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Sample records for 3d fe models

  1. A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2010-10-01

    Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal

  2. Probabilistic Voxel-Fe model for single cell motility in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Borau, Carlos; Polacheck, William J; Kamm, Roger D; García-Aznar, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cells respond to a variety of external stimuli regulated by the environment conditions. Mechanical, chemical and biological factors are of great interest and have been deeply studied. Furthermore, mathematical and computational models have been rapidly growing over the past few years, permitting researches to run complex scenarios saving time and resources. Usually these models focus on specific features of cell migration, making them only suitable to study restricted phenomena. Methods Here we present a versatile finite element (FE) cell-scale 3D migration model based on probabilities depending in turn on ECM mechanical properties, chemical, fluid and boundary conditions. Results With this approach we are able to capture important outcomes of cell migration such as: velocities, trajectories, cell shape and aspect ratio, cell stress or ECM displacements. Conclusions The modular form of the model will allow us to constantly update and redefine it as advancements are made in clarifying how cellular events take place. PMID:26290806

  3. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  4. Constraining the absolute orientation of η Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in η Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA θ that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i≈ 130° to 145°, θ≈-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ≈ 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ηB, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>θ is the same as the angle φ defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arts+AND+crafts&id=EJ1091305','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arts+AND+crafts&id=EJ1091305"><span id="translatedtitle">Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reference frame and a <span class="hlt">model</span> gravity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986789"><span id="translatedtitle">Spin fluctuations and superconductivity in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tight-binding <span class="hlt">model</span> for Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2As2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Graser, Siegfried; Kemper, Alexander F; Maier, Thomas A; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Hirschfeld, Peter; Scalapino, Douglas</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Despite the wealth of experimental data on the <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-pnictide compounds of the KFe2As2 type, K=Ba, Ca, or Sr, the main theoretical work based on multiorbital tight-binding <span class="hlt">models</span> has been restricted so far to the study of the related 1111 compounds. This can be ascribed to the more three-dimensional electronic structure found by ab initio calculations for the 122 materials, making this system less amenable to <span class="hlt">model</span> development. In addition, the more complicated Brillouin zone BZ of the body-centered tetragonal symmetry does not allow a straightforward unfolding of the electronic band structure into an effective 1<span class="hlt">Fe</span>/unit cell BZ. Here we present an effective five-orbital tight-binding fit of the full density functional theory band structure for Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2As2 including the kz dispersions. We compare the five-orbital spin fluctuation <span class="hlt">model</span> to one previously studied for LaOFeAs and calculate the random-phase approximation enhanced susceptibility. Using the fluctuation ex- change approximation to determine the leading pairing instability, we then examine the differences between a strictly two-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> calculation over a single kz cut of the BZ and a completely three-dimensional approach. We find pairing states quite similar to the 1111 materials, with generic quasi-isotropic pairing on the hole sheets and nodal states on the electron sheets at kz=0, which however are gapped as the system is hole doped. On the other hand, a substantial kz dependence of the order parameter remains, with most of the pairing strength deriving from processes near kz=?. These states exhibit a tendency for an enhanced anisotropy on the hole sheets and a reduced anisotropy on the electron sheets near the top of the BZ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhTea..54..150M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhTea..54..150M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Making Inexpensive <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manos, Harry</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reference frame and a <span class="hlt">model</span> gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20900834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20900834"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron collisions with <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-peak elements: Forbidden transitions between the low lying valence states <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>{sup 6}, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>{sup 5}4s, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>{sup 5}4p of <span class="hlt">Fe</span> III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McLaughlin, B.M. . E-mail: b.mclaughlin@qub.ac.uk; Scott, M.P.; Sunderland, A.G.; Noble, C.J.; Burke, V.M.; Ramsbottom, C.A.; Reid, R.H.G.; Hibbert, A.; Bell, K.L.; Burke, P.G.</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Effective collision strengths are presented for the <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-peak element <span class="hlt">Fe</span> III at electron temperatures (T {sub e} in degrees Kelvin) in the range 2 x 10{sup 3} to 1 x 10{sup 6}. Forbidden transitions results are given between the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>{sup 6}, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>{sup 5}4s, and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>{sup 5}4p manifolds applicable to the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74916&keyword=soil+AND+radiation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64183124&CFTOKEN=81446066"><span id="translatedtitle">Modular <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Transport <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..587S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..587S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial <span class="hlt">model</span> obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate <span class="hlt">models</span> could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2172R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2172R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Esri <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city information <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cities solution. The ArcGIS for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cities solution provides the information <span class="hlt">model</span>, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City Information <span class="hlt">Model</span> and some sample use cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1129429"><span id="translatedtitle">BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Samuel</p> <p>2014-04-14</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) <span class="hlt">model</span>, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection <span class="hlt">model</span>, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3221767"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Cellular Processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> cellular processes in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>. Here, we highlight recent advances related to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> in cell biology. While some processes require full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes <span class="hlt">models</span> more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> will build greater confidence in <span class="hlt">models</span> generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. PMID:22036197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4431..153R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4431..153R"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiosity diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>We present the Radiosity-Diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> in three dimensions(<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> including an extension to the <span class="hlt">model</span> to cope with increased complexity of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain. We show that in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to <span class="hlt">model</span> the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the <span class="hlt">model</span> to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..01F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction of underground goaf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf <span class="hlt">models</span> is established. TIN object is the basic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> element of goaf <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the <span class="hlt">model</span> and algorithm proposed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166048','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166048"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Engine Representation Summary Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Computers have been used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex <span class="hlt">models</span>. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5019M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5019M"><span id="translatedtitle">BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Neutral Beam Injection <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>With the advent of applied <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> neutral beam injection (NBI) <span class="hlt">model</span>, BEAMS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which addresses this need by coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibria to a guiding center code capable of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI <span class="hlt">model</span>, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IAUS..265..201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IAUS..265..201L"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar abundances and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Photosynthesis&pg=3&id=EJ876145','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Photosynthesis&pg=3&id=EJ876145"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Teaching <span class="hlt">Models</span> for All</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">models</span> with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040070714','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040070714"><span id="translatedtitle">Debris Dispersion <span class="hlt">Model</span> Using Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the <span class="hlt">model</span> is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics combined with physical <span class="hlt">models</span> provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5669...42D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5669...42D"><span id="translatedtitle">Illustrative visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city <span class="hlt">model</span> components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP21A0654Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP21A0654Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Biogeomorphological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Using Delft<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, Q.; Jagers, B.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The skill of numerical morphological <span class="hlt">models</span> has improved significantly from the early 2D uniform, total load sediment <span class="hlt">models</span> (with steady state or infrequent wave updates) to recent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> with multiple suspended and bed load sediment fractions and bed stratigraphy (online coupled with waves). Although there remain many open questions within this combined field of hydro- and morphodynamics, we observe an increasing need to include biological processes in the overall dynamics. In riverine and inter-tidal environments, there is often an important influence by riparian vegetation and macrobenthos. Over the past decade more and more researchers have started to extend the simulation environment with wrapper scripts and other quick code hacks to estimate their influence on morphological development in coastal, estuarine and riverine environments. Although one can in this way quickly analyze different approaches, these research tools have generally not been designed with reuse, performance and portability in mind. We have now implemented a reusable, flexible, and efficient two-way link between the Delft<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> open source framework for hydrodynamics, waves and morphology, and the water quality and ecology modules. The same link will be used for 1D, 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on networks and both structured and unstructured grids. We will describe the concepts of the overall system, and illustrate it with some first results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573305','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573305"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensing and compressing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krumm, J.</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> computer <span class="hlt">models</span> of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18192707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18192707"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of optically challenging objects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Johnny; Kak, Avinash</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We present a system for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of real-world objects with optically challenging surfaces. The system utilizes a new range imaging concept called multi-peak range imaging, which stores multiple candidates of range measurements for each point on the object surface. The multiple measurements include the erroneous range data caused by various surface properties that are not ideal for structured-light range sensing. False measurements generated by spurious reflections are eliminated by applying a series of constraint tests. The constraint tests based on local surface and local sensor visibility are applied first to individual range images. The constraint tests based on global consistency of coordinates and visibility are then applied to all range images acquired from different viewpoints. We show the effectiveness of our method by constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of five different optically challenging objects. To evaluate the performance of the constraint tests and to examine the effects of the parameters used in the constraint tests, we acquired the ground truth data by painting those objects to suppress the surface-related properties that cause difficulties in range sensing. Experimental results indicate that our method significantly improves upon the traditional methods for constructing reliable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of optically challenging objects. PMID:18192707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9028E..0RB&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9028E..0RB&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust hashing for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the <span class="hlt">model</span> as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287555','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287555"><span id="translatedtitle">Fallon FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geologic <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Doug Blankenship</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>An x,y,z scattered data file for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Fallon FORGE site. <span class="hlt">Model</span> created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EAS....71...81M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EAS....71...81M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Symbiotic Binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) <span class="hlt">models</span> of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we <span class="hlt">model</span> multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the <span class="hlt">models</span> to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119u3901M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119u3901M"><span id="translatedtitle">Relevance of 4f-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> exchange to finite-temperature magnetism of rare-earth permanent magnets: An ab-initio-based spin <span class="hlt">model</span> approach for Nd<span class="hlt">Fe</span>12N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsumoto, Munehisa; Akai, Hisazumi; Harashima, Yosuke; Doi, Shotaro; Miyake, Takashi</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A classical spin <span class="hlt">model</span> derived ab initio for rare-earth-based permanent magnet compounds is presented. Our target compound, Nd<span class="hlt">Fe</span>12N, is a material that goes beyond today's champion magnet compound Nd2<span class="hlt">Fe</span>14B in its intrinsic magnetic properties with a simpler crystal structure. Calculated temperature dependence of the magnetization and the anisotropy field agrees with the latest experimental results in the leading order. Having put the realistic observables under our numerical control, we propose that engineering 5d-electron-mediated indirect exchange coupling between 4f-electrons in Nd and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-electrons from <span class="hlt">Fe</span> would most critically help enhance the material's utility over the operation-temperature range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4417147','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4417147"><span id="translatedtitle">Inferential <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> chromatin structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By <span class="hlt">modeling</span> each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian <span class="hlt">model</span> and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25008G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DFDG25008G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Surfactant Replacement Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The <span class="hlt">model</span> generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The <span class="hlt">model</span> shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894759','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894759"><span id="translatedtitle">MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fracture <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moss, W C; Levatin, J L</p> <p>2006-08-14</p> <p>Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, <span class="hlt">models</span> for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture <span class="hlt">models</span> set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not <span class="hlt">modeled</span> correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a <span class="hlt">model</span> that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material <span class="hlt">model</span> that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other <span class="hlt">models</span> by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, PARADYN, and ALE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and quantitative descriptions of salient features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..547D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stratigraphic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Central Aachen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Since 1980s, advanced computer hardware and software technologies, as well as multidisciplinary research have provided possibilities to develop advanced three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) simulation software for geosciences application. Some countries, such as USA1) and Canada2) 3), have built up regional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> based on archival geological data. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> have played huge roles in engineering geology2), hydrogeology2) 3), geothermal industry1) and so on. In cooperating with the Municipality of Aachen, the Department of Engineering Geology of RWTH Aachen University have built up a computer-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stratigraphic <span class="hlt">model</span> of 50 meter' depth for the center of Aachen, which is a 5 km by 7 km geologically complex area. The uncorrelated data from multi-resources, discontinuous nature and unconformable connection of the units are main challenges for geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> in this area. The reliability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Existing 1D and 2D geological data were collected, including 1) approximately 6970 borehole data of different depth compiled in Microsoft Access database and MapInfo database; 2) a Digital Elevation <span class="hlt">Model</span> (DEM); 3) geological cross sections; and 4) stratigraphic maps in 1m, 2m and 5m depth. Since acquired data are of variable origins, they were managed step by step. The main processes are described below: 1) Typing errors of borehole data were identified and the corrected data were exported to Variowin2.2 to distinguish duplicate points; 2) The surface elevation of borehole data was compared to the DEM, and differences larger than 3m were eliminated. Moreover, where elevation data missed, it was read from the DEM; 3) Considerable data were collected from municipal constructions, such as residential buildings, factories, and roads. Therefore, many boreholes are spatially clustered, and only one or two representative points were picked out in such areas; After above procedures, 5839 boreholes with -x</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPBM1002H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPBM1002H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huba, Joseph; Joyce, Glenn; Krall, Jonathan</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation results from the NRL ionosphere <span class="hlt">models</span> SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Post-sunset ionospheric irregularities in the equatorial F region were first observed by Booker and Wells (1938) using ionosondes. This phenomenon has become known as equatorial spread F (ESF). During ESF the equatorial ionosphere becomes unstable because of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability: large scale (10s km) electron density ``bubbles'' can develop and rise to high altitudes (1000 km or greater at times). Understanding and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> ESF is important because of its impact on space weather: it causes radio wave scintillation that degrades communication and navigation systems. In fact, it is the focus of of the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast Satellite (C/NOFS) mission. We will describe <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation results from the NRL ionosphere <span class="hlt">models</span> SAMI3 and SAMI3/ESF of this phenomenon. In particular, we will examine the causes of the day-to-day ariability of ESF which is an unresolved problem at this time. Research supported by ONR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/425521"><span id="translatedtitle">Reservoir geology using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir <span class="hlt">models</span>. A structural <span class="hlt">model</span> can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological <span class="hlt">models</span> can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595185','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6595185"><span id="translatedtitle">Reservoir geology using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir <span class="hlt">models</span>. A structural <span class="hlt">model</span> can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological <span class="hlt">models</span> can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4181P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4181P"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional geothermal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in Denmark</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. In this study, the open-source groundwater <span class="hlt">modelling</span> code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The <span class="hlt">model</span> takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient <span class="hlt">model</span> based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15533619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15533619"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of amitosis (cytokinesis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Kang; Zou, Changhua</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on Newton's laws, extended Coulomb's law and published biological data, we develop our <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of natural and normal amitosis (cytokinesis), for prokaryotes (bacterial cells) in M phase. We propose following hypotheses: Chromosome rings exclusion: No normally and naturally replicated chromosome rings (RCR) can occupy the same prokaryote, a bacterial cell. The RCR produce spontaneous and strong electromagnetic fields (EMF), that can be alternated environmentally, in protoplasm and cortex. The EMF is approximately a repulsive quasi-static electric (slowly variant and mostly electric) field (EF). The EF forces between the RCR are strong enough, and orderly accumulate contractile proteins that divide the procaryotes in the cell cortex of division plane or directly split the cell compartment envelope longitudinally. The radial component of the EF forces could also make furrows or cleavages of procaryotes. The EF distribution controls the protoplasm partition and completes the amitosis (cytokinesis). After the cytokinesis, the spontaneous and strong EF disappear because the net charge accumulation becomes weak, in the protoplasm. The exclusion is because the two sets of informative objects (RCR) have identical DNA codes information and they are electro magnetically identical, therefore they repulse from each other. We also compare divisions among eukaryotes, prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts and propose our hypothesis: The principles of our <span class="hlt">models</span> are applied to divisions of mitochondria and chloroplasts of eucaryotes too because these division mechanisms are closer than others in a view of physics. Though we develop our <span class="hlt">model</span> using 1 division plane (i.e., 1 cell is divided into 2 cells) as an example, the principle of our <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to the cases with multiple division planes (i.e., 1 cell is divided into multiple cells) too. PMID:15533619</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apn6.confE..60M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014apn6.confE..60M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Stellar Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, S.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Booth, R.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Harries, T.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Corradi, R.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, evolved mass-losing giant and an accreting compact companion. As symbiotic nebulae show similar morphologies to those in planetary nebulae (so much so that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two), they are ideal laboratories for understanding the role a binary companion plays in shaping the circumstellar envelopes in these evolved systems. We will present <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) <span class="hlt">models</span> of interacting binaries, e.g. R Aquarii and Mira, and discuss the formation of spiral outflows, arcs, shells and equatorial density enhancements.We will also discuss the implications of the former for planetary nebulae, e.g. the Egg Nebula and Cat's Eye, and the latter for the formation of bipolar geometries, e.g. M2-9. We also investigate accretion and angular momentum evolution in symbiotic binaries which may be important to understand the formation of jets and more episodic mass-loss features we see in circumstellar envelopes and the orbital characteristics of binary central stars of planetary nebulae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440264"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-view and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformable part <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pepik, Bojan; Stark, Michael; Gehler, Peter; Schiele, Bernt</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>As objects are inherently <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, they have been <span class="hlt">modeled</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in the early days of computer vision. Due to the ambiguities arising from mapping 2D features to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object representations have been neglected and 2D feature-based <span class="hlt">models</span> are the predominant paradigm in object detection nowadays. While such <span class="hlt">models</span> have achieved outstanding bounding box detection performance, they come with limited expressiveness, as they are clearly limited in their capability of reasoning about <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape or viewpoints. In this work, we bring the worlds of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 2D object representations closer, by building an object detector which leverages the expressive power of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object representations while at the same time can be robustly matched to image evidence. To that end, we gradually extend the successful deformable part <span class="hlt">model</span> [1] to include viewpoint information and part-level <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry information, resulting in several different <span class="hlt">models</span> with different level of expressiveness. We end up with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object <span class="hlt">model</span>, consisting of multiple object parts represented in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and a continuous appearance <span class="hlt">model</span>. We experimentally verify that our <span class="hlt">models</span>, while providing richer object hypotheses than the 2D object <span class="hlt">models</span>, provide consistently better joint object localization and viewpoint estimation than the state-of-the-art multi-view and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object detectors on various benchmarks (KITTI [2] , <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object classes [3] , Pascal<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>+ [4] , Pascal VOC 2007 [5] , EPFL multi-view cars[6] ). PMID:26440264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4987952','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4987952"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> from 3C data. Here we introduce our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GeNOme <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Engine (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME), a web service which generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185892"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> from 3C data. Here we introduce our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GeNOme <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Engine (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME), a web service which generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9875E..0ES','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9875E..0ES"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast wavelet network <span class="hlt">model</span>-assisted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face recognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Said, Salwa; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; Ben Amar, Chokri</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In last years, the emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape in face recognition is due to its robustness to pose and illumination changes. These attractive benefits are not all the challenges to achieve satisfactory recognition rate. Other challenges such as facial expressions and computing time of matching algorithms remain to be explored. In this context, we propose our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face recognition approach using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wavelet networks. Our approach contains two stages: learning stage and recognition stage. For the training we propose a novel algorithm based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast wavelet transform. From <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinates of the face (x,y,z), we proceed to voxelization to get a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume which will be decomposed by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fast wavelet transform and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> after that with a wavelet network, then their associated weights are considered as vector features to represent each training face . For the recognition stage, an unknown identity face is projected on all the training WN to obtain a new vector features after every projection. A similarity score is computed between the old and the obtained vector features. To show the efficiency of our approach, experimental results were performed on all the FRGC v.2 benchmark.