implants vis-a-vis the forces acting on the knee joints. PMID:24396234
Comparison of 3-D finite element model of ashlar masonry with 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beran, Pavel
2016-06-01
3-D state of stress in heterogeneous ashlar masonry can be also computed by several suitable chosen 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry. The results obtained from 2-D numerical models well correspond to the results obtained from 3-D numerical model. The character of thermal stress is the same. While using 2-D models the computational time is reduced more than hundredfold and therefore this method could be used for computation of thermal stresses during long time periods with 10 000 of steps.
Coupled 2D-3D finite element method for analysis of a skin panel with a discontinuous stiffener
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, J. T.; Lotts, C. G.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Krishnamurthy, T.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a computationally efficient analysis method which was used to predict detailed stress states in a typical composite compression panel with a discontinuous hat stiffener. A global-local approach was used. The global model incorporated both 2D shell and 3D brick elements connected by newly developed transition elements. Most of the panel was modeled with 2D elements, while 3D elements were employed to model the stiffener flange and the adjacent skin. Both linear and geometrically nonlinear analyses were performed on the global model. The effect of geometric nonlinearity induced by the eccentric load path due to the discontinuous hat stiffener was significant. The local model used a fine mesh of 3D brick elements to model the region at the end of the stiffener. Boundary conditions of the local 3D model were obtained by spline interpolation of the nodal displacements from the global analysis. Detailed in-plane and through-the-thickness stresses were calculated in the flange-skin interface near the end of the stiffener.
3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu
2013-01-01
Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.
FEMFLOW3D; a finite-element program for the simulation of three-dimensional aquifers; version 1.0
Durbin, Timothy J.; Bond, Linda D.
1998-01-01
This document also includes model validation, source code, and example input and output files. Model validation was performed using four test problems. For each test problem, the results of a model simulation with FEMFLOW3D were compared with either an analytic solution or the results of an independent numerical approach. The source code, written in the ANSI x3.9-1978 FORTRAN standard, and the complete input and output of an example problem are listed in the appendixes.
Pavarino, E.; Neves, L. A.; Machado, J. M.; de Godoy, M. F.; Shiyou, Y.; Momente, J. C.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Pinto, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.
2013-01-01
The Finite Element Method is a well-known technique, being extensively applied in different areas. Studies using the Finite Element Method (FEM) are targeted to improve cardiac ablation procedures. For such simulations, the finite element meshes should consider the size and histological features of the target structures. However, it is possible to verify that some methods or tools used to generate meshes of human body structures are still limited, due to nondetailed models, nontrivial preprocessing, or mainly limitation in the use condition. In this paper, alternatives are demonstrated to solid modeling and automatic generation of highly refined tetrahedral meshes, with quality compatible with other studies focused on mesh generation. The innovations presented here are strategies to integrate Open Source Software (OSS). The chosen techniques and strategies are presented and discussed, considering cardiac structures as a first application context. PMID:23762031
Puso, M; Maker, B N; Ferencz, R M; Hallquist, J O
2000-03-24
This report provides the NIKE3D user's manual update summary for changes made from version 3.0.0 April 24, 1995 to version 3.3.6 March 24,2000. The updates are excerpted directly from the code printed output file (hence the Courier font and formatting), are presented in chronological order and delineated by NIKE3D version number. NIKE3D is a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Thirty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a direct factorization method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponchak, George E.; Dalton, Edan; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Papapolymerou, John; Williams, W. Dan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing Si/SiGe monolithic microwave/millimeter-wave integrated circuits on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) (low resistivity) Si wafers. Thin film microstrip lines (TFMS) with finite width ground planes embedded in the polyimide are often used. However, the closely spaced TFMS lines are susceptible to high levels of coupling, which degrades circuit performance. In this paper, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis and experimental measurements are used to show that the ground planes must be connected by via holes to reduce coupling in both the forward and backward directions.
Fessler, H.; Edwards, C.D.
1983-05-01
Combined strip and rosette gauge measurements and results from three-dimensional, finite element calculations are in excellent agreement with frozen stress photoelastic results for an efficient shape of cast-steel node under axial, brace loading. Three different meshes showed that two layers of elements through the thickness are needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Ren H.
1991-01-01
A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based FE formulations for computation of three-dimensional (3D) magnetostatic fields is developed. This combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method leads to considerable reduction by nearly a factor of 3 in the number of unknowns in comparison to the number of unknowns which must be computed in global MVP based FE solutions. This method allows one to incorporate portions of iron cores sandwiched in between coils (conductors) in current-carrying regions. Thus, it greatly simplifies the geometries of current carrying regions (in comparison with the exclusive MSP based methods) in electric machinery applications. A unique feature of this approach is that the global MSP solution is single valued in nature, that is, no branch cut is needed. This is again a superiority over the exclusive MSP based methods. A Newton-Raphson procedure with a concept of an adaptive relaxation factor was developed and successfully used in solving the 3D-FE problem with magnetic material anisotropy and nonlinearity. Accordingly, this combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method is most suited for solution of large scale global type magnetic field computations in rotating electric machinery with very complex magnetic circuit geometries, as well as nonlinear and anisotropic material properties.
A numerical method for interface problems in elastodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcghee, D. S.
1984-01-01
The numerical implementation of a formulation for a class of interface problems in elastodynamics is discussed. This formulation combines the use of the finite element and boundary integral methods to represent the interior and the exteriro regions, respectively. In particular, the response of a semicylindrical alluvial valley in a homogeneous halfspace to incident antiplane SH waves is considered to determine the accuracy and convergence of the numerical procedure. Numerical results are obtained from several combinations of the incidence angle, frequency of excitation, and relative stiffness between the inclusion and the surrounding halfspace. The results tend to confirm the theoretical estimates that the convergence is of the order H(2) for the piecewise linear elements used. It was also observed that the accuracy descreases as the frequency of excitation increases or as the relative stiffness of the inclusion decreases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Fabrizio; Trasatti, Elisa; Lorito, Stefano; Piromallo, Claudia; Piatanesi, Alessio; Cocco, Massimo; Murphy, Shane; Tonini, Roberto; Volpe, Manuela; Brizuela, Beatriz
2016-04-01
The study of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake revealed some new aspects in the rupture process of a megathrust event. Indeed, despite its magnitude Mw 9.0, this earthquake was characterized by a spatially limited rupture area and, contrary to the common view that the shallow portion of the subduction interface mainly experiences aseismic slip, the seismic rupture propagated onto the Japan trench with very large slip (> 50 m). Starting from slip distributions obtained by joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data, we discuss the sensitivity of the tsunami impact predictions to the complexity of the modelling strategy. We use numerical tools ranging from a homogeneous half-space dislocation model (considering only vertical sea-floor displacement and tsunami propagation in the linear shallow-water approximation) to the more complex 3D-FEM model (with heterogeneous elastic parameters derived from 3D seismic tomography), including horizontal displacement and non-hydrostatic dispersive tsunami modeling. This research is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, M. D.; Linton, S. W.; Parnas, B. R.
2000-01-01
A quasi-three-dimensional finite-volume numerical simulator was developed to study passive voltage spread in vestibular macular afferents. The method, borrowed from computational fluid dynamics, discretizes events transpiring in small volumes over time. The afferent simulated had three calyces with processes. The number of processes and synapses, and direction and timing of synapse activation, were varied. Simultaneous synapse activation resulted in shortest latency, while directional activation (proximal to distal and distal to proximal) yielded most regular discharges. Color-coded visualizations showed that the simulator discretized events and demonstrated that discharge produced a distal spread of voltage from the spike initiator into the ending. The simulations indicate that directional input, morphology, and timing of synapse activation can affect discharge properties, as must also distal spread of voltage from the spike initiator. The finite volume method has generality and can be applied to more complex neurons to explore discrete synaptic effects in four dimensions.
Naveau, Adrien; Renault, Patrick; Pierrisnard, Laurent
2009-06-01
This three dimensional Finite Element Analysis study investigated stress distribution and intensity in implants restored with cemented or screwed crown. Two parameters varied: interarch space and abutment height. Highest stresses occurred at the cervical area in all models. Stresses increased mainly with vertical interarch space highness, and secondarily with abutments shortness. From a mechanical point of view, bone and prosthetics components supporting cemented crowns were not as solicited as with screwed crowns. PMID:19645311
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zang, Mengyan; Gao, Wei; Lei, Zhou
2011-11-01
A contact algorithm in the context of the combined discrete element (DE) and finite element (FE) method is proposed. The algorithm, which is based on the node-to-surface method used in finite element method, treats each spherical discrete element as a slave node and the surfaces of the finite element domain as the master surfaces. The contact force on the contact interface is processed by using a penalty function method. Afterward, a modification of the combined DE/FE method is proposed. Following that, the corresponding numerical code is implemented into the in-house developed code. To test the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the impact between two identical bars and the vibration process of a laminated glass plate under impact of elastic sphere are simulated in elastic range. By comparing the results with the analytical solution and/or that calculated by using LS-DYNA, it is found that they agree with each other very well. The accuracy of the algorithm proposed in this paper is proved.
Roveri, D S; Sant'Anna, G M; Bertan, H H; Mologni, J F; Alves, M A R; Braga, E S
2016-01-01
This paper presents a 3D computational framework for evaluating electrostatic properties of a single field emitter characterized by the hemisphere-on-post geometry. Numerical simulations employed the finite elements method by using Ansys-Maxwell software. Extensive parametric simulations were focused on the threshold distance from which the emitter field enhancement factor (γ) becomes independent from the anode-substrate gap (G). This investigation allowed demonstrating that the ratio between G and the emitter height (h) is a reliable reference for a broad range of emitter dimensions; furthermore, results permitted establishing G/h ≥ 2.2 as the threshold condition for setting the anode without affecting γ. PMID:26555324
Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Cruz, Ronaldo Silva; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; Verri, Ana Caroline Gonçales; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido de Araújo; Santiago Júnior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza
2016-11-01
The aim of this study was to assess stress/strain of different implant modeling simplifications by 3D-FEA. Three variation of external hexagon implant (Ø3.75 × 10 mm) supporting one molar crown were simulated: A (no threads); B (slightly threads simplification); C (original design). 200 N (axial) and 100 N (oblique) were applied. Cortical bone was evaluated by maximum principal stress and microstrain qualitatively and quantitatively (ANOVA and Tukey post hoc (p < 0.05)). Higher stress levels (p < 0.05) were observed in model A. Models B and C presented similar stress transmission. It was possible to conclude that slightly simplification should be used for studies evaluating stress transferring for bone tissue. PMID:27082041
Stress analysis of a rectangular implant in laminated composites using 2-D and 3-D finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, Wai T.; Graves, Michael J.
1992-01-01
An analysis method using the FEM based on the Hellinger-Reissner variation principle has been developed to determine the 3-D stresses and displacements near a rectangular implant inside a laminated composite material. Three-dimensional elements are employed in regions where the interlaminar stress is considered to be significant; 2-D elements are used in other areas. Uniaxially loaded graphite-epoxy laminates have been analyzed; the implant was modeled as four plies of 3501/6 epoxy located in the middle of the laminate. It is shown that the interlaminar stresses are an order of magnitude lower than the stress representing the applied far-field load. The stress concentration factors of both the interlaminar and in-plane stresses depend on the stacking sequence of the laminate.
Saha, Debashish; Babler, Matthaus U; Holzner, Markus; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Liberzon, Alex; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang
2016-01-12
Aggregates grown in mild shear flow are released, one at a time, into homogeneous isotropic turbulence, where their motion and intermittent breakup is recorded by three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV). The aggregates have an open structure with a fractal dimension of ∼2.2, and their size is 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, which is large, compared to the Kolmogorov length scale (η = 0.15 mm). 3D-PTV of flow tracers allows for the simultaneous measurement of aggregate trajectories and the full velocity gradient tensor along their pathlines, which enables us to access the Lagrangian stress history of individual breakup events. From this data, we found no consistent pattern that relates breakup to the local flow properties at the point of breakup. Also, the correlation between the aggregate size and both shear stress and normal stress at the location of breakage is found to be weaker, when compared with the correlation between size and drag stress. The analysis suggests that the aggregates are mostly broken due to the accumulation of the drag stress over a time lag on the order of the Kolmogorov time scale. This finding is explained by the fact that the aggregates are large, which gives their motion inertia and increases the time for stress propagation inside the aggregate. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling of the largest fragment and the accumulated stress at breakup follows an earlier established power law, i.e., dfrag ∼ σ(-0.6) obtained from laminar nozzle experiments. This indicates that, despite the large size and the different type of hydrodynamic stress, the microscopic mechanism causing breakup is consistent over a wide range of aggregate size and stress magnitude. PMID:26646289
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cwik, T.; Jamnejad, V.; Zuffada, C.
1993-01-01
It is often desirable to calculate the electromagnetic fields inside and about a complicated system of scattering bodies, as well as in their far-field region. The finite element method (FE) is well suited to solving the interior problem, but the domain has to be limited to a manageable size. At the truncation of the FE mesh one can either impose approximate (absorbing) boundary conditions or set up an integral equation (IE) for the fields scattered from the bodies. The latter approach is preferable since it results in higher accuracy. Hence, the two techniques can be successfully combined by introducing a surface that encloses the scatterers, applying a FE model to the inner volume and setting up an IE for the tangential fields components on the surface. Here the continuity of the tangential fields is used bo obtain a consistent solution. A few coupled FE-IE methods have recently appeared in the literature. The approach presented here has the advantage of using edge-based finite elements, a type of finite elements with degrees of freedom associated with edges of the mesh. Because of their properties, they are better suited than the conventional node based elements to represent electromagnetic fields, particularly when inhomogeneous regions are modeled, since the node based elements impose an unnatural continuity of all field components across boundaries of mesh elements. Additionally, our approach is well suited to handle large size problems and lends itself to code parallelization. We will discuss the salient features that make our approach very efficient from the standpoint of numerical computation, and the fields and RCS of a few objects are illustrated as examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cushman, J. H.; Moroni, M.
2002-12-01
Velocity fluctuations over evolving scales of motion, on the scale of observation, often lead to anomalous dispersion of conservative tracers in fluid mechanics studies of turbulence and heterogeneous porous media. Recent theories of anomalous dispersion lead to space-time non-local constitutive models for the flux of concentration, which can adequately model this problem. We review one such model, which has its foundations in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. The basic premise is that knowledge of the evolution of the self-part of the intermediate scattering function is all that is required to model the phenomena of interest. We derive the basic integro-partial-differential equation this function satisfies and solve the inverse problem to obtain the kernels and use these to describe the wave-vector and frequency dependent dispersion tensor. Subsequently we use this information to study the transition from anomalous to Fickian dispersion. We also make use of the finite size Lyapunov exponent in the description of the dispersive process. Three-camera, three-dimensional, particle -tracking velocimetry experiments are undertaken to study dispersion within a matched-index heterogeneous porous medium. Particle trajectories, mean square displacements, velocity covariance's, intermediate scattering functions, classical dispersion tensors, wave-vector and frequency dependent generalized dispersion tensors and the finite-size Lyapunov exponents are obtained. Comparisons are made in the small frequency and small wave vector limits to obtain the transition from preasymptotic to asymptotic dispersion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vattré, A.; Denoual, C.
2016-07-01
A thermodynamically consistent framework for combining nonlinear elastoplasticity and multivariant phase-field theory is formulated at large strains. In accordance with the Clausius-Duhem inequality, the Helmholtz free energy and time-dependent constitutive relations give rise to displacive driving forces for pressure-induced martensitic phase transitions in materials. Inelastic forces are obtained by using a representation of the energy landscape that involves the concept of reaction pathways with respect to the point group symmetry operations of crystal lattices. On the other hand, additional elastic forces are derived for the most general case of large strains and rotations, as well as nonlinear, anisotropic, and different elastic pressure-dependent properties of phases. The phase-field formalism coupled with finite elastoplastic deformations is implemented into a three-dimensional Lagrangian finite element approach and is applied to analyze the iron body-centered cubic (α-Fe) into hexagonal close-packed (ɛ-Fe) phase transitions under high hydrostatic compression. The simulations exhibit the major role played by the plastic deformation in the morphological and microstructure evolution processes. Due to the strong long-range elastic interactions between variants without plasticity, a forward α → ɛ transition is energetically unfavorable and remains incomplete. However, plastic dissipation releases considerably the stored strain energy, leading to the α ↔ ɛ ↔α‧ (forward and reverse) polymorphic phase transformations with an unexpected selection of variants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Ronald; Paris, Isbelle L.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.
2004-01-01
The influence of two-dimensional finite element modeling assumptions on the debonding prediction for skin-stiffener specimens was investigated. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses using two-dimensional plane-stress and plane-strain elements as well as three different generalized plane strain type approaches were performed. The computed skin and flange strains, transverse tensile stresses and energy release rates were compared to results obtained from three-dimensional simulations. The study showed that for strains and energy release rate computations the generalized plane strain assumptions yielded results closest to the full three-dimensional analysis. For computed transverse tensile stresses the plane stress assumption gave the best agreement. Based on this study it is recommended that results from plane stress and plane strain models be used as upper and lower bounds. The results from generalized plane strain models fall between the results obtained from plane stress and plane strain models. Two-dimensional models may also be used to qualitatively evaluate the stress distribution in a ply and the variation of energy release rates and mixed mode ratios with delamination length. For more accurate predictions, however, a three-dimensional analysis is required.
Shurbaji Mozayek, Rami; Allaf, Mirza; B. Abuharb, Mohammad
2016-01-01
Background. Long span is seen in many clinical situations. Treatmentplanning options of these cases are difficult and may require FPD, RPD or ISP. Each option has its own disadvantages, including mechanical problems, patient comfort and cost. This article will evaluate the stress distribution of a different treatment option, which consists of adding a single sup-porting implant to the FPD by using 3D finite element analysis. Methods. Three models, each consisting of 5 units, were created as follows: 1. Tooth Pontic Pontic Pontic Tooth; 2. Tooth Pontic Implant Pontic Tooth; 3. Tooth Pontic Pontic Implant Tooth. An axial force was applied to the prostheses by using 3D finite element method and stresses were evaluated. Results. The maximum stress was found in the prostheses in all the models; the highest stress values in all the shared components of the models were almost similar. Stress in implants was lower in the second model than the third one. Conclusion. Adding a supporting implant in long-span FPD has no advantages while it has the disadvantages of complicating treatment and the complications that may occur to the implant and surrounding bone. PMID:27429723
Shurbaji Mozayek, Rami; Allaf, Mirza; B Abuharb, Mohammad
2016-01-01
Background. Long span is seen in many clinical situations. Treatmentplanning options of these cases are difficult and may require FPD, RPD or ISP. Each option has its own disadvantages, including mechanical problems, patient comfort and cost. This article will evaluate the stress distribution of a different treatment option, which consists of adding a single sup-porting implant to the FPD by using 3D finite element analysis. Methods. Three models, each consisting of 5 units, were created as follows: 1. Tooth Pontic Pontic Pontic Tooth; 2. Tooth Pontic Implant Pontic Tooth; 3. Tooth Pontic Pontic Implant Tooth. An axial force was applied to the prostheses by using 3D finite element method and stresses were evaluated. Results. The maximum stress was found in the prostheses in all the models; the highest stress values in all the shared components of the models were almost similar. Stress in implants was lower in the second model than the third one. Conclusion. Adding a supporting implant in long-span FPD has no advantages while it has the disadvantages of complicating treatment and the complications that may occur to the implant and surrounding bone. PMID:27429723
Baghai-Wadji, Alireza
2015-06-01
The original work for 3-D charge distributions in micro-acoustic devices has been manifestly extended to account for finitely thick busbars. The work has been initiated to create a platform for simulating the electric charge localization and field enhancement at the electrode/busbar gaps depending on the thickness of the metalization in submicrometer geometries. A recipe for the construction of relevant Green's functions has been provided. A universal function (UF) for setting up system matrices in the method-of-moments' implementations has been constructed. Universal functions (moments of Green's functions) are by construction highly smooth and easy to compute. This work also presents a comprehensive completion of earlier work. For the first time, the calculation of the UF for a 3-D problem has been presented in great detail, highlighting the underlying regularization techniques. It is shown that the singular Fourier-type integrals involved can be regularized simultaneously in the near- and far-field. The pinnacle of the work is the detailed demonstration of the property that Hadamard's finite part regularization naturally arises in the construction of UFs. Three lemmata facilitate the understanding of the underlying concepts. PMID:26067048
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voznyuk, I.; Litman, A.; Tortel, H.
2015-08-01
A Quasi-Newton method for reconstructing the constitutive parameters of three-dimensional (3D) penetrable scatterers from scattered field measurements is presented. This method is adapted for handling large-scale electromagnetic problems while keeping the memory requirement and the time flexibility as low as possible. The forward scattering problem is solved by applying the finite-element tearing and interconnecting full-dual-primal (FETI-FDP2) method which shares the same spirit as the domain decomposition methods for finite element methods. The idea is to split the computational domain into smaller non-overlapping sub-domains in order to simultaneously solve local sub-problems. Various strategies are proposed in order to efficiently couple the inversion algorithm with the FETI-FDP2 method: a separation into permanent and non-permanent subdomains is performed, iterative solvers are favorized for resolving the interface problem and a marching-on-in-anything initial guess selection further accelerates the process. The computational burden is also reduced by applying the adjoint state vector methodology. Finally, the inversion algorithm is confronted to measurements extracted from the 3D Fresnel database.
Xiao, Dongmin; Ye, Ming; Li, Xinfa; Yang, Lifeng
2015-01-01
Background The aim of this study was to develop and perform the 3D finite element analysis of a femoral head interior supporting device (FHISD). Material/Methods The 3D finite element model was developed to analyze the surface load of femoral head and analyze the stress and strain of the femoral neck, using the normal femoral neck, decompressed bone graft, and FHISD-implanted bone graft models. Results The stress in the normal model concentrated around the femoral calcar, with displacement of 0.3556±0.1294 mm. In the decompressed bone graft model, the stress concentrated on the femur calcar and top and lateral sides of femoral head, with the displacement larger than the normal (0.4163±0.1310 mm). In the FHISD-implanted bone graft model, the stress concentrated on the segment below the lesser trochanter superior to the femur, with smaller displacement than the normal (0.1856±0.0118 mm). Conclusions FHISD could effectively maintain the biomechanical properties of the femoral neck. PMID:26010078
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Sang-Kil; Chu, Shih-I.
2008-05-01
We introduce a new computational method on unstructured grids in the three-dimensional (3D) spaces to investigate the electronic structure of polyatomic molecules. The Voronoi-cell finite difference (VFD) method realizes a simple discrete Laplacian operator on unstructured grids based on Voronoi cells and their natural neighbors. The feature of unstructured grids enables us to choose intuitive pictures for an optimal molecular grid system. The new VFD method achieves highly adaptability by the Voronoi-cell diagram and yet simplicity by the finite difference scheme. It has no limitation in local refinement of grids in the vicinity of nuclear positions and provides an explicit expression at each grid without any integration. This method augmented by unstructured molecular grids is suitable for solving the Schr"odinger equation with the realistic 3D Coulomb potentials regardless of symmetry of molecules. For numerical examples, we test accuracies for electronic structures of one-electron polyatomic systems: linear H2^+ and triangular H3^++. We also extend VFD to the density functional theory (DFT) for many-electron polyatomic molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ronchin, Erika; Masterlark, Timothy; Molist, Joan Martí; Saunders, Steve; Tao, Wei
2013-03-01
Simulating the deformation of active volcanoes is challenging due to inherent mechanical complexities associated with heterogeneous distributions of rheologic properties and irregular geometries associated with the topography and bathymetry. From geologic and tomographic studies we know that geologic bodies naturally have complex 3D shapes. Finite element models (FEMs) are capable of simulating the pressurization of magma intrusions into mechanical domains with arbitrary geometric and geologic complexity. We construct FEMs comprising pressurization (due to magma intrusion) within an assemblage of 3D parts having common mechanical properties for Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea. We use information of material properties distributed on discrete points mainly deduced from topography, geology, seismicity, and tomography of Rabaul Caldera to first create contours of each part and successively to generate each 3D part shape by lofting the volume through the contours. The implementation of Abaqus CAE with Python scripts allows for automated execution of hundreds of commands necessary for the construction of the parts having substantial geometric complexity. The lofted solids are then assembled to form the composite model of Rabaul Caldera, having a geometrically complex loading configuration and distribution of rheologic properties. Comparison between predicted and observed deformation led us to identify multiple deformation sources (0.74 MPa change in pressure in the magma chamber and 0.17 m slip along the ring fault) responsible for the displacements measured at Matupit Island between August 1992 and August 1993.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bustamante, Miguel D.
2014-11-01
We consider 3D Euler fluids endowed with a discrete symmetry whereby the velocity field is invariant under mirror reflections about a 2D surface known as the ``symmetry plane.'' This type of flow is widely used in numerical simulations of classical/magnetic/quantum turbulence and vortex reconnection. On the 2D symmetry plane, the governing equations are best written in terms of two scalars: vorticity and stretching rate of vorticity. These determine the velocity field on the symmetry plane. However, the governing equations are not closed, because of the contribution of a single pressure term that depends on the full 3D velocity profile. By modelling this pressure term we propose a one-parameter family of sensible models for the flow along the 2D symmetry plane. We apply the method of infinitesimal Lie symmetries and solve the governing equations analytically for the two scalars as functions of time. We show how the value of the model's parameter determines if the analytical solution has a finite-time blowup and obtain explicit formulae for the blowup time. We validate the models by showing that a particular choice of the model's parameter corresponds to a well-known exact solution of 3D Euler equations [Gibbon et al., Physica D 132, 497 (1999)]. We discuss practical applications. Supported by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant Number 12/IP/1491.
StrainModeler: A MATHEMATICA™-based program for 3D analysis of finite and progressive strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobillo-Ares, Nilo C.; Aller, Jesús; Bastida, Fernando; Menéndez, Omar; Lisle, Richard J.
2015-05-01
StrainModeler is a program constructed in the MATHEMATICA™ environment that performs 3D progressive strain calculations for lines and planes undergoing any sequence of homogeneous deformations. The main inputs to the system define the initial line or plane to be deformed and the deformation sequence to be applied, including combinations of simple shear, pure shear and volume change. For the deformation of lines, the output of the program is the change of attitude of the initial line, which can be represented by graphics or plotted in an equal-area projection. For the deformation of planes, the program has several outputs: (i) change of attitude of the initial plane; (ii) magnitudes and ratio of the semi-axes of the strain ellipse on the deformed plane; (iii) orientation of the major and minor axes of the strain ellipse on the deformed plane; (iv) orientations of the axial planes of the folds formed on the deformed plane, and (v) area change on the deformed plane. The variation of any of these parameters can be shown against a linear parameter only linked to the number of steps involved in the deformation, as a kind of "time" line, or it can be shown against the variation of a parameter of the strain ellipsoid (e. g.: major axis/minor axis ratio). A sequence of directions can be also visualized as a curve in an equal-area plot. Three applications of the program are presented. In the first, the deformation by simple shear of a plane with any orientation is analyzed. In the second, we explore the formation of recumbent folds in layers with different initial orientations for simple shear and pure shear deformations. In the third, we use StrainModeler to analyze the deformation of a set of folds located in a ductile shear zone in the Variscan Belt of NW Spain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, Kiho D.; Ip, Shek-Se P.
1988-01-01
Three-dimensional finite element models were generated and transferred into three-dimensional finite difference models to perform transient thermal analyses for the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump's first stage nozzles and rotor blades. STANCOOL was chosen to calculate the heat transfer characteristics (HTCs) around the airfoils, and endwall effects were included at the intersections of the airfoils and platforms for the steady-state boundary conditions. Free and forced convection due to rotation effects were also considered in hollow cores. Transient HTCs were calculated by taking ratios of the steady-state values based on the flow rates and fluid properties calculated at each time slice. Results are presented for both transient plots and three-dimensional color contour isotherm plots; they were also converted into universal files to be used for FEM stress analyses.
Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D’Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor
2008-01-01
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate ‘space-frame’ skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503
Sunbuloglu, Emin
2015-01-01
Complete maxillary dentures are one of the most economic and easy ways of treatment for edentulous patients and are still widely used. However, their survival rate is slightly above three years. It is presumed that the failure reasons are not only due to normal fatigue but also emerge from damage based on unavoidable improper usage. Failure types other than long-term fatigue, such as over-deforming, also influence the effective life span of dentures. A hypothesis is presumed, stating that the premature/unexpected failures may be initiated by impact on dentures, which can be related to dropping them on the ground or other effects such as biting crispy food. Thus, the behavior of a complete maxillary denture under impact loading due to drop on a rigid surface was investigated using the finite element method utilizing explicit time integration and a rate-sensitive elastoplastic material model of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Local permanent deformations have been observed along with an emphasis on frenulum region of the denture, regardless of the point of impact. Contact stresses at the tooth-denture base were also investigated. The spread of energy within the structure via wave propagation is seen to play a critical role in this fact. Stress-wave propagation is also seen to be an important factor that decreases the denture's fatigue life. PMID:24945936
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gholizadeh Doonechaly, N.; Rahman, S. S.
2012-05-01
Simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs offers significant challenges due to the lack of a methodology that can utilize field data. To date several methods have been proposed by authors to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Among them is the unfolding/folding method which offers some degree of accuracy in estimating the probability of the existence of fractures in a reservoir. Also there are statistical approaches which integrate all levels of field data to simulate the fracture network. This approach, however, is dependent on the availability of data sources, such as seismic attributes, core descriptions, well logs, etc. which often make it difficult to obtain field wide. In this study a hybrid tectono-stochastic simulation is proposed to characterize a naturally fractured reservoir. A finite element based model is used to simulate the tectonic event of folding and unfolding of a geological structure. A nested neuro-stochastic technique is used to develop the inter-relationship between the data and at the same time it utilizes the sequential Gaussian approach to analyze field data along with fracture probability data. This approach has the ability to overcome commonly experienced discontinuity of the data in both horizontal and vertical directions. This hybrid technique is used to generate a discrete fracture network of a specific Australian gas reservoir, Palm Valley in the Northern Territory. Results of this study have significant benefit in accurately describing fluid flow simulation and well placement for maximal hydrocarbon recovery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Guangxi; Yu, Xiong
2015-06-01
Thermoelectric power generator has potential for small-scale and distributed power generation because of its high durability and scalability. It is very important to realize that the transient behavior of thermoelectric modules (TEM) affects a thermoelectric generator's response to dynamic working environments. Traditionally, researchers have used simplified models to describe the behavior of thermoelectric modules. In this paper we propose a comprehensive mathematical model that considers the effect of variations of chemical potential and carrier density, which are ignored by traditional models. Finite element models based on this new model are used to simulate the transient behavior of a thermoelectric module subjected to rapid changes in boundary temperature or working load. Simulation results show that transition times of thermoelectric modules affected by temperature change are much longer than those of modules affected by changes in electrical load resistance. Sudden changes in working temperature cause voltage overshoot of the TEM output, which, however, is not observed in responses to sudden changes of load resistance. Comparisons also show there are significant differences between the behavior of TEM predicted by use of this new comprehensive model and that predicted by use of traditional models, particularly for the high-temperature intrinsic ionization region and the low-temperature weak ionization region. This implies that chemical potential and carrier density variations, which are taken into account by this new model but ignored by traditional models, have major effects on the performance of TEM.
Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor
2008-06-01
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics. PMID:18510503
Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.
2014-10-07
In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, G.; Flyer, N.; Yuen, D. A.; Monnereau, M.; Zhang, S.; Wang, S. M.
2009-05-01
Many numerical methods, such as finite-differences, finite-volume, their yin-yang variants, finite-elements and spectral methods have been employed to study 3-D mantle convection. All have their own strengths, but also serious weaknesses. Spectrally accurate methods do not practically allow for node refinement and often involve cumbersome algebra while finite difference, volume, or element methods are generally low-order, adding excessive numerical diffusion to the model. For the 3-D mantle convection problem, we have introduced a new mesh-free approach, using radial basis functions (RBF). This method has the advantage of being algorithmic simple, spectrally accurate for arbitrary node layouts in multi-dimensions and naturally allows for node-refinement. One virtue of the RBF scheme allows the user to use a simple Cartesian geometry, while implementing the required boundary conditions for the temperature, velocities and stress components on a spherical surface at both the planetary surface and the core-mantle boundary. We have studied time- dependent mantle convection, using both a RBF-pseudospectral code and a code which uses spherical- harmonics in the angular direction and second-order finite volume in the radial direction. We have employed a third code , which uses spherical harmonics and higher-order finite-difference method a la Fornberg in the radial coordinate.We first focus on the onset of time-dependence at Rayleigh number Ra of 70,000. We follow the development of stronger time-dependence to a Ra of one million, using high enough resolution with 120 to 200 points in the radial direction and 128 to 256 spherical harmonics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponchak, G. E.; Bushyager, N.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tentzeris, E. M.; Laskar, J.
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing Si/SiGe monolithic microwave/mm-wave integrated circuits on CMOS (low resistivity) Si wafers. It is expected that these circuits will replace the ones fabricated on GaAs and reduce the overall system cost. However, the closely spaced transmission lines that are required for a high-density circuit environment are susceptible to high levels of cross-coupling, which degrades the overall circuit performance. In this paper, theoretical and experimental results on coupling and ways to reduce it are presented for two types of transmission lines: a) the microstrip line and b) the Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) line. For microstrip lines it is shown that a fence of metalized via-holes can significantly reduce coupling, especially in the case when both lines are on the same polyimide layer or when the shielding structure extends through several polyimide layers. For closely spaced microstrip lines, coupling is lower for a metal filled trench shield than a via-hole fence. Coupling amongst microstrip lines is dependent on the ratio of line separation to polyimide thickness and is primarily due to magnetic fields. For FGC lines it is shown that they have in general low coupling that can be reduced significantly when there is even a small gap between the ground planes of each line. FGC lines have approximately 8 dB lower coupling than coupled coplanar waveguides (CPW). In addition, forward and backward characteristics of the FGC lines do not resemble those of other transmission lines such as microstrip. Therefore, the coupling mechanism of the FGC lines is different compared to thin film microstrip lines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, H.; Min, D.; Lim, S.; Yang, J.; Kwon, B.; Yoo, H.
2009-12-01
In a conventional marine seismic data analysis, pressure data have been usually interpreted on the basis of acoustic wave equation. The acoustic wave equation, however, only deals with P-wave propagation, and it cannot correctly describe the wave propagation in acoustic-elastic (fluid-solid) coupled media. Recently, in 4C OBC survey (4-component ocean bottom cable), it is possible to acquire both pressure and 3-component displacements (measured at the sea-bottom). Combining pressure and displacement data allows us to interpret subsurface structures more accurately. In order to accurately simulate wave propagation in fluid-solid coupled media, we need an acoustic-elastic coupled modeling algorithm, which deals with displacements in elastic region and pressure in acoustic region. For waveform inversion and reverse-time migration that require a great number of forward modeling, it is essential to develop an efficient scheme that reduces computing time and computer core memory. In this study, we present a 3D time-domain acoustic-elastic coupled modeling algorithm on the basis of the cell-based finite difference method. The cell-based method has proven to properly describe the free-surface boundary, which indicates that it will also properly describe the fluid-solid interface boundaries. In the acoustic-elastic coupled modeling, we first compose cell-based finite differences individually for the 3D acoustic and elastic media, and then combine the differences using the fluid-solid interface boundary conditions. Considering that the 2D acoustic-elastic coupled modeling algorithm gives numerical solutions comparable to analytic solutions, we expect that the 3D acoustic-elastic coupled modeling will correctly describe wave propagation in the fluid-solid coupled media. We apply our algorithm to 3D horizontal two- and three-layer models. Numerical experiments show that the cell-based coupled modeling algorithm properly describes S- and converted waves as well as P-waves. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yongle; Li, Q. M.; Withers, P. J.
2015-09-01
Realistic simulations are increasingly demanded to clarify the dynamic behaviour of foam materials, because, on one hand, the significant variability (e.g. 20% scatter band) of foam properties and the lack of reliable dynamic test methods for foams bring particular difficulty to accurately evaluate the strain-rate sensitivity in experiments; while on the other hand numerical models based on idealised cell structures (e.g. Kelvin and Voronoi) may not be sufficiently representative to capture the actual structural effect. To overcome these limitations, the strain-rate sensitivity of the compressive and tensile properties of closed-cell aluminium Alporas foam is investigated in this study by means of meso-scale realistic finite element (FE) simulations. The FE modelling method based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) image is introduced first, as well as its applications to foam materials. Then the compression and tension of Alporas foam at a wide variety of applied nominal strain-rates are simulated using FE model constructed from the actual cell geometry obtained from the CT image. The stain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength (collapse stress) and tensile strength (0.2% offset yield point) are evaluated when considering different cell-wall material properties. The numerical results show that the rate dependence of cell-wall material is the main cause of the strain-rate hardening of the compressive and tensile strengths at low and intermediate strain-rates. When the strain-rate is sufficiently high, shock compression is initiated, which significantly enhances the stress at the loading end and has complicated effect on the stress at the supporting end. The plastic tensile wave effect is evident at high strain-rates, but shock tension cannot develop in Alporas foam due to the softening associated with single fracture process zone occurring in tensile response. In all cases the micro inertia of individual cell walls subjected to localised deformation is found to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.; Wang, K.; Li, H.; Eibert, T. F.
2014-11-01
A hybrid higher-order finite element boundary integral (FE-BI) technique is discussed where the higher-order FE matrix elements are computed by a fully analytical procedure and where the gobal matrix assembly is organized by a self-identifying procedure of the local to global transformation. This assembly procedure applys to both, the FE part as well as the BI part of the algorithm. The geometry is meshed into three-dimensional tetrahedra as finite elements and nearly orthogonal hierarchical basis functions are employed. The boundary conditions are implemented in a strong sense such that the boundary values of the volume basis functions are directly utilized within the BI, either for the tangential electric and magnetic fields or for the asssociated equivalent surface current densities by applying a cross product with the unit surface normals. The self-identified method for the global matrix assembly automatically discerns the global order of the basis functions for generating the matrix elements. Higher order basis functions do need more unknowns for each single FE, however, fewer FEs are needed to achieve the same satisfiable accuracy. This improvement provides a lot more flexibility for meshing and allows the mesh size to raise up to λ/3. The performance of the implemented system is evaluated in terms of computation time, accuracy and memory occupation, where excellent results with respect to precision and computation times of large scale simulations are found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aristovich, Ekaterina; Khan, Sanowar
2013-06-01
This paper concerns detection of particle concentration (e.g. cholesterol) in conductive media (e.g. human blood) by impedance technique. The technique is based on changes in the impedance measurement across a given conducting medium due to changes in the particle concentration. The impedance is calculated by calculating the current through the conducting media produced by electric field distribution between two electrodes. This is done by modelling and computation of 3D electric fields between the electrodes for known voltages applied between them using the well-known finite element method (FEM). The complexity of such FE models is attributed to particle distribution, their geometric and material parameters, and their shape and size which can be of many orders of magnitude smaller than the overall problem domain under investigation. This paper overcomes this problem by adopting an effective particle coagulation (aggregation) strategy in FE modelling without significantly affecting the accuracy of field computation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kajzer, A.; Pozorski, J.; Szewc, K.
2014-08-01
In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.
Hsu, Sen-Ming; Chang, Hung-Chun
2007-11-26
A full-vectorial finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm is developed to analyze the band structures of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs) with arbitray 3D anisotropy for in-planewave propagations, in which the simple transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic (TM) modes may not be clearly defined. By taking all the field components into consideration simultaneously without decoupling of the wave modes in 2D PCs into TE and TM modes, a full-vectorial matrix eigenvalue equation, with the square of the wavenumber as the eigenvalue, is derived. We examine the convergence behaviors of this algorithm and analyze 2D PCs with arbitrary anisotropy using this algorithm to demonstrate its correctness and usefulness by explaining the numerical results theoretically. PMID:19550864
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Y.; Hung, S.
2007-12-01
Seismic tomographic imaging has played a key component to unravel the deep processes that caused the surface morphology and rift magmatism in the southwest United States. Several studies used teleseismic body- wave arrivals recorded by the La Ristra experiment, a dense broadband array of 950-km in length deployed during 1999-2001 and run through the Great Plains, the Rio Grande Rift, and the Colorado Plateau, to construct a 2-D tomographic image of the upper mantle structure beneath this linear array (e.g., Gao et al., 2004). However, because of the inevitable smoothing and damping imposed in the tomographic model, the resulting velocity contrast is too weak to explain distinct P and S waveform changes across the array (Song and Helmberger, 2007). In this study, we include all the data from the La Ristra and available nearby arrays and reexamine finite- frequency travel time delays measured by inter-station cross correlation of waveforms at both high- (0.3-2 Hz for P and 0.1-0.5 Hz for S) and low-frequencies (0.03-0.125 Hz for P and 0.03-0.1 Hz for S). Differing from the previous models that rely on classical ray theory and simple grid parameterization, our inversion considers more realistic 3-D sensitivity kernels for relative travel-time delays and a wavelet-based, multi-scale parameterization that enables to yield robust features with spatially-varying resolutions. Our preliminary P-wave model reveals a prominent low-velocity zone extending from near surface to the depth of 300 km beneath the Rio Grande Rift, while the upper mantle which underlies the Great Plains and the Colorado Plateau is seismically fast. We will demonstrate the difference and improvement of 3-D tomographic models through the use of finite-frequency kernels and multi-scale parameterization.