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2252456S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2252456S"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape <span class="hlt">model</span> of Interamnia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sato, Isao</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> shape <span class="hlt">model</span> of the sixth largest of the main belt asteroids, (704) Interamnia, is presented. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is reproduced from its two stellar occultation observations and six lightcurves between 1969 and 2011. The first stellar occultation was the occultation of TYC 234500183 on 1996 December 17 observed from 13 sites in the USA. An elliptical cross section of (344.6±9.6km)×(306.2±9.1km), for position angle P=73.4±12.5 was fitted. The lightcurve around the occultation shows that the peak-to-peak amplitude was 0.04 mag. and the occultation phase was just before the minimum. The second stellar occultation was the occultation of HIP 036189 on 2003 March 23 observed from 39 sites in Japan and Hawaii. An elliptical cross section of (349.8±0.9km)×(303.7±1.7km), for position angle P=86.0±1.1 was fitted. A companion of 8.5 mag. of the occulted star was discovered whose separation is 12±2 mas (milli-arcseconds), P=148±11 . A combined analysis of rotational lightcurves and occultation chords can return more information than can be obtained with either technique alone. From follow-up photometric observations of the asteroid between 2003 and 2011, its rotation period is determined to be 8.728967167±0.00000007 hours, which is accurate enough to fix the rotation phases at other occultation events. The derived north pole is λ2000=259±8, β2000=-50±5 (retrograde rotation); the lengths of the three principal axes are 2a=361.8±2.8km, 2b=324.4±5.0km, 2c=297.3±3.5km, and the mean diameter is D=326.8±3.0km. Supposing the mass of Interamnia as (3.5±0.9)×10-11 solar masses, the density is then ρ=3.8±1.0 g cm-3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......306S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......306S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Techniques for Print and Digital Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephens, Megan Ashley</p> <p></p> <p>In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. The <span class="hlt">models</span> created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a <span class="hlt">model</span> of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart <span class="hlt">models</span> from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning, and successfully printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heart <span class="hlt">models</span>. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate <span class="hlt">models</span> for use in both animation and print media. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> print using two different techniques as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/350855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of metallic grain growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017792','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920017792"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rocket combustor acoustics <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Priem, Richard J.; Breisacher, Kevin J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The theory and procedures for determining the characteristics of pressure oscillations in rocket engines with prescribed burning rate oscillations are presented. Analyses including radial and hub baffles and absorbers can be performed in one, two, and three dimensions. Pressure and velocity oscillations calculated using this procedure are presented for the SSME to show the influence of baffles and absorbers on the burning rate oscillations required to achieve neutral stability. Comparisons are made between the results obtained utilizing 1-D, 2-D, and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> assumptions with regards to capturing the physical phenomena of interest and computational requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.113u6403K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvL.113u6403K"><span id="translatedtitle">Contiguous <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span> and 4 f Magnetism: Strongly Correlated <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span> Electrons in Yb<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2Al10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khuntia, P.; Peratheepan, P.; Strydom, A. M.; Utsumi, Y.; Ko, K.-T.; Tsuei, K.-D.; Tjeng, L. H.; Steglich, F.; Baenitz, M.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We present magnetization, specific heat, and <mml:mmultiscripts>Al 27 </mml:mmultiscripts> NMR investigations on Yb<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2Al10 over a wide range in temperature and magnetic field. The magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures is strongly enhanced at weak magnetic fields, accompanied by a ln (T0/T ) divergence of the low-T specific heat coefficient in zero field, which indicates a ground state of correlated electrons. From our hard-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study, the Yb valence at 50 K is evaluated to be 2.38. The system displays valence fluctuating behavior in the low to intermediate temperature range, whereas above 400 K, Yb3 + carries a full and stable moment, and <span class="hlt">Fe</span> carries a moment of about 3.1 μB. The enhanced value of the Sommerfeld-Wilson ratio and the dynamic scaling of the spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by T [<mml:mmultiscripts>(1 /T1T ) 27 </mml:mmultiscripts>] with static susceptibility suggests admixed ferromagnetic correlations. <mml:mmultiscripts>(1 /T1T ) 27 </mml:mmultiscripts> simultaneously tracks the valence fluctuations from the 4 f Yb ions in the high temperature range and field dependent antiferromagnetic correlations among partially Kondo screened <span class="hlt">Fe</span> <span class="hlt">3</span> <span class="hlt">d</span> moments at low temperature; the latter evolve out of an Yb 4 f admixed conduction band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22534111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22534111"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> doping on the electronic structure of Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2As2.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLeod, J A; Buling, A; Green, R J; Boyko, T D; Skorikov, N A; Kurmaev, E Z; Neumann, M; Finkelstein, L D; Ni, N; Thaler, A; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C; Moewes, A</p> <p>2012-05-30</p> <p>The electronic structure of Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>(2)As(2) doped with Co, Ni and Cu has been studied by a variety of experimental and theoretical methods, but a clear picture of the dopant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states has not yet emerged. Herein we provide experimental evidence of the distribution of Co, Ni and Cu <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states in the valence band. We conclude that the Co and Ni <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states provide additional free carriers to the Fermi level, while the Cu <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states are found at the bottom of the valence band in a localized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>(10) shell. These findings help shed light on why superconductivity can occur in Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>(2)As(2) doped with Co and Ni but not Cu. PMID:22534111</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1045818','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1045818"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> doping on the electronic structure of Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2As2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McLeod, John A.; Buling, A.; Green, R.J.; Boyko, T.D.; Skorikov, N.A.; Kurmaev, E.Z.; Neumann, M.; Finkelstein, L.D.; Ni, Ni; Thaler, Alexander; Budko, Serguei L.; Canfield, Paul; Moewes, A.</p> <p>2012-04-25</p> <p>The electronic structure of Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2As2 doped with Co, Ni and Cu has been studied by a variety of experimental and theoretical methods, but a clear picture of the dopant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states has not yet emerged. Herein we provide experimental evidence of the distribution of Co, Ni and Cu <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states in the valence band. We conclude that the Co and Ni <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states provide additional free carriers to the Fermi level, while the Cu <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> states are found at the bottom of the valence band in a localized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>10 shell. These findings help shed light on why superconductivity can occur in Ba<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2As2 doped with Co and Ni but not Cu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3545547','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3545547"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Face <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Using the Multi-Deformable Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical <span class="hlt">model</span>-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method has two primary steps: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial shape estimation using a multiple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face deformable <span class="hlt">model</span> and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face for individuals at the end of the paper. PMID:23201976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220617"><span id="translatedtitle">Life in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is never flat: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to optimise drug delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Curtin, Caroline M; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M</p> <p>2015-10-10</p> <p>The development of safe, effective and patient-acceptable drug products is an expensive and lengthy process and the risk of failure at different stages of the development life-cycle is high. Improved biopharmaceutical tools which are robust, easy to use and accurately predict the in vivo response are urgently required to help address these issues. In this review the advantages and challenges of in vitro <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> versus 2D cell culture <span class="hlt">models</span> will be discussed in terms of evaluating new drug products at the pre-clinical development stage. Examples of <span class="hlt">models</span> with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> architecture including scaffolds, cell-derived matrices, multicellular spheroids and biochips will be described. The ability to simulate the microenvironment of tumours and vital organs including the liver, kidney, heart and intestine which have major impact on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity will be evaluated. Examples of the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> including a role in formulation development, pharmacokinetic profiling and toxicity testing will be critically assessed. Although utilisation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture <span class="hlt">models</span> in the field of drug delivery is still in its infancy, the area is attracting high levels of interest and is likely to become a significant in vitro tool to assist in drug product development thus reducing the requirement for unnecessary animal studies. PMID:26220617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940232','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940232"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the RELAPS-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Heat Conduction Enclosure <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCann, Larry D.</p> <p>2008-09-30</p> <p>Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using the conduction enclosure <span class="hlt">model</span>. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate <span class="hlt">model</span> detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor <span class="hlt">models</span> in RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2598..114S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2598..114S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene <span class="hlt">modeling</span> from multiple range views</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene <span class="hlt">model</span> are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are presented. Direct applications of this technique include <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD <span class="hlt">model</span>, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMIN33B..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMIN33B..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Models</span> on Google Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> applications) was used to represent different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> such as borehole, fence section, surface-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume <span class="hlt">model</span> and (d) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grid <span class="hlt">model</span> of Grossmont formation on Google Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcMod..26...91H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcMod..26...91H"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing a quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nearshore circulation <span class="hlt">model</span>: SHORECIRC and ROMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haas, Kevin A.; Warner, John C.</p> <p></p> <p>Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated <span class="hlt">models</span>. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> that is quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH <span class="hlt">model</span>. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the <span class="hlt">models</span> with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the <span class="hlt">models</span> are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is faster, however the applicability of the fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033040','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033040"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing a quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nearshore circulation <span class="hlt">model</span>: SHORECIRC and ROMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated <span class="hlt">models</span>. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> that is quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH <span class="hlt">model</span>. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the <span class="hlt">models</span> with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the <span class="hlt">models</span> are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is faster, however the applicability of the fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..725Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..725Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">a Fast Method for Measuring the Similarity Between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Point Cloud</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zongliang; Li, Jonathan; Li, Xin; Lin, Yangbin; Zhang, Shanxin; Wang, Cheng</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point Cloud (SimMC). It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object retrieval and inverse procedural <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. In our proposed method, the surface area of <span class="hlt">model</span> and the Distance from <span class="hlt">Model</span> to point Cloud (DistMC) are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from <span class="hlt">model</span> and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to <span class="hlt">Model</span> (DistCM) is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and <span class="hlt">model</span>. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of <span class="hlt">model</span> to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Indexing+AND+multimedia&pg=2&id=EJ869243','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Indexing+AND+multimedia&pg=2&id=EJ869243"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometry <span class="hlt">Model</span> Search Engine to Support Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Due to the popularity of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics in animation and games, usage of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry deformable <span class="hlt">models</span> increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these <span class="hlt">models</span> are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these <span class="hlt">models</span> could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040163','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040163"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury on CASP7 <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaján, László; Rychlewski, Leszek</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury, the structure prediction consensus method publicly available in the Meta Server , was evaluated using <span class="hlt">models</span> gathered in the 7th round of the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP7). <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury is an automated expert process that generates protein structure meta-predictions from sets of <span class="hlt">models</span> obtained from partner servers. Results The performance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury was analysed for three aspects. First, we examined the correlation between the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score and a <span class="hlt">model</span> quality measure: the number of correctly predicted residues. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score was shown to correlate significantly with the number of correctly predicted residues, the correlation is good enough to be used for prediction. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury was also found to improve upon the competing servers' choice of the best structure <span class="hlt">model</span> in most cases. The value of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score as a generic reliability measure was also examined. We found that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score separates bad <span class="hlt">models</span> from good <span class="hlt">models</span> better than the reliability score of the original server in 27 cases and falls short of it in only 5 cases out of a total of 38. We report the release of a new Meta Server feature: instant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury scoring of uploaded user <span class="hlt">models</span>. Conclusion The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury score continues to be a good indicator of structural <span class="hlt">model</span> quality. It also provides a generic reliability score, especially important for <span class="hlt">models</span> that were not assigned such by the original server. Individual structure <span class="hlt">modellers</span> can also benefit from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Jury scoring system by testing their <span class="hlt">models</span> in the new instant scoring feature available in the Meta Server. PMID:17711571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26689764"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures and interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. PMID:26689764</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22...47J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22...47J"><span id="translatedtitle">An Automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Indoor Topological Navigation Network <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor navigation <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this paper, an automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topological indoor network generated from inaccurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span> is proposed. In a normal scenario, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometrical building <span class="hlt">model</span>. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The <span class="hlt">modelling</span> results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9118E..0EC&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014SPIE.9118E..0EC&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Highway <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> from image and lidar data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present a new method of highway <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4553..378S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4553..378S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> infrared scenes using random fields <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jianqi</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>Analysis and simulation of smart munitions requires imagery for the munition's sensor to view. The traditional infrared background simulations are always limited in the plane scene studies. A new method is described to synthesize the images in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> view and with various terrains texture. We develop the random fields <span class="hlt">model</span> and temperature fields to simulate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> infrared scenes. Generalized long-correlation (GLC) <span class="hlt">model</span>, one of random field <span class="hlt">models</span>, will generate both the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> terrains skeleton data and the terrains texture in this work. To build the terrain mesh with the random fields, digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> (DEM) are introduced in the paper. And texture mapping technology will perform the task of pasting the texture in the concavo-convex surfaces of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene. The simulation using random fields <span class="hlt">model</span> is a very available method to produce <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> infrared scene with great randomicity and reality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7...83Q&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7...83Q&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An Automatic Registration Algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Maxillofacial <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image registration aims at aligning two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> maxillofacial <span class="hlt">models</span> registration including facial surface <span class="hlt">model</span> and skull <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial <span class="hlt">model</span> in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull <span class="hlt">models</span> demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012uuu..conf02003F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012uuu..conf02003F"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> with legal information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> to provide information about legal rights in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> augmented with planning information in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>; (2) ownership of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, with links to the legal sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9524E..1OR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9524E..1OR"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method application in ancient city reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> was proposed. Based on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and virtual display of ancient city.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/80250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/80250"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>-based Bayesian classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Soenneland, L.; Tenneboe, P.; Gehrmann, T.; Yrke, O.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The challenging task of the interpreter is to integrate different pieces of information and combine them into an earth <span class="hlt">model</span>. The sophistication level of this earth <span class="hlt">model</span> might vary from the simplest geometrical description to the most complex set of reservoir parameters related to the geometrical description. Obviously the sophistication level also depend on the completeness of the available information. The authors describe the interpreter`s task as a mapping between the observation space and the <span class="hlt">model</span> space. The information available to the interpreter exists in observation space and the task is to infer a <span class="hlt">model</span> in <span class="hlt">model</span>-space. It is well-known that this inversion problem is non-unique. Therefore any attempt to find a solution depend son constraints being added in some manner. The solution will obviously depend on which constraints are introduced and it would be desirable to allow the interpreter to modify the constraints in a problem-dependent manner. They will present a probabilistic framework that gives the interpreter the tools to integrate the different types of information and produce constrained solutions. The constraints can be adapted to the problem at hand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05451&hterms=gap+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgap%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05451&hterms=gap+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgap%2Bmodel"><span id="translatedtitle">Opportunity Landing Spot Panorama (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> and the billboard. Portions of the terrain <span class="hlt">model</span> lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.<p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view <p/>The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this zoomed-in portion of a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> and the billboard. Portions of the terrain <span class="hlt">model</span> lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL2b..73S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL2b..73S"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Techniques and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are basically a computerized or digital <span class="hlt">model</span> of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">models</span> generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">models</span> using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">models</span>. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">model</span>. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud <span class="hlt">model</span> is a modern trend for virtual <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual <span class="hlt">3</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120015401&hterms=convection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconvection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120015401&hterms=convection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconvection"><span id="translatedtitle">Venusian Applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Convection <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bonaccorso, Timary Annie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study <span class="hlt">models</span> mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which <span class="hlt">models</span> one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic <span class="hlt">model</span> that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to <span class="hlt">model</span> coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911087','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911087"><span id="translatedtitle">RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Compressor <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>A compressor <span class="hlt">model</span> has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D© code. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is similar to that of the existing pump <span class="hlt">model</span>, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor <span class="hlt">model</span> to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..537S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..537S"><span id="translatedtitle">Image based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> : Comparative study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, second method is Procedural grammar based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856769"><span id="translatedtitle">Justification for a 2D versus <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fingertip finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> during static contact simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harih, Gregor; Tada, Mitsunori; Dolšak, Bojan</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The biomechanical response of a human hand during contact with various products has not been investigated in details yet. It has been shown that excessive contact pressure on the soft tissue can result in discomfort, pain and also cumulative traumatic disorders. This manuscript explores the benefits and limitations of a simplified two-dimensional vs. an anatomically correct three-dimensional finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> of a human fingertip. Most authors still use 2D <span class="hlt">FE</span> fingertip <span class="hlt">models</span> due to their simplicity and reduced computational costs. However we show that an anatomically correct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">FE</span> fingertip <span class="hlt">model</span> can provide additional insight into the biomechanical behaviour. The use of 2D fingertip <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> is justified when observing peak contact pressure values as well as displacement during the contact for the given studied cross-section. On the other hand, an anatomically correct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">FE</span> fingertip <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a contact pressure distribution, which reflects the fingertip's anatomy. PMID:26856769</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAr.XL4..169M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAr.XL4..169M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">NoSQL Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Model</span> Management System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>To manage increasingly complicated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We also suggest and implement <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> analysis and visualization in the framework. For city <span class="hlt">model</span> analysis, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA42012M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA42012M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Polymer Deformation during <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition <span class="hlt">modelling</span> technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4949P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4949P"><span id="translatedtitle">Kongsfjorden-MIKE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Przyborska, Anna; Kosecki, Szymon; Jakacki, Jaromir</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Kongsfjorden is a West Svalbard fjord with a surface area of about 210 km2. It is obvious that the depths of the outer and central basins are influenced by the open sea, under influence of West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which curry out warm Atlantic water and cold East Spitsbergen Current, while the shallower, inner basin has a large glacial outflow and its maximum depths do not exceed 100 m. Freshwater stored in Spitsbergen glaciers have strong influence on local hydrology and physical fjord conditions. Both, local and shelf conditions have impact on state of the fjord. External forces like tides, velocities at the boundary and atmospheric forces together with sources of cold and dens fresh water in the fjords will give reliable representation of physical conditions in Kongsfjorden. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> could help to solve this problem and we have hope that we find answer which one is the most important for local conditions in fjord. Calculations of balances between cold fresh water and warm and salt will provide additional information that could help to answer the main question of the GAME (Growing of the Arctic Marine Ecosystem) project - what is the reaction of physically controlled Arctic marine ecosystem to temperature rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..GECGT1103H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..GECGT1103H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PIC <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Microcavity Discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald; Moore, Christopher; Yee, Benjamin; Moorman, Matthew</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>We present a number of techniques and challenges in simulating the transient behavior of a microcavity discharge. Our microcavities are typically cylindrical with diameters approximately 50 - 100 μm, heights of 50 - 200 μm, pressure near atmospheric, and operate at a few hundred volts. We employ a fully kinetic simulation methodology, the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method, with interparticle collisions handled via methods based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). In particular, we explicitly include kinetic electrons. Some of the challenges we encounter include variations in number densities, external circuit coupling, and time step resolution constraints. By employing dynamic particle weighting (particle weights vary over time by species and location) we can mitigate some of the challenges <span class="hlt">modeling</span> systems with 107 variations in number densities. Smoothing mechanisms have been used to attempt to mitigate external circuit response. We perform our simulations on hundreds or thousands of processing cores to accommodate the computational work inherent in using relatively small time step sizes (e.g., 50 fs for a 100 ns calculation). In addition, particle weighting issues inherent to three-dimensional low temperature plasma systems will be mentioned. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132184"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>: explaining densification and deformation mechanisms by using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameter plots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picker, Katharina M</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to analyze very differently deforming materials using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameter plots and consequently to gain deeper insights into the densification and deformation process described with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in order to define an ideal tableting excipient. The excipients used were dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), sodium chloride (NaCl), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, mannitol, alpha-lactose monohydrate, maltose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), cellulose acetate (CAC), maize starch, potato starch, pregelatinized starch, and maltodextrine. All of the materials were tableted to graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) using an eccentric tableting machine. The data which resulted, namely force, displacement, and time, were analyzed by the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Different particle size fractions of DCPD, CAC, and MCC were analyzed in addition. Brittle deforming materials such as DCPD exhibited a completely different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parameter plot, with low time plasticity, d, and low pressure plasticity, e, and a strong decrease in omega values when densification increased, in contrast to the plastically deforming MCC, which had much higher d, e, and omega values. e and omega values changed only slightly when densification increased for MCC. NaCl showed less of a decrease in omega values than DCPD did, and the d and e values were between those of MCC and DCPD. The sugar alcohols, xylitol and mannitol, behaved in a similar fashion to sodium chloride. This is also valid for the crystalline sugars, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and maltose. However, the sugars are more brittle than the sugar alcohols. The cellulose derivatives, HPMC, NaCMC, and CAC, are as plastic as MCC, however, their elasticity depends on substitution indicated by lower (more elastic) or higher (less elastic) omega values. The native starches, maize starch and potato starch, are very elastic, and pregelatinized starch and maltodextrine are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997SPIE.3023...87A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1997SPIE.3023...87A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-model</span> building of the jaw impression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Moumen T.; Yamany, Sameh M.; Hemayed, Elsayed E.; Farag, Aly A.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>A novel approach is proposed to obtain a record of the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data acquisition is obtained using intra-oral video cameras. The technique utilizes shape from shading to extract <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information from 2D views of the jaw, and a novel technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data registration using genetic algorithms. The resulting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and implant purposes. The overall purpose of this research is to develop a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based vision system for orthodontics to replace traditional approaches. This system will be flexible, accurate, and will reduce the cost of orthodontic treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8136E..0CP','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8136E..0CP"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>-based still image object categorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petre, Raluca-Diana; Zaharia, Titus</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel recognition scheme algorithm for semantic labeling of 2D object present in still images. The principle consists of matching unknown 2D objects with categorized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to infer the semantics of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object to the image. We tested our new recognition framework by using the MPEG-7 and Princeton <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> databases in order to label unknown images randomly selected from the web. Results obtained show promising performances, with recognition rate up to 84%, which opens interesting perspectives in terms of semantic metadata extraction from still images/videos.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3948591','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3948591"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary on Several Key Techniques in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Several key techniques in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. There are two essential procedures in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are summarized. PMID:24772029</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CG.....90...10W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016CG.....90...10W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Formal representation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural geological <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The development and widespread application of geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection <span class="hlt">model</span>. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span> are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structural <span class="hlt">models</span>, as well as for specific needs related to <span class="hlt">model</span>-based management, query, and analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126062','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126062"><span id="translatedtitle">Metrological validation for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dental plaster casts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brusco, Nicola; Andreetto, Marco; Lucchese, Luca; Carmignato, Simone; Cortelazzo, Guido M</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) it presents an automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technique and (2) it advances a procedure for its metrological evaluation in the context of a medical application, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dental plaster casts. The motivation for this work is the creation of a "virtual gypsotheque" where cumbersome dental plaster casts can be replaced by numerical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, thereby alleviating storage and access problems and allowing dentists and orthodontists the use of novel and unprecedented software tools for their medical evaluations. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> free-form surfaces of anatomical interest is an intriguing mixture of open issues concerning <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, geometrical metrology, and medicine. Of general interest is both the fact that a widespread use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> in non-engineering applications requires automatic procedures of the kind presented in this work and the adopted validation paradigm for free-form surfaces, rather useful for practical purposes. In this latter respect, the metrological analysis we advance is the first seminal attempt in the field of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and can be readily extended to contexts other than the medical one discussed in this paper. PMID:17126062</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661474"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> from Photos Given Topological Information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Young Min; Cho, Junghyun; Ahn, Sang Chul</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> given a single-view 2D information is inherently an ill-posed problem and requires additional information such as shape prior or user input.We introduce a method to generate multiple <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of a particular category given corresponding photographs when the topological information is known. While there is a wide range of shapes for an object of a particular category, the basic topology usually remains constant.In consequence, the topological prior needs to be provided only once for each category and can be easily acquired by consulting an existing database of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> or by user input. The input of topological description is only connectivity information between parts; this is in contrast to previous approaches that have required users to interactively mark individual parts. Given the silhouette of an object and the topology, our system automatically finds a skeleton and generates a textured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> by jointly fitting multiple parts. The proposed method, therefore, opens the possibility of generating a large number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> by consulting a massive number of photographs. We demonstrate examples of the topological prior and reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> using photos. PMID:26661474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Nanot..27x5709H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Nanot..27x5709H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tunable fluorescence enhancement based on bandgap-adjustable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Fei; Gao, Suning; Zhu, Lili; Liao, Fan; Yang, Lulu; Shao, Mingwang</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Great progress has been made in fluorescence-based detection utilizing solid state enhanced substrates in recent years. However, it is still difficult to achieve reliable substrates with tunable enhancement factors. The present work shows liquid fluorescence enhanced substrates consisting of suspensions of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), which can assemble <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photonic crystal under the external magnetic field. The photonic bandgap induced by the equilibrium of attractive magnetic force and repulsive electrostatic force between adjacent <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 NPs is utilized to enhance fluorescence intensity of dye molecules (including R6G, RB, Cy5, DMTPS-DCV) in a reversible and controllable manner. The results show that a maximum of 12.3-fold fluorescence enhancement is realized in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 NP substrates without the utilization of metal particles for PCs/DMTPS-DCV (1.0 × 10‑7 M, water fraction (f w) = 90%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27171125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27171125"><span id="translatedtitle">Tunable fluorescence enhancement based on bandgap-adjustable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Fei; Gao, Suning; Zhu, Lili; Liao, Fan; Yang, Lulu; Shao, Mingwang</p> <p>2016-06-17</p> <p>Great progress has been made in fluorescence-based detection utilizing solid state enhanced substrates in recent years. However, it is still difficult to achieve reliable substrates with tunable enhancement factors. The present work shows liquid fluorescence enhanced substrates consisting of suspensions of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), which can assemble <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photonic crystal under the external magnetic field. The photonic bandgap induced by the equilibrium of attractive magnetic force and repulsive electrostatic force between adjacent <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 NPs is utilized to enhance fluorescence intensity of dye molecules (including R6G, RB, Cy5, DMTPS-DCV) in a reversible and controllable manner. The results show that a maximum of 12.3-fold fluorescence enhancement is realized in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Fe</span>3O4 NP substrates without the utilization of metal particles for PCs/DMTPS-DCV (1.0 × 10(-7) M, water fraction (f w) = 90%). PMID:27171125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..147Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B5..147Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance Evaluation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Software for Uav Photogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..273K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B5..273K"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Today, detailed, complete and exact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">models</span> with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAr.XL2b..47M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAr.XL2b..47M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> (Google SketchUp <span class="hlt">model</span>) and then exported into a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6916E..20E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6916E..20E"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined registration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tibia and femur implant <span class="hlt">models</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> magnetic resonance images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Siebert, Markus; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Graichen, Heiko</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The most frequent reasons for revision of total knee arthroplasty are loosening and abnormal axial alignment leading to an unphysiological kinematic of the knee implant. To get an idea about the postoperative kinematic of the implant, it is essential to determine the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral prosthesis. Therefore we developed a registration method for fitting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CAD-<span class="hlt">models</span> of knee joint prostheses into an <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MR image. This rigid registration is the basis for a quantitative analysis of the kinematics of knee implants. Firstly the surface data of the prostheses <span class="hlt">models</span> are converted into a voxel representation; a recursive algorithm determines all boundary voxels of the original triangular surface data. Secondly an initial preconfiguration of the implants by the user is still necessary for the following step: The user has to perform a rough preconfiguration of both remaining prostheses <span class="hlt">models</span>, so that the fine matching process gets a reasonable starting point. After that an automated gradient-based fine matching process determines the best absolute position and orientation: This iterative process changes all 6 parameters (3 rotational- and 3 translational parameters) of a <span class="hlt">model</span> by a minimal amount until a maximum value of the matching function is reached. To examine the spread of the final solutions of the registration, the interobserver variability was measured in a group of testers. This variability, calculated by the relative standard deviation, improved from about 50% (pure manual registration) to 0.5% (rough manual preconfiguration and subsequent fine registration with the automatic fine matching process).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895542"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Bioprinting of Tissue/Organ <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pati, Falguni; Gantelius, Jesper; Svahn, Helene Andersson</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In vitro tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span> are useful platforms that can facilitate systematic, repetitive, and quantitative investigations of drugs/chemicals. The primary objective when developing tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span> is to reproduce physiologically relevant functions that typically require complex culture systems. Bioprinting offers exciting prospects for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span>, as it enables the reproducible, automated production of complex living tissues. Bioprinted tissues/organs may prove useful for screening novel compounds or predicting toxicity, as the spatial and chemical complexity inherent to native tissues/organs can be recreated. In this Review, we highlight the importance of developing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro tissue/organ <span class="hlt">models</span> by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting techniques, characterization of these <span class="hlt">models</span> for evaluating their resemblance to native tissue, and their application in the prioritization of lead candidates, toxicity testing, and as disease/tumor <span class="hlt">models</span>. PMID:26895542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..601P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..601P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web visualization of huge CityGML <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textured city <span class="hlt">models</span> that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city <span class="hlt">models</span>. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/392716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/392716"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of wakefields in accelerator components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.</p> <p>1996-09-18</p> <p>We discuss the use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> accelerator components. Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. New massively parallel <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with <span class="hlt">models</span> were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21165549','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21165549"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of wakefields in accelerator components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>We discuss the use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of accelerator components. Computational <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. New massively parallel <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the <span class="hlt">models</span> are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714145P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714145P"><span id="translatedtitle">Multivariate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of Scottish soil properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Information regarding soil properties across landscapes at national or continental scales is critical for better soil and environmental management and for climate regulation and adaptation policy. The prediction of soil properties variation in space and time and their uncertainty is an important part of environmental <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Soil properties, and in particular the 3 fractions of soil texture, exhibit strong co-variation among themselves and therefore taking into account this correlation leads to spatially more accurate results. In this study the continuous vertical and lateral distributions of relevant soil properties in Scottish soils were <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with a multivariate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GAM+GS approach. The approach used involves 1) <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the multivariate trend with full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-space, and 2) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kriging to interpolate the residuals. The values at each cell for each of the considered depth layers were defined using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, combining the fitting of a GAM (generalised Additive <span class="hlt">Models</span>) to estimate multivariate trend of the variables, using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> smoother with related covariates. Gaussian simulations of the <span class="hlt">model</span> residuals were used as spatial component to account for local details. A dataset of about 26,000 horizons (7,800 profiles) was used for this study. A validation set was randomly selected as 25% of the full dataset. Numerous covariates derived from globally available data, such as MODIS and SRTM, are considered. The results of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GAM+kriging showed low RMSE values, good R squared and an accurate reproduction of the spatial structure of the data for a range of soil properties. The results have an out-of-sample RMSE between 10 to 15% of the observed range when taking into account the whole profile. The approach followed allows the assessment of the uncertainty of both the trend and the residuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...75...76Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...75...76Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Perception-based shape retrieval for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>With the help of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search engines, a large number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span> can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span> which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building <span class="hlt">models</span>, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building <span class="hlt">models</span>' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building <span class="hlt">models</span> are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These <span class="hlt">models</span> are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a <span class="hlt">model</span> retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094109"><span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture: from tools to tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Duinen, Vincent; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Joore, Jos; Vulto, Paul; Hankemeier, Thomas</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The transition from 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture techniques is an important step in a trend towards better biomimetic tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>. Microfluidics allows spatial control over fluids in micrometer-sized channels has become a valuable tool to further increase the physiological relevance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cell culture by enabling spatially controlled co-cultures, perfusion flow and spatial control over of signaling gradients. This paper reviews most important developments in microfluidic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture since 2012. Most efforts were exerted in the field of vasculature, both as a tissue on its own and as part of cancer <span class="hlt">models</span>. We observe that the focus is shifting from tool building to implementation of specific tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>. The next big challenge for the field is the full validation of these <span class="hlt">models</span> and subsequently the implementation of these <span class="hlt">models</span> in drug development pipelines of the pharmaceutical industry and ultimately in personalized medicine applications. PMID:26094109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26603572"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating Biomaterial- and Microfluidic-Based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Tumor <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carvalho, Mariana R; Lima, Daniela; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vitor M; Oliveira, Joaquim M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a disease burden estimated to increase over the coming decades. Disease heterogeneity and limited information on cancer biology and disease mechanisms are aspects that 2D cell cultures fail to address. Here, we review the current ‘state-of-the-art’ in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissue-engineering (TE) <span class="hlt">models</span> developed for, and used in, cancer research. We assess the potential for scaffold-based TE <span class="hlt">models</span> and microfluidics to fill the gap between 2D <span class="hlt">models</span> and clinical application. We also discuss recent advances in combining the principles of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TE <span class="hlt">models</span> and microfluidics, with a special focus on biomaterials and the most promising chip-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. PMID:26603572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27037463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27037463"><span id="translatedtitle">A spherical harmonics intensity <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach for automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> intensity <span class="hlt">model</span> based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are determined by fitting the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic image data as well as real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> static and real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApCM..tmp...11Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApCM..tmp...11Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Meso-Scale <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> to Characterize Moisture Absorption of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Woven Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Chu-wei</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>For polymer-matrix composites, moisture is expected to degrade their mechanical properties due to matrix plasticization and moisture introduced micro-scale defects. In this study, the moisture absorptions of bulk epoxy, unidirectional composite (UD) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> woven composite (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC) were tested. Two-stage features have been observed for all these three materials. Moisture properties for UD and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC were found not in simple direct proportion to their matrix volume fractions. The moisture approach of UD was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> including the effect of fiber/matrix interphase which promotes the moisture uptake. Then, meso-scale <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC was established to characterize the inhomogeneous moisture diffusion. The moisture properties of resin-rich region and fiber bundle in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC were determined from water uptake experiments of bulk epoxy and UD, respectively. Through homogenizing moisture properties of surface and interior weave structures, a simplified theoretical sandwich moisture diffusion approach was established. The moisture weight gains of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC predicted by both meso-scale <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and simplified sandwich approach were well agreed with the experimental data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApCM...23..719Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApCM...23..719Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Meso-Scale <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> to Characterize Moisture Absorption of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Woven Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Chu-wei</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>For polymer-matrix composites, moisture is expected to degrade their mechanical properties due to matrix plasticization and moisture introduced micro-scale defects. In this study, the moisture absorptions of bulk epoxy, unidirectional composite (UD) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> woven composite (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC) were tested. Two-stage features have been observed for all these three materials. Moisture properties for UD and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC were found not in simple direct proportion to their matrix volume fractions. The moisture approach of UD was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> including the effect of fiber/matrix interphase which promotes the moisture uptake. Then, meso-scale <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC was established to characterize the inhomogeneous moisture diffusion. The moisture properties of resin-rich region and fiber bundle in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC were determined from water uptake experiments of bulk epoxy and UD, respectively. Through homogenizing moisture properties of surface and interior weave structures, a simplified theoretical sandwich moisture diffusion approach was established. The moisture weight gains of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> WC predicted by both meso-scale <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and simplified sandwich approach were well agreed with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a.319U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a.319U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The advantages of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) city <span class="hlt">models</span> can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data <span class="hlt">model</span> allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hilbert curves) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> or n-dimensional data down to 2D or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> adjacency, nearest neighbor information and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090609"><span id="translatedtitle">STELLOPT <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Diagnostic Response in ITER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lazerson, Samuel A</p> <p>2013-05-07</p> <p>The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by the VMEC <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> equilibrium code. Forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of the equilibria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEL..10..477Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OptEL..10..477Z"><span id="translatedtitle">MR image denoising method for brain surface <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, De-xin; Liu, Peng-jie; Zhang, De-gan</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of medical images is a critical part of surgical simulation. In this paper, we focus on the magnetic resonance (MR) images denoising for brain <span class="hlt">modeling</span> reconstruction, and exploit a practical solution. We attempt to remove the noise existing in the MR imaging signal and preserve the image characteristics. A wavelet-based adaptive curve shrinkage function is presented in spherical coordinates system. The comparative experiments show that the denoising method can preserve better image details and enhance the coefficients of contours. Using these denoised images, the brain <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization is given through surface triangle mesh <span class="hlt">model</span>, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7946S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7946S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> to assess flood vulnerability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability <span class="hlt">model</span>. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility <span class="hlt">models</span> for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability <span class="hlt">modeling</span> based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041720"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Active Region Loops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ofman, Leon</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> together with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6056..201T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6056..201T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> head <span class="hlt">model</span> classification using optimized EGI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tong, Xin; Wong, Hau-san; Ma, Bo</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>With the general availability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digitizers and scanners, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphical <span class="hlt">models</span> have been used widely in a variety of applications. This has led to the development of search engines for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Especially, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> head <span class="hlt">model</span> classification and retrieval have received more and more attention in view of their many potential applications in criminal identifications, computer animation, movie industry and medical industry. This paper addresses the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> head <span class="hlt">model</span> classification problem using 2D subspace analysis methods such as 2D principal component analysis (2D PCA[3]) and 2D fisher discriminant analysis (2DLDA[5]). It takes advantage of the fact that the histogram is a 2D image, and we can extract the most useful information from these 2D images to get a good result accordingingly. As a result, there are two main advantages: First, we can perform less calculation to obtain the same rate of classification; second, we can reduce the dimensionality more than PCA to obtain a higher efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..117B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..117B"><span id="translatedtitle">Vhrs Stereo Images for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Buildings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bujakiewicz, A.; Holc, M.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The paper presents the project which was carried out in the Photogrammetric Laboratory of Warsaw University of Technology. The experiment is concerned with the extraction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vector data for buildings creation from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photogrammetric <span class="hlt">model</span> based on the Ikonos stereo images. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was reconstructed with photogrammetric workstation - Summit Evolution combined with ArcGIS <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> platform. Accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was significantly improved by use for orientation of pair of satellite images the stereo measured tie points distributed uniformly around the <span class="hlt">model</span> area in addition to 5 control points. The RMS for <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstructed on base of the RPC coefficients only were 16,6 m, 2,7 m and 47,4 m, for X, Y and Z coordinates, respectively. By addition of 5 control points the RMS were improved to 0,7 m, 0,7 m 1,0 m, where the best results were achieved when RMS were estimated from deviations in 17 check points (with 5 control points)and amounted to 0,4 m, 0,5 m and 0,6 m, for X, Y, and Z respectively. The extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vector data for buildings were integrated with 2D data of the ground footprints and afterwards they were used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of buildings in Google SketchUp software. The final results were compared with the reference data obtained from other sources. It was found that the shape of buildings (in concern to the number of details) had been reconstructed on level of LoD1, when the accuracy of these <span class="hlt">models</span> corresponded to the level of LoD2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22199777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22199777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.</p> <p>2009-08-28</p> <p>The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJCE...21d..13M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SJCE...21d..13M"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> Generated by SFM Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marčiš, Marián</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Using various types of automation in digital photogrammetry is associated with questions such as the accuracy of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generated on various types of surfaces and textures, the financial costs of the equipment needed, and also the time costs of the processing. This topic deals with the actual technology of computer vision, which allows the automated exterior orientation of images, camera calibration, and the generation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> directly from images of the object itself, based on the automatic detection of significant points. Detailed testing is done using the Agisoft PhotoScan system, and the camera configuration is solved with respect to the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generated and the time consumption of the calculations for the different types of textures and the different settings for the processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4080...14H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4080...14H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface digitizing and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> development at ITRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsueh, Wen-Jean</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>This paper gives an overview of the research and development activities in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface digitizing and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> conducted at the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) of Taiwan in the past decade. As a major technology and consulting service provider of the area, ITRI has developed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanning digitizers ranging from low-cost compacts, industrial CAD/CAM digitizing, to large human body scanner, with in-house <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software to provide total solution in reverse engineering that requires processing capabilities of large number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data. Based on both hardware and software technologies in scanning, merging, registration, surface fitting, reconstruction, and compression, ITRI is now exploring innovative methodologies that provide higher performances, including hardware-based correlation algorithms with advanced camera designs, animation surface <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction, and optical tracking for motion capture. It is expected that the need for easy and fast high-quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information in the near future will grow exponentially, at the same amazing rate as the internet and the human desire for realistic and natural images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5796380','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5796380"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffusion approximation for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> radiation distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional transport code DIF<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EAS....45..433S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EAS....45..433S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> engineering software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> engineering software <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position within the charge packet as input to microscopic <span class="hlt">models</span> being developed to simulate radiation damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4637086','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4637086"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel Optimization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cardiac Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">Model</span> Using GPU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual heart <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In this study, using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sheep atrial <span class="hlt">model</span> as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue <span class="hlt">model</span> was split into two components: one is the single cell <span class="hlt">model</span> (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain <span class="hlt">model</span> (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart <span class="hlt">model</span>, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> whole heart simulations. PMID:26581957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..349K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..349K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geospatial <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Approach for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Urban Densification Developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial <span class="hlt">model</span> that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to <span class="hlt">model</span> mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>). The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS-based procedural <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building objects. The proposed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505663"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">model</span>-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific <span class="hlt">models</span> can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our <span class="hlt">model</span>-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RPFSU..18...47V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RPFSU..18...47V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Generation From the Engineering Drawing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaský, Jozef; Eliáš, Michal; Bezák, Pavol; Červeňanská, Zuzana; Izakovič, Ladislav</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The contribution deals with the transformation of engineering drawings in a paper form into a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer representation. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer <span class="hlt">model</span> can be further processed in CAD/CAM system, it can be modified, archived, and a technical drawing can be then generated from it as well. The transformation process from paper form to the data one is a complex and difficult one, particularly owing to the different types of drawings, forms of displayed objects and encountered errors and deviations from technical standards. The algorithm for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generating from an orthogonal vector input representing a simplified technical drawing of the rotational part is described in this contribution. The algorithm was experimentally implemented as ObjectARX application in the AutoCAD system and the test sample as the representation of the rotational part was used for verificaton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..2KH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..2KH"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and decomposition. The gallbladder <span class="hlt">models</span> can be used for shape anomaly analysis and <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface <span class="hlt">model</span>, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape can be decomposed and represented as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape <span class="hlt">model</span> are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new <span class="hlt">model</span> selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.594...27L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.594...27L"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodiversity: Exploration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The process of building a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional <span class="hlt">models</span>. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during <span class="hlt">model</span> construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> process. Uncertainties are introduced into the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single <span class="hlt">model</span>. Practices such as these are likely to result in a <span class="hlt">model</span> that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to understand the effect uncertainty has <span class="hlt">models</span> geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the <span class="hlt">model</span> suite. End-member <span class="hlt">models</span> geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the <span class="hlt">model</span> suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAn.II2a.261S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAn.II2a.261S"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Semantic Updating Method on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span> Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Segmentation Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>. Today, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> available in the market. Generating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21676642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21676642"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite element <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coupled foot-boot <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qiu, Tian-Xia; Teo, Ee-Chon; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Increasingly, musculoskeletal <span class="hlt">models</span> of the human body are used as powerful tools to study biological structures. The lower limb, and in particular the foot, is of interest because it is the primary physical interaction between the body and the environment during locomotion. The goal of this paper is to adopt the finite element (<span class="hlt">FE</span>) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and analysis approaches to create a state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> coupled foot-boot <span class="hlt">model</span> for future studies on biomechanical investigation of stress injury mechanism, foot wear design and parachute landing fall simulation. In the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process, the foot-ankle <span class="hlt">model</span> with lower leg was developed based on Computed Tomography (CT) images using ScanIP, Surfacer and ANSYS. Then, the boot was represented by assembling the <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of upper, insole, midsole and outsole built based on the <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the foot-ankle, and finally the coupled foot-boot <span class="hlt">model</span> was generated by putting together the <span class="hlt">models</span> of the lower limb and boot. In this study, the <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of foot and ankle was validated during balance standing. There was a good agreement in the overall patterns of predicted and measured plantar pressure distribution published in literature. The coupled foot-boot <span class="hlt">model</span> will be fully validated in the subsequent works under both static and dynamic loading conditions for further studies on injuries investigation in military and sports, foot wear design and characteristics of parachute landing impact in military. PMID:21676642</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040197','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040197"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating Physical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Stereolithograph <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Brain and Skull</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelley, Daniel J.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Meyerand, M. Elizabeth; Nelson, David L.; Ramirez, Lincoln F.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Wolf, Alan J.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The human brain and skull are three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) anatomical structures with complex surfaces. However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D) and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual reality (VR) and hand-held, stereolithograph <span class="hlt">models</span>. To evaluate whether surface visualization in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> was more informative than in 2D, undergraduate students (n = 50) used the Gillespie scale to rate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VR and physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of both a living patient-volunteer's brain and the skull of Phineas Gage, a historically famous railroad worker whose misfortune with a projectile tamping iron provided the first evidence of a structure-function relationship in brain. Using our processing pathway, we successfully fabricated human brain and skull replicas and validated that the stereolithograph <span class="hlt">model</span> preserved the scale of the VR <span class="hlt">model</span>. Based on the Gillespie ratings, students indicated that the biological utility and quality of visual information at the surface of VR and stereolithograph <span class="hlt">models</span> were greater than the 2D images from which they were derived. The method we developed is useful to create VR and stereolithograph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from medical images and can be used to <span class="hlt">model</span> hard or soft tissue in living or preserved specimens. Compared to 2D images, VR and stereolithograph <span class="hlt">models</span> provide an extra dimension that enhances both the quality of visual information and utility of surface visualization in neuroscience and medicine. PMID:17971879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1611296T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1611296T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the geological subsurface with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> for over 10 years. The <span class="hlt">models</span> produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as <span class="hlt">model</span> building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the <span class="hlt">models</span> as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the <span class="hlt">models</span> help students to learn, how <span class="hlt">models</span> have been used historically, and how other forms of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> are being used today. BGS now produce <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4485S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4485S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Model</span> for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these <span class="hlt">models</span> can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general <span class="hlt">model</span> that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> of Lusi. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is calculated using implicit <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span>, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ952044.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ952044.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance and Cognitive Assessment in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439141"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking people and cars using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and CCTV.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edelman, Gerda; Bijhold, Jurrien</p> <p>2010-10-10</p> <p>The aim of this study was to find a method for the reconstruction of movements of people and cars using CCTV footage and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the environment. A procedure is proposed, in which video streams are synchronized and displayed in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, by using virtual cameras. People and cars are represented by cylinders and boxes, which are moved in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, according to their movements as shown in the video streams. The procedure was developed and tested in an experimental setup with test persons who logged their GPS coordinates as a recording of the ground truth. Results showed that it is possible to implement this procedure and to reconstruct movements of people and cars from video recordings. The procedure was also applied to a forensic case. In this work we experienced that more situational awareness was created by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, which made it easier to track people on multiple video streams. Based on all experiences from the experimental set up and the case, recommendations are formulated for use in practice. PMID:20439141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011siam.book..205I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011siam.book..205I"><span id="translatedtitle">A Sketching Interface for Freeform <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Igarashi, Takeo</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter introduces Teddy, a sketch-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system to quickly and easily design freeform <span class="hlt">models</span> such as stuffed animals and other rotund objects. The user draws several 2D freeform strokes interactively on the screen and the system automatically constructs plausible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polygonal surfaces. Our system supports several <span class="hlt">modeling</span> operations, including the operation to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polygonal surface from a 2D silhouette drawn by the user: it inflates the region surrounded by the silhouette making a wide area fat, and a narrow area thin. Teddy, our prototype system, is implemented as a Java program, and the mesh construction is done in real-time on a standard PC. Our informal user study showed that a first-time user masters the operations within 10 minutes, and can construct interesting <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> within minutes. We also report the result of a case study where a high school teacher taught various <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> concepts in geography using the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081550.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081550.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> Used in Contours Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alvarez, F. J. Ayala; Parra, E. B. Blazquez; Tubio, F. Montes</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental research focusing on the view of first year students. The aim is to check the quality of implementing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> integrated in the curriculum. We search to determine students' preference between the various means facilitated in order to understand the given subject. Students have been respondents to prove the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21378443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21378443"><span id="translatedtitle">First principles study on spin and orbital magnetism of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> transition metal monatomic nanowires (Mn, <span class="hlt">Fe</span> and Co).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sargolzaei, Mahdi; Samaneh Ataee, S</p> <p>2011-03-30</p> <p>We have demonstrated the electronic structure and magnetic properties of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> transition metal nanowires (Mn, <span class="hlt">Fe</span> and Co) in the framework of relativistic density functional theory. The equilibrium bond lengths were optimized using the generalized gradient approximation. In a full relativistic regime individual spin and orbital moments induced from spin polarization via spin-orbit coupling were calculated. In order to get an upper estimate for orbital moments, we used an orbital polarization correction to our exchange-correlation functional. We found that the orbital magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">Fe</span> and Co linear chains are strongly enhanced in the presence of an orbital polarization correction. We have calculated the exchange coupling parameters between two nearest-neighbor magnetic atoms according to a Heisenberg-like <span class="hlt">model</span> in the presence of the orbital polarization correction. We found that the Co and <span class="hlt">Fe</span> nanowires behave like a ferromagnetic linear chain whereas a Mn monatomic nanowire remains antiferromagnetic. PMID:21378443</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....6321B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....6321B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for site effect assessment at Nice (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertrand, E.; Courrioux, G.; Bourgine, B.; Bour, M.; Guillen, A.; Mouroux, P.; Devaux, E.; Duval, A. M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Assessment of lithologic site effects is based on an accurate knowledge of properties and geometry of superficial geological formations, i.e. ideally a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-4G subsurface <span class="hlt">model</span> (Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics, Geotechnics). Such a <span class="hlt">model</span> has been achieved using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geomodeler ("Geological Editor" developed at BRGM) that allows building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumes of geological formations starting from drill-holes data, sections, and geological maps. This software uses a pseudo-stratigraphic pile in order to reproduce geological history and structural relationships (erosion, deposit). The interpolation is achieved through a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> potential field. A geostatistical formulation allows to consider data points of a geological limit as equipotential, and sructural dips as gradient inputs for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> field interpolation. Then isosurfaces corresponding to each limit are combined using formation relationships to provide volumic <span class="hlt">models</span> of geological formations. The first task was to identify the relevant geological formations underlying in Nice area. In a first approach Mesozoic bedrock, Pliocene bedrock, and Quaternary alluvial deposits have been distinguished considering their seismic properties. Then alluvions have been subdivided into 9 groups according to their lithology and granulometry. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> has been performed considering 2 major erosion surfaces, post-Mesozoic and post-Pliocene. The succession of Quaternary alluviums have been considered as "onlap deposits". Given adjacent lithologies contained in maps and drill holes, these relations lead to logical identification of the roof of formations to be interpolated. The distribution of <span class="hlt">modeled</span> geological formations can be visualised in 3 dimensions or in 2D sections. Besides the visual interest of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representations, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is first used to build a series of earth columns over a 50m/50m 2D grid. A statistical analysis allowed to identify 73 existing configurations in the Nice district area. Among these, only 15 configurations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712287A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712287A"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Geothermal Area Using Terrestrial Photogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akcay, Ozgun; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Erenoglu, Oya; Yılmazturk, Ferruh; Karaca, Zeki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Photogrammetry and computer vision, sciences producing high accuracy <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from digital images based on projective geometry. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> can also be produced using thermal camera images using photogrammetry and computer vision techniques. Thermal images are capable of displaying hotspots on geothermal areas as a heat source in details. In the research, Tuzla geothermal area in Çanakkale province of Turkey is inspected using imaging techniques of terrestrial photogrammetry. Both a digital camera Canon EOS 650D and an infrared camera Optris PI 450 are used to obtain images of the thermal site. Calibration parameters (focal length, principle point, distortion coefficients) of thermal and digital cameras are determined using the calibration test field at the laboratory before the field work. In order to provide the georeferencing and the robustness of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, aluminum discs having diameter of 30 centimeters as ground control points (GCPs) are set to the geothermal area appropriately before imaging. Aluminum targets are chosen as the GCP because they are determined on the image depending on the contrast reflectance rate of the aluminum. Using GNSS RTK receivers supplying ±1 cm accuracy positioning, GCPs are measured so as to implement photogrammetric process successfully with thermal images. Numerous corresponding points are detected on the overlapped images with image matching techniques. Later on, bundle block adjustment is applied to calculate the revised interior orientation parameters of camera and exterior orientation parameters of camera positions. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> showing details of the surface temperatures of the geothermal area are produced with multi view stereo (MVS) technique. The technique is able to produce <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation (point cloud, mesh and textured surface) of the field from both the thermal and digital images. The research presents that photogrammetric evaluation of thermal images is a noteworthy method to obtain a quick- accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPS...325..675L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPS...325..675L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomically thin layered Ni<span class="hlt">Fe</span> double hydroxides assembled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microspheres with promoted electrochemical performances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaomin; Zai, Jiantao; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Xiaobo; Xiang, Shijie; Ma, Zifeng; Qian, Xuefeng</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>LDHs in atomic thickness (mono-/bi-layers) usually exhibit novel physicochemical properties, especially in surface-dependent energy storage and catalysis areas. However, the thickness of the commonly reported 2D LDHs is in nanoscale and the bottom-up synthesis of atomically thin LDHs is rarely reported. Herein, high-quality atomically thin layered Ni<span class="hlt">Fe</span>-LDHs assembled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> microspheres were synthesized via a rational designed reaction system, where the formation of atomically thin building blocks was controlled by the synergetic effects of released carbonate anions and butanol. Furthermore, the complexant and solvents played important effects on the process of coprecipitation and the assembling of LDHs. Due to the nature of atomically thin LDHs nanosheets and unique <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hierarchical structures, the obtained microspheres exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in alkaline medium with an onset overpotential (0.435 V, which is lower than that of common LDHs) and good durability. The as-prepared <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ni<span class="hlt">Fe</span>-LDHs microspheres were also firstly used as supercapacitor materials and displayed a high specific capacitance of 1061 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6813E..0BS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6813E..0BS"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of hand-woven textile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Geometric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> would be superimposed by a haptic <span class="hlt">model</span> in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. The derived <span class="hlt">model</span> is exported as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> VRML <span class="hlt">model</span> of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced <span class="hlt">models</span> with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..242G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..242G"><span id="translatedtitle">Use <span class="hlt">Models</span> like Maps in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SDI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Digital geological applications have become <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> up to 4D <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the underground. The <span class="hlt">modellers</span> are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/4D <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface <span class="hlt">model</span>. Established <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>/4D-<span class="hlt">modelling</span> software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge <span class="hlt">models</span>, designed to manage seamless high resolution <span class="hlt">models</span> of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the <span class="hlt">models</span>. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different <span class="hlt">models</span>, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the <span class="hlt">models</span> is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3640..125Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction system for human jaw <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamany, Sameh M.; Farag, Aly A.; Tazman, David; Farman, Allan G.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based vision system for dentistry that will replace traditional approaches used in diagnosis, treatment planning and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representation of the teeth and jaws for many diagnostic and treatment purposes. For example orthodontic treatment involves the application of force systems to teeth over time to correct malocclusion. In order to evaluate tooth movement progress, the orthodontists monitors this movement by means of visual inspection, intraoral measurements, fabrication of plastic <span class="hlt">models</span>, photographs and radiographs, a process which is both costly and time consuming. In this paper an integrate system has been developed to record the patient's occlusion using computer vision. Data is acquired with an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, is used to extract accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information from a sequence of 2D images of the jaw. A new technique for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data registration, using a Grid Closest Point transform and genetic algorithms, is used to register the SFS output. Triangulization is then performed, and a solid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is obtained via a rapid prototype machine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9410L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9410L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> - towards a European level infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate <span class="hlt">models</span> at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative <span class="hlt">model</span> delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span>? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A43G..06A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A43G..06A"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Multi-scale <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Framework Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arakawa, A.; Jung, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">models</span> are truncated in or near an energetically active range of the spectrum, <span class="hlt">model</span> physics must be changed as the resolution changes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> physics of GCMs and that of CRMs are, however, quite different from each other and at present there is no unified formulation of <span class="hlt">model</span> physics that automatically provides transition between these <span class="hlt">model</span> physics. The Quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Q<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) Multi-scale <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Framework (MMF) is an attempt to bridge this gap. Like the recently proposed Heterogeneous Multiscale Method (HMM) (E and Engquist 2003), MMF combines a macroscopic <span class="hlt">model</span>, GCM, and a microscopic <span class="hlt">model</span>, CRM. Unlike the traditional multiscale methods such as the multi-grid and adapted mesh refinement techniques, HMM and MMF are for solving multi-physics problems. They share the common objective "to design combined macroscopic-microscopic computational methods that are much more efficient than solving the full microscopic <span class="hlt">model</span> and at the same time give the information we need" (E et al. 2008). The question is then how to meet this objective in practice, which can be highly problem dependent. In HHM, the efficiency is gained typically by localization of the microscale problem. Following the pioneering work by Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1999) and Grabowski (2001), MMF takes advantage of the fact that 2D CRMs are reasonably successful in simulating deep clouds. In this approach, the efficiency is gained by sacrificing the three-dimensionality of cloud-scale motion. It also "localizes" the algorithm through embedding a CRM in each GCM grid box using cyclic boundary condition. The Q<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MMF is an attempt to reduce the expense due to these constraints by partially including the cloud-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects and extending the CRM beyond individual GCM grid boxes. As currently formulated, the Q<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MMF is a 4D estimation/prediction framework that combines a GCM with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> anelastic cloud-resolving vector vorticity equation <span class="hlt">model</span> (VVM) applied to a network of horizontal grids. The network</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891572"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> HYDRODYNAMIC <span class="hlt">MODELING</span> IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D</p> <p>2006-08-24</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such <span class="hlt">models</span> requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize <span class="hlt">model</span> domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of <span class="hlt">models</span> using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed <span class="hlt">models</span> to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7046M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7046M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The <span class="hlt">model</span> covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and <span class="hlt">modelled</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.253..181N"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of barchan dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nai, Yang; Li-lan, Su; Lin, Wan; Jie, Yang; Shi-yi, Chen; Wei-lu, Hu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The distributions of barchan dunes are usually represented by digital terrain <span class="hlt">models</span> (DTMs) overlaid with digital orthophoto maps. Given that most regions with barchan dues have low relief, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> map obtained from a DTM may ineffectively show the stereoscopic shape of each dune. The method of building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of barchan dunes using existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software seldom considers the geographical environment. As a result, barchan dune <span class="hlt">models</span> are often inconsistent with actual DTMs and incompletely express the morphological characteristics of dunes. Manual construction of barchan dune <span class="hlt">models</span> is also costly and time consuming. Considering these problems, the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and the mathematical relationships between the morphological parameters of the dunes, such as length, height, and width, are analyzed in this study. The methods of extracting the morphological feature points of barchan dunes, calculating their morphological parameters and building dune outlines and skeleton lines based on the medial axes, are also presented. The dune outlines, skeleton lines, and part of the medial axes of dunes are used to construct a constrained triangulated irregular network. C# and ArcEngine are employed to build <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of barchan dunes automatically. Experimental results of a study conducted in Tengger Desert show that the method can be used to approximate the morphological characteristics of barchan dunes and is less time consuming than manual methods.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22969327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22969327"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometric and colour data fusion for outdoor <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merchán, Pilar; Adán, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Domínguez, Vicente; Chacón, Ricardo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete <span class="hlt">model</span> (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric <span class="hlt">model</span>, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> fields. PMID:22969327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a..33B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ISPAn.II2a..33B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Spatial Urban Energy <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Today's needs to reduce the environmental impact of energy use impose dramatic changes for energy infrastructure and existing demand patterns (e.g. buildings) corresponding to their specific context. In addition, future energy systems are expected to integrate a considerable share of fluctuating power sources and equally a high share of distributed generation of electricity. Energy system <span class="hlt">models</span> capable of describing such future systems and allowing the simulation of the impact of these developments thus require a spatial representation in order to reflect the local context and the boundary conditions. This paper describes two recent research approaches developed at EIFER in the fields of (a) geo-localised simulation of heat energy demand in cities based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> morphological data and (b) spatially explicit Agent-Based <span class="hlt">Models</span> (ABM) for the simulation of smart grids. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> were used to assess solar potential and heat energy demand of residential buildings which enable cities to target the building refurbishment potentials. Distributed energy systems require innovative <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques where individual components are represented and can interact. With this approach, several smart grid demonstrators were simulated, where heterogeneous <span class="hlt">models</span> are spatially represented. Coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geodata with energy system ABMs holds different advantages for both approaches. On one hand, energy system <span class="hlt">models</span> can be enhanced with high resolution data from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> and their semantic relations. Furthermore, they allow for spatial analysis and visualisation of the results, with emphasis on spatially and structurally correlations among the different layers (e.g. infrastructure, buildings, administrative zones) to provide an integrated approach. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> can benefit from more detailed system description of energy infrastructure, representing dynamic phenomena and high resolution <span class="hlt">models</span> for energy use at component level. The proposed <span class="hlt">modelling</span> strategies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099967"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a novel <span class="hlt">model</span>-based tracking approach for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> localization. One main difficulty of standard <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights. PMID:25099967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPD....47.0719M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPD....47.0719M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miesch, Mark S.; Hazra, Gopal; Karak, Bidya Binay; Teweldebirhan, Kinfe; Upton, Lisa</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present results from the new STABLE (Surface flux Transport and Babcock Leighton) Dynamo <span class="hlt">Model</span>. STABLE is a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Babcock-Leighton/Flux Transport dynamo <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the source of poloidal field is the explicit emergence, distortion, and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). In this talk I will discuss initial results with axisymmetric flow fields, focusing on the operation of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the general features of the cyclic solutions, and the challenge of achieving supercritical dynamo solutions using only the Babcock-Leighton source term. Then I will present dynamo simulations that include <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> convective flow fields based on the observed velocity power spectrum inferred from photospheric Dopplergrams. I'll use these simulations to assess how the explicit transport and amplification of fields by surface convection influences the operation of the dynamo. I will also discuss the role of surface magnetic fields in regulating the subsurface toroidal flux budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1006471','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1006471"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Multispectral Light Propagation <span class="hlt">Model</span> For Subcutaneous Veins Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we describe a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> light propagation <span class="hlt">model</span> aimed at understanding the effects of various physiological properties on subcutaneous vein imaging. In particular, we build upon the well known MCML (Monte Carlo Multi Layer) code and present a tissue <span class="hlt">model</span> that improves upon the current state-of-the-art by: incorporating physiological variation, such as melanin concentration, fat content, and layer thickness; including veins of varying depth and diameter; using curved surfaces from real arm shapes; and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the vessel wall interface. We describe our <span class="hlt">model</span>, present results from the Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, and compare these results with those obtained with other Monte Carlo methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.9046E..0EL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.9046E..0EL"><span id="translatedtitle">Texture blending on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> using casual images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xingming; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Ameng; Liu, Junyao; Wang, Huijing</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, a method for constructing photorealistic textured <span class="hlt">model</span> using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structured light digitizer is presented. Our method acquisition of range images and texture images around object, and range images are registered and integrated to construct geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> of object. System is calibrated and poses of texture-camera are determined so that the relationship between texture and geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> is established. After that, a global optimization is applied to assign compatible texture to adjacent surface and followed with a level procedure to remove artifacts due to vary lighting, approximate geometric <span class="hlt">model</span> and so on. Lastly, we demonstrate the effect of our method on constructing a real <span class="hlt">model</span> of world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26857817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26857817"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> alcoholic liver disease <span class="hlt">model</span> on a chip.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, JaeSeo; Choi, BongHwan; No, Da Yoon; Lee, GeonHui; Lee, Seung-Ri; Oh, HyunJik; Lee, Sang-Hoon</p> <p>2016-03-14</p> <p>Alcohol is one of the main causes of liver diseases, and the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) treatment methods has been one of the hottest issues. For this purpose, development of in vitro <span class="hlt">models</span> mimicking the in vivo physiology is one of the critical requirements, and they help to determine the disease mechanisms and to discover the treatment method. Herein, a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) ALD <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed and its superior features in mimicking the in vivo condition were demonstrated. A spheroid-based microfluidic chip was employed for the development of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro <span class="hlt">model</span> of ALD progression. We co-cultured rat primary hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a fluidic chip to investigate the role of HSCs in the recovery of liver with ALD. An interstitial level of flow derived by an osmotic pump was applied to the chip to provide in vivo mimicking of fluid activity. Using this in vitro tool, we were able to observe structural changes and decreased hepatic functions with the increase in ethanol concentration. The recovery process of liver injured by alcohol was observed by providing fresh culture medium to the damaged <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> liver tissue for few days. A reversibly- and irreversibly-injured ALD <span class="hlt">model</span> was established. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> can not only be used for the research of alcoholic disease mechanism, but also has the potential for use in studies of hepatotoxicity and drug screening applications. PMID:26857817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930038337&hterms=wave+equation+2D&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bequation%2B2D','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930038337&hterms=wave+equation+2D&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Bequation%2B2D"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hypersonic flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span>. The review of experimental data on 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span> for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002SPIE.4537..501G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002SPIE.4537..501G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation and use of human <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CAD <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human <span class="hlt">modeling</span> as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CAD <span class="hlt">models</span> for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized <span class="hlt">models</span> generated and analyzed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CAD <span class="hlt">models</span> for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Tectp.579..131V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Tectp.579..131V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cartographic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the Alpine arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vouillamoz, Naomi; Sue, Christian; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Calcagno, Philippe</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We built a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cartography of the Alpine arc, a highly non-cylindrical mountain belt, using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geo<span class="hlt">Modeller</span> of the BRGM (French geological survey). The <span class="hlt">model</span> allows to handle the large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure of seventeen major crustal units of the belt (from the lower crust to the sedimentary cover nappes), and two main discontinuities (the Insubric Line and the Crustal Penninic Front). It provides a unique document to better understand their structural relationships and to produce new sections. The study area comprises the western Alpine arc, from the Jura to the Northwest, up to the Bergell granite intrusion and the Lepontine Dome to the East, and is limited to the South by the Ligurian basin. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is limited vertically 10 km above sea level at the top, and the moho interface at the bottom. We discarded the structural relationships between the Alps sensus stricto and the surrounding geodynamic systems such as the Rhine graben or the connection with the Apennines. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-model</span> is based on the global integration of various data such as the DEM of the Alps, the moho isobaths, the simplified geological and tectonic maps of the belt, the crustal cross-sections ECORS-CROP and NFP-20, and complementary cross-sections specifically built to precise local complexities. The database has first been integrated in a GIS-project to prepare their implementation in the Geo<span class="hlt">Modeller</span>, by homogenizing the different spatial referencing systems. The global <span class="hlt">model</span> is finally interpolated from all these data, using the potential field method. The final document is a new tri-dimensional cartography that would be used as input for further alpine studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23148493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23148493"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of dual-gate FinFET.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool with quantization effects, we <span class="hlt">modeled</span> a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. We compared it with a 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> of the same device. We demonstrated that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> produces more accurate results. As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device. PMID:23148493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPCM...27V6001K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPCM...27V6001K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Interplay between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-4f interactions at the origin of the magnetic ordering in the Ba2Ln<span class="hlt">Fe</span>O5 oxides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundu, Asish K.; Hardy, Vincent; Caignaert, Vincent; Raveau, Bernard</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A new family of oxides in which <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-4f interactions are of comparable strength has been synthesized and characterized both from structural and physical viewpoints. These compounds of formulation Ba2Ln<span class="hlt">Fe</span>O5 (Ln  =  Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) are isotypic to the perovskite derivative Ba2YFeO5. They exhibit an original structure consisting of isolated <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O4 tetrahedra linked via LnO6 (or YO6) octahedra. Magnetic and calorimetric measurements show that all these compounds exhibit a unique, antiferromagnetic transition involving both the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> and 4f ions. The antiferromagnetic properties of the Ln  =  Y phase (non-magnetic Y3+) and of the Ln  =  Eu (non-magnetic ground state multiplet of Eu3+) are ascribed to super-super exchange <span class="hlt">Fe-O-O-Fe</span> interactions, leading to the lowest T N (5.5 K for Y and 4.6 K for Eu). The introduction of a magnetic lanthanide, i.e. Ln  =  Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, in the octahedral sites, leads to larger T N values (up to 9.8 K for Ln  =  Yb). It is found that several mechanisms must be taken into account to explain the complex evolution of the magnetic properties along the Ba2Ln<span class="hlt">Fe</span>O5 series. In particular, the super-exchange Ln-O-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>, as well as the on-site Ln3+ magnetocrystalline anisotropy, are suggested to play crucial roles. This Ba2Ln<span class="hlt">Fe</span>O5 series offers a rare opportunity to investigate experimentally a situation where the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-4f interactions co-operate on an equal footing to trigger a unique long-range magnetic ordering in insulating oxides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7183027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7183027"><span id="translatedtitle">Interchain coupling and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of trans-polyacetylene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In spite of the success of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D <span class="hlt">model</span>. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D <span class="hlt">models</span> play in the bulk (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> generalization of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> and study a polaron in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystalline environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170035','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10170035"><span id="translatedtitle">Interchain coupling and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of trans-polyacetylene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>In spite of the success of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D <span class="hlt">model</span>. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D <span class="hlt">models</span> play in the bulk (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> generalization of the SSH <span class="hlt">model</span> and study a polaron in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystalline environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...71...12G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...71...12G"><span id="translatedtitle">CityGML - Interoperable semantic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution <span class="hlt">model</span>). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical <span class="hlt">models</span> such as KML, VRML, or X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry <span class="hlt">model</span>. Due to this <span class="hlt">model</span> and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919962"><span id="translatedtitle">A brief review of the intensity of lines 3C and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in neon-like <span class="hlt">Fe</span> XVII</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, G V</p> <p>2007-06-13</p> <p>X-ray emission from neon-like <span class="hlt">Fe</span> XVII has been measured with high-resolution spectrometers from laboratory or celestial sources for nearly seven decades. Two of the strongest lines regularly identified in these spectra are the {sup 1}P{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} resonance, and {sup <span class="hlt">3</span>}<span class="hlt">D</span>{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}S{sub 0} intercombination line, known as 3C and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, respectively. This paper gives a brief overview of measurements of the intensities of the lines 3C and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> from laboratory and celestial sources, and their comparison to <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations, with an emphasis on measurements completed using an electron beam ion trap. It includes a discussion of the measured absolute cross sections compared to results from modern atomic theory calculations, as well as the diagnostic utility of the relative intensity, R = I{sub 3C}/I{sub <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>}, as it applies to the interpretation of spectra measured from the Sun and extra-Solar sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020484','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020484"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> control of image processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, An H.; Stark, Lawrence</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Telerobotics studies remote control of distant robots by a human operator using supervisory or direct control. Even if the robot manipulators has vision or other senses, problems arise involving control, communications, and delay. The communication delays that may be expected with telerobots working in space stations while being controlled from an Earth lab have led to a number of experiments attempting to circumvent the problem. This delay in communication is a main motivating factor in moving from well understood instantaneous hands-on manual control to less well understood supervisory control; the ultimate step would be the realization of a fully autonomous robot. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> control plays a crucial role in resolving many conflicting image processing problems that are inherent in resolving in the bottom-up approach of most current machine vision processes. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> control approach is also capable of providing the necessary visual feedback information for both the control algorithms and for the human operator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4702..321H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4702..321H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> root canal <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for advanced endodontic treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> tooth <span class="hlt">model</span> from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8878E..1XS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8878E..1XS"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> faces from samplings via compressive sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Qi; Tang, Yanlong; Hu, Ping</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data is easier to acquire for family entertainment purpose today because of the mass-production, cheapness and portability of domestic RGBD sensors, e.g., Microsoft Kinect. However, the accuracy of facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is affected by the roughness and instability of the raw input data from such sensors. To overcome this problem, we introduce compressive sensing (CS) method to build a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> super-resolution scheme to reconstruct high-resolution facial <span class="hlt">models</span> from rough samples captured by Kinect. Unlike the simple frame fusion super-resolution method, this approach aims to acquire compressed samples for storage before a high-resolution image is produced. In this scheme, depth frames are firstly captured and then each of them is measured into compressed samples using sparse coding. Next, the samples are fused to produce an optimal one and finally a high-resolution image is recovered from the fused sample. This framework is able to recover <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">model</span> of a given user from compressed simples and this can reducing storage space as well as measurement cost in future devices e.g., single-pixel depth cameras. Hence, this work can potentially be applied into future applications, such as access control system using face recognition, and smart phones with depth cameras, which need high resolution and little measure time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8622C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.8622C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the Black Sea ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capet, A.; Gregoire, M.; Beckers, J.-M.; Joassin, P.; Naithani, J.; Soetart, K.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>A coupled physical-biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> has been developed to simulate the ecosystem of the Black Sea at the end of the 80's when eutrophication and invasion by gelatinous organisms seriously affected the stability and dynamics of the system. The biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the cycle of carbon, nitrogen, silicate, oxygen and phosphorus through the foodweb from bacteria to gelatinous carnivores and explicitly represents processes in the anoxic layer down to the bottom. For calibration and analyses purposes, the coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> has first been run in 1D at several places in the Black Sea. The biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> involves some hundred parameters which have been first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of 15 identifiable parameters. An automatic calibration subroutine has been used to fine tune these parameters. In 1D, the <span class="hlt">model</span> solution exhibits a complex dynamics with several years of transient adjustment. This complexity is imparted by the explicit <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of top predators. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The calibrated biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Black Sea. Results of these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations will be presented and compared with maps of in-situ data reconstructed from available data base using the software DIVA (Data Interpolation and Variational analysis).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhA...47K5204B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhA...47K5204B"><span id="translatedtitle">2D quantum double <span class="hlt">models</span> from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In this paper we look at three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) lattice <span class="hlt">models</span> that are generalizations of the state sum <span class="hlt">model</span> used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These <span class="hlt">models</span> are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar <span class="hlt">models</span>, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra {C}(G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A={C}({{{Z}}_{2}}). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double <span class="hlt">models</span> where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of \\Sigma \\times {{S}^{1}}. It is also possible to obtain extra <span class="hlt">models</span> by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. While some of these extra <span class="hlt">models</span> have appeared before in the literature, our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> perspective allows for an uniform description of them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287559','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287559"><span id="translatedtitle">West Flank Coso, CA FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Doug Blankenship</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This is an x,y,z file of the West Flank FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">Model</span> created in Earthvision by Dynamic Graphic Inc. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was constructed with a grid spacing of 100 m. Geologic surfaces were extrapolated from the input data using a minimum tension gridding algorithm. The data file is tabular data in a text file, with lithology data associated with X,Y,Z grid points. All the relevant information is in the file header (the spatial reference, the projection etc.) In addition all the fields in the data file are identified in the header.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......343B"><span id="translatedtitle">Right approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> using CAD tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baddam, Mounica Reddy</p> <p></p> <p>The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.6093Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.6093Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for geographic information systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform (DTP) with spatial data and query processing capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), multimedia database functionality and graphical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized Directional Replacement Policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in Digital Surface <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> (DSM) and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> graphics standards (e.g. X<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S42A..02E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.S42A..02E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Northern California Seismic Attenuation: <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Qp and Qs <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The northern California crust exhibits a wide range of rock types and deformation processes which produce pronounced heterogeneity in regional attenuation. Using local earthquakes, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Qp and Qs crustal <span class="hlt">models</span> have been obtained for this region which includes the San Andreas fault system, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada batholith, and the Mendocino subduction volcanic system. Path attenuation t* values were determined from P and S spectra of 959 spatially distributed earthquakes, magnitude 2.5-6.0 from 2005-2014, using 1254 stations from NCEDC networks and IRIS Mendocino and Sierra Nevada temporary arrays. The t* data were used in Q inversions, using existing hypocenters and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> velocity <span class="hlt">models</span>, with basic 10-km node spacing. The uneven data coverage was accounted for with linking of nodes into larger areas in order to provide useful Q images across the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume. The results at shallow depth (< 2 km) show very low Q in the Sacramento Delta, the Eureka area, and parts of the Bay Area. In the brittle crust, fault zones that have high seismicity exhibit low Q. In the lower crust, low Q is observed along fault zones that have large cumulative displacement and have experienced grain size reduction. Underlying active volcanic areas, low Q features are apparent below 20-km depth. Moderately high Q is associated with igneous rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Salinian block, while the Franciscan subduction complex shows moderately low Q. The most prominent high Q feature is related to the Great Valley Ophiolite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16..123Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16..123Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for geographic information systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> graphics standards (e.g., X<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31G1522D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31G1522D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geologic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the San Diego Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative <span class="hlt">model</span> characterizing the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a <span class="hlt">model</span> limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation <span class="hlt">models</span> to develop a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this <span class="hlt">model</span>, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the <span class="hlt">model</span> by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32C0651M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32C0651M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Processing of Continuous <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elastic Wavefield Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milkereit, B.; Bohlen, T.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Continuous seismic wavefields are excited by earthquake clustering, induced seismicity in reservoirs, and mining. In hydrocarbon reservoirs, for example, pore pressure changes and fluid flow (mass transfer) will cause incremental deviatoric stresses sufficient to trigger and sustain seismic activity. Here we address three aspects of seismic wavefields in three-dimensional heterogeneous media triggered by distributed sources in space and time: forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, multichannel data processing, and source location imaging. A power law distribution of seismic sources (such as the Gutenberg-Richter law) is used for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of viscoelastic/elastic wave propagation through a realistic earth <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> provides new insight in the interaction of multi-source wavefields and the role of scale-dependend elastic <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters on transmitted and reflected/back-scattered wavefields. There exists a strong correlation between the spatial properties of the compressional, shear wave and density perturbations and the lateral correlation length of the resulting reflected or transmitted seismic wavefields. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> is based on the implementation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elastic/viscoelastic FD codes on massive parallel and/or distributed computing resources using MPI (message passing interface). For parallelization, large grid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> earth <span class="hlt">models</span> are decomposed into subvolume processing elements whereby each processing element is updating the wavefield within its portion of the grid. Processing of continuous seismic wavefields excited by multiple distributed sources is based on a combination of crosscorrelated or slowness-transformed array data and Kirchhoff or reverse time migration for source location or source volume imaging. The appearance of slowness in both migration and array data processing suggests the possibility of combining them into a single process. In order to place further constraints on the migration, the directivity properties of 3-component receiver arrays can be included in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..441S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr49B2..441S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Underwater <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Image Enhancement and Point Cloud Filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarakinou, I.; Papadimitriou, K.; Georgoula, O.; Patias, P.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper examines the results of image enhancement and point cloud filtering on the visual and geometric quality of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for the representation of underwater features. Specifically it evaluates the combination of effects from the manual editing of images' radiometry (captured at shallow depths) and the selection of parameters for point cloud definition and mesh building (processed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software). Such datasets, are usually collected by divers, handled by scientists and used for geovisualization purposes. In the presented study, have been created <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from three sets of images (seafloor, part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) captured at three different depths (3.5m, 10m and 14m respectively). Four <span class="hlt">models</span> have been created from the first dataset (seafloor) in order to evaluate the results from the application of image enhancement techniques and point cloud filtering. The main process for this preliminary study included a) the definition of parameters for the point cloud filtering and the creation of a reference <span class="hlt">model</span>, b) the radiometric editing of images, followed by the creation of three improved <span class="hlt">models</span> and c) the assessment of results by comparing the visual and the geometric quality of improved <span class="hlt">models</span> versus the reference one. Finally, the selected technique is tested on two other data sets in order to examine its appropriateness for different depths (at 10m and 14m) and different objects (part of a wreck and a small boat's wreck) in the context of an ongoing research in the Laboratory of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MNRAS.tmp.1203A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MNRAS.tmp.1203A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-LTE line formation of <span class="hlt">Fe</span> in late-type stars - III. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Collet, R.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic STAGGER <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres, and employ a new <span class="hlt">model</span> atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-LTE <span class="hlt">models</span> achieve <span class="hlt">Fe</span> I/<span class="hlt">Fe</span> II excitation and ionization balance as well as not having any trends with equivalent width to within <span class="hlt">modelling</span> uncertainties of 0.05 dex, all without having to invoke any microturbulent broadening; for HD122563 we predict that the current best parallax-based surface gravity is overestimated by 0.5 dex. Using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-LTE analysis, we infer iron abundances from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres that are roughly 0.1 dex higher than corresponding abundances from 1D MARCS <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres; these differences go in the same direction as the non-LTE effects themselves.We make available grids of departure coefficients, equivalent widths and abundance corrections, calculated on 1D MARCS <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres and horizontally- and temporally-averaged <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> STAGGER <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI23B..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI23B..08G"><span id="translatedtitle">Subduction zone guided waves: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and attenuation effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garth, T.; Rietbrock, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Waveform <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is an important tool for understanding complex seismic structures such as subduction zone waveguides. These structures are often simplified to 2D structures for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> purposes to reduce computational costs. In the case of subduction zone waveguide affects, 2D <span class="hlt">models</span> have shown that dispersed arrivals are caused by a low velocity waveguide, inferred to be subducted oceanic crust and/or hydrated outer rise normal faults. However, due to the 2D <span class="hlt">modelling</span> limitations the inferred seismic properties such as velocity contrast and waveguide thickness are still debated. Here we test these limitations with full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> waveform <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. For waveguide effects to be observable the waveform must be accurately <span class="hlt">modelled</span> to relatively high frequencies (> 2 Hz). This requires a small grid spacing due to the high seismic velocities present in subduction zones. A large area must be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as well due to the long propagation distances (400 - 600 km) of waves interacting with subduction zone waveguides. The combination of the large <span class="hlt">model</span> area and small grid spacing required means that these simulations require a large amount of computational resources, only available at high performance computational centres like the UK National super computer HECTOR (used in this study). To minimize the cost of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> for such a large area, the width of the <span class="hlt">model</span> area perpendicular to the subduction trench (the y-direction) is made as small as possible. This reduces the overall volume of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> domain. Therefore the wave field is simulated in a <span class="hlt">model</span> ';corridor' of the subduction zone velocity structure. This introduces new potential sources of error particularly from grazing wave side reflections in the y-direction. Various dampening methods are explored to reduce these grazing side reflections, including perfectly matched layers (PML) and more traditional exponential dampening layers. Defining a corridor <span class="hlt">model</span> allows waveguide affects to be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> up to at least 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9820E..18R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SPIE.9820E..18R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flare particle <span class="hlt">model</span> for ShipIR/NTCS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flare particle <span class="hlt">model</span> in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature <span class="hlt">model</span> (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> particles of each flare sub-munition are <span class="hlt">modelled</span> stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a <span class="hlt">model</span> from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous <span class="hlt">model</span> which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare <span class="hlt">model</span> during a missile engagement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7261E..26J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7261E..26J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> for treatment of cleft lip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiao, Chun; Hong, Dongming; Lu, Hongbing; Wang, Jianqi; Lin, Qin; Liang, Zhengrong</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Cleft lip is a congenital facial deformity with high occurrence rate in China. Surgical procedure involving Millard or Tennison methods is usually employed for treatment of cleft lip. However, due to the elasticity of the soft tissues and the mechanical interaction between skin and maxillary, the occurrence rate of facial abnormality or dehisce is still high after the surgery, leading to multiple operations of the patient. In this study, a framework of constructing a realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> (FEM) for the treatment of cleft lip has been established. It consists of two major steps. The first one is the reconstruction of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometrical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the cleft lip from scanning CT data. The second step is the build-up of a FEM for cleft lip using the geometric <span class="hlt">model</span>, where the material property of all the tetrahedrons was calculated from the CT densities directly using an empirical curve. The simulation results demonstrated (1) the deformation procedure of the <span class="hlt">model</span> step-by-step when forces were applied, (2) the stress distribution inside the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and (3) the displacement of all elements in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. With the computer simulation, the minimal force of having the cleft be repaired is predicted, as well as whether a given force sufficient for the treatment of a specific individual. It indicates that the proposed framework could integrate the treatment planning with stress analysis based on a realistic patient <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..06N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9414E..06N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> statistical shape <span class="hlt">models</span> incorporating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> random forest regression voting for robust CT liver segmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>During image segmentation, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Statistical Shape <span class="hlt">Models</span> (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the <span class="hlt">model</span> surface. In addition, landmark appearance is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SSM segmentation based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...33a2033T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...33a2033T"><span id="translatedtitle">Bazhenov fm unconventional reservoir <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Telnova, A.; Baranov, V.; Bukhanov, N.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Bazhenov Formation has been studied for more than 50 years, but its petroleum potential, optimal STOIIP or resource estimation approaches, the methodology used to select a reservoir, determine its properties are still unclear. The distinctive features of bituminous shale are specific geochemical properties chosen as basic parameters to perform the geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the Bazhenov deposits and determine the key areas. The main objective of this paper is to choose an optimal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> algorithm and test conventional (petrophysical) and specific (geochemical) properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S22A1009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S22A1009T"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards Forward <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Heterogeneity in D" region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>To, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The presence of strong lateral heterogeneity in D" is now well documented. While tomographic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> provides constraints on the large scale patterns, strong variations on shorter scales are best addressed by forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Appropriate tools are needed for forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> that will handle strong <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneity, at relatively short periods and including diffracted waves. We use a coupled mode/SEM (Spectral Element Method) to compute synthetic seismograms in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of the D" layer down to 1/12s. This coupled method (Capdeville, 2001) affords faster computations than SEM in cases where heterogeneity can be restricted to a specific layer. We compare them with observed waveforms for several events in the Western Pacific. Observed and synthetic travel time trends are very consistent, although in most cases the observed residuals are significantly larger. Waveform amplitudes are less consistent. In order to understand the origin of the amplitude difference, we test the effect of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> heterogeneity on Sdiff phase. In particular, the results show opposite trends in the amplitude of Sdiff due to heterogeneity located near the CMB or well above it. This provides constraints on the location of the causative velocity heterogeneity. Because the forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach requires many iterations, the coupled mode/SEM approach is still computationally intensive. It is more efficient to use a less accurate traditional approach to first get closer to a final <span class="hlt">model</span>, and only then use coupled mode/SEM to refine the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Ray theory is the most expedient way to calculate travel times. However, it is an infinite frequency approximation and not appropriate to handle diffracting waves. We show that ray theory predicts larger travel time anomaly for Sdiff phase than the one obtained by coupled mode/SEM. Although it is based on a weak heterogeneity assumption, Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory(NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) helps to overcome this difficulty. It can handle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..417S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..417S"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Borobudur - Integration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surveying and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7..102N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016TDR.....7..102N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrete Method of Images for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Radio Propagation <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novak, Roman</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Discretization by rasterization is introduced into the method of images (MI) in the context of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deterministic radio propagation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> as a way to exploit spatial coherence of electromagnetic propagation for fine-grained parallelism. Traditional algebraic treatment of bounding regions and surfaces is replaced by computer graphics rendering of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reflections and double refractions while building the image tree. The visibility of reception points and surfaces is also resolved by shader programs. The proposed rasterization is shown to be of comparable run time to that of the fundamentally parallel shooting and bouncing rays. The rasterization does not affect the signal evaluation backtracking step, thus preserving its advantage over the brute force ray-tracing methods in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the rendering resolution may be scaled back for a given level of scenario detail with only marginal impact on the image tree size. This allows selection of scene optimized execution parameters for faster execution, giving the method a competitive edge. The proposed variant of MI can be run on any GPU that supports real-time <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL2..221C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL2..221C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Building Evacuation Route <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visual representation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visual representation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed <span class="hlt">models</span>, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911160"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the GFR with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cliff B. Davis; Theron D. Marshall; K. D. Weaver</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Significant improvements have been made to the RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer code for analysis of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR). These improvements consisted of adding carbon dioxide as a working fluid, improving the turbine component, developing a compressor <span class="hlt">model</span>, and adding the Gnielinski heat transfer correlation. The code improvements were validated, generally through comparisons with independent design calculations. A <span class="hlt">model</span> of the power conversion unit of the GFR was developed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> of the power conversion unit was coupled to a reactor <span class="hlt">model</span> to develop a complete <span class="hlt">model</span> of the GFR system. The RELAP5 <span class="hlt">model</span> of the GFR was used to simulate two transients, one initiated by a reactor trip and the other initiated by a loss of load.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...573A..90M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...573A..90M"><span id="translatedtitle">The Stagger-grid: A grid of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stellar atmosphere <span class="hlt">models</span>. IV. Limb darkening coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magic, Z.; Chiavassa, A.; Collet, R.; Asplund, M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Aims: We compute the emergent stellar spectra from the UV to far infrared for different viewing angles using realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres for a large range in stellar parameters to predict the stellar limb darkening. Methods: We have computed full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LTE synthetic spectra based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative hydrodynamic atmosphere <span class="hlt">models</span> from the Stagger-grid in the ranges: Teff from 4000 to 7000 K, log g from 1.5 to 5.0, and [<span class="hlt">Fe</span>/H], from -4.0 to +0.5. From the resulting intensities, we derived coefficients for the standard limb darkening laws considering a number of often-used photometric filters. Furthermore, we calculated theoretical transit light curves, in order to quantify the differences between predictions by the widely used 1D <span class="hlt">model</span> atmosphere and our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Results: The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are often found to predict steeper darkening towards the limb compared to the 1D <span class="hlt">models</span>, mainly due to the temperature stratifications and temperature gradients being different in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> compared to those predicted with 1D <span class="hlt">models</span> based on the mixing length theory description of convective energy transport. The resulting differences in the transit light curves are rather small; however, these can be significant for high-precision observations of extrasolar transits, and are able to lower the residuals from the fits with 1D limb darkening profiles. Conclusions: We advocate the use of the new limb darkening coefficients provided for the standard four-parameter non-linear power law, which can fit the limb darkening more accurately than other choices. Full Table A.1 and the grid of spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A90, as well as at http://www.stagger-stars.net</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMMR14A..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMMR14A..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing Mercury Porosimetry with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Porosity <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical <span class="hlt">model</span> underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate <span class="hlt">models</span>, exactly what is required to build <span class="hlt">models</span> of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity <span class="hlt">models</span> (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed versions of the same digital porosity <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738I0005V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AIPC.1738I0005V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The authors take into account the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPAr.XL5..249K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ISPAr.XL5..249K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting Textured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Developing Serious Games</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textured <span class="hlt">models</span> which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> textured <span class="hlt">models</span> which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these <span class="hlt">models</span> were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1252.1168M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1252.1168M"><span id="translatedtitle">An ALE Based <span class="hlt">FE</span> Formulation for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Numerical Simulation of Fineblanking Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manopulo, Niko; Tong, Longchang; Hora, Pavel</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Fineblanking is a manufacturing process which allows the mass production of blanked products with superior surface quality. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulation of this particularly precise process is however challenging. This is because quality-critical tool features such as the die clearance and the shape of the cutting edges have dimensions up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the average part dimensions. If conventional Updated Lagrange codes are used, a very high <span class="hlt">FE</span> mesh resolution becomes a must in order to accurately represent the surface evolution along the edge, which in turn makes the computation unfeasible. The methodology presented in this paper makes use of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian <span class="hlt">FE</span> Formulation in order to keep control over the mesh region in contact with the tools. This way an optimal <span class="hlt">FE</span> mesh can be guaranteed throughout the computation. This not only reduces the computational cost considerably, but also avoids mesh distortion along the cutting edge, allowing an accurate representation of the tool features. This approach will be used in conjunction to the stress limit criterion delineated in order to predict material failure in fine blanked products. Numerical results will be validated against the experiments carried out with a specially designed fineblanking tool in use at our institute.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615891K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615891K"><span id="translatedtitle">The Engelbourg's ruins: from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TLS point cloud acquisition to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> virtual and historic <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koehl, Mathieu; Berger, Solveig; Nobile, Sylvain</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Castle of Engelbourg was built at the beginning of the 13th century, at the top of the Schlossberg. It is situated on the territory of the municipality of Thann (France), at the crossroads of Alsace and Lorraine, and dominates the outlet of the valley of Thur. Its strategic position was one of the causes of its systematic destructions during the 17th century, and Louis XIV finished his fate by ordering his demolition in 1673. Today only few vestiges remain, of which a section of the main tower from about 7m of diameter and 4m of wide laying on its slice, unique characteristic in the regional castral landscape. It is visible since the valley, was named "the Eye of the witch", and became a key attraction of the region. The site, which extends over approximately one hectare, is for several years the object of numerous archaeological studies and is at the heart of a project of valuation of the vestiges today. It was indeed a key objective, among the numerous planned works, to realize a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the site in its current state, in other words, a virtual <span class="hlt">model</span> "such as seized", exploitable as well from a cultural and tourist point of view as by scientists and in archaeological researches. The team of the ICube/INSA lab had in responsibility the realization of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, the acquisition of the data until the delivery of the virtual <span class="hlt">model</span>, thanks to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> TLS and topographic surveying methods. It was also planned to integrate into this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, data of 2D archives, stemming from series of former excavations. The objectives of this project were the following ones: • Acquisition of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digital data of the site and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> • Digitization of the 2D archaeological data and integration in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> • Implementation of a database connected to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> • Virtual Visit of the site The obtained results allowed us to visualize every <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object individually, under several forms (point clouds, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> meshed objects and <span class="hlt">models</span>, etc.) and at several levels of detail</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414116K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1414116K"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent progress in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithospheric deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical <span class="hlt">model</span> runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution <span class="hlt">Model</span>. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same <span class="hlt">model</span> setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS11C1521M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS11C1521M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of a Nearshore Dye Release</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maxwell, A. R.; Hibler, L. F.; Miller, L. M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The usage of computer <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software in predicting the behavior of a plume discharged into deep water is well established. Nearfield plume spreading in coastal areas with complex bathymetry is less commonly studied; in addition to geometry, some of the difficulties of this environment include: tidal exchange, temperature, and salinity gradients. Although some researchers have applied complex hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> to this problem, nearfield regions are typically <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by calibration of an empirical or expert system <span class="hlt">model</span>. In the present study, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> Delft<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-FLOW was used to predict the advective transport from a point release in Sequim Bay, Washington. A nested <span class="hlt">model</span> approach was used, wherein a coarse <span class="hlt">model</span> using a mesh extending to nearby tide gages (cell sizes up to 1 km) was run over several tidal cycles in order to provide boundary conditions to a smaller area. The nested mesh (cell sizes up to 30 m) was forced on two open boundaries using the water surface elevation derived from the coarse <span class="hlt">model</span>. Initial experiments with the uncalibrated <span class="hlt">model</span> were conducted in order to predict plume propagation based on the best available field data. Field experiments were subsequently carried out by releasing rhodamine dye into the bay at near-peak flood tidal current and near high slack tidal conditions. Surface and submerged releases were carried out from an anchored vessel. Concurrently collected data from the experiment include temperature, salinity, dye concentration, and hyperspectral imagery, collected from boats and aircraft. A REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle was used to measure current velocity and dye concentration at varying depths, as well as to acquire additional bathymetric information. Preliminary results indicate that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> offers a reasonable prediction of plume propagation speed and shape. A sensitivity analysis is underway to determine the significant factors in effectively using the <span class="hlt">model</span> as a predictive tool</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ITEIS.131...83M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ITEIS.131...83M"><span id="translatedtitle">Discussion of Source Reconstruction <span class="hlt">Models</span> Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCG Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori</p> <p></p> <p>In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment <span class="hlt">model</span> of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different <span class="hlt">models</span> of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general <span class="hlt">model</span> of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source <span class="hlt">model</span> has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255246-modeling-moving-systems-relap5','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255246-modeling-moving-systems-relap5"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> moving systems with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.</p> <p>2015-12-04</p> <p>RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is typically used to <span class="hlt">model</span> stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the acceleratingmore » frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1255246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1255246"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> moving systems with RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mesina, G. L.; Aumiller, David L.; Buschman, Francis X.; Kyle, Matt R.</p> <p>2015-12-04</p> <p>RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is typically used to <span class="hlt">model</span> stationary, land-based reactors. However, it can also <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in other inertial and accelerating frames of reference. By changing the magnitude of the gravitational vector through user input, RELAP5-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> can <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors on a space station or the moon. The field equations have also been modified to <span class="hlt">model</span> reactors in a non-inertial frame, such as occur in land-based reactors during earthquakes or onboard spacecraft. Transient body forces affect fluid flow in thermal-fluid machinery aboard accelerating crafts during rotational and translational accelerations. It is useful to express the equations of fluid motion in the accelerating frame of reference attached to the moving craft. However, careful treatment of the rotational and translational kinematics is required to accurately capture the physics of the fluid motion. Correlations for flow at angles between horizontal and vertical are generated via interpolation where no experimental studies or data exist. The equations for three-dimensional fluid motion in a non-inertial frame of reference are developed. As a result, two different systems for describing rotational motion are presented, user input is discussed, and an example is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP42A..08C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP42A..08C"><span id="translatedtitle">Reassessing Geophysical <span class="hlt">Models</span> of the Bushveld Complex in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cole, J.; Webb, S. J.; Finn, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Conceptual geophysical <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Bushveld Igneous Complex show three possible geometries for its mafic component: 1) Separate intrusions with vertical feeders for the eastern and western lobes (Cousins, 1959) 2) Separate dipping sheets for the two lobes (Du Plessis and Kleywegt, 1987) 3) A single saucer-shaped unit connected at depth in the central part between the two lobes (Cawthorn et al, 1998) <span class="hlt">Model</span> three incorporates isostatic adjustment of the crust in response to the weight of the dense mafic material. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was corroborated by results of a broadband seismic array over southern Africa, known as the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE) (Nguuri, et al, 2001; Webb et al, 2004). This new information about the crustal thickness only became available in the last decade and could not be considered in the earlier <span class="hlt">models</span>. Nevertheless, there is still on-going debate as to which <span class="hlt">model</span> is correct. All of the <span class="hlt">models</span> published up to now have been done in 2 or 2.5 dimensions. This is not well suited to <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the complex geometry of the Bushveld intrusion. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> takes into account effects of variations in geometry and geophysical properties of lithologies in a full three dimensional sense and therefore affects the shape and amplitude of calculated fields. The main question is how the new knowledge of the increased crustal thickness, as well as the complexity of the Bushveld Complex, will impact on the gravity fields calculated for the existing conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span>, when <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The three published geophysical <span class="hlt">models</span> were remodelled using full 3Dl potential field <span class="hlt">modelling</span> software, and including crustal thickness obtained from the SASE. The aim was not to construct very detailed <span class="hlt">models</span>, but to test the existing conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> in an equally conceptual way. Firstly a specific 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> was recreated in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, without crustal thickening, to establish the difference between 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> results. Then the thicker crust was added. Including the less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CoPhC.185.3424L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CoPhC.185.3424L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) <span class="hlt">model</span> with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CEJPh..10..533Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CEJPh..10..533Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of gene expression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhdanov, Vladimir P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Recent experiments show that mRNAs and proteins can be localized both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To describe such situations, I present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mean-field kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> aimed primarily at gene expression in prokaryotic cells, including the formation of mRNA, its translation into protein, and slow diffusion of these species. Under steady-state conditions, the mRNA and protein spatial distribution is described by simple exponential functions. The protein concentration near the gene transcribed into mRNA is shown to depend on the protein and mRNA diffusion coefficients and degradation rate constants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554167','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554167"><span id="translatedtitle">Unstructured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grid toolbox for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>George, D.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Computable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> grids that accurately represent complex multimaterial geometries are essential for both static and time-dependent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation. LaGriT, the grid toolbox developed at Los Alamos provides a sophisticated set of initial grid generation, grid maintenance and grid optimization tools. We present example grids that demonstrate the flexibility of the grid generator. Additionally, we present the results of an electrostatic calculation and a grain growth problem that illustrate the grid optimization features and the utility of the grid server architecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6e6011O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6e6011O"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of off-stoichiometry and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> transition metal (Mn, Ni, Cu)-substitution in single-crystalline <span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Takuya; Nakata, Hitoshi; Moriya, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kitakami, Osamu; Shimatsu, Takehito</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In L10 (fct)-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt thin films, both tuning <span class="hlt">Fe</span> and Pt concentrations and substitution with third-metal were studied for magnetic characteristic optimization. We investigated single-crystalline <span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt-X (X = Mn, Ni, Cu) thin films grown epitaxially on MgO(001) substrates at a substrate temperature of 350 °C by changing <span class="hlt">Fe</span>, Pt, and X contents, and explored the effects of off-stoichiometry and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-metal-substitution. The magnetic moment per atom (m) of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt-X films as a function of the effective number of valence electrons (neff) in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> metal sites follows the Slater-Pauling-type trend, by which m decreases by the neff deviation from neff = 8, independently of the X metal and the Pt concentration. The magnetic anisotropy (Ku) exhibits neff dependence similar to m. This trend was almost independent of the Pt concentration after compensation using the theoretical prediction on the relation between Ku and <span class="hlt">Fe</span>/Pt concentrations. Such a trend has been proved for stoichiometric <span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt-X films, but it was clarified as robust against off-stoichiometry. The compensated Ku ( Ku comp ) of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt-Mn and <span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt-Cu followed a similar trend to that predicted by the rigid-band <span class="hlt">model</span>, although the Ku comp of the <span class="hlt">Fe</span>Pt-Mn thin films dropped more rapidly than the rigid band calculation. However, it followed the recent first-principles calculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMNG43B0570S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMNG43B0570S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Global Wave Propagation Through Geodynamic <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schuberth, B.; Piazzoni, A.; Bunge, H.; Igel, H.; Steinle-Neumann, G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>This project aims at a better understanding of the forward problem of global <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> wave propagation. We use the spectral element program "SPECFEM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" (Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002a,b) with varying input <span class="hlt">models</span> of seismic velocities derived from mantle convection simulations (Bunge et al., 2002). The purpose of this approach is to obtain seismic velocity <span class="hlt">models</span> independently from seismological studies. In this way one can test the effects of varying parameters of the mantle convection <span class="hlt">models</span> on the seismic wave field. In order to obtain the seismic velocities from the temperature field of the geodynamical simulations we follow a mineral physics approach. Assuming a certain mantle composition (e.g. pyrolite with CMASF composition) we compute the stable phases for each depth (i.e. pressure) and temperature by system Gibbs free energy minimization. Elastic moduli and density are calculated from the equations of state of the stable mineral phases. For this we use a mineral physics database derived from calorimetric experiments (enthalphy and entropy of formation, heat capacity) and EOS parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR11A1871G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR11A1871G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Melt Distribution in Partially Molten Dunite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garapic, G.; Faul, U.; Brisson, E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The currently existing <span class="hlt">model</span> of grain-scale melt geometry in the Earth’s upper mantle is derived from theoretical considerations that stem from material science research, combined with relatively low-resolution observations of polished two-dimensional surfaces. This <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts a simple, interconnected network of melt along three-grain edges in static surface energy equilibrium. However, due to a continuous rearrangements of neighboring grains caused by grain growth, melt forms complex shapes among the grains. As a result, it is impossible to construct a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image of the pore space from 2D surfaces, which makes it particularly challenging to resolve the current controversy on whether all two-grain boundaries are wetted or melt-free. We present a new method for reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pore space in partially molten rocks. The method consists of serial sectioning and high resolution imaging (Field Emission SEM) of polished surfaces, followed by image alignment and rendering. The ablation rate during serial sectioning is determined by measuring the depth of a laser hole by interferometry. We removed a total of 25 layers with a spacing of of 1.3.microns between layers. Each layer consists of a mosaic of images approximately 300 x 320 microns in size. Melt regions are identified within each layer by hand-digitizing SEM images. We obtain a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> by stacking the slices, registering each slice, and using alpha shapes as a surface reconstruction technique. The sample we investigated is a partially molten dunite consisting of Fo90 olivine with a mean grain size of 33 microns and 4% melt. It was run in a piston cylinder at 1350°C and 1 GPa for 432 hours to achieve steady state grain growth. Rendering of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pore space shows that the larger melt pockets at multi-grain junctions change within only a few microns in depth, whereas thin inclusions along two-grain boundaries persist over the entire depth of the imaged volume, which is similar to the mean grain size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED482119.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED482119.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Prototype Digital Library for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Collections: Tools To Capture, <span class="hlt">Model</span>, Analyze, and Query Complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rowe, Jeremy; Razdan, Anshuman</p> <p></p> <p>The Partnership for Research in Spatial <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> (PRISM) project at Arizona State University (ASU) developed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and analytic tools to respond to the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) data representations perceived by affiliated discipline scientists, and to take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) data that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMIN13A1816B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMIN13A1816B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Canada in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - Toward a Sustainable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological <span class="hlt">model</span> that would serve as a framework. However, such a <span class="hlt">model</span> is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>" (C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 2D geological <span class="hlt">models</span>, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process, are imported into the C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant <span class="hlt">model</span> is managed in the database, contains full <span class="hlt">modeling</span> provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1168896','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1168896"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of tmRNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Burks, Jody; Zwieb, Christian; Müller, Florian; Wower, Iwona; Wower, Jacek</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Background Trans-translation releases stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tags defective proteins for proteolytic degradation using transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). This small stable RNA represents a hybrid of tRNA- and mRNA-like domains connected by a variable number of pseudoknots. Comparative sequence analysis of tmRNAs found in bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria provides considerable insights into their secondary structures. Progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of template switching, which constitutes an essential step in trans-translation, is hampered by our limited knowledge about the three-dimensional folding of tmRNA. Results To facilitate experimental testing of the molecular intricacies of trans-translation, which often require appropriately modified tmRNA derivatives, we developed a procedure for building three-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> of tmRNA. Using comparative sequence analysis, phylogenetically-supported 2-D structures were obtained to serve as input for the program ERNA-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Motifs containing loops and turns were extracted from the known structures of other RNAs and used to improve the tmRNA <span class="hlt">models</span>. Biologically feasible <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for the entire tmRNA molecule could be obtained. The <span class="hlt">models</span> were characterized by a functionally significant close proximity between the tRNA-like domain and the resume codon. Potential conformational changes which might lead to a more open structure of tmRNA upon binding to the ribosome are discussed. The method, described in detail for the tmRNAs of Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Caulobacter crescentus, is applicable to every tmRNA. Conclusion Improved molecular <span class="hlt">models</span> of biological significance were obtained. These <span class="hlt">models</span> will guide in the design of experiments and provide a better understanding of trans-translation. The comparative procedure described here for tmRNA is easily adopted for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the members of other RNA families. PMID:15958166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753939"><span id="translatedtitle">SEARCHBreast Workshop Proceedings: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Breast Cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morrissey, Bethny; Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Chelala, Claude; Holen, Ingunn; Jones, Louise; Speirs, Valerie</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>SEARCHBreast, a UK initiative supported by the NC3Rs, organised a workshop entitled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Breast Cancer. The workshop focused on providing researchers with solutions to overcome some of the perceived barriers to working with human-derived tumour cells, cell lines and tissues, namely: a) the limited access to human-derived material; and b) the difficulty in working with these samples. The workshop presentations provided constructive advice and information on how to best prepare human cells or tissues for further downstream applications. Techniques in developing primary cultures from patient samples, and considerations when preserving tissue slices, were discussed. A common theme throughout the workshop was the importance of ensuring that the cells are grown in conditions as similar to the in vivo microenvironment as possible. Comparisons of the advantages of several in vitro options, such as primary cell cultures, cell line cultures, explants or tissue slices, suggest that all offer great potential applications for breast cancer research, and highlight that it need not be a case of choosing one over the other. The workshop also offered cutting-edge examples of on-chip technologies and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> tumour <span class="hlt">modelling</span> by using virtual pathology, which can contribute to clinically relevant studies and provide insights into breast cancer metastatic mechanisms. PMID:26753939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4684.1398Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4684.1398Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic deformable <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MRI heart segmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial <span class="hlt">model</span> and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the <span class="hlt">model</span> must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996128','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996128"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Calcium in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mazel, Tomáš; Raymond, Rebecca; Raymond-Stintz, Mary; Jett, Stephen; Wilson, Bridget S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells in type 1 immediate-hypersensitivity allergic reactions relies on antigen-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium. Here, we used a series of electron microscopy images to build a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction representing a slice through a rat tumor mast cell, which then served as a basis for stochastic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of inositol-trisphosphate-mediated calcium responses. The stochastic approach was verified by reaction-diffusion <span class="hlt">modeling</span> within the same geometry. Local proximity of the endoplasmic reticulum to either the plasma membrane or mitochondria is predicted to differentially impact local inositol trisphosphate receptor transport. The explicit consideration of organelle spatial relationships represents an important step toward building a comprehensive, realistic <span class="hlt">model</span> of cellular calcium dynamics. PMID:19254531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21579876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21579876"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological order in an exactly solvable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spin <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin <span class="hlt">model</span> with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> generalization of the toric code <span class="hlt">model</span> introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin <span class="hlt">model</span> with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this <span class="hlt">model</span> which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on {Omega}(R{sup 2}) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171478','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70171478"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of an aquifer management <span class="hlt">model</span> AQMAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Puig, Juan Carlos; Rolon-Collazo, L. I.; Pagan-Trinidad, Ishmael</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A computer code that enables the use of the USGS Modular groundwater flow <span class="hlt">model for aquifermanagement modeling</span> has been developed. Aquifermanagement techniques integrate groundwater flow <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with linear quadratic optimization methods for the solution of various aquifer management problems. The <span class="hlt">model</span> AQMAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, is a modified version of a previously developed two-dimensional AQMAN <span class="hlt">model</span>. The idea of coupling the AQMAN <span class="hlt">model</span> with the MODULAR <span class="hlt">model</span> arose because actual groundwater flow systems behave in a three dimensional manner, therefore requiring treatment as such, and due to the widespread use of MODULAR. The use of the AQMAN3D <span class="hlt">model</span> permits the implementation of the technique known as aquifer managementmodeling. A generalized approach to obtain an optimal solution to an aquifer management problem is proposed, and a sample test problem is presented to illustrate the use of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Even though the <span class="hlt">model</span> provides the hydrologist with a new and powerful investigative tool, its applicability is limited to confined or quasiconfined systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002919&hterms=3D+Modeling&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D3D%2BModeling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002919&hterms=3D+Modeling&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D3D%2BModeling"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Forbidden Line Emission in the Binary Wind Interaction Region of Eta Carinae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madura, Thomas; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We present recent work using three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to <span class="hlt">model</span> the high ([<span class="hlt">Fe</span> III], [Ar III], [Ne III] and [S III]) and low ([<span class="hlt">Fe</span> II], [Ni II]) ionization forbidden emission lines observed in Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. These structures are interpreted as the time-averaged, outer extensions of the primary wind and the wind-wind interaction region directly excited by the FUV of the hot companion star of this massive binary system. We discuss how analyzing the results of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH simulations and synthetic slit spectra and comparing them to the spectra obtained with the HST/STIS helps us determine the absolute orientation of the binary orbit and helps remove the degeneracy inherent to <span class="hlt">models</span> based solely on the observed RXTE X-ray light curve. A key point of this work is that spatially resolved observations like those with HST/STIS and comparison to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are necessary to determine the alignment or misalignment of the orbital angular momentum axis with the Homunculus, or correspondingly, the alignment of the orbital plane with the Homunculus skirt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26529460"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Exploration of Large <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Repositories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>With broader availability of large-scale <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing <span class="hlt">model</span> retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire <span class="hlt">models</span> or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended <span class="hlt">models</span>. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate <span class="hlt">models</span> are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database <span class="hlt">models</span> but also the similarities among the database <span class="hlt">models</span> themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each <span class="hlt">model</span> and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K <span class="hlt">models</span>. PMID:26529460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25101095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25101095"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> tree crown dynamics with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> partial differential equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this <span class="hlt">model</span> framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach and discuss further prospects and applications. PMID:25101095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4397982','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4397982"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Tissue-Engineered <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Ewing Sarcoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Salah-Eddine; Santoro, Marco; Ramammoorthy, Vandhana; Menegaz, Brian A.; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Iles, Lakesla R.; Amin, Hesham M.; Livingston, Andrew J.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Ludwig, Joseph A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite longstanding reliance upon monolayer culture for studying cancer cells, and numerous advantages from both a practical and experimental standpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests more complex three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">models</span> are necessary to properly mimic many of the critical hallmarks associated with the oncogenesis, maintenance and spread of Ewing sarcoma (ES), the second most common pediatric bone tumor. And as clinicians increasingly turn to biologically-targeted therapies that exert their effects not only on the tumor cells themselves, but also on the surrounding extracellular matrix, it is especially important that preclinical <span class="hlt">models</span> evolve in parallel to reliably measure antineoplastic effects and possible mechanisms of de novo and acquired drug resistance. Herein, we highlight a number of innovative methods used to fabricate biomimetic ES tumors, encompassing both the surrounding cellular milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM), and suggest potential applications to advance our understanding of ES biology, preclinical drug testing, and personalized medicine. PMID:25109853</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22534420S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22534420S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Eta Carinae Little Homunculus Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steffen, Wolfgang; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas; Groh, Jose H.; Gull, Theodore R.