Ausiello, P; Apicella, A; Davidson, C L; Rengo, S
2001-10-01
The combination of diverse materials and complex geometry makes stress distribution analysis in teeth very complicated. Simulation in a computerized model might enable a study of the simultaneous interaction of the many variables. A 3D solid model of a human maxillary premolar was prepared and exported into a 3D-finite element model (FEM). Additionally, a generic class II MOD cavity preparation and restoration was simulated in the FEM model by a proper choice of the mesh volumes. A validation procedure of the FEM model was executed based on a comparison of theoretical calculations and experimental data. Different rigidities were assigned to the adhesive system and restorative materials. Two different stress conditions were simulated: (a) stresses arising from the polymerization shrinkage and (b) stresses resulting from shrinkage stress in combination with vertical occlusal loading. Three different cases were analyzed: a sound tooth, a tooth with a class II MOD cavity, adhesively restored with a high (25 GPa) and one with a low (12.5GPa) elastic modulus composite. The cusp movements induced by polymerization stress and (over)-functional occlusal loading were evaluated. While cusp displacement was higher for the more rigid composites due to the pre-stressing from polymerization shrinkage, cusp movements turned out to be lower for the more flexible composites in case the restored tooth which was stressed by the occlusal loading. This preliminary study by 3D FEA on adhesively restored teeth with a class II MOD cavity indicated that Young's modulus values of the restorative materials play an essential role in the success of the restoration. Premature failure due to stresses arising from polymerization shrinkage and occlusal loading can be prevented by proper selection and combination of materials. PMID:11522306
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Daoru; Wang, Pu; He, Xiaoming; Lin, Tao; Wang, Joseph
2016-09-01
Motivated by the need to handle complex boundary conditions efficiently and accurately in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, this paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) linear immersed finite element (IFE) method with non-homogeneous flux jump conditions for solving electrostatic field involving complex boundary conditions using structured meshes independent of the interface. This method treats an object boundary as part of the simulation domain and solves the electric field at the boundary as an interface problem. In order to resolve charging on a dielectric surface, a new 3D linear IFE basis function is designed for each interface element to capture the electric field jump on the interface. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the optimal convergence rates in L2 and H1 norms of the IFE solution. This new IFE method is integrated into a PIC method for simulations involving charging of a complex dielectric surface in a plasma. A numerical study of plasma-surface interactions at the lunar terminator is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the new method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohout, B.; Pirinen, J.; Ruiter, N. V.
2012-03-01
The established standard screening method to detect breast cancer is X-ray mammography. However X-ray mammography often has low contrast for tumors located within glandular tissue. A new approach is 3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT), which is expected to detect small tumors at an early stage. This paper describes the development, improvement and the results of Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations of the Transducer Array System (TAS) used in our 3D USCT. The focus of this work is on researching the influence of meshing and material parameters on the electrical impedance curves. Thereafter, these findings are used to optimize the simulation model. The quality of the simulation was evaluated by comparing simulated impedance characteristics with measured data of the real TAS. The resulting FEM simulation model is a powerful tool to analyze and optimize transducer array systems applied for USCT. With this simulation model, the behavior of TAS for different geometry modifications was researched. It provides a means to understand the acoustical performances inside of any ultrasound transducer represented by its electrical impedance characteristic.
Carroll-type deformations in nonlinear elastodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, C.; Saccomandi, G.; Vergori, L.
2014-05-01
Classes of deformations in nonlinear elastodynamics with origins in the pioneering work of Carroll are investigated for a Mooney-Rivlin material subject to body forces corresponding to a nonlinear substrate potential. Exact representations are obtained which, inter alia, are descriptive of the propagation of circularly polarized waves and motions with oscillatory spatial dependence. It is shown that a description of slowly modulated waves leads to a novel class of generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The latter class, in general, is not integrable. However, a procedure is presented whereby integrable Hamiltonian subsystems may be isolated for a broad class of deformations.
Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.
1995-04-01
A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement.
3D modeling of ultrasonic wave interaction with disbonds and weak bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.
2012-05-01
Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.
3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.
2011-01-01
Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.
Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya
2011-01-01
Previously, we introduced a computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Structure-only models were used in our previous report. In this paper, fluid-stricture interaction (FSI) was added to improve on prediction accuracy. One participating patient was scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Blood flow was assumed to laminar, Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation were used as the governing equations. Plaque material was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D FSI plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Growth functions with a) morphology alone; b) morphology and plaque wall stress (PWS); morphology and flow shear stress (FSS), and d) morphology, PWS and FSS were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the FSI model and adjusting plaque geometry using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 8.62%, 7.22%, 5.77% and 4.39%, with the growth function including morphology, plaque wall stress and flow shear stress terms giving the best predictions. Adding flow shear stress term to the growth function improved the prediction error from 7.22% to 4.39%, a 40% improvement. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression FSI simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, R.; Glises, R.; Chamagne, D.; Cuchet, D.; Kauffmann, J. M.
1999-08-01
The aim of this work concerns the development and the validation of a thermal steady state model applied to a permanent magnet direct current motor with commutator. The rated power of the machine is 120 W. Design has been realized thanks to the thermal modulus of the computation software with the finite element method Flux3D. It is shown in this work how it is possible to use only the heat equation to simulate the thermal behaviour of the motor. It implies calculating of new fluid conductivities (considering also all thermal modes) by comparison of calculated and experimental temperatures. To realize these 3D modelizations, it is necessary to know and to locate all the losses of the motor which are considered as thermal sources. The experimental temperatures are given by 40 chromel-alumel thermocouples of 100 μm diameter located in the rotor and the stator of the machine. Numerical computations use Dirichlet boundary layer conditions given by an IR camera. Ce travail concerne le développement et la validation d'un modèle de simulation du comportement thermique tridimensionnel en régime permanent d'un moteur électrique de 120 watt à courant continu, à aimants permanents et à collecteur. Le logiciel est développé à partir du code de calculs par éléments finis Flux3D. L'équation de la chaleur modélise l'ensemble des transferts thermiques du moteur. Cela nécessite de recaler certains paramètres fluides par comparaison des températures simulées et expérimentales. Une séparation détaillée des différentes pertes est nécessaire pour obtenir une bonne précision finale. Un banc d'essais thermiques permet d'obtenir à l'aide de 40 thermocouples (chromel-alumel de 100 μm de diamètre) les températures au stator et au rotor. Une caméra thermographique infrarouge donne les conditions aux limites de Dirichlet nécessaires à la modélisation.
Banerjee, Biswanath; Walsh, Timothy F.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc
2012-01-01
This paper presents the formulation and implementation of an Error in Constitutive Equations (ECE) method suitable for large-scale inverse identification of linear elastic material properties in the context of steady-state elastodynamics. In ECE-based methods, the inverse problem is postulated as an optimization problem in which the cost functional measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses. Furthermore, in a more recent modality of this methodology introduced by Feissel and Allix (2007), referred to as the Modified ECE (MECE), the measured data is incorporated into the formulation as a quadratic penalty term. We show that a simple and efficient continuation scheme for the penalty term, suggested by the theory of quadratic penalty methods, can significantly accelerate the convergence of the MECE algorithm. Furthermore, a (block) successive over-relaxation (SOR) technique is introduced, enabling the use of existing parallel finite element codes with minimal modification to solve the coupled system of equations that arises from the optimality conditions in MECE methods. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully reconstruct the spatial distribution of elastic material parameters from partial and noisy measurements in as few as ten iterations in a 2D example and fifty in a 3D example. We show (through numerical experiments) that the proposed continuation scheme can improve the rate of convergence of MECE methods by at least an order of magnitude versus the alternative of using a fixed penalty parameter. Furthermore, the proposed block SOR strategy coupled with existing parallel solvers produces a computationally efficient MECE method that can be used for large scale materials identification problems, as demonstrated on a 3D example involving about 400,000 unknown moduli. Finally, our numerical results suggest that the proposed MECE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.
2016-01-01
We have developed an algorithm, which we call HexMT, for 3-D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permit incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used throughout, including the forward solution, parameter Jacobians and model parameter update. In Part I, the forward simulator and Jacobian calculations are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequencies or small material admittivities, the E-field requires divergence correction. With the help of Hodge decomposition, the correction may be applied in one step after the forward solution is calculated. This allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization and source vector solutions are computed using the MKL PARDISO library, which shows good scalability through 24 processor cores. The factorized matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the Jacobians of electromagnetic (EM) field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure, several synthetic topographic models and the natural topography of Mount Erebus in Antarctica. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of EM waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run-time tests of the parallelized algorithm indicate that for meshes as large as 176 × 176 × 70 elements, MT forward responses and Jacobians can be calculated in ˜1.5 hr per frequency. Together with an efficient inversion parameter step described in Part II, MT inversion problems of 200-300 stations are computable with total run times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Chen, Yongshun John; Ni, James; Gallegos, Andrea; Klemperer, Simon L.; Wang, Minling; Xu, Tao; Sun, Changqing; Si, Shaokun; Lan, Haiqiang; Teng, Jiwen
2016-06-01
We perform a finite-frequency tomographic inversion to image 3D velocity structures beneath southern and central Tibet using teleseismic body-wave data recorded by the TIBET-31N passive seismic array as well as waveforms from previous temporary seismic arrays. High-velocity bodies dip ∼40° northward beneath the Himalaya and the Lhasa Terrane. We interpret these high-velocity anomalies as subducting Indian Continental Lithosphere (ICL). The ICL appears to extend further north in central Tibet than in eastern Tibet, reaching 350 km depth at ∼31°N along 85°E but at ∼30°N along 91°E. Low P- and S-wave velocity anomalies extend from the lower crust to ≥180 km depth beneath the Tangra Yum Co Rift, Yadong-Gulu Rift, and the Cona Rift, suggesting that rifting in southern Tibet may involve the entire lithosphere. The anomaly beneath Tangra Yum Co Rift extends down to about 180 km, whereas the anomalies west of the Yadong-Gulu Rift and east of the Cona Rift extend to more than 300 km depth. The low-velocity upper mantle west of the Yadong-Gulu Rift extends furthest north and appears to connect with the extensive upper-mantle low-velocity region beneath central Tibet. Thus the northward-subducting Indian Plate is fragmented along north-south breaks that permit or induce asthenospheric upwellings indistinguishable from the upper mantle of northern Tibet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Hori, Muneo; Fukahata, Yukitoshi
2016-07-01
As a result of the accumulation of high-resolution observation data, 3-D high-fidelity crustal structure data for large domains are becoming available. However, it has been difficult to use such data to perform elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses in large domains with quality assurance of the numerical simulation that guarantees convergence of the numerical solution with respect to the discretization size because the costs of analysis are significantly high. This paper proposes a method of constructing a high-fidelity crustal structure finite element (FE) model using high-fidelity crustal structure data and fast FE analysis to reduce the costs of analysis (based on automatic FE model generation for parallel computation, OpenMP/MPI hybrid parallel computation on distributed memory computers, a geometric multigrid, variable preconditioning and multiple precision arithmetic). Using the proposed methods, we construct 10 billion degree-of-freedom high-fidelity crustal structure FE models for the entire Japan, and conduct elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analysis using this model with enough high accuracy of the numerical simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaowei; Gong, Jianming; Zhao, Yanping; Wang, Yanfei
2015-05-01
This study used ABAQUS finite element (FE) software to investigate the residual stress distributions of P92 welded pipes in both the as-weld and post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Sequential coupling quasi-static thermo-mechanical in conjunction with moving double ellipsoidal heat source and an element add/remove technique to simulate deposition of new weld material, are combined in the 3D FE analysis. To validate the simulation results, the residual stresses in axial direction at the surface of pipe were measured by X-ray diffraction technique and compared with the results of FE analysis. Detailed characteristic distributions of the residual stresses are discussed. Results show that the FE model can predict the residual stress distributions satisfactorily. Highest residual stresses on the outer surface are found in the last weld bead to be deposited. And the highest tensile residual stress for the full welded section take place in heat affected zone (HAZ) near the middle thickness. Larger residual sstress can be found around the welding start point along the pipe circumference. Comparison of heat treated specimen and untreated specimen illustrates that PWHT has a strong effect on the residual stress field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Jiao; Wu, Bin; Li, Miao-Quan
2012-02-01
The physically-based internal state variable (ISV) models were used to describe the changes of dislocation density, grain size, and flow stress in the high temperature deformation of titanium alloys in this study. The constants of the present models could be identified based on experimental results, which were conducted at deformation temperatures ranging from 1093 K to 1303 K, height reductions ranging from 20% to 60%, and the strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 s-1. The physically-based internal state variable models were implemented into the commercial finite element (FE) code. Then, a three-dimensional (3D) FE simulation system coupling of deformation, heat transfer, and microstructure evolution was developed for the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. FE analysis was carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution in the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Finally, the blade forging tests of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were performed to validate the results of FE simulation. According to the tensile tests, it is seen that the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation, satisfy the application requirements well. The maximum and minimum differences between the calculated and experimental grain size of primary α phase are 11.71% and 4.23%, respectively. Thus, the industrial trials show a good agreement with FE simulation of blade forging.
Brummund, Martin; Brailovski, Vladimir; Facchinello, Yann; Petit, Yvan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc
2015-08-01
Monolithic superelastic-elastoplastic spinal rods (MSER) are promising candidates to provide (i) dynamic stabilisation in spinal segments prone to mechanical stress concentration and adjacent segment disease and (ii) to provide fusion-ready stabilization in spinal segments at risk of implant failure. However, the stiffness distributions along the rod's longitudinal axis that best meet clinical requirements remain unknown. The present study is part of a mixed numerical experimental research project and aims at the implementation of a 3D finite element model of the porcine lumbar spine to study the role of MSER material properties and stiffness distributions on the intradiscal pressure distribution in the adjacent segment. In this paper, preliminary intradiscal pressure predictions obtained at one functional spinal unit are presented. Due to a lack of porcine material property data, these predictions were obtained on the basis of uncalibrated human vertebral disc data which were taken from the literature. The results indicate that human annulus and nucleus data predict experimental porcine in vivo and in vitro data reasonably well for the compressive forces of varying magnitudes. PMID:26736412
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padmanabhan, R.; Oliveira, M. C.; Baptista, A. J.; Alves, J. L.; Menezes, L. F.
2007-05-01
Springback phenomenon associated with the elastic properties of sheet metals makes the design of forming dies a complex task. Thus, to develop consistent algorithms for springback compensation an accurate prediction of the amount of springback is mandatory. The numerical simulation using the finite element method is consensually the only feasible method to predict springback. However, springback prediction is a very complicated task and highly sensitive to various numerical parameters of finite elements (FE), such as: type, order, integration scheme, shape and size, as well the time integration formulae and the unloading strategy. All these numerical parameters make numerical simulation of springback more sensitive to numerical tolerances than the forming operation. In case of an unconstrained cylindrical bending, the in-plane to thickness FE size ratio is more relevant than the number of FE layers through-thickness, for the numerical prediction of final stress and strain states, variables of paramount importance for an accurate springback prediction. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the influence of the refinement of a 3-D FE mesh, namely the in-plane mesh refinement and the number of through-thickness FE layers, in springback prediction. The selected example corresponds to the first stage of the "Numisheet'05 Benchmark♯3", which consists basically in the sheet forming of a channel section in an industrial-scale channel draw die. The physical drawbeads are accurately taken into account in the numerical model in order to accurately reproduce its influence during the forming process simulation. FEM simulations were carried out with the in-house code DD3IMP. Solid finite elements were used. They are recommended for accuracy in FE springback simulation when the ratio between the tool radius and blank thickness is lower than 5-6. In the selected example the drawbead radius is 4.0 mm. The influence of the FE mesh refinement in springback prediction is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael
2014-10-01
In this paper we present a new family of high order accurate Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-WENO finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear systems of conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic partial differential equations with stiff source terms on moving tetrahedral meshes in three space dimensions. A WENO reconstruction technique is used to achieve high order of accuracy in space, while an element-local space-time Discontinuous Galerkin finite element predictor on moving curved meshes is used to obtain a high order accurate one-step time discretization. Within the space-time predictor the physical element is mapped onto a reference element using a high order isoparametric approach, where the space-time basis and test functions are given by the Lagrange interpolation polynomials passing through a predefined set of space-time nodes. Since our algorithm is cell-centered, the final mesh motion is computed by using a suitable node solver algorithm. A rezoning step as well as a flattener strategy are used in some of the test problems to avoid mesh tangling or excessive element deformations that may occur when the computation involves strong shocks or shear waves. The ALE algorithm presented in this article belongs to the so-called direct ALE methods because the final Lagrangian finite volume scheme is based directly on a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system, with the rezoned geometry taken already into account during the computation of the fluxes. We apply our new high order unstructured ALE schemes to the 3D Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics, for which a set of classical numerical test problems has been solved and for which convergence rates up to sixth order of accuracy in space and time have been obtained. We furthermore consider the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as well as the non-conservative seven-equation Baer-Nunziato model of compressible multi-phase flows with
High order Nyström method for elastodynamic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kun; Gurrala, Praveen; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron
2016-02-01
Elastic waves in solids find important applications in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation. The scattering of elastic waves has been treated using many approaches like the finite element method, boundary element method and Kirchhoff approximation. In this work, we propose a novel accurate and efficient high order Nyström method to solve the boundary integral equations for elastodynamic scattering problems. This approach employs high order geometry description for the element, and high order interpolation for fields inside each element. Compared with the boundary element method, this approach makes the choice of the nodes for interpolation based on the Gaussian quadrature, which renders matrix elements for far field interaction free from integration, and also greatly simplifies the process for singularity and near singularity treatment. The proposed approach employs a novel efficient near singularity treatment that makes the solver able to handle extreme geometries like very thin penny-shaped crack. Numerical results are presented to validate the approach. By using the frequency domain response and performing the inverse Fourier transform, we also report the time domain response of flaw scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jheng, Y.; Hung, S.; Zhou, Y.; Chang, Y.
2012-12-01
Surface wave travel-time tomography has been widely used as a powerful strategy to image shear wave velocity structure of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, providing comparable information other than body wave tomography. Traditionally, lateral variations of dispersive phase velocities are first obtained at multiple frequencies and then used to invert for shear wave velocity with 1-D depth-dependent sensitivity kernels. However, this approach runs short on considering the directional- and depth-dependence of scattering while surface wave propagating through laterally heterogeneous Earth. To refrain from these shortcomings, we here provide a fully 3-D finite-frequency method based on the Born scattering theory formulated with surface wave mode summation, and apply it to regional fundamental Rayleigh wave travel-time tomography in central Tibet. Our data were collected from Project Hi-CLIMB, which deployed an N-S trending linear array of over 100 broadband seismic stations with a large aperture of 800 km and very dense spacing of ~3-8 km across the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes during 2004-2005. We follow a standard procedure of ambient noise cross correlation to extract empirical Green's functions of fundamental Rayleigh waves at 10-33 s between station pairs. A multi-taper method is employed to measure the phase differences as a function of period between observed and synthetic Rayleigh waves as well as the corresponding sensitivity kernels for the measured phase delays to 3-D shear wave velocity perturbations in a spherically-symmetric model suitable for central Tibet. A wavelet-based, multi-scale parameterization is invoked in the tomographic inversion to deal with the intrinsically multi-scale nature of unevenly distributed data and resolve the structure with data-adaptive spectral and spatial resolutions. The preliminary result shows that to the north of the Banggong-Nujiang suture (BNS), the crustal shear wave velocity beneath the Qiangtang terrane is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lollino, Piernicola; Fazio, Nunzio Luciano; Vennari, Carmela; Parise, Mario
2015-04-01
In December 2013 a large landslide occurred along a clay slope located at the south-western outskirts of the Montescaglioso village (Basilicata, Southern Italy) as a consequence of intense and prolonged rainfalls that presumably caused a significant increment of the pore water pressures in the slope. The slope is formed of stiff clays belonging to the formation of the Subappennine Blue Clays, which are over-consolidated and characterized by medium plasticity. According to aerial photos dating back to 1950s, the slope was already affected by previous landslide processes, so that the examined landslide process can be classified as an occasional reactivation according to the well-known classification of Cruden & Varnes (1996). Also, during the last decades several man-made actions in the area resulted in strong changes in the original water surface network that could have played some role in the slope reactivation. Based on displacement data, obtained from a monitoring system installed few days after the phenomenon, and still in function, at present the landslide does not show relevant signs of activity. Preliminary 2-D and 3-D finite element analyses have been carried out to investigate the factors that controlled the mechanism of reactivation of the landslide. The numerical model has been setup based on the available topographical, geological and geomorphological information, the geotechnical properties of the involved soils and the information concerning the piezometric regime in the slope. The results indicate that the mobilized shear strength of the clays ranges between the typical post-peak and residual values for this type of material and confirmed that the strong increment of the pore water pressures in the slope induced by the exceptional rainfalls occurred in the previous days can be identified as the main triggering factor of the reactivation.
Baillie, D; St Aubin, J; Fallone, B; Steciw, S
2014-06-15
Purpose: To design a new compact S-band linac waveguide capable of producing a 10 MV x-ray beam, while maintaining the length (27.5 cm) of current 6 MV waveguides. This will allow higher x-ray energies to be used in our linac-MRI systems with the same footprint. Methods: Finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design an accelerator cavity matching one published in an experiment breakdown study, to ensure that our modeled cavities do not exceed the threshold electric fields published. This cavity was used as the basis for designing an accelerator waveguide, where each cavity of the full waveguide was tuned to resonate at 2.997 GHz by adjusting the cavity diameter. The RF field solution within the waveguide was calculated, and together with an electron-gun phase space generated using Opera3D/SCALA, were input into electron tracking software PARMELA to compute the electron phase space striking the x-ray target. This target phase space was then used in BEAM Monte Carlo simulations to generate percent depth doses curves for this new linac, which were then used to re-optimize the waveguide geometry. Results: The shunt impedance, Q-factor, and peak-to-mean electric field ratio were matched to those published for the breakdown study to within 0.1% error. After tuning the full waveguide, the peak surface fields are calculated to be 207 MV/m, 13% below the breakdown threshold, and a d-max depth of 2.42 cm, a D10/20 value of 1.59, compared to 2.45 cm and 1.59, respectively, for the simulated Varian 10 MV linac and brehmsstrahlung production efficiency 20% lower than a simulated Varian 10 MV linac. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the design of a functional 27.5 cm waveguide producing 10 MV photons with characteristics similar to a Varian 10 MV linac.
Ghasemi, Ehsan; Abedian, Alireza; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Khazaei, Saber
2015-01-01
Background: Osseointegration of dental implants is influenced by many biomechanical factors that may be related to stress distribution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of type of luting agent on stress distribution in the bone surrounding implants, which support a three-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) using finite element (FE) analysis. Materials and Methods: A 3D FE model of a three-unit FDP was designed replacing the maxillary first molar with maxillary second premolar and second molar as the abutments using CATIA V5R18 software and analyzed with ABAQUS/CAE 6.6 version. The model was consisted of 465108 nodes and 86296 elements and the luting agent thickness was considered 25 μm. Three load conditions were applied on eight points in each functional cusp in horizontal (57.0 N), vertical (200.0 N) and oblique (400.0 N, θ = 120°) directions. Five different luting agents were evaluated. All materials were assumed to be linear elastic, homogeneous, time independent and isotropic. Results: For all luting agent types, the stress distribution pattern in the cortical bone, connectors, implant and abutment regions was almost uniform among the three loads. Furthermore, the maximum von Mises stress of the cortical bone was at the palatal side of second premolar. Likewise, the maximum von Mises stress in the connector region was in the top and bottom of this part. Conclusion: Luting agents transfer the load to cortical bone and different types of luting agents do not affect the pattern of load transfer. PMID:25709676
Boukazouha, F; Poulin-Vittrant, G; Tran-Huu-Hue, L P; Bavencoffe, M; Boubenider, F; Rguiti, M; Lethiecq, M
2015-07-01
This article is dedicated to the study of Piezoelectric Transformers (PTs), which offer promising solutions to the increasing need for integrated power electronics modules within autonomous systems. The advantages offered by such transformers include: immunity to electromagnetic disturbances; ease of miniaturisation for example, using conventional micro fabrication processes; and enhanced performance in terms of voltage gain and power efficiency. Central to the adequate description of such transformers is the need for complex analytical modeling tools, especially if one is attempting to include combined contributions due to (i) mechanical phenomena owing to the different propagation modes which differ at the primary and secondary sides of the PT; and (ii) electrical phenomena such as the voltage gain and power efficiency, which depend on the electrical load. The present work demonstrates an original one-dimensional (1D) analytical model, dedicated to a Rosen-type PT and simulation results are successively compared against that of a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics software) and experimental results. The Rosen-type PT studied here is based on a single layer soft PZT (P191) with corresponding dimensions 18 mm × 3 mm × 1.5 mm, which operated at the second harmonic of 176 kHz. Detailed simulational and experimental results show that the presented 1D model predicts experimental measurements to within less than 10% error of the voltage gain at the second and third resonance frequency modes. Adjustment of the analytical model parameters is found to decrease errors relative to experimental voltage gain to within 1%, whilst a 2.5% error on the output admittance magnitude at the second resonance mode were obtained. Relying on the unique assumption of one-dimensionality, the present analytical model appears as a useful tool for Rosen-type PT design and behavior understanding. PMID:25753623
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia
2015-12-01
A generalized and efficient model for rotating anisotropic rotor-bearing systems is presented in this paper with full considerations of the system's anisotropy in stiffness, inertia and damping. Based on the 3D finite element model and the model order reduction method, the effects of anisotropy in shaft and bearings on the forced response and whirling of anisotropic rotor-bearing systems are systematically investigated. First, the coefficients of journal bearings are transformed from the fixed frame to the rotating one. Due to the anisotropy in shaft and bearings, the motion is governed by differential equations with periodically time-variant coefficients. Then, a free-interface complex component mode synthesis (CMS) method is employed to generate efficient reduced-order models (ROM) for the periodically time-variant systems. In order to solve the obtained equations, a variant of Hill's method for systems with multiple harmonic excitations is developed. Four dimensionless parameters are defined to quantify the types and levels of anisotropy of bearings. Finally, the effects of the four types of anisotropy on the forced response and whirl orbits are studied. Numerical results show that the anisotropy of bearings in stiffness splits the sole resonant peak into two isolated ones, but the anisotropy of bearings in damping coefficients mainly affect the response amplitudes. Moreover, the whirl orbits become much more complex when the shaft and bearings are both anisotropic. In addition, the cross-coupling stiffness coefficients of bearings significantly affect the dynamic behaviors of the systems and cannot be neglected, though they are often much smaller than the principle stiffness terms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arjunan, A.; Wang, C. J.; Yahiaoui, K.; Mynors, D. J.; Morgan, T.; Nguyen, V. B.; English, M.
2014-11-01
Building standards incorporating quantitative acoustical criteria to ensure adequate sound insulation are now being implemented. Engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically efficient double-wall structures. Accordingly, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation of double-leaf wall structures are needed. This paper presents the development of a numerical tool that can predict the frequency dependent sound reduction index R of stud based double-leaf walls at one-third-octave band frequency range. A fully vibro-acoustic 3D model consisting of two rooms partitioned using a double-leaf wall, considering the structure and acoustic fluid coupling incorporating the existing fluid and structural solvers are presented. The validity of the finite element (FE) model is assessed by comparison with experimental test results carried out in a certified laboratory. Accurate representation of the structural damping matrix to effectively predict the R values are studied. The possibilities of minimising the simulation time using a frequency dependent mesh model was also investigated. The FEA model presented in this work is capable of predicting the weighted sound reduction index Rw along with A-weighted pink noise C and A-weighted urban noise Ctr within an error of 1 dB. The model developed can also be used to analyse the acoustically induced frequency dependent geometrical behaviour of the double-leaf wall components to optimise them for best acoustic performance. The FE modelling procedure reported in this paper can be extended to other building components undergoing fluid-structure interaction (FSI) to evaluate their acoustic insulation.
Microstructurally Controlled Composites with Optimal Elastodynamic Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Hossein
Periodic composites (PCs) are artificial materials with specially designed microstructure to manage stress waves. The objective of this dissertation is to study various techniques for microstructural design of PCs for a desired elastodynamic response. A mixed variational formulation is studied for band structure calculation of PCs. Dynamic homogenization is studied for calculation of the frequency dependent effective properties of PCs. Optimization techniques are used together with mixed variational formulation and dynamic homogenization to make a computational platform for microstructural design of PCs. Several PCs are designed and fabricated, and various tests are performed for experimental verification. First, band-gap in one- and two-dimensional PCs is investigated experimentally. Mixed variational formulation is used to design samples with band-gaps at frequencies convenient to conduct experiment. Samples are fabricated and their transmission coefficient is measured. Experimental data are compared with theoretical results for evaluation of the band structure. Using constituent materials with temperature dependent material properties, it is also shown that band structure of PCs can be tuned by changing the ambient temperature. Furthermore, dynamic homogenization is used to design a one-dimensional PC for acoustic impedance matching. As a result, the reflection of stress waves at the interface of two impedance matched media becomes zero. Samples are fabricated and ultrasound tests are performed to measure the reflection coefficient for experimental verification. In addition, a one-dimensional PC with metamaterial response is designed to achieve a composite with both high stiffness-to-density ratio and high attenuation at low frequency regime. Samples are fabricated and the attenuation coefficient is measured for experimental verification. Moreover, optimal design of PCs for shock wave mitigation is investigated. A genetic algorithm is used to design the
Huang, Huajun; Xiang, Chunling; Zeng, Canjun; Ouyang, Hanbin; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Huang, Wenhua
2015-12-01
We improved the geometrical modeling procedure for fast and accurate reconstruction of orthopedic structures. This procedure consists of medical image segmentation, three-dimensional geometrical reconstruction, and assignment of material properties. The patient-specific orthopedic structures reconstructed by this improved procedure can be used in the virtual surgical planning, 3D printing of real orthopedic structures and finite element analysis. A conventional modeling consists of: image segmentation, geometrical reconstruction, mesh generation, and assignment of material properties. The present study modified the conventional method to enhance software operating procedures. Patient's CT images of different bones were acquired and subsequently reconstructed to give models. The reconstruction procedures were three-dimensional image segmentation, modification of the edge length and quantity of meshes, and the assignment of material properties according to the intensity of gravy value. We compared the performance of our procedures to the conventional procedures modeling in terms of software operating time, success rate and mesh quality. Our proposed framework has the following improvements in the geometrical modeling: (1) processing time: (femur: 87.16 ± 5.90 %; pelvis: 80.16 ± 7.67 %; thoracic vertebra: 17.81 ± 4.36 %; P < 0.05); (2) least volume reduction (femur: 0.26 ± 0.06 %; pelvis: 0.70 ± 0.47, thoracic vertebra: 3.70 ± 1.75 %; P < 0.01) and (3) mesh quality in terms of aspect ratio (femur: 8.00 ± 7.38 %; pelvis: 17.70 ± 9.82 %; thoracic vertebra: 13.93 ± 9.79 %; P < 0.05) and maximum angle (femur: 4.90 ± 5.28 %; pelvis: 17.20 ± 19.29 %; thoracic vertebra: 3.86 ± 3.82 %; P < 0.05). Our proposed patient-specific geometrical modeling requires less operating time and workload, but the orthopedic structures were generated at a higher rate of success as compared with the conventional method. It is expected to benefit the surgical planning of orthopedic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeumann, Stefanie; Hampel, Andrea
2015-04-01
Subduction of aseismic oceanic ridges causes considerable deformation of the forearc region. To investigate the role of ridge orientation relative to the margin and convergence direction on the style of forearc deformation, we developed a series of 3D finite-elemente models, in which a rigid oceanic plate carrying the model ridge subducts beneath a deformable forearc wedge. Experiments were carried out for angles of 30°, 60° and 90° between the ridge axis and the trench and for different convergence directions. In the experiments, in which the ridge axis is parallel to the convergence direction, the ridge is stationary; in all other experiments, the ridge migrates along the margin and thus affects different regions of the forearc. Our results show that the ridge indents and uplifts the forearc in all models. For obliquely subducting ridges the displacement and strain fields become highly asymmetric regardless if the ridge is stationary or migrates along the forearc. Only if the ridge is stationary and oriented perpendicular to the margin, the deformation is symmetric relative to the ridge axis. Stationary ridges show uplift only above the ridge tip, whereas a migrating ridge causes a wave of uplift above the leading flank of the ridge followed by subsidence above the trailing flank. Horizontal strain components show domains of both extension and shortening, with extension occurring above the ridge tip and shortening above the ridge flanks. To compare our results with natural case studies, we computed additional models reflecting the setting of the stationary Cocos Ridge subducting beneath southern Costa Rica and of the Nazca Ridge, which migrates along the Peruvian margin. The results of these adjusted models are in good agreement with field observations. For the model of the Cocos Ridge the highest degree of shortening occurs normal to the margin, which coincides with the location of a thrust belt in the forearc of Costa Rica with its maximum shortening inboard
Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.
1993-08-01
A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the study is to compare the performance of the various analysis codes and element types with respect to a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry.
Elastodynamic metasurface: Depolarization of mechanical waves and time effects
Boutin, Claude; Schwan, Logan; Dietz, Matthew S.
2015-02-14
We report the concept of microstructured surfaces with inner resonance in the field of elastodynamics, so-called elastodynamic metasurfaces. Such metasurfaces allow for wavefield manipulation of mechanical waves by tuning the boundary conditions at specific frequencies. In particular, they can be used to depolarize elastic waves without introducing heterogeneities in the medium itself; the physical means to do so in homogeneous elastic media used to remain, surprisingly, an open question while depolarization is commonplace in electromagnetism. The principle relies on the anisotropic behaviour of a subwavelength array of resonators: Their subwavelength configuration confines the Bragg interferences scattered by resonators into a boundary layer. The effective behaviour of the resonating array is expressed with homogenization as an unconventional impedance, the frequency-dependence, and anisotropy of which lead to depolarization and time effects. The concept of the elastodynamic metasurface is tested experimentally and results bear testament to its efficacy and robustness. Elastodynamic metasurfaces are easily realized and analytically predictable, opening new possibilities in tomography techniques, ultrasonics, geophysics, vibration control, materials and structure design.
Elastodynamic metasurface: Depolarization of mechanical waves and time effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutin, Claude; Schwan, Logan; Dietz, Matthew S.
2015-02-01
We report the concept of microstructured surfaces with inner resonance in the field of elastodynamics, so-called elastodynamic metasurfaces. Such metasurfaces allow for wavefield manipulation of mechanical waves by tuning the boundary conditions at specific frequencies. In particular, they can be used to depolarize elastic waves without introducing heterogeneities in the medium itself; the physical means to do so in homogeneous elastic media used to remain, surprisingly, an open question while depolarization is commonplace in electromagnetism. The principle relies on the anisotropic behaviour of a subwavelength array of resonators: Their subwavelength configuration confines the Bragg interferences scattered by resonators into a boundary layer. The effective behaviour of the resonating array is expressed with homogenization as an unconventional impedance, the frequency-dependence, and anisotropy of which lead to depolarization and time effects. The concept of the elastodynamic metasurface is tested experimentally and results bear testament to its efficacy and robustness. Elastodynamic metasurfaces are easily realized and analytically predictable, opening new possibilities in tomography techniques, ultrasonics, geophysics, vibration control, materials and structure design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman
2013-11-01
The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.
Langerman, M.A.
1990-09-01
Steady-state modeling considerations for simulating the in situ vitrification (ISV) process are documented based upon the finite element numerical approach. Recommendations regarding boundary condition specifications and mesh discretization are presented. The effects of several parameters on the ISV process response are calculated and the results discussed. The parameters investigated include: (1) electrode depth, (2) ambient temperature, (3) supplied current, (4) electrical conductivity, (5) electrode separation, and (6) soil/waste characterization. 13 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.
Not Available
1984-10-01
STEALTH is a family of computer codes that can be used to calculate a variety of physical processes in which the dynamic behavior of a continuum is involved. The version of STEALTH described in this volume is designed for calculations of fluid-structure interaction. This version of the program consists of a hydrodynamic version of STEALTH which has been coupled to a finite-element code, WHAMSE. STEALTH computes the transient response of the fluid continuum, while WHAMSE computes the transient response of shell and beam structures under external fluid loadings. The coupling between STEALTH and WHAMSE is performed during each cycle or step of a calculation. Separate calculations of fluid response and structure response are avoided, thereby giving a more accurate model of the dynamic coupling between fluid and structure. This volume provides the theoretical background, the finite-difference equations, the finite-element equations, a discussion of several sample problems, a listing of the input decks for the sample problems, a programmer's manual and a description of the input records for the STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abudaram, Yaakov Jack
This work is concerned with a new method to apply consistent and known pretension to silicone rubber membranes intended for micro air vehicles as well as an understanding in the science of developed pre-tension in membranes constrained by 2- D and 3-D frames and structures. Pre-tension has a marked effect on the static and dynamic response of membrane wings and controls the overall deflections, as such control and measurement of the membrane pre-tension is important. Two different 2-D frame geometries were fabricated to evaluate the technique. For open-cell frames, the pretension was not uniform, whereas it was for closed-cell frames. Results show developed full-field stress and strain fields as a function of membrane attachment temperature and frame geometry along with experimental iterations to prove repeatability. The membranes can be stretched to a specific pretension according to the temperature at which it adheres to frames. Strain fields in membranes attached to 3-D frames at various temperatures are modeled through FEA utilizing Abaqus to be able to predict the developed membrane deformations, stresses, and strains. Rigid frames with various curvatures are built via appropriate molds and then adhered to silicone rubber membranes and elevated to various temperatures to achieve different pre-strains for experimental validation. Additional experiments are conducted for more complex frame geometries involving both convex and concave topologies embedded within frames. Results are then compared with the Abaqus outputs to validate the accuracy of the FEA model. Highly compliant wings have been used for MAV platforms, where the wing structure is determined by some combination of carbon fiber composites and a membrane skin, adhered in between the layers of composite material. Another new technique of attaching membranes firmly on wing structures is introduced, which involves the application of a technology known as corona treatment coupled with another method of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdrè, Giovanni; Moro, Daniele
2008-10-01
The investigation of the nanoscale distribution of electrostatic forces on material surfaces is of paramount importance for the development of nanotechnology, since these confined forces govern many physical processes on which a large number of technological applications are based. For instance, electric force microscopy (EFM) and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) are technologies based on an electrostatic interaction between a cantilever and a specimen. In the present work we report on a 3D finite element analysis of the electrostatic deflection of cantilevers for electric and Kelvin force microscopy. A commercial triangular shaped cantilever with a symmetric pyramidal tip was modelled. In addition, the cantilever was modified by a focused ion beam (FIB) in order to reduce its parasitic electrostatic force, and its behaviour was studied by computation analysis. 3D modelling of the electrostatic deflection was realized by using a multiphysics finite element analysis software and it was applied to the real geometry of the cantilevers and probes obtained by using basic CAD tools. The results of the modelling are in good agreement with experimental data.
Valdrè, Giovanni; Moro, Daniele
2008-10-01
This paper deals with an application of 3D finite element analysis to the electrostatic interaction between (i) a commercial rectangular shaped cantilever (with an integrated anisotropic pyramidal tip) and a conductive sample, when a voltage difference is applied between them, and (ii) a focused ion beam (FIB) modified cantilever in order to realize a probe with reduced parasitic electrostatic force. The 3D modelling of their electrostatic deflection was realized by using multiphysics finite element analysis software and applied to the real geometry of the cantilevers and probes as used in conventional electric and Kelvin force microscopy to evaluate the contribution of the various part of a cantilever to the total force, and derive practical criteria to optimize the probe performances. We report also on the simulation of electrostatic shielding of nanometric features, in order to quantitatively evaluate an alternative way of reducing the systematic error caused by the cantilever-to-sample capacitive coupling. Finally, a quantitative comparison between the performances of rectangular and triangular cantilevers (part I of this work) is reported. PMID:21832618
Valdrè, Giovanni; Moro, Daniele
2008-10-01
The investigation of the nanoscale distribution of electrostatic forces on material surfaces is of paramount importance for the development of nanotechnology, since these confined forces govern many physical processes on which a large number of technological applications are based. For instance, electric force microscopy (EFM) and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) are technologies based on an electrostatic interaction between a cantilever and a specimen. In the present work we report on a 3D finite element analysis of the electrostatic deflection of cantilevers for electric and Kelvin force microscopy. A commercial triangular shaped cantilever with a symmetric pyramidal tip was modelled. In addition, the cantilever was modified by a focused ion beam (FIB) in order to reduce its parasitic electrostatic force, and its behaviour was studied by computation analysis. 3D modelling of the electrostatic deflection was realized by using a multiphysics finite element analysis software and it was applied to the real geometry of the cantilevers and probes obtained by using basic CAD tools. The results of the modelling are in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:21832617
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skarlatoudis, A. A.; Papazachos, C. B.; Theodoulidis, N.; Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.
2010-07-01
The site effects of seismic motion in the metropolitan area of the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece) are investigated using a 3-D finite-difference modelling approach. Three different seismic scenarios are assumed with two different focal mechanisms for each one. Standard spectral ratios (SSR) are calculated from 3-D synthetics and compared with the ratios from the recorded motion, as well as ratios obtained from 1-D and 2-D modelling by other researchers. The average SSR curves from the six scenarios are in good agreement with the empirical ones, whereas the SSR results from 3-D modelling are different from those from 1-D modelling, exhibiting higher fundamental frequencies and larger amplification amplitudes, in much better agreement with observed SSR ratios. Comparisons of Fourier amplitude spectra obtained for various scenarios for the broader area of Thessaloniki show considerable dependence of the site effects on the source properties (position, depth and fault-plane solution), as well as on the local structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Yu-Bong; Jung, Duk-Young; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Nobuyuki; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Ikeuchi, Ken
Whiplash injuries are most common disorders in rear-end car accidents, while the injury mechanism is yet unknown. Many numerical and experimental approaches have conducted to investigate the cervical behaviors with solely two-dimensional analyses in the sagittal plane. In real accidents, however, as impacts may affect several directions, the cervical behaviors should be evaluated three-dimensionally. Therefore, we evaluated the cervical behaviors under assumption of the posterior-oblique impacts depending on the impact angles with 3-D FE analysis. In addition, we analyzed the stresses occurred in the facet joints considering the relationship with a whiplash disorders. The cervical behaviors showed complex motion combined with axial torsion and lateral bending. The bending angle peaked in the impact at the angle of 15°, and the peak compressive and shear stress on the facet cartilage at C6-C7 increased by 11% and 14%. In the impact at the angle of 30°, the torsion angle peaked at C2-C3, the peak shear stress in the facet cartilage increased by 27%. It showed that the torsion and lateral bending affected the cervical behaviors, and caused the increase of peak stresses on the soft tissues. It is assumed as one of important causes of whiplash injury.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Benjemaa, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.
2010-12-01
Simulating any realistic seismic scenario requires incorporating physical basis into the model. Considering both the dynamics of the rupture process and the anelastic attenuation of seismic waves is essential to this purpose and, therefore, we choose to extend the hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method to integrate these physical aspects. The 3D elastodynamic equations in an unstructured tetrahedral mesh are solved with a second-order time marching approach in a high-performance computing environment. The first extension incorporates the viscoelastic rheology so that the intrinsic attenuation of the medium is considered in terms of frequency dependent quality factors (Q). On the other hand, the extension related to dynamic rupture is integrated through explicit boundary conditions over the crack surface. For this visco-elastodynamic formulation, we introduce an original discrete scheme that preserves the optimal code performance of the elastodynamic equations. A set of relaxation mechanisms describes the behavior of a generalized Maxwell body. We approximate almost constant Q in a wide frequency range by selecting both suitable relaxation frequencies and anelastic coefficients characterizing these mechanisms. In order to do so, we solve an optimization problem which is critical to minimize the amount of relaxation mechanisms. Two strategies are explored: 1) a least squares method and 2) a genetic algorithm (GA). We found that the improvement provided by the heuristic GA method is negligible. Both optimization strategies yield Q values within the 5% of the target constant Q mechanism. Anelastic functions (i.e. memory variables) are introduced to efficiently evaluate the time convolution terms involved in the constitutive equations and thus to minimize the computational cost. The incorporation of anelastic functions implies new terms with ordinary differential equations in the mathematical formulation. We solve these equations using the same order
Zherdetsky, Aleksej; Prakonina, Alena; Malony, Allen D.
2014-01-01
The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and electroencephalography (EEG) forward problems in anisotropic inhomogeneous media like the human head belongs to the class of the three-dimensional boundary value problems for elliptic equations with mixed derivatives. We introduce and explore the performance of several new promising numerical techniques, which seem to be more suitable for solving these problems. The proposed numerical schemes combine the fictitious domain approach together with the finite-difference method and the optimally preconditioned Conjugate Gradient- (CG-) type iterative method for treatment of the discrete model. The numerical scheme includes the standard operations of summation and multiplication of sparse matrices and vector, as well as FFT, making it easy to implement and eligible for the effective parallel implementation. Some typical use cases for the EIT/EEG problems are considered demonstrating high efficiency of the proposed numerical technique. PMID:24527060
Turovets, Sergei; Volkov, Vasily; Zherdetsky, Aleksej; Prakonina, Alena; Malony, Allen D
2014-01-01
The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and electroencephalography (EEG) forward problems in anisotropic inhomogeneous media like the human head belongs to the class of the three-dimensional boundary value problems for elliptic equations with mixed derivatives. We introduce and explore the performance of several new promising numerical techniques, which seem to be more suitable for solving these problems. The proposed numerical schemes combine the fictitious domain approach together with the finite-difference method and the optimally preconditioned Conjugate Gradient- (CG-) type iterative method for treatment of the discrete model. The numerical scheme includes the standard operations of summation and multiplication of sparse matrices and vector, as well as FFT, making it easy to implement and eligible for the effective parallel implementation. Some typical use cases for the EIT/EEG problems are considered demonstrating high efficiency of the proposed numerical technique. PMID:24527060
Flynn, Cormac; Taberner, Andrew; Nielsen, Poul
2011-02-01
The complex mechanical properties of skin have been the subject of much study in recent years. Several experimental methods developed to measure the mechanical properties of skin in vivo, such as suction or torsion, are unable to measure skin's anisotropic characteristics. An experiment characterising the mechanical properties of in vivo human skin using a novel force-sensitive micro-robot is presented. The micro-robot applied in-plane deformations to the anterior forearm and the posterior upper arm. The behaviour of the skin in each area is highly nonlinear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic. The response of the upper arm skin is very dependent on the orientation of the arm. A finite element model consisting of an Ogden strain energy function and quasi-linear viscoelasticity was developed to simulate the experiments. An orthogonal initial stress field, representing the in vivo skin tension, was used as an additional model parameter. The model simulated the experiments accurately with an error-of-fit of 17.5% for the anterior lower forearm area, 6.5% for the anterior upper forearm and 9.3% for the posterior upper arm. The maximum in vivo tension in each area determined by the model was 6.2 Nm(-1) in the anterior lower forearm, 11.4 Nm(-1) in anterior upper forearm and 5.6 Nm(-1) in the posterior upper arm. The results also show that a finite element model with a neo-Hookean strain energy function cannot simulate the experiments with the same accuracy. PMID:20429025
Ozan, Oguz; Ramoglu, Serhat
2015-06-01
Implant-supported overdentures with self-aligning attachment systems are preferred to improve the stability and retention of complete dentures. The positioning of the implant attachments is a very important aspect of two-implant overdentures in obtaining better stress distribution. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare two different attachment systems in a two-implant overdenture by evaluating the stress distributions in peri-implant bone and stresses on the attachments with positioning at different height levels using the 3D FEA method. Six models with ball attachments and 6 models with locator attachments-totaling 12 models (including 2 controls)-with the left implant positioned unilaterally at different height levels were subjected to 3 loading conditions (anterior, right posterior, and left posterior). Data for Von Misses stresses were produced numerically, color coded, and compared among the models for attachments and peri-implant cortical bone. The configurations in which implants presented 3 mm height differences in the bone level showed the most successful results in the peri-implant bone. When stresses on the attachments were compared, greater stress values were obtained from the ball attachments. As a conclusion, the configurations with a considerable (3 mm) height difference between quadrants of the mandible in the anterior segment showed the most successful results in the peri-implant bone. On the contrary, peak stress values around the implant observed from the models with less (1 mm) bone height difference may require leveling of the bone during surgery. However, these findings should be corroborated with clinical studies. PMID:24471769
Stevenson, Thomas; Doschak, Michael
2014-01-01
The aim of this animal study was to develop a model of orthodontic tooth movement using a microimplant as a TSAD in rodents. A finite element model of the TSAD in alveolar bone was built using μCT images of rat maxilla to determine the von Mises stresses and displacement in the alveolar bone surrounding the TSAD. For in vivo validation of the FE model, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 25) were used and a Stryker 1.2 × 3 mm microimplant was inserted in the right maxilla and used to protract the right first permanent molar using a NiTi closed coil spring. Tooth movement measurements were taken at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, animals were euthanized and tissues were analyzed by histology and EPMA. FE modeling showed maximum von Mises stress of 45 Mpa near the apex of TSAD but the average von Mises stress was under 25 Mpa. Appreciable tooth movement of 0.62 ± 0.04 mm at 4 weeks and 1.99 ± 0.14 mm at 8 weeks was obtained. Histological and EPMA results demonstrated no active bone remodeling around the TSAD at 8 weeks depicting good secondary stability. This study provided evidence that protracted tooth movement is achieved in small animals using TSADs. PMID:25295060
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibert, Mathieu; Klein, Simon; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2012-11-01
We report a novel experimental technique that measures simultaneously in three dimensions the trajectories, the translation, and the rotation of finite size inertial particles together with the turbulent flow. The flow field is analyzed by tracking the temporal evolution of small fluorescent tracer particles. The inertial particles consist of a super-absorbent polymer that renders them index and density matched with water and thus invisible. The particles are marked by inserting at various locations tracer particles into the polymer. Translation and rotation, as well as the flow field around the particle are recovered dynamically from the analysis of the marker and tracer particle trajectories. We apply this technique to study the dynamics of inertial particles much larger in size (Rp / η ~ 100) than the Kolmogorov length scale η in a von Kármán swirling water flow (Rλ ~ 400). We show, using the mixed (particle/fluid) Eulerian second order velocity structure function, that the interaction zone between the particle and the flow develops in a spherical shell of width 2Rp around the particle of radius Rp. This we interpret as an indication of a wake induced by the particle. (http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.2181) This work was funded generously by the Max Planck Society and the Marie Curie Fellowship, Program PEOPLE - Call FP7-PEOPLE-IEF-2008 Proposal No 237521. Support from COST Action MP0806 is kindly acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Simon; Gibert, Mathieu; Bérut, Antoine; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2013-02-01
We report a novel experimental technique that measures simultaneously in three dimensions the trajectories, the translation and the rotation of finite-size inertial particles together with the turbulent flow. The flow field is analyzed by tracking the temporal evolution of small fluorescent tracer particles. The inertial particles consist of a super-absorbent polymer that renders them index and density matched with water and thus invisible. The particles are marked by inserting at various locations tracer particles into the polymer. Translation and rotation, as well as the flow field around the particle are recovered dynamically from the analysis of the marker and tracer particle trajectories. We apply this technique to study the dynamics of inertial particles much larger in size (Rp/η ≈ 100) than the Kolmogorov length scale η in a von Kármán swirling water flow (Rλ ≈ 400). We show, using the mixed (particle/fluid) Eulerian second-order velocity structure function, that the interaction zone between the particle and the flow develops in a spherical shell of width 2Rp around the particle of radius Rp. This we interpret as an indication of a wake induced by the particle. This measurement technique has many additional advantages that will make it useful to address other problems such as particle collisions, dynamics of non-spherical solid objects, or even of wet granular matter.
Fernandez, M; House, M; Jambawalikar, S; Zork, N; Vink, J; Wapner, R; Myers, K
2016-01-01
Preterm birth is a strong contributor to perinatal mortality, and preterm infants that survive are at risk for long-term morbidities. During most of pregnancy, appropriate mechanical function of the cervix is required to maintain the developing fetus in utero. Premature cervical softening and subsequent cervical shortening are hypothesized to cause preterm birth. Presently, there is a lack of understanding of the structural and material factors that influence the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. In this study we build finite element models of the pregnant uterus, cervix, and fetal membrane based on magnetic resonance imagining data in order to examine the mechanical function of the cervix under the physiologic loading conditions of pregnancy. We calculate the mechanical loading state of the cervix for two pregnant patients: 22 weeks gestational age with a normal cervical length and 28 weeks with a short cervix. We investigate the influence of (1) anatomical geometry, (2) cervical material properties, and (3) fetal membrane material properties, including its adhesion properties, on the mechanical loading state of the cervix under physiologically relevant intrauterine pressures. Our study demonstrates that membrane-uterus interaction, cervical material modeling, and membrane mechanical properties are factors that must be deliberately and carefully handled in order to construct a high quality mechanical simulation of pregnancy. PMID:25970655
Mansoor, K; Maley, M; Demir, Z; Hoffman, F
2001-08-08
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large Superfund site in California that is implementing an extensive ground water remediation program. The site is underlain by a thick sequence of heterogeneous alluvial sediments. Defining ground-water flow pathways in this complex geologic setting is difficult. To better evaluate these pathways, a deterministic approach was applied to define hydrostratigraphic units (HSUS) on the basis of identifiable hydraulic behavior and contaminant migration trends. The conceptual model based on this approach indicates that groundwater flow and contaminant transport occurs within packages of sediments bounded by thin, low-permeability confining layers. To aid in the development of the remediation program, a three-dimensional finite-element model was developed for two of the HSUS at LLNL. The primary objectives of this model are to test the conceptual model with a numerical model, and provide well field management support for the large ground-water remediation system. The model was successfully calibrated to 12 years of ground water flow and contaminant transport data. These results confirm that the thin, low-permeability confining layers within the heterogeneous alluvial sediments are the dominant hydraulic control to flow and transport. This calibrated model is currently being applied to better manage the large site-wide ground water extraction system by optimizing the location of new extraction wells, managing pumping rates for extraction wells, and providing performance estimates for long-term planning and budgeting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hashimoto, Chihiro; Hori, Muneo; Fukahata, Yukitoshi
2016-04-01
As a result of the accumulation of high-resolution observation data, three-dimensional high-fidelity crustal structure data for large domains are becoming available. However, it has been difficult to use such data to perform elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses in large domains with quality assurance of the numerical simulation that guarantees convergence of the numerical solution with respect to the discretisation size, because the costs of analysis are significantly high. This paper proposes a method of constructing a high-fidelity crustal structure finite element (FE) model using high-fidelity crustal structure data and fast FE analysis to reduce the costs of analysis (based on automatic FE model generation for parallel computation, OpenMP/MPI hybrid parallel computation on distributed memory computers, a geometric multigrid, variable preconditioning, and multiple precision arithmetic). Using the proposed methods, we construct 10 billion degree-of-freedom high-fidelity crustal structure FE models for the entire Japan, and conduct elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analysis using this model with enough high accuracy of the numerical simulation.
Memari, Yeganeh; Geramy, Allahyar; Fayaz, Amir; Rezvani Habib Abadi, Shirin; Mansouri, Yasaman
2014-01-01
Objective: Distal extension removable partial denture is a prosthesis with lack of distal dental support with a 13-fold difference in resiliency between the mucosa and the periodontal ligament, resulting in leverage during compression forces. It may be potentially destructive to the abutments and the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of implant location on stress distribution, in distal extension implant assisted removable partial dentures. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models of a bilateral distal extension partially edentulous mandible containing anterior teeth and first premolar in both sides of the arch, a partial removable denture and an implant (4×10mm) were designed. With the aid of the finite element program ANSYS 8.0, the models were meshed and strictly vertical forces of 10 N were applied to each cusp tip. Displacement and von Mises Maps were plotted for visualization of results. Results: When an implant was placed in the second premolar region, the highest stress on implant, abutment tooth and cancellous bone was shown. The lowest stress was shown on implant and bone in the 1st molar area. Conclusion: Implants located in the first molar area showed the least distribution of stresses in the analyzed models. PMID:25628678
SANNINO, G.; POZZI, A.; SCHIAVETTI, R.; BARLATTANI, A.
2012-01-01
SUMMARY Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate, by finite element analysis (FEA) and fatigue analysis, the influence of different loading conditions on the stress distribution in a 3-unit implant-supported Y-TZP fixed partial denture (FPD). Material and methods A three-dimensional FEM model was developed. The materials used in this study were assumed to be linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic. 100 N and 300 N loads over a 0,5 mm2 areas with different angles (0°, 15° and 35°) and locations were applied on the prosthesis and the distribution of equivalent von Mises stress was investigated. A fatigue analysis was carried out too. Results Maximum stresses were found at the connector region of the framework when the intermediate element is loaded (100 N load pattern: 32,9 MPa, 33 MPa and 51,8 MPa; 300 N load pattern: 98,6 MPa, 102,8 MPa and 155,7 MPa, respectively with 0°, 15° and 35° of inclination). Results confirmed the vulnerability of both connector areas even if just one pillar was loaded with an increase in stress when angle of load inclination is larger. The cyclic fatigue evaluation indicates a strong propensity for fatigue behavior, presenting a considerable range of loading conditions. No fracture fatigue occurred with a 100 N force. A 300 N force applied to the pontic produces no fatigue problems because the load is equally shared by whole system. A 300 N force applied to one of the two pillars, or to both implants generates fatigue problems. Conclusion F.E.M. analysis of a 3-unit implant-supported Y-TZPFPD, give accurate information about loading conditions for clinical success over time. Fatigue analysis results show structural reliability of the Y-TZP as framework material for 3-unit posterior FPDs. PMID:23285401
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thizy, C.; Eliot, F.; Ballhause, D.; Olympio, K. R.; Kluge, R.; Shannon, A.; Laduree, G.; Logut, D.; Georges, M. P.
2013-04-01
Thermo-elastic distortions of composite structures have been measured by a holographic camera using a BSO photorefractive crystal as the recording medium. The first test campaign (Phase 1) was performed on CFRP struts with titanium end-fittings glued to the tips of the strut. The samples were placed in a vacuum chamber. The holographic camera was located outside the chamber and configured with two illuminations to measure the relative out-of-plane and in-plane (in one direction) displacements. The second test campaign (Phase 2) was performed on a structure composed of a large Silicon Carbide base plate supported by 3 GFRP struts with glued Titanium end-fittings. Thermo-elastic distortions have been measured with the same holographic camera used in phase 1, but four illuminations, instead of two, have been used to provide the three components of displacement. This technique was specially developed and validated during the phase 2 in CSL laboratory. The system has been designed to measure an object size of typically 250x250 mm2; the measurement range is such that the sum of the largest relative displacements in the three measurement directions is maximum 20 μm. The validation of the four-illuminations technique led to measurement uncertainties of 120 nm for the relative in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, 230 nm for the absolute in-plane displacement and 400 nm for the absolute out-of-plane displacement. For both campaigns, the test results have been compared to the predictions obtained by finite element analyses and the correlation of these results was good.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pletinckx, D.
2011-09-01
The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.
Hou, Gary Y.; Luo, Jianwen; Marquet, Fabrice; Maleke, Caroline; Vappou, Jonathan; Konofagou, Elisa E.
2014-01-01
Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a novel high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Its principle is based on Amplitude-modulated (AM) - Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI), an oscillatory radiation force used for imaging the tissue mechanical response during thermal ablation. In this study, a theoretical framework of HMIFU is presented, comprising a customized nonlinear wave propagation model, a finite-element (FE) analysis module, and an image-formation model. The objective of this study is to develop such a framework in order to 1) assess the fundamental performance of HMIFU in detecting HIFU lesions based on the change in tissue apparent elasticity, i.e., the increasing Young's modulus, and the HIFU lesion size with respect to the HIFU exposure time and 2) validate the simulation findings ex vivo. The same HMI and HMIFU parameters as in the experimental studies were used, i.e., 4.5-MHz HIFU frequency and 25 Hz AM frequency. For a lesion-to-background Young's modulus ratio of 3, 6, and 9, the FE and estimated HMI displacement ratios were equal to 1.83, 3.69, 5.39 and 1.65, 3.19, 4.59, respectively. In experiments, the HMI displacement followed a similar increasing trend of 1.19, 1.28, and 1.78 at 10-s, 20-s, and 30-s HIFU exposure, respectively. In addition, moderate agreement in lesion size growth was also found in both simulations (16.2, 73.1 and 334.7 mm2) and experiments (26.2, 94.2 and 206.2 mm2). Therefore, the feasibility of HMIFU for HIFU lesion detection based on the underlying tissue elasticity changes was verified through the developed theoretical framework, i.e., validation of the fundamental performance of the HMIFU system for lesion detection, localization and quantification, was demonstrated both theoretically and ex vivo. PMID:22036637
Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert
2016-03-14
The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878
Biffle, J.H.
1993-02-01
JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.
Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids
1996-07-15
NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.
Mach-wave coherence in 3D media with random heterogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vyas, Jagdish C.; Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Dunham, Eric M.; Imperatori, Walter
2016-04-01
We investigate Mach-waves coherence for complex super-shear ruptures embedded in 3D random media that lead to seismic scattering. We simulate Mach-wave using kinematic earthquake sources that include fault-regions over which the rupture propagates at super-shear speed. The local slip rate is modeled with the regularized Yoffe function. The medium heterogeneities are characterized by Von Karman correlation function. We consider various realizations of 3D random media from combinations of different values of correlation length (0.5 km, 2 km, 5 km), standard deviation (5%, 10%, 15%) and Hurst exponent (0.2). Simulations in a homogeneous medium serve as a reference case. The ground-motion simulations (maximum resolved frequency of 5 Hz) are conducted by solving the elasto-dynamic equations of motions using a generalized finite-difference method, assuming a vertical strike-slip fault. The seismic wavefield is sampled at numerous locations within the Mach-cone region to study the properties and evolution of the Mach-waves in scattering media. We find that the medium scattering from random heterogeneities significantly diminishes the coherence of Mach-wave in terms of both amplitude and frequencies. We observe that Mach-waves are considerably scattered at distances RJB > 20 km (and beyond) for random media with standard deviation 10%. The scattering efficiency of the medium for small Hurst exponents (H <= 0.2) is mainly controlled by the standard deviation of the velocity heterogeneities, rather than their correlation length, as both theoretical considerations and numerical experiments indicate. Based on our simulations, we propose that local super-shear ruptures may be more common in nature then reported, but are very difficult to detect due to the strong seismic scattering. We suggest that if an earthquake is recorded within 10-15 km fault perpendicular distance and has high PGA, then inversion should be carried out by allowing rupture speed variations from sub
3d-3d correspondence revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-04-01
In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.
Development of a LIGA-based elastodynamic flying mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Adam G.; Garcia, Ephrahim
1998-07-01
With the emergence of MEMS and LIGA technology piezoceramics can be integrated to create tiny solid state devices. The precision motion that piezoelectric materials can provide is complimented by the tolerances that can be achieved through MEMS and LIGA micromachining. The integration of these two technologies is ideal for microactuation. A LIGA based devices has been developed that is capable of amplifying small motions from a piezoelectric element into an output stroke angle large enough to produce flight. Micro flight is a difficult aerodynamic problem. With small wing areas conventional lift requires velocities that are difficult to achieve. However it is possible to induce lift using drag in the same manner as some birds and insects. Flapping is a highly efficient way to produce flight. For sustained low energy flight both insects and birds use a complex elastodynamic system that only requires them to excite it at its natural frequency. The actuation device presented is based on the same flight principle of insects and birds, a resonating elastodynamic system excited at its natural frequency or at a lower harmonic. This allows for long distance flights that require little energy. Piezoceramics posses a high energy level and force output that can excite the device and induce a flapping motion. The dynamics of the system rely on the LIGA flexure mechanism, the piezoelectric element, as well as the aerodynamic interaction of the wing and the air which is a complex nonlinear problem.
On a variational theorem in acousto-elastodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, B. S.
1982-08-01
A variational theorem is presented which may be used as a basis for developing the equations of motion and the boundary conditions appropriate for studying the vibrational behavior of flexible bodied systems and the surrounding acoustic medium. The theorem is a generalization of two theorems which are both based on the principle of virtual work; the first governs the elastodynamics of the mechanical system and the second governs the behavior of the fluid medium. Lagrange multipliers are used in the development of the two basic theorems and they are also employed to incorporate the constraints at the solid-fluid interface within the functional for the acousto-elastodynamic theorem. When independent arbitrary variations of the system parameters are permitted, this theorem yields as characteristic equations the equations of motion for each member of the mechanical system, the acoustic wave equation, the compatibility conditions at the mechanical joints, the compatibility conditions at the interface and also the mixed boundary conditions for the complete system. As an illustrative example, the derivation of the problem statement for a flexible slider crank mechanism operating in a perfect gas is presented in which it is assumed that the flexural motion of the links is governed by the Timoshenko beam theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meulien Ohlmann, Odile
2013-02-01
Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.
2014-08-01
In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hastings, S. K.
2002-01-01
Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)
Tracy, F.T.
1991-09-01
This report describes new advances in the computational modeling of ground water and seepage using the finite element method (FEM) in conjunction with tools and techniques typically used by the aerospace engineers. The unsolved environmental issues regarding our hazardous and toxic waste problems must be resolved, and significant resources must be placed on this effort. Some military bases are contaminated with hazardous waste that has entered the groundwater domain. A groundwater model that takes into account contaminant flow is therefore critical. First, an extension of the technique of generating an orthogonal structured grid (using the Cauchy-Riemann equations) to automatically generate a flow net for two-dimensional (2-D) steady-state seepage problems is presented for various boundary conditions. Second, a complete implementation of a three-dimensional (3-D) seepage package is described where (1) grid generation is accomplished using the EAGLE program, (2) the seepage and groundwater analysis for either confined or unconfined steady-state flow, homogeneous or inhomogeneous media, and isotropic or anisotropic soil is accomplished with no restriction on the FE grid or requirement of an initial guess of the free surface for unconfined flow problems, and (3) scientific visualization is accomplished using the program FAST developed by NASA.
Najarian, Siamak; Dargahi, Javad; Farmanzad, Farhad
2007-01-01
In this work, a finite element formulation for the analysis of the elastodynamic behavior of the human aorta is presented. In this formulation, a one-dimensional approach was adopted and a comprehensive computer program was written and employed in the mathematical analysis. All the necessary material and geometrical parameters were appropriately incorporated in the simulation. A comparison was made between the simplified elasticity theory and the one proposed in this study using the poroelasticity theory. The effects of certain parameters including the fluid density and the material permeability of the matrix on the behavior of the aortic tissue were investigated. According to these findings, the higher the density of the liquid in the tissue, the more delay will be observed in the resonance frequencies. It was also concluded that in the poroelasticity theory, the resonance frequencies occur at a later stage compared with the elasticity theory. The permeability of liquid into the pores and its damping effect are the two factors that contributed to the delay in the resonance. It was observed that at a frequency of 10 Hz, up to a permeability of about 10(-8) m(4)/N.s, the effect on the magnitude of the amplitude is negligible. However, from this threshold value up to a point at which the permeability is equal to 10(-5) m(4)/N.s, there is a corresponding increase in the amplitude. PMID:17611299
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Rongrong; Willis, Mark E.; Campman, Xander H.; Toksöz, M. Nafi
2009-03-01
The recent introduction of novel redatuming techniques, based on the principles of time-reversed acoustics and source-receiver reciprocity, has allowed seismic measurements collected on one datum to be extrapolated to another datum. Under favourable conditions, this process can approximately remove the complicated overburden structures without any velocity information. We introduce an elastic redatuming scheme for walkaway vertical seismic profiles (WVSPs) based on these principles, using P- and S-wave potentials, which are derived from the spatial derivatives of the measured wavefields. Additional field acquisition is utilized to directly measure these derivatives. We test our elastic redatuming scheme on data simulated with an elastic finite difference algorithm. The elastodynamic Green's functions between multicomponent receivers in a borehole are then extracted from data recorded using multicomponent (P- and S-wave) sources at the surface. The wavefields are redatumed as four parts: two related to the P-wave potential, and another two related to the S-wave potential. These parts are migrated separately and form four independent images of the salt dome flank, providing a more complete elastic description of the subsurface.
Elasto-dynamic analysis of spinning nanodisks via a surface energy-based model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, Keivan
2016-07-01
Using the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin and Murdoch, in-plane vibrations of annular nanodisks due to their rotary motion are explored. By the imposition of non-classical boundary conditions on the innermost and outermost surfaces and employing Hamilton’s principle, the unknown elasto-dynamic fields of the bulk zone are determined via the finite element method. The roles of both nanodisk geometry and surface effect on the natural frequencies are addressed. Subsequently, forced vibrations of spinning nanodisks with fixed–free and free–free boundary conditions are comprehensively examined. The obtained results show that the maximum dynamic elastic fields grow in a parabolic manner as the steady angular velocity increases. By increasing the outermost radius, the maximum dynamic elastic field is magnified and the influence of the surface effect on the results reduced. This work can be considered as a pivotal step towards optimal design and dynamic analysis of nanorotors with disk-like parts, which are one of the basic building blocks of the upcoming advanced nanotechnologies.
Crandall, K.R.
1987-08-01
TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.
Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
2000-11-07
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less
Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
2000-11-07
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Anton; Kaus, Boris
2015-04-01
This software project aims at bringing the 3D lithospheric deformation modeling to a qualitatively different level. Our code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model) is based on the following building blocks: * Massively-parallel data-distributed implementation model based on PETSc library * Light, stable and accurate staggered-grid finite difference spatial discretization * Marker-in-Cell pedictor-corector time discretization with Runge-Kutta 4-th order * Elastic stress rotation algorithm based on the time integration of the vorticity pseudo-vector * Staircase-type internal free surface boundary condition without artificial viscosity contrast * Geodynamically relevant visco-elasto-plastic rheology * Global velocity-pressure-temperature Newton-Raphson nonlinear solver * Local nonlinear solver based on FZERO algorithm * Coupled velocity-pressure geometric multigrid preconditioner with Galerkin coarsening Staggered grid finite difference, being inherently Eulerian and rather complicated discretization method, provides no natural treatment of free surface boundary condition. The solution based on the quasi-viscous sticky-air phase introduces significant viscosity contrasts and spoils the convergence of the iterative solvers. In LaMEM we are currently implementing an approximate stair-case type of the free surface boundary condition which excludes the empty cells and restores the solver convergence. Because of the mutual dependence of the stress and strain-rate tensor components, and their different spatial locations in the grid, there is no straightforward way of implementing the nonlinear rheology. In LaMEM we have developed and implemented an efficient interpolation scheme for the second invariant of the strain-rate tensor, that solves this problem. Scalable efficient linear solvers are the key components of the successful nonlinear problem solution. In LaMEM we have a range of PETSc-based preconditioning techniques that either employ a block factorization of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldham, Mark
2015-01-01
Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-01
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
Electromagnetomechanical elastodynamic model for Lamb wave damage quantification in composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi
2014-03-01
Physics-based wave propagation computational models play a key role in structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage quantification methodologies. Guided waves (GWs), such as Lamb waves, provide the capability to monitor large plate-like aerospace structures with limited actuators and sensors and are sensitive to small scale damage; however due to the complex nature of GWs, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, the local interaction simulation approach (LISA) coupled with the sharp interface model (SIM) solution methodology is used to solve the fully coupled electro-magneto-mechanical elastodynamic equations for the piezoelectric and piezomagnetic actuation and sensing of GWs in fiber reinforced composite material systems. The final framework provides the full three-dimensional displacement as well as electrical and magnetic potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated experimentally and proven computationally efficient for a laminated composite plate. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric and embedded piezomagnetic sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. The symmetric collocation of piezoelectric actuators is modeled to demonstrate mode suppression in laminated composites for the purpose of damage detection. The effect of delamination and damage (i.e., matrix cracking) on the GW propagation is demonstrated and quantified. The developed model provides a valuable tool for the improvement of SHM techniques due to its proven accuracy and computational efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagge, Meike; Hampel, Andrea
2016-04-01
Investigating the stress interaction of faults plays a crucial role for assessing seismic hazard of a region. The calculation of Coulomb stress changes allows quantifying stress changes on so-called receiver faults in the surrounding of a source fault that was ruptured during an earthquake. Positive Coulomb stress changes bring receiver faults closer to failure, while a negative value indicates a delay of the next earthquake. Besides the coseismic ('static') stress changes, postseismic ('transient') stress changes induced by postseismic viscoelastic relaxation occur. Here we use 3D finite-element models with arrays of normal or thrust faults to study the coseismic stress changes and the stress changes arising from postseismic relaxation in the lower crust. The lithosphere is divided into an elastic upper crust, a viscoelastic lower crust and a viscoelastic lithospheric mantle. Gravity is included in the models. Driven by extension or shortening of the model, slip on the fault planes develops in a self-consistent way. We modelled an earthquake on a 40-km-long source fault with a coseismic slip of 2 m and calculated the displacement fields and Coulomb stress changes during the coseismic and postseismic phases. The results for the coseismic phase (Bagge and Hampel, Tectonophysics in press) show that synthetic receiver faults in the hanging wall and footwall of the source fault exhibit a symmetric distribution of the coseismic Coulomb stress changes on each fault, with large areas of negative stress changes but also some smaller areas of positive values. In contrast, faults positioned in along-strike prolongation of the source fault and outside of its hanging wall and footwall undergo mostly positive stress changes. Postseismic stress changes caused by viscous flow modify the static stress changes in a way that the net Coulomb stress changes on the receiver faults change significantly through space and time. Our models allow deciphering the combined effect of stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iizuka, Keigo
2008-02-01
In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.
1998-09-01
Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.
Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package
2009-01-29
This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less
Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio
2010-11-01
From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.
Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.
1991-03-30
We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.
Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.
1990-10-10
This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.
Global existence for a model of inhomogeneous incompressible elastodynamics in 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Silu
2016-05-01
In this paper, we investigate a model of incompressible, isotropic, inhomogeneous elastodynamics in two space dimensions, inspired by Lei in [18]. We prove the global existence for this Cauchy problem with sufficiently small initial displacement and small density disturbance around constant.
A priori estimates for the free boundary problem of incompressible neo-Hookean elastodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Chengchun; Wang, Dehua
2016-07-01
A free boundary problem for the incompressible neo-Hookean elastodynamics is studied in two and three spatial dimensions. The a priori estimates in Sobolev norms of solutions with the physical vacuum condition are established through a geometrical point of view of Christodoulou and Lindblad (2000) [3]. Some estimates on the second fundamental form and velocity of the free surface are also obtained.
3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses
EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.
2002-03-01
Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.
Mason, W.E.
1983-03-01
A set of finite element codes for the solution of nonlinear, two-dimensional (TACO2D) and three-dimensional (TACO3D) heat transfer problems. Performs linear and nonlinear analyses of both transient and steady state heat transfer problems. Has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties. Materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, radiation, and internal heat generation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.
Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.
On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.
The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.
3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.
2010-12-01
Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal
Wilkes, R; Zhao, Y; Cunningham, K; Kieswetter, K; Haridas, B
2009-07-01
This study describes a novel system for acquiring the 3D strain field in soft tissue at sub-millimeter spatial resolution during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Recent research in advanced wound treatment modalities theorizes that microdeformations induced by the application of sub-atmospheric (negative) pressure through V.A.C. GranuFoam Dressing, a reticulated open-cell polyurethane foam (ROCF), is instrumental in regulating the mechanobiology of granulation tissue formation [Saxena, V., Hwang, C.W., Huang, S., Eichbaum, Q., Ingber, D., Orgill, D.P., 2004. Vacuum-assisted closure: Microdeformations of wounds and cell proliferation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 114, 1086-1096]. While the clinical response is unequivocal, measurement of deformations at the wound-dressing interface has not been possible due to the inaccessibility of the wound tissue beneath the sealed dressing. Here we describe the development of a bench-test wound model for microcomputed tomography (microCT) imaging of deformation induced by NPWT and an algorithm set for quantifying the 3D strain field at sub-millimeter resolution. Microdeformations induced in the tissue phantom revealed average tensile strains of 18%-23% at sub-atmospheric pressures of -50 to -200 mmHg (-6.7 to -26.7 kPa). The compressive strains (22%-24%) and shear strains (20%-23%) correlate with 2D FEM studies of microdeformational wound therapy in the reference cited above. We anticipate that strain signals quantified using this system can then be used in future research aimed at correlating the effects of mechanical loading on the phenotypic expression of dermal fibroblasts in acute and chronic ulcer models. Furthermore, the method developed here can be applied to continuum deformation analysis in other contexts, such as 3D cell culture via confocal microscopy, full scale CT and MRI imaging, and in machine vision. PMID:19627832
A note on singularities of the 3-D Euler equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanveer, S.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we consider analytic initial conditions with finite energy, whose complex spatial continuation is a superposition of a smooth background flow and a singular field. Through explicit calculation in the complex plane, we show that under some assumptions, the solution to the 3-D Euler equation ceases to be analytic in the real domain in finite time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco
2011-09-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.
3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D
Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.
2016-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.
An FC-based spectral solver for elastodynamic problems in general three-dimensional domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amlani, Faisal; Bruno, Oscar P.
2016-02-01
This paper presents a spectral numerical algorithm for the solution of elastodynamics problems in general three-dimensional domains. Based on a recently introduced "Fourier continuation" (FC) methodology for accurate Fourier expansion of non-periodic functions, the proposed approach possesses a number of appealing properties: it yields results that are essentially free of dispersion errors, it entails mild CFL constraints, it runs at a cost that scales linearly with the discretization sizes, and it lends itself easily to efficient parallelization in distributed-memory computing clusters. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated in this paper by means of a number of applications to problems of isotropic elastodynamics that arise in the fields of materials science and seismology. These examples suggest that the new approach can yield solutions within a prescribed error tolerance by means of significantly smaller discretizations and shorter computing times than those required by other methods.
Elastodynamic response of an anisotropic medium due to a line-load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garg, N. R.; Goel, A.; Miglani, A.; Kumar, R.
2004-04-01
Two-dimensional elastodynamic displacements and stresses for a monoclinic solid have been obtained in rela-tively simple form by the use of the eigenvalue method, following Laplace and Fourier transforms. The main aim of this paper is to present a straightforward analytical eigenvalue method for a monoclinic solid which avoids the cumbersome nature of the problem and is convenient for numerical computation. The use of matrix notation avoids unwieldy mathematical expressions. A particular case of normal line-load acting in an orthotropic solid is discussed in detail. The corresponding deformation in time-domain is obtained numerically. The variations of elastodynamic displacements and stresses for an anisotropic medium with the horizontal distance have been shown graphically. It has been found that anisotropy is affecting the trend of distribution curves significantly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Munehisa; Akai, Hisazumi; Harashima, Yosuke; Doi, Shotaro; Miyake, Takashi
2016-06-01
A classical spin model derived ab initio for rare-earth-based permanent magnet compounds is presented. Our target compound, NdFe12N, is a material that goes beyond today's champion magnet compound Nd2Fe14B in its intrinsic magnetic properties with a simpler crystal structure. Calculated temperature dependence of the magnetization and the anisotropy field agrees with the latest experimental results in the leading order. Having put the realistic observables under our numerical control, we propose that engineering 5d-electron-mediated indirect exchange coupling between 4f-electrons in Nd and 3d-electrons from Fe would most critically help enhance the material's utility over the operation-temperature range.
Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D
Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.
1996-04-01
Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.
MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.
2013-10-01
Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.
[3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].
Zoller, W G; Liess, H
1994-06-01
Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882
2013-10-30
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
None
2014-02-26
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, J. R.
2004-02-01
The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.
1990-01-01
PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
2015-12-01
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435
3D modeling of metallic grain growth
George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.
1999-06-01
This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buning, P.
1994-01-01
PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komatitsch, Dimitri; Michéa, David; Erlebacher, Gordon; Göddeke, Dominik
2010-05-01
We first accelerate a three-dimensional finite-difference in the time domain (FDTD) wave propagation code by a factor of about 50 using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computing on a cheap NVIDIA graphics card with the CUDA programming language. We implement the code in CUDA in the case of the fully heterogeneous elastic wave equation. We also implement Convolution Perfectly Matched Layers (CPMLs) on the graphics card to efficiently absorb outgoing waves on the fictitious edges of the grid. We show that the code that runs on the graphics card gives the expected results by comparing our results to those obtained by running the same simulation on a classical processor core. The methodology that we present can be used for Maxwell's equations as well because their form is similar to that of the seismic wave equation written in velocity vector and stress tensor. We then implement a high-order finite-element (spectral-element) application, which performs the numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation resulting for instance from earthquakes at the scale of a continent or from active seismic acquisition experiments in the oil industry, on a cluster of NVIDIA Tesla graphics cards using the CUDA programming language and non blocking message passing based on MPI. We compare it to the implementation in C language and MPI on a classical cluster of CPU nodes. We use mesh coloring to efficiently handle summation operations over degrees of freedom on an unstructured mesh, and we exchange information between nodes using non blocking MPI messages. Using non-blocking communications allows us to overlap the communications across the network and the data transfer between the GPU card and the CPU node on which it is installed with calculations on that GPU card. We perform a number of numerical tests to validate the single-precision CUDA and MPI implementation and assess its accuracy. We then analyze performance measurements and in average we obtain a speedup of 20x to 25x.
Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S
2015-08-01
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320
Unassisted 3D camera calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.
2012-03-01
With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.
Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D
Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard
2008-01-01
Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715
Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.
1995-12-31
Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan
2016-06-01
Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.
Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin
2015-03-01
We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.
Capacitance extraction from complex 3D interconnect structures
Cartwright, D.; Csanak, G.; George, D.; Walker, R.; Kuprat, A.; Dengi, A.; Grobman, W.
1999-06-01
A new tool has been developed for calculating the capacitance matrix for complex 3D interconnect structures involving multiple layers of irregularly shaped interconnect, imbedded in different dielectric materials. This method utilizes a new 3D adaptive unstructured grid capability, and a linear finite element algorithm. The capacitance is determined from the minimum in the total system energy as the nodes are varied to minimize the error in the electric field in the dielectric(s).
Li, Xiaomei; Cao, Zhizhong; Qiu, Xiaoqian; Tang, Zhen; Gong, Lulu
2015-01-01
PURPOSE To explore whether there is matching relation between the length and the tilting angle of terminal implants in the All-on-Four protocol by studying the effects of different implant configurations on stress distributions of implant, bone, and framework. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four implants were employed to support a full-arch fixed prosthesis and five three-dimensional finite element models were established with CT images, based on the length (S and L) and distal tilt angle (0°, 30° and 45°) of terminal implants for an edentulous mandible, which named: Tilt0-S, Tilt30-S, Tilt30-L, Tilt45-S and Tilt45-L. An oblique 240 N was loaded at second molar. The von Mises Stresses were analyzed. The implants were consecutively named #1 to #4 from the loading point. RESULTS 1) Tilt0-S had the greatest stress on the implants, with the other groups exhibiting variable reductions; the four implants of Tilt45-L demonstrated the greatest reduction in stress. 2) Tilt0-S had the greatest stress at bone around #1 implant neck, and Tilt45-L exhibited the least stress, which was a 36.3% reduction compared to Tilt0-S. 3) The greatest stress in the framework was found on the cantilevers distal to #1 implant. Tilt45-S exhibited the least stress. CONCLUSION Matching different length and tilting angle of the terminal implants led to variable stress reductions on implants, bone and the superstructure. By optimizing implant configuration, the reduction of stress on implants and surrounding bone could be maximized. Under the present condition, Tilt45-L was the preferred configuration. Further clinical testings are required. PMID:26140176
Graves, Robert W.; Aagaard, Brad T.
2011-01-01
Using a suite of five hypothetical finite-fault rupture models, we test the ability of long-period (T>2.0 s) ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes to produce waveforms throughout southern California consistent with those recorded during the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The hypothetical ruptures are generated using the methodology proposed by Graves and Pitarka (2010) and require, as inputs, only a general description of the fault location and geometry, event magnitude, and hypocenter, as would be done for a scenario event. For each rupture model, two Southern California Earthquake Center three-dimensional community seismic velocity models (CVM-4m and CVM-H62) are used, resulting in a total of 10 ground-motion simulations, which we compare with recorded ground motions. While the details of the motions vary across the simulations, the median levels match the observed peak ground velocities reasonably well, with the standard deviation of the residuals generally within 50% of the median. Simulations with the CVM-4m model yield somewhat lower variance than those with the CVM-H62 model. Both models tend to overpredict motions in the San Diego region and underpredict motions in the Mojave desert. Within the greater Los Angeles basin, the CVM-4m model generally matches the level of observed motions, whereas the CVM-H62 model tends to overpredict the motions, particularly in the southern portion of the basin. The variance in the peak velocity residuals is lowest for a rupture that has significant shallow slip (<5 km depth), whereas the variance in the residuals is greatest for ruptures with large asperities below 10 km depth. Overall, these results are encouraging and provide confidence in the predictive capabilities of the simulation methodology, while also suggesting some regions in which the seismic velocity models may need improvement.
3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
1994-04-07
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less
2012-01-04
GEN3D is a three-dimensional mesh generation program. The three-dimensional mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional mesh into threedimensions according to one of four types of transformations: translating, rotating, mapping onto a spherical surface, and mapping onto a cylindrical surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, and revolving about an axis. GEN3D can be used to mesh geometries that are axisymmetric or planar, but, due to three-dimensionalmore » loading or boundary conditions, require a three-dimensional finite element mesh and analysis. More importantly, it can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GEN3D reads and writes twodimensional and threedimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes used by the Engineering Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.« less
YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic
2012-03-01
Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.
Remote 3D Medical Consultation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.
Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.
Uniform Bound of the Highest Energy for the Three Dimensional Incompressible Elastodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Zhen; Wang, Fan
2015-05-01
This article concerns the time growth of Sobolev norms of classical solutions to the three dimensional incompressible isotropic elastodynamics with small initial displacements. Given initial data in for a fixed big integer k, the global well-posedness of this Cauchy problem has been established by Sideris and Thomases in (Commun Pure Appl Math 58(6):750-788, 2005) and (J Hyperbolic Differ Equ 3(4):673-690, 2006, Commun Pure Appl Math 60(12):1707-1730, 2007), where the highest-order generalized energy E k ( t) may have a certain growth in time. Alinhac conjectured that such a growth in time may be a true phenomenon, in (Geometric analysis of hyperbolic differential equations: an introduction, lecture note series: 374. Mathematical Society, London) he proved that E k ( t) is still uniformly bounded in time only for the three dimensional scalar quasilinear wave equation under a null condition. In this paper, we show that the highest-order generalized energy E k ( t) is still uniformly bounded for the three dimensional incompressible isotropic elastodynamics. The equations of incompressible elastodynamics can be viewed as nonlocal systems of wave type and are inherently linearly degenerate in the isotropic case. There are three ingredients in our proof: the first is that we still have a decay rate of when we do the highest energy estimate away from the light cone even though in this case the Lorentz invariance is not available. The second one is that the norm of the good unknowns, in particular , is shown to have a decay rate of near the light cone. The third one is that the pressure is estimated in a novel way as a nonlocal nonlinear term with null structure, as has been recently observed in [16]. The proof employs the generalized energy method of Klainerman, enhanced by weighted L 2 estimates and the ghost weight introduced by Alinhac.
In vacuo elastodynamics of a flexible cantilever for wideband energy harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, D.; Erturk, A.
2016-04-01
We explore the potential for bandwidth enhancement by merely exploiting the hardening nonlinearity of a flexible cantilever. To date, this cubic hardening behavior has been minor due to dissipative effects, especially fluid drag. The goal here is to minimize the fluid damping and thereby achieve the jump phenomenon. A vacuum setup that is compatible with the armature of a long-stroke shaker is employed. Experiments are conducted for a range of air pressure and base excitation levels. The overall nonlinear non-conservative elastodynamics of the cantilever is also modeled and experimentally validated by empirically accounting for fluid damping.
An adaptive three-dimensional RHT-splines formulation in linear elasto-statics and elasto-dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen-Thanh, N.; Muthu, J.; Zhuang, X.; Rabczuk, T.
2014-02-01
An adaptive three-dimensional isogeometric formulation based on rational splines over hierarchical T-meshes (RHT-splines) for problems in elasto-statics and elasto-dynamics is presented. RHT-splines avoid some short-comings of NURBS-based formulations; in particular they allow for adaptive h-refinement with ease. In order to drive the adaptive refinement, we present a recovery-based error estimator for RHT-splines. The method is applied to several problems in elasto-statics and elasto-dynamics including three-dimensional modeling of thin structures. The results are compared to analytical solutions and results of NURBS based isogeometric formulations.
3D Computations and Experiments
Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D
2004-04-05
This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.
3D Computations and Experiments
Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D
2003-05-12
This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.
3D holography: from discretum to continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonzom, Valentin; Dittrich, Bianca
2016-03-01
We study the one-loop partition function of 3D gravity without cosmological constant on the solid torus with arbitrary metric fluctuations on the boundary. To this end we employ the discrete approach of (quantum) Regge calculus. In contrast with similar calculations performed directly in the continuum, we work with a boundary at finite distance from the torus axis. We show that after taking the continuum limit on the boundary — but still keeping finite distance from the torus axis — the one-loop correction is the same as the one recently found in the continuum in Barnich et al. for an asymptotically flat boundary. The discrete approach taken here allows to identify the boundary degrees of freedom which are responsible for the non-trivial structure of the one-loop correction. We therefore calculate also the Hamilton-Jacobi function to quadratic order in the boundary fluctuations both in the discrete set-up and directly in the continuum theory. We identify a dual boundary field theory with a Liouville type coupling to the boundary metric. The discrete set-up allows again to identify the dual field with degrees of freedom associated to radial bulk edges attached to the boundary. Integrating out this dual field reproduces the (boundary diffeomorphism invariant part of the) quadratic order of the Hamilton-Jacobi functional. The considerations here show that bulk boundary dualities might also emerge at finite boundaries and moreover that discrete approaches are helpful in identifying such dualities.
3D fluorescence spectral data interpolation by using IDW.
He, Qinghang; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yi, Chao
2008-12-01
Because measured precision of some spectral instruments such as fluorescence spectrometer HITACHI F-4500 cannot reach the requirement of spectral analytical technique, and measured data is finite, which causes some three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectral data missed. The fact of missing data can result in errors in interpretations of 3D fluorescence spectral data. This paper takes ethanol solution (volume percentage phi(beta)=0.400) 3D fluorescence spectral data for example, applies inverse distance weighting (IDW) to 3D fluorescence spectral data interpolation. The results prove that the more details of 3D fluorescence spectra are expressed well by using IDW in contrast to that of original 3D fluorescence spectra. To evaluate the effectiveness of interpolation by using IDW, this paper compares standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and the mean, median, maximum and minimum values of original ethanol solution (phi(beta)=0.400) 3D fluorescence spectral data and that of the interpolated, whose results suggest that the interpolation of the 3D fluorescence spectra data by using IDW is exact. PMID:18550425
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manos, Harry
2016-01-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…
Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.
3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim
2015-01-01
As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…
Postprocessing techniques for 3D non-linear structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gallagher, Richard S.
1987-01-01
How graphics postprocessing techniques are currently used to examine the results of 3-D nonlinear analyses, some new techniques which take advantage of recent technology, and how these results relate to both the finite element model and its geometric parent are reviewed.
Holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad
2016-01-01
We study holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity using the Chern-Simons-like formulation of the model. We explicitly present Gibbons- Hawking term as well as all counterterms needed to make the action finite in terms of dreibein and spin-connection. This can be used to find correlation functions of stress tensor of holographic dual field theory.
Djakou, Audrey Kamta; Darmon, Michel; Fradkin, Larissa; Potel, Catherine
2015-11-01
Diffraction phenomena studied in electromagnetism, acoustics, and elastodynamics are often modeled using integrals, such as the well-known Sommerfeld integral. The far field asymptotic evaluation of such integrals obtained using the method of steepest descent leads to the classical Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). It is well known that the method of steepest descent is inapplicable when the integrand's stationary phase point coalesces with its pole, explaining why GTD fails in zones where edge diffracted waves interfere with incident or reflected waves. To overcome this drawback, the Uniform geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) has been developed previously in electromagnetism, based on a ray theory, which is particularly easy to implement. In this paper, UTD is developed for the canonical elastodynamic problem of the scattering of a plane wave by a half-plane. UTD is then compared to another uniform extension of GTD, the Uniform Asymptotic Theory (UAT) of diffraction, based on a more cumbersome ray theory. A good agreement between the two methods is obtained in the far field. PMID:26627800
Enhancements to the opera-3d suite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riley, Christopher P.
1997-02-01
The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules—a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers.
Madsen, N.; Steich, D.; Cook, G.; Eme, B.
1995-03-16
The DSI3D-RCS code is designed to numerically evaluate radar cross sections on complex objects by solving Maxwell`s curl equations in the time-domain and in three space dimensions. The code has been designed to run on the new parallel processing computers as well as on conventional serial computers. The DSI3D-RCS code is unique for the following reasons: Allows the use of unstructured non-orthogonal grids, allows a variety of cell or element types, reduces to be the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method when orthogonal grids are used, preserves charge or divergence locally (and globally), is conditionally stable, is non-dissipative, is accurate for non-orthogonal grids. This method is derived using a Discrete Surface Integration (DSI) technique. As formulated, the DSI technique can be used with essentially arbitrary unstructured grids composed of convex polyhedral cells. This implementation of the DSI algorithm allows the use of unstructured grids that are composed of combinations of non-orthogonal hexahedrons, tetrahedrons, triangular prisms and pyramids. This algorithm reduces to the conventional FDTD method when applied on a structured orthogonal hexahedral grid.
Madsen, N.; Steich, D.; Cook, G.
1995-08-23
The DSI3D-RCS code is designed to numerically evaluate radar cross sections on complex objects by solving Maxwell`s curl equations in the time-domain and in three space dimensions. The code has been designed to run on the new parallel processing computers as well as on conventional serial computers. The DSI3D-RCS code is unique for the following reasons: Allows the use of unstructured non-orthogonal grids, allows a variety of cell or element types, reduces to be the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method when orthogonal grids are used, preserves charge or divergence locally (and globally), is conditionally stable, is selectively non-dissipative, and is accurate for non-orthogonal grids. This method is derived using a Discrete Surface Integration (DSI) technique. As formulated, the DSI technique can be used with essentially arbitrary unstructured grids composed of convex polyhedral cells. This implementation of the DSI algorithm allows the use of unstructured grids that are composed of combinations of non-orthogonal the use of unstructured grids that are composed of combinations of non-orthogonal hexahedrons, tetrahedrons, triangular prisms and pyramids. This algorithm reduces to the conventional FDTD method when applied on a structured orthogonal hexahedral grid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paridis, Kyriakos; Lionheart, William R. B.
2010-04-01
Movement of the boundary in biomedical Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has been always a source of error in image reconstruction. In the case of pulmonary EIT, where the patient's chest shape changes during respiration, this is inevitable, so it is essential to be able to correct for shape changes and consequently avoid artifacts. Assuming that the conductivity is isotropic, an assumption that is reasonable for lung tissue but admittedly violated for muscle, the boundary shape up to a Möbius transformation (conformal mapping) as well as the conductivity can theoretically be determined by 3D EIT data. While in two dimensions the space of conformal mappings are infinite dimensional, in the three dimensional case the Möbius transformations are given by a finite number of parameters. In this paper, we concentrate on the three dimensional case and take a linear approximation. We will give results of numerical studies analogous to the two dimensional work of Boyle et al on the effect of electrode movement and shape error in 3D EIT.
Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.
2013-12-01
Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.
3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1998-12-01
We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.
Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction
LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.
1999-10-12
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
Forensic 3D scene reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.
2000-05-01
Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan
1997-12-01
A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.
3D Printable Graphene Composite.
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-01-01
In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.
2013-01-01
Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.
3D light scanning macrography.
Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D
2001-08-01
The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078
Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.
2011-01-15
The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.
Bukliball and Beyond: 3-D Soft Auxetic Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shim, Jongmin; Babaee, Sahab; Weaver, James C.; Patel, Nikita; Chen, Elizabeth R.; Bertoldi, Katia
2013-03-01
We present a new class of 3-D soft metamaterials whose microstructure can be dramatically changed in response to mechanical loading. Patterned spherical shells, the Buckliballs (PNAS 109(16):5978) which undergo undergoing a buckling-induced structural transformation under pressure, are employed as building blocks, and are assembled to construct 3-D super-structures. We present procedures to guide the selection of both the building blocks and their arrangement, and design materials with tunable 3-D auxetic behavior that exploit buckling as the actuation mechanism. The validity of the proposed material design is demonstrated through both experiments and finite element simulations. This pattern transformation induced by a mechanical instability opens the possibility for fabrication of 3-D auxetic materials/structures over a wide range of length scales.
[Real time 3D echocardiography].
Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D
2001-07-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630
[Real time 3D echocardiography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.
GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)
2013-10-01
The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.
2002-12-01
Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated
Interactive 3D Mars Visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, Mark W.
2012-01-01
The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, Harry
2016-03-01
Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.
Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise
2012-01-01
The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.
MAGNUS-3D: Accelerator magnet calculations in 3-dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pissanetzky, S.
1988-12-01
MAGNUS-3D is a professional finite element code for nonlinear magnetic engineering. MAGNUS-3D can solve numerically any general problem of linear or nonlinear magnetostatics in three dimensions. The problem is formulated in a domain with Dirichlet, Neumann or periodic boundary conditions, that can contain any combination of conductors of any shape in space, nonlinear magnetic materials with magnetic properties specified by magnetization tables, and nonlinear permanent magnets with any given demagnetization curve. MAGNUS-3D uses the two-scalar-potentials formulation of Magnetostatics and the finite element method, has an automatic 3D mesh generator, and advanced post-processing features that include graphics on a variety of supported devices, tabulation, and calculation of design quantities required in Magnetic Engineering. MAGNUS-3D is a general purpose 3D code, but it has been extensively used for accelerator work and many special features required for accelerator engineering have been incorporated into the code. One of such features is the calculation of field harmonic coefficients averaged in the direction of the beam, so important for the design of magnet ends. Another feature is its ability to calculate line integrals of any field component along the direction of the beam, or plot the field as a function of the z coordinate. MAGNUS-3D has found applications to the design of accelerator magnets and spectrometers, steering magnets, wigglers and undulators for free electron lasers, microtrons and magnets for synchrotron light sources, as well as magnets for NMR and medical applications, recording heads and various magnetic devices. There are three more programs closely associated with MAGNUS-3D. MAGNUS-GKS is the graphical postprocessor for the package; it supports a numer of output devices, including color vector or bit map devices. WIRE is an independent program that can calculate the field produced by any configuration of electric conductors in space, at any
3D Printable Graphene Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-07-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.
3D acoustic atmospheric tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony
2014-10-01
This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.
Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.
2013-01-01
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.
1998-12-01
We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
2013-06-12
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
3D Printable Graphene Composite
Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong
2015-01-01
In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673
3D medical thermography device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghadam, Peyman
2015-05-01
In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.
3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi
2009-11-01
The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.
Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller
2004-09-01
The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takenaka, H.; Komatsu, M.; Toyokuni, G.; Nakamura, T.; Okamoto, T.
2015-12-01
A simple and efficient finite-difference scheme is developed to compute seismic wave propagation for a partial spherical shell model of a three-dimensionally (3-D) heterogeneous global earth structure. This new scheme solves the elastodynamic equations in the "quasi-Cartesian" coordinate system similar to a local Cartesian one, instead of the spherical coordinate system, with a staggered-grid finite-difference method in time domain (FDTD) which is one of the most popular numerical methods in seismic motion simulations for local to regional scale models. The proposed scheme may be useful for modeling seismic wave propagation in a very large region of sub-global scale beyond regional and less than global ones, where the effects of roundness of earth cannot be ignored. In "quasi-Cartesian" coordinates, x, y, and z are set to be locally in directions of latitude, longitude and depth, respectively. The stencil for each of the x-derivatives then depends on the depth coordinate at the evaluation point, while the stencil for each of the y-derivatives varies with both coordinates of the depth and latitude. In order to reduce lateral variations of the horizontal finite-difference stencils over the computational domain, we move the target area to a location around the equator of the computational spherical coordinate system using a way similar to the conversion from equatorial coordinates to ecliptic coordinates. The developed scheme can be easily implemented in 3-D Cartesian FDTD codes for local to regional scale modeling by changing a very small part of the codes. Our scheme may be able to open a window for multi-scale modeling of seismic wave propagation in scales from sub-global to local one.
3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.
Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong
2016-04-01
3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680
Towards Adjoint Finite Source Inversion: Application to the 2011 M9 Tohoku Earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somala, S.; Galvez, P.; Inbal, A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Lapusta, N.
2011-12-01
The recent 2011 M9 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake was recorded by thousands of sensors at near-fault distance, including broad band, strong motion and continuous GPS sensors. This event provides a unique opportunity to image the earthquake rupture process with high resolution. In order to enable the exploitation of the immense dataset available, orders of magnitude larger than in previous earthquakes, we are developing a scalable source inversion procedure based on time-reversal adjoint inversion. We adopt the linear least squares formulation of the source inversion problem, whose basic unknown is the spatio-temporal distribution of slip rate. We formulate an iterative conjugate gradient procedure to minimize the L2 norm of ground velocity residuals between data and synthetics. Each iteration involves one time-reversal (adjoint) and one forward simulation. Exploiting the time-reversal symmetry and the reciprocity principle of elastodynamics, the adjoint is computed by a wave propagation simulation in which time-reversed seismogram residuals are imposed as point forces at the stations simulated. The resulting fault tractions on a locked fault are the adjoint fields, related to the gradient of the misfit function with respect to the model. The simulations are performed with a recent extension of the SPECFEM3D spectral element code to dynamic and kinematic finite sources on unstructured meshes (Galvez et al, session S24 of this meeting). The non-planar geometry of the megathrust fault is accounted for in the spectral element mesh (generated with CUBIT). The subsurface structure is incorporated, on a coarse scale, using regional 3D velocity models, e.g. from the Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station (J-SHIS) website. We will report on the results of our initial efforts, focused on exploiting the continuous 1 Hz GPS signals recorded in Japan to understand the low frequency aspects of the rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake.
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less
Sinclair, Michael B
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hack, Erwin K.; Riner, Marc
2001-10-01
Laser interferometric methods opened the way to measure displacements and deformations of an object in a while- field, non-contact and 3D manner. Therefore, they are used in non-destructive testing and validation of 3D finite element (FE) simulation results. This paper emphasizes the fact that the process of validating an FE result comprises in turn the validation and assessment of the optical measurement method and the experimental bou8ndary condition. Application examples for FE analysis validation and NDT from machine engineering, space technology, and biomedical engineering are presented.
3D Inverse problem: Seawater intrusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steklova, K.; Haber, E.
2013-12-01
Modeling of seawater intrusions (SWI) is challenging as it involves solving the governing equations for variable density flow, multiple time scales and varying boundary conditions. Due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the large aquifer domains, 3D computations are a costly process, particularly when solving the inverse SWI problem. In addition the heads and concentration measurements are difficult to obtain due to mixing, saline wedge location is sensitive to aquifer topography, and there is general uncertainty in initial and boundary conditions and parameters. Some of these complications can be overcome by using indirect geophysical data next to standard groundwater measurements, however, the inverse problem is usually simplified, e.g. by zonation for the parameters based on geological information, steady state substitution of the unknown initial conditions, decoupling the equations or reducing the amount of unknown parameters by covariance analysis. In our work we present a discretization of the flow and solute mass balance equations for variable groundwater (GW) flow. A finite difference scheme is to solve pressure equation and a Semi - Lagrangian method for solute transport equation. In this way we are able to choose an arbitrarily large time step without losing stability up to an accuracy requirement coming from the coupled character of the variable density flow equations. We derive analytical sensitivities of the GW model for parameters related to the porous media properties and also the initial solute distribution. Analytically derived sensitivities reduce the computational cost of inverse problem, but also give insight for maximizing information in collected data. If the geophysical data are available it also enables simultaneous calibration in a coupled hydrogeophysical framework. The 3D inverse problem was tested on artificial time dependent data for pressure and solute content coming from a GW forward model and/or geophysical forward model. Two
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.
The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.
This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.
High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these
A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver
Van Criekingen, S.
2006-07-01
A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)
Numerical simulation of vortex breakdown via 3-D Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, T. H.; Mege, P.; Morchoisne, Y.
1990-06-01
The long term goal is the modeling of vortex breakdown that occurs in some aerodynamic configurations at high angle of attack, (i.e., fighters with highly swept delta wings or missiles). A numerical simulation was made based on solving the 3-D Euler equations for an usteady incompressible flow. Preliminary results were obtained using a pressure-velocity formulation with periodic boundary conditions, the Euler equations being discretized by 2nd order finite difference schemes. The continuation to this work by implementing more realistic boundary conditions and 4th order finite difference discretization schemes are presented.
Exponential Mixing of the 3D Stochastic Navier-Stokes Equations Driven by Mildly Degenerate Noises
Albeverio, Sergio; Debussche, Arnaud; Xu Lihu
2012-10-15
We prove the strong Feller property and exponential mixing for 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equation driven by mildly degenerate noises (i.e. all but finitely many Fourier modes being forced) via a Kolmogorov equation approach.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
3-D UNSTRUCTURED HEXAHEDRAL-MESH Sn TRANSPORT METHODS
J. MOREL; J. MCGHEE; ET AL
2000-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a method for solving the neutral-particle transport equation on 3-D unstructured hexahedral meshes using a S{sub n} discretization in angle in conjunction with a discontinuous finite-element discretization in space and a multigroup discretization in energy. Previous methods for solving this equation in 3-D have been limited to rectangular meshes. The unstructured-mesh method that we have developed is far more efficient for solving problems with complex 3-D geometric features than rectangular-mesh methods. In spite of having to make several compromises in our spatial discretization technique and our iterative solution technique, our method has been found to be both accurate and efficient for a broad class of problems.
3D braid scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.
Ahn, Hyunchul; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Park, Sook Young; Huh, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Woong-Ryeol
2014-06-01
Regenerating articular cartilage in vivo from cultured chondrocytes requires that the cells be cultured and implanted within a biocompatible, biodegradable scaffold. Such scaffolds must be mechanically stable; otherwise chondrocytes would not be supported and patients would experience severe pain. Here we report a new 3D braid scaffold that matches the anisotropic (gradient) mechanical properties of natural articular cartilage and is permissive to cell cultivation. To design an optimal structure, the scaffold unit cell was mathematically modeled and imported into finite element analysis. Based on this analysis, a 3D braid structure with gradient axial yarn distribution was designed and manufactured using a custom-built braiding machine. The mechanical properties of the 3D braid scaffold were evaluated and compared with simulated results, demonstrating that a multi-scale approach consisting of unit cell modeling and continuum analysis facilitates design of scaffolds that meet the requirements for mechanical compatibility with tissues. PMID:24556323
NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design
Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D
2008-11-05
We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-21
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third
3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature
John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi
2001-09-14
T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermanns, Maria
The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.
Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.
2013-03-01
Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.
Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.
2016-06-01
Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.
3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel
2016-07-01
Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed
Puso, M A; Laursen, T A
2002-05-02
Smoothing of contact surfaces can be used to eliminate the chatter typically seen with node on facet contact and give a better representation of the actual contact surface. The latter affect is well demonstrated for problems with interference fits. In this work we present two methods for the smoothing of contact surfaces for 3D finite element contact. In the first method, we employ Gregory patches to smooth the faceted surface in a node on facet implementation. In the second method, we employ a Bezier interpolation of the faceted surface in a mortar method implementation of contact. As is well known, node on facet approaches can exhibit locking due to the failure of the Babuska-Brezzi condition and in some instances fail the patch test. The mortar method implementation is stable and provides optimal convergence in the energy of error. In the this work we demonstrate the superiority of the smoothed versus the non-smoothed node on facet implementations. We also show where the node on facet method fails and some results from the smoothed mortar method implementation.
2009-06-29
JAS3D is a three-dimensional finite element program originally designed to solve Lagrangian quasistatic non-linear mechanics problems, and subsequently extended to include both implicit and explicit dynamics. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. Innovative multilevel nonlinear iterative methods are used to solve the equations. A wide variety of material constitutive models are available, and contact interface logic is implemented. Two Lagrangian uniform-strain elements are available: an eighth-node hexahedronmore » for solids and a four-node quadrilateral for shells. Both use hourglass stiffness to control zero-energy modes. In addition, a version of the hexahedron is available with uniform pressure and a deviatoric response scalable from the mean response of the original element up to a fully-integrated response. Bodies under analysis may be loaded by surface pressures and concentrated forces, specified displacements, or body forces from gravity, steady-state transport, or thermal expansion.« less
Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.
2012-07-01
It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.
Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.
2006-01-01
Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997
3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.
3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
1998-09-23
E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.
Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil
2015-01-01
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997
3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components
Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.
1996-09-18
We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.
3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components
Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David
1997-02-01
We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the modeling of accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic models for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the models are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.
Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan
2015-09-01
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.
3-D Perspective Pasadena, California
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency
The Esri 3D city information model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.
2014-02-01
With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.
Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handy Turner, Tara
2010-02-01
From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.
3D laptop for defense applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David
2012-06-01
Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.
Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.
2012-04-01
Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of
Parallel contact detection algorithm for transient solid dynamics simulations using PRONTO3D
Attaway, S.W.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Plimpton, S.J.
1996-09-01
An efficient, scalable, parallel algorithm for treating material surface contacts in solid mechanics finite element programs has been implemented in a modular way for MIMD parallel computers. The serial contact detection algorithm that was developed previously for the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO3D has been extended for use in parallel computation by devising a dynamic (adaptive) processor load balancing scheme.
Phan, Anh-Vu; Gray, Leonard J; Salvadori, Alberto
2010-01-01
In this paper, a two-dimensional symmetric-Galerkin boundary integral formulation for elastodynamic fracture analysis in the frequency domain is described. The numerical implementation is carried out with quadratic elements, allowing the use of an improved quarter-point element for accurately determining frequency responses of the dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs). To deal with singular and hypersingular integrals, the formulation is decomposed into two parts: the first part is identical to that for elastostatics while the second part contains at most logarithmic singularities. The treatment of the elastostatic singular and hypersingular singular integrals employs an exterior limit to the boundary, while the weakly singular integrals in the second part are handled by Gauss quadrature. Time histories (transient responses) of the DSIFs can be obtained in a post-processing step by applying the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT to the frequency responses of these DSIFs. Several test examples are presented for the calculation of the DSIFs due to two types of impact loading: Heaviside step loading and blast loading. The results suggest that the combination of symmetric-Galerkin and FFT algorithms in determining transient responses of the DSIFs is robust and effective.
3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team
Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).
Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.
1998-02-01
RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.
3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro
1998-05-01
In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.
3D Scientific Visualization with Blender
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, Brian R.
2015-03-01
This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.
Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.
2014-08-01
The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.
Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can
2014-03-01
3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.
Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2012-03-01
Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.
Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis
Bassel, George W.
2015-01-01
Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539
Hwang, Yong Seok; Levitas, Valery I
2015-12-21
An advanced continuum model for nanoscale melting and kinetic superheating of an aluminum nanolayer irradiated by a picosecond laser is formulated. Barrierless nucleation of surface premelting and melting occurs, followed by a propagation of two solid-melt interfaces toward each other and their collision. For a slow heating rate of Q = 0.015 K ps(-1) melting occurs at the equilibrium melting temperature under uniaxial strain conditions T = 898.1 K (i.e., below equilibrium melting temperature Teq = 933.67 K) and corresponding biaxial stresses, which relax during melting. For a high heating rate of Q = 0.99-84 K ps(-1), melting occurs significantly above Teq. Surprisingly, an increase in heating rate leads to temperature reduction at the 3 nm wide moving interfaces due to fast absorption of the heat of fusion. A significant, rapid temperature drop (100-500 K, even below melting temperature) at the very end of melting is revealed, which is caused by the collision of two finite-width interfaces and accelerated melting in about the 5 nm zone. For Q = 25-84 K ps(-1), standing elastic stress waves are observed in a solid with nodal points at the moving solid-melt interfaces, which, however, do not have a profound effect on melting time or temperatures. When surface melting is suppressed, barrierless bulk melting occurs in the entire sample, and elastodynamic effects are more important. Good correspondence with published, experimentally-determined melting time is found for a broad range of heating rates. Similar approaches can be applied to study various phase transformations in different materials and nanostructures under high heating rates. PMID:26561920
FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koenig, Patti
2005-01-01
FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.
Impact Damage of 3D Orthogonal Woven Composite Circular Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Changgan; Sun, Baozhong; Qiu, Yiping; Gu, Bohong
2007-11-01
The damages of 3D orthogonal woven composite circular plate under quasi-static indentation and transverse impact were tested with Materials Test System (MTS) and modified split Hopkinson bar (SHPB) apparatus. The load vs. displacement curves during quasi-static penetration and impact were obtained to study the energy absorption of the composite plate. The fluctuation of the impact stress waves has been unveiled. Differences of the load-displacement curves between the quasi-static and impact loading are discussed. This work also aims at establishing a unit-cell model to analyze the damage of composites. A user material subroutine which named VUMAT for characterizing the constitutive relationship of the 3-D orthogonal woven composite and the damage evolution is incorporated with a finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit to simulate the impact damage process of the composite plates. From the comparison of the load-displacement curves and energy absorption curves of the composite plate between experimental and FEM simulation, it is shown that the unit-cell model of the 3D woven composite and the VUMAT combined with the ABAQUS/Explicit can calculate the impact responses of the circular plate precisely. Furthermore, the model can also be extended to simulate the impact behavior of the 3D woven composite structures.
3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger
2013-04-01
In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
2005-01-01
A three-dimensional numerical solver based on finite-difference solution of three-dimensional elastodynamic equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates has been developed and used to generate data such as radial and tangential stresses over various gear component geometries under rotation. The geometries considered are an annulus, a thin annular disk, and a thin solid disk. The solution is based on first principles and does not involve lumped parameter or distributed parameter systems approach. The elastodynamic equations in the velocity-stress formulation that are considered here have been used in the solution of problems of geophysics where non-rotating Cartesian grids are considered. For arbitrary geometries, these equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions have been cast in generalized curvilinear coordinates in the present study.
An aerial 3D printing test mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy
2016-05-01
This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.
3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-10-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32 × 32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.
Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code
Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark
2006-01-03
Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.
Metallic and 3D-printed dielectric helical terahertz waveguides.
Vogt, Dominik Walter; Anthony, Jessienta; Leonhardt, Rainer
2015-12-28
We investigate guidance of Terahertz (THz) radiation in metallic and 3D-printed dielectric helical waveguides in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1 THz. Our experimental results obtained from THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements are in very good agreement with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. We observe single-mode, low loss and low dispersive propagation of THz radiation in metallic helical waveguides over a broad bandwidth. The 3D-printed dielectric helical waveguides have substantially extended the bandwidth of a low loss dielectric tube waveguide as observed from the experimental and simulation results. The high flexibility of the helical design allows an easy incorporation into bench top THz devices. PMID:26832000
Beam Optics Analysis — An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark
2006-01-01
Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.
A parallel algorithm for solving the 3d Schroedinger equation
Strickland, Michael; Yager-Elorriaga, David
2010-08-20
We describe a parallel algorithm for solving the time-independent 3d Schroedinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We introduce an optimized parallelization scheme that reduces communication overhead between computational nodes. We demonstrate that the compute time, t, scales inversely with the number of computational nodes as t {proportional_to} (N{sub nodes}){sup -0.95} {sup {+-} 0.04}. This makes it possible to solve the 3d Schroedinger equation on extremely large spatial lattices using a small computing cluster. In addition, we present a new method for precisely determining the energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions of quantum states based on a symmetry constraint on the FDTD initial condition. Finally, we discuss the usage of multi-resolution techniques in order to speed up convergence on extremely large lattices.
Measurement of the mobility edge for 3D Anderson localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semeghini, Giulia; Landini, Manuele; Castilho, Patricia; Roy, Sanjukta; Spagnolli, Giacomo; Trenkwalder, Andreas; Fattori, Marco; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni
2016-05-01
An outstanding problem of Anderson localization (AL) in 3D systems is the determination of the mobility edge, i.e. the energy threshold that separates localized and extended states. In our experiment we use a Bose-Einstein condensate of 39 K atoms and study its transport properties in a disordered optical potential. By tuning the inter-particle interactions to zero via magnetic Feshbach resonances, we study the single-particle phenomenon of AL. A novel technique to measure and control the atomic energy distribution allows us to measure for the first time the position of the localization threshold as a function of the disorder strength. We also study how the addition of finite repulsive or attractive interactions breaks the localized regime and triggers subdiffusive expansion of the atoms. In the future, similar experiments might also probe the existence of many-body localization in 3D.
Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.
Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi
2012-08-01
This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004
3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf
Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.
1995-08-01
Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.
A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool
1999-02-09
This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norbury, Keith
2012-01-01
It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…
Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls
Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander
2005-10-31
In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.
3-D structures of planetary nebulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steffen, W.
2016-07-01
Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.
Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Dan
2010-01-01
From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…
3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.
2015-01-01
The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…
Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold
2015-01-01
In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…
Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zabunov, Svetoslav
2012-01-01
Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…
Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…
A Shell/3D Modeling Technique for the Analysis of Delaminated Composite Laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Ronald; OBrien, T. Kevin
2000-01-01
A shell/3D modeling technique was developed for which a local solid finite element model is used only in the immediate vicinity of the delamination front. The goal was to combine the accuracy of the full three-dimensional solution with the computational efficiency of a shell finite element model. Multi-point constraints provided a kinematically compatible interface between the local 3D model and the global structural model which has been meshed with shell finite elements. Double Cantilever Beam, End Notched Flexure, and Single Leg Bending specimens were analyzed first using full 3D finite element models to obtain reference solutions. Mixed mode strain energy release rate distributions were computed using the virtual crack closure technique. The analyses were repeated using the shell/3D technique to study the feasibility for pure mode I, mode II and mixed mode I/II cases. Specimens with a unidirectional layup and with a multidirectional layup were simulated. For a local 3D model, extending to a minimum of about three specimen thicknesses on either side of the delamination front, the results were in good agreement with mixed mode strain energy release rates obtained from computations where the entire specimen had been modeled with solid elements. For large built-up composite structures the shell/3D modeling technique offers a great potential for reducing the model size, since only a relatively small section in the vicinity of the delamination front needs to be modeled with solid elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saccomandi, Giuseppe; Vitolo, Raffaele
2014-08-01
Using the theory of 1 + 1 hyperbolic systems we put in perspective the mathematical and geometrical structure of the celebrated circularly polarized waves solutions for isotropic hyperelastic materials determined by Carroll [Acta Mechanica 3, 167-181 (1967)]. We show that a natural generalization of this class of solutions yields an infinite family of linear solutions for the equations of isotropic elastodynamics. Moreover, we determine a huge class of hyperbolic partial differential equations having the same property of the shear wave system. Restricting the attention to the usual first order asymptotic approximation of the equations determining transverse waves we provide the complete integration of this system using generalized symmetries.
Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wuu, Cheng-Shie
2015-01-01
Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.
Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.
Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790
Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors
Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.
2012-06-06
Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.
BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model
Lazerson, Samuel
2014-04-14
With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.
3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nellutla, Shravya
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.
3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo
Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2014-01-01
Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828
The psychology of the 3D experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew
2013-03-01
With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.
Unsteady 3D Turbulent Flow Separation around a ROV Body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ungureanu, Costel; Lungu, Adrian
2009-09-01
Turbulent separated flows around ellipsoids of various aspect ratios are investigated using a numerical method. The Reynolds averaged equations for continuity and momentum are solved by cell-centered finite-volume method for the primitive variables to describe the 3D turbulent incompressible flow. The objectives of the study are: (a) to investigate the propulsive performances of a moving Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV hereafter) ellipsoidal body; (b) to validate the computational solutions through comparisons with the experimental data; (c) to investigate the effects of the angle of attack on the separation pattern as well as on the hydrodynamic forces and moments.
Calculation of 3D transient processes with voltage excitation
Patecki, A.; Racinowski, B.
1997-03-01
This paper describes a method for 3D finite difference analysis of transient processes with voltage excitation, eddy currents are not taken into account. The three dimensional transient process equations are formulated in terms of a magnetic vector potential A. The calculations are performed in two steps. In the first step the dynamic impedances of all coils and all coil currents are calculated. In the second step the magnetic field is calculated. The nonlinear effect in the ferromagnetic media is taken into account. The results of the calculations are presented here.
MESA: A 3-D Eulerian hydrocode for penetration mechanics studies
Mandell, D.A.; Holian, K.S.; Henninger, R.
1991-01-01
We describe an explicit, finite-difference hydrocode, called MESA, and compare calculations to metal and ceramic plate impacts with spall and to Taylor cylinder tests. The MESA code was developed with support from DARPA, the Army and the Marine Corps for use in armor/anti-armor problems primarily, but the code has been used for a number of other applications. MESA includes 2-D and 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamics, a number of material strength and fracture models, and a programmed burn high explosives model. 15 refs., 4 figs.
Synthesizing 3D Surfaces from Parameterized Strip Charts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Peter I.; Gomez, Julian; Morehouse, Michael; Gawdiak, Yuri
2004-01-01
We believe 3D information visualization has the power to unlock new levels of productivity in the monitoring and control of complex processes. Our goal is to provide visual methods to allow for rapid human insight into systems consisting of thousands to millions of parameters. We explore this hypothesis in two complex domains: NASA program management and NASA International Space Station (ISS) spacecraft computer operations. We seek to extend a common form of visualization called the strip chart from 2D to 3D. A strip chart can display the time series progression of a parameter and allows for trends and events to be identified. Strip charts can be overlayed when multiple parameters need to visualized in order to correlate their events. When many parameters are involved, the direct overlaying of strip charts can become confusing and may not fully utilize the graphing area to convey the relationships between the parameters. We provide a solution to this problem by generating 3D surfaces from parameterized strip charts. The 3D surface utilizes significantly more screen area to illustrate the differences in the parameters and the overlayed strip charts, and it can rapidly be scanned by humans to gain insight. The selection of the third dimension must be a parallel or parameterized homogenous resource in the target domain, defined using a finite, ordered, enumerated type, and not a heterogeneous type. We demonstrate our concepts with examples from the NASA program management domain (assessing the state of many plans) and the computers of the ISS (assessing the state of many computers). We identify 2D strip charts in each domain and show how to construct the corresponding 3D surfaces. The user can navigate the surface, zooming in on regions of interest, setting a mark and drilling down to source documents from which the data points have been derived. We close by discussing design issues, related work, and implementation challenges.
Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sorek, S.; Weisbrod, N.
2012-07-01
SummaryThe complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas the flow and transport through groundwater are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow using quasi 3D Richards' equation and finite difference scheme is presented. The corresponding numerical algorithm and the QUASI-3D computer code were developed. Results of the groundwater level simulations were compared with transient laboratory experimental data for 2D data constant-flux infiltration, quasi-3D HYDRUS-MODFLOW numerical model and a FULL-3D numerical model using Richards' equation. Hypothetical 3D examples of infiltration, pumping and groundwater mound dissipation for different spatial-time scales are presented. Water flow simulation for the Alto Piura aquifer (Peru) demonstrates the QUASI-3D model application at the regional scale. Computationally the QUASI-3D code was found to be more efficient by an order of 10-300%, while being accurate with respect to the benchmark fully 3D variable saturation code, when the capillary fringe was considered.
Shell Element Verification & Regression Problems for DYNA3D
Zywicz, E
2008-02-01
A series of quasi-static regression/verification problems were developed for the triangular and quadrilateral shell element formulations contained in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's explicit finite element program DYNA3D. Each regression problem imposes both displacement- and force-type boundary conditions to probe the five independent nodal degrees of freedom employed in the targeted formulation. When applicable, the finite element results are compared with small-strain linear-elastic closed-form reference solutions to verify select aspects of the formulations implementation. Although all problems in the suite depict the same geometry, material behavior, and loading conditions, each problem represents a unique combination of shell formulation, stabilization method, and integration rule. Collectively, the thirty-six new regression problems in the test suite cover nine different shell formulations, three hourglass stabilization methods, and three families of through-thickness integration rules.
Reconstructing photorealistic 3D models from image sequence using domain decomposition method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei
2009-11-01
In the fields of industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation, physical objects are usually digitalized by reverse engineering through some 3D scanning methods. Structured light and photogrammetry are two main methods to acquire 3D information, and both are expensive. Even if these expensive instruments are used, photorealistic 3D models are seldom available. In this paper, a new method to reconstruction photorealistic 3D models using a single camera is proposed. A square plate glued with coded marks is used to place the objects, and a sequence of about 20 images is taken. From the coded marks, the images are calibrated, and a snake algorithm is used to segment object from the background. A rough 3d model is obtained using shape from silhouettes algorithm. The silhouettes are decomposed into a combination of convex curves, which are used to partition the rough 3d model into some convex mesh patches. For each patch, the multi-view photo consistency constraints and smooth regulations are expressed as a finite element formulation, which can be resolved locally, and the information can be exchanged along the patches boundaries. The rough model is deformed into a fine 3d model through such a domain decomposition finite element method. The textures are assigned to each element mesh, and a photorealistic 3D model is got finally. A toy pig is used to verify the algorithm, and the result is exciting.
Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.
Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J
2015-01-01
While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233
3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.
Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony
2014-08-01
Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879
Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.
Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S
2014-11-01
Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316
Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graf, Norman A.
2012-12-01
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.