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Damineli, Augusto; Hamaguchi, Kenji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We extend our morpho-kinematic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the Homunculus nebula (Steffen et al., 2014) to the interior nested Little Homunculus. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on spectroscopic observations from HST/STIS. We find that the structure of the interior Little Homunculus is rather flat in the polar regions and interacts with the main Homunculus nebula only on one side, towards the periastron direction of the binary orbit. Furthermore, the two lobes of the LH are misaligned, also towards the periastron direction. As an explanation for the misalignment we propose that, in both cases, shortly after the eruptions that created the bipolar nebulae from the primary star, the off-center wind of the secondary has pushed the ejecta towards the periastron directions, since the secondary is most of the time near the apastron. Future hydrodynamic simulations are warranted to confirm this scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324093','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324093"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the central nervous system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Amy M.; DeSimone, Elise; Chwalek, Karolina; Kaplan, David L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There are currently more than 600 diseases characterized as affecting the central nervous system (CNS) which inflict neural damage. Unfortunately, few of these conditions have effective treatments available. Although significant efforts have been put into developing new therapeutics, drugs which were promising in the developmental phase have high attrition rates in late stage clinical trials. These failures could be circumvented if current 2D in vitro and in vivo <span class="hlt">models</span> were improved. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, tissue-engineered in vitro systems can address this need and enhance clinical translation through two approaches: (1) bottom-up, and (2) top-down (developmental/regenerative) strategies to reproduce the structure and function of human tissues. Critical challenges remain including biomaterials capable of matching the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of neural tissues, compartmentalized scaffolds that support heterogeneous tissue architectures reflective of brain organization and structure, and robust functional assays for in vitro tissue validation. The unique design parameters defined by the complex physiology of the CNS for construction and validation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> in vitro neural systems are reviewed here. PMID:25461688</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..387B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..387B"><span id="translatedtitle">Polygonal Shapes Detection in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Complex Architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benciolini, G. B.; Vitti, A.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A sequential application of two global <span class="hlt">models</span> defined on a variational framework is proposed for the detection of polygonal shapes in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of complex architectures. As a first step, the procedure involves the use of the Mumford and Shah (1989) 1st-order variational <span class="hlt">model</span> in dimension two (gridded height data are processed). In the Mumford-Shah <span class="hlt">model</span> an auxiliary function detects the sharp changes, i.e., the discontinuities, of a piecewise smooth approximation of the data. The Mumford-Shah <span class="hlt">model</span> requires the global minimization of a specific functional to simultaneously produce both the smooth approximation and its discontinuities. In the proposed procedure, the edges of the smooth approximation derived by a specific processing of the auxiliary function are then processed using the Blake and Zisserman (1987) 2nd-order variational <span class="hlt">model</span> in dimension one (edges are processed in the plane). This second step permits to describe the edges of an object by means of piecewise almost-linear approximation of the input edges themselves and to detects sharp changes of the first-derivative of the edges so to detect corners. The Mumford-Shah variational <span class="hlt">model</span> is used in two dimensions accepting the original data as primary input. The Blake-Zisserman variational <span class="hlt">model</span> is used in one dimension for the refinement of the description of the edges. The selection among all the boundaries detected by the Mumford-Shah <span class="hlt">model</span> of those that present a shape close to a polygon is performed by considering only those boundaries for which the Blake-Zisserman <span class="hlt">model</span> identified discontinuities in their first derivative. The output of the procedure are hence shapes, coming from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric data, that can be considered as polygons. The application of the procedure is suitable for, but not limited to, the detection of objects such as foot-print of polygonal buildings, building facade boundaries or windows contours. v The procedure is applied to a height <span class="hlt">model</span> of the building of the Engineering</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9401E..08S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9401E..08S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced prior <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bright field electron tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. <span class="hlt">Model</span>-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior <span class="hlt">model</span>. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-local means (NLM) as the prior <span class="hlt">model</span> in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26684838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26684838"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaboration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> context and extracellular matrix in the development of glioma stemness in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. PMID:26684838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PEPI..177..217P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PEPI..177..217P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Central Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prezzi, Claudia B.; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We developed a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> density <span class="hlt">model</span> of the continental crust, the subducted plate and the upper mantle of the Central Andes between 20-29°S and 74-61°W through the forward <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of Bouguer anomaly. The goal of this contribution is to gain insight on the lithospheric structure integrating the available information (geophysical, geologic, petrologic, and geochemical) in a single <span class="hlt">model</span>. The geometry of our <span class="hlt">model</span> is defined and constrained by hypocentre location, reflection and refraction on and offshore seismic lines, travel time and attenuation tomography, receiver function analysis, magnetotelluric studies, thermal <span class="hlt">models</span> and balanced structural cross-sections. The densities allocated to the different bodies are calculated considering petrologic and geochemical data and pressure and temperature conditions. The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 31 parallel E-W vertical planes, where the continental crust comprises distinct bodies, which represent the different morphotectonic units of the Central Andes. We include a partial melting zone at midcrustal depths under the Altiplano-Puna (low-velocity zone) and consider the presence of a rheologically strong block beneath the Salar de Atacama basin, according to recent seismic studies. Contour maps of the depth of the continental Moho, the thickness of the lower crust and the depth to the bottom of the lithosphere below South America are produced. The possible percentage of partial melt in the Central Andes low-velocity zone is estimated. The residual anomaly is calculated by subtracting from the Bouguer anomaly the gravimetric effect of the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> subducted slab and of the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> Moho. Isostatic anomalies are calculated from regional and local isostatic Mohos calculated with and without internal loads, derived from our gravity <span class="hlt">model</span>, which are then compared to the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> continental Moho. This study contributes to a more detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure of this region of the Andes and provides an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3576..216K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3576..216K"><span id="translatedtitle">Faceless identification: a <span class="hlt">model</span> for person identification using the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion as cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klasen, Lena M.; Li, Haibo</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>Person identification by using biometric methods based on image sequences, or still images, often requires a controllable and cooperative environment during the image capturing stage. In the forensic case the situation is more likely to be the opposite. In this work we propose a method that makes use of the anthropometry of the human body and human actions as cues for identification. Image sequences from surveillance systems are used, which can be seen as monocular image sequences. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformable wireframe body <span class="hlt">model</span> is used as a platform to handle the non-rigid information of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion of the human body from the image sequence. A recursive method for estimating global motion and local shape variations is presented, using two recursive feedback systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1613099K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1613099K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Brandenburg <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> - a comprehensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Subsurface <span class="hlt">Model</span>, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface <span class="hlt">model</span> of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> strived to develop a new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, the OGC Web <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1266B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S51B1266B"><span id="translatedtitle">The USGS <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Seismic Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Northern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brocher, T. M.; Aagaard, B.; Simpson, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We present a new regional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> seismic velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> for Northern California for use in strong motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and other earthquakes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), density, and intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs). These properties were assigned for each rock type in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> derived from surface outcrops, boreholes, gravity and magnetic data, and seismic reflection, refraction, and tomography studies. A detailed description of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, USGS Bay Area Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span> 05.1.0, is available online [http://www.sf06simulation.org/geology/velocitymodel]. For ground motion simulations Vs and Qs are more important parameters than Vp and Qp because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear and surface wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, however, we first developed Vp versus depth relations for each rock type and then converted these to Vs versus depth relations. For the most important rock types in Northern California we compiled measurements of Vp versus depth using borehole logs, laboratory measurements on hand samples, seismic refraction profiles, and tomography <span class="hlt">models</span>. These rock types include Salinian and Sierran granitic rocks, metagraywackes and greenstones of the Franciscan Complex, Tertiary and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Quaternary and Holocene deposits (Brocher, USGS OFR 05-1317, 2005). Vp versus depth curves were converted to Vs versus depth curves using new empirical nonlinear relations between Vs and Vp (Brocher, BSSA, 2005). These relations, showing that Poisson's ratio is a nonlinear function of Vp, were similarly based on compilations of diverse Vs and Vp measurements on a large suite of rock types, mainly from California and the Pacific Northwest. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is distributed in a discretized form with routines to query the <span class="hlt">model</span> using C++, C, and Fortran 77 programming languages. The geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> was discretized at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDM18006C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDM18006C"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Bubble Merger <span class="hlt">Model</span> for RTI Mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Baolian</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this work we present a <span class="hlt">model</span> for the merger processes of bubbles at the edge of an unstable acceleration driven mixing layer. Steady acceleration defines a self-similar mixing process, with a time-dependent inverse cascade of structures of increasing size. The time evolution is itself a renormalization group evolution. The <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts the growth rate of a Rayleigh-Taylor chaotic fluid-mixing layer. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> differs from the 2-D merger <span class="hlt">model</span> in several important ways. Beyond the extension of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to three dimensions, the <span class="hlt">model</span> contains one phenomenological parameter, the variance of the bubble radii at fixed time. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also predicts several experimental numbers: the bubble mixing rate, the mean bubble radius, and the bubble height separation at the time of merger. From these we also obtain the bubble height to the radius aspect ratio, which is in good agreement with experiments. Applications to recent NIF and Omega experiments will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813986B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813986B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of plume-induced subduction initiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D <span class="hlt">models</span>, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> thermo-mechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1650.1460C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1650.1460C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generation using an airborne swarm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Macdonald, M.; Bolton, G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">model</span> of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm's computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391209"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> generation using an airborne swarm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Bolton, G.</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p>Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">model</span> of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194678','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194678"><span id="translatedtitle">Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material <span class="hlt">models</span> in DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.</p> <p>1993-10-22</p> <p>As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material <span class="hlt">model</span> descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code. Constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex <span class="hlt">models</span> and meshes. The lightweight material <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..2502004F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..2502004F"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cabin <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of car cabin environment; the first <span class="hlt">model</span> was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-<span class="hlt">FE</span> (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=file&id=EJ1036367','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=file&id=EJ1036367"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed Molecules and Extended Solid <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Tangible <span class="hlt">models</span> help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>). <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494509','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494509"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy flow in passive and active <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cochlear <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil</p> <p>2015-12-31</p> <p>Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box <span class="hlt">model</span> of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1703e0007W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1703e0007W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy flow in passive and active <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cochlear <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanli; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box <span class="hlt">model</span> of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136724','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136724"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the San Emidio Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James E. Faulds</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7973E..15S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7973E..15S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithography <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for ground rule development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarma, Chandra; Bailey, Todd; Lyons, Adam; Shao, Dongbing</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The ability to incorporate the effect of patterned underlayers in a 3-dimensional physical resist <span class="hlt">model</span> that truly mimics the process on real wafers could be used to formulate robust ground rules for design. We have shown as an example block level simulations, where the resist critical dimension is determined by the presence of STI (shallow trench isolation) and/or patterned gate level underneath & their relative spacing, as confirmed on wafer. We will demonstrate how the results of such study could be used for creating ground rules which are truly dependent on the interaction between the current layer resist & the patterned layers underneath. We have also developed a new way to visualize lithographic process variations in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space that is useful for simulation analysis that can prove very helpful in ground rule development and process optimization. Such visualization capability in the dataprep flow to flag issues or dispose critical structures increases speed and efficiency in the mask tapeout process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...05..072B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...05..072B"><span id="translatedtitle">Massive fermion <span class="hlt">model</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> and higher spin currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Prester, P. Dominis; de Souza, B. Lima; Smolić, I.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We analyze the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> free massive fermion theory coupled to external sources. The presence of a mass explicitly breaks parity invariance. We calculate two- and three-point functions of a gauge current and the energy momentum tensor and, for instance, obtain the well-known result that in the IR limit (but also in the UV one) we reconstruct the relevant CS action. We then couple the <span class="hlt">model</span> to higher spin currents and explicitly work out the spin 3 case. In the UV limit we obtain an effective action which was proposed many years ago as a possible generalization of spin 3 CS action. In the IR limit we derive a different higher spin action. This analysis can evidently be generalized to higher spins. We also discuss the conservation and properties of the correlators we obtain in the intermediate steps of our derivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136725','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136725"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Faulds, James E.</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136723','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1136723"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Faulds, James E.</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred between these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of 10 stratigraphic units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and stratigraphically highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Fault blocks in the eastern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9679L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9679L"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parallel <span class="hlt">model</span> of Ganymede's exosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leclercq, Ludivine; Turc, Lucile; François, Leblanc; Ronan, Modolo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Ganymede is a unique object : it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field. Its surface is covered by water ice and by regolith. Some previous observations suggest that below its surface may exist an ocean of liquid water. The atmosphere of the planet is poorly known but should be composed essentially of water, hydrogen and oxygen (Marconi et al., Icarus, 2007). These atmospheric particles mainly originate from the surface thanks to sublimation of water-ice and sputtering, a process driven by the magnetospheric Jovian particles impacting Ganymede surface and leading to ejection of atoms and molecules into Ganymede atmosphere. We developed a <span class="hlt">model</span> of Ganymede's atmosphere based on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Monte Carlo description of the fate of the ejected particles from the surface. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has been parallelized allowing a much better statistical, spatial and temporal description of Ganymede's environment. This <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the main sources of the neutral atmosphere and is able to calculate all its characteristics. It was successfully compared to the few known observations as well as to previous <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In this presentation, we will present the main characteristics of this <span class="hlt">model</span> and what it tells us on Ganymede's atmosphere, in terms of spatial structure, composition, temporal variability and relations with both magnetosphere and surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26565477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26565477"><span id="translatedtitle">Phonons in Ultrathin Oxide Films: 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Transition in <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O on Pt(111).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spiridis, N; Zając, M; Piekarz, P; Chumakov, A I; Freindl, K; Goniakowski, J; Kozioł-Rachwał, A; Parliński, K; Ślęzak, M; Ślęzak, T; Wdowik, U D; Wilgocka-Ślęzak, D; Korecki, J</p> <p>2015-10-30</p> <p>The structural and magnetic properties of ultrathin <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O(111) films on Pt(111) with thicknesses from 1 to 16 monolayers (MLs) were studied using the nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation. A distinct evolution of vibrational characteristics with thickness, revealed in the phonon density of states (PDOS), shows a textbook transition from 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lattice dynamics. For the thinnest films of 1 and 2 ML, the low-energy part of the PDOS followed a linear ∝E dependence in energy that is characteristic for two-dimensional systems. This dependence gradually transforms with thickness to the bulk ∝E^{2} relationship. Density-functional theory phonon calculations perfectly reproduced the measured 1-ML PDOS within a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> of a pseudomorphic <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O/Pt(111) interface. The calculations show that the 2D PDOS character is due to a weak coupling of the <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O film to the Pt(111) substrate. The evolution of the vibrational properties with an increasing thickness is closely related to a transient long-range magnetic order and stabilization of an unusual structural phase. PMID:26565477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115r6102S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115r6102S"><span id="translatedtitle">Phonons in Ultrathin Oxide Films: 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Transition in <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O on Pt(111)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spiridis, N.; Zając, M.; Piekarz, P.; Chumakov, A. I.; Freindl, K.; Goniakowski, J.; Kozioł-Rachwał, A.; Parliński, K.; Ślezak, M.; Ślezak, T.; Wdowik, U. D.; Wilgocka-Ślezak, D.; Korecki, J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The structural and magnetic properties of ultrathin <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O(111) films on Pt(111) with thicknesses from 1 to 16 monolayers (MLs) were studied using the nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation. A distinct evolution of vibrational characteristics with thickness, revealed in the phonon density of states (PDOS), shows a textbook transition from 2D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lattice dynamics. For the thinnest films of 1 and 2 ML, the low-energy part of the PDOS followed a linear ∝E dependence in energy that is characteristic for two-dimensional systems. This dependence gradually transforms with thickness to the bulk ∝E2 relationship. Density-functional theory phonon calculations perfectly reproduced the measured 1-ML PDOS within a simple <span class="hlt">model</span> of a pseudomorphic <span class="hlt">Fe</span> O /Pt(1 1 1 ) interface. The calculations show that the 2D PDOS character is due to a weak coupling of the <span class="hlt">Fe</span>O film to the Pt(111) substrate. The evolution of the vibrational properties with an increasing thickness is closely related to a transient long-range magnetic order and stabilization of an unusual structural phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNS43A3870D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNS43A3870D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Electric Current Flow in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fractured Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demirel, S.; Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a variety of research fields and applications such as hydrogeology, hydrocarbon extraction and long-term storage of toxic waste. As fractures are highly conductive structures in comparison to the surrounding rock, their presence can be either an advantage or a drawback. For hydrocarbon extraction, fractures allow for quick and easy access to the resource whereas for toxic waste storage their presence increases the risk of leakage and migration of pollutants. In both cases, the identification of fracture network characteristics is an essential step. Recently, we have developed an approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> electric current flow in 2D fractured media. This approach is based on a discrete-dual-porosity <span class="hlt">model</span> where fractures are represented explicitly, the matrix is coarsely discretized into blocks, and current flow exchange between the fractures and matrix is analytically evaluated at the fracture-scale and integrated at the block-scale [1]. Although this approach has shown much promise and has proven its efficiency for 2D simulations, its extension to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> remains to be addressed. To this end, we assume that fractures can be represented as two-dimensional finite planes embedded in the surrounding matrix, and we express analytically the distribution of electric potential at the fracture scale. This fracture-scale expression takes into account the electric-current-flow exchange with the surrounding matrix and flow conservation is enforced at the fracture intersections. The fracture-matrix exchange is then integrated at the matrix-block scale where the electric current flow conservation at the block boundaries is formulated with a modified finite volume method. With the objective of providing a low-computational-cost <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach adapted to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations in fractured media, our <span class="hlt">model</span> is (i) validated and compared to existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches and, (ii) used to evaluate the impact of the presence of fractures on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.8218H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.8218H"><span id="translatedtitle">A hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> for use in Earth system <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazenberg, P.; Fang, Y.; Broxton, P.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G.-Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A.; Zeng, X.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Hillslope-scale rainfall-runoff processes leading to a fast catchment response are not explicitly included in land surface <span class="hlt">models</span> (LSMs) for use in earth system <span class="hlt">models</span> (ESMs) due to computational constraints. This study presents a hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> (h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) that couples a 1-D vertical soil column <span class="hlt">model</span> with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow <span class="hlt">model</span> for use in ESMs. By representing vertical and lateral responses separately at different spatial resolutions, h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is computationally efficient. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was first tested for three different hillslope planforms (uniform, convergent and divergent). We then compared h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (with single and multiple soil columns) with a complex physically based <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and a simple 1-D soil moisture <span class="hlt">model</span> coupled with an unconfined aquifer (as typically used in LSMs). It is found that simulations obtained by the simple 1-D <span class="hlt">model</span> vary considerably from the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and are not able to represent hillslope-scale variations in the lateral flow response. In contrast, the single soil column h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> shows a much better performance and saves computational time by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared with the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. When multiple vertical soil columns are implemented, the resulting hydrological responses (soil moisture, water table depth, and base flow along the hillslope) from h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> are nearly identical to those predicted by the complex <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, but still saves computational time. As such, the computational efficiency of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a valuable and promising approach to incorporating hillslope-scale hydrological processes into continental and global-scale ESMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CoPhC.167...23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CoPhC.167...23K"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient sensitivity computations in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> air quality <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kioutsioukis, Ioannis; Melas, Dimitrios; Zerefos, Christos; Ziomas, Ioannis</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The prediction of ground level ozone for air quality monitoring and assessment is simulated through an integrated system of gridded <span class="hlt">models</span> (meteorological, photochemical), where the atmosphere is represented with a three-dimensional grid that may include thousands of grid cells. The continuity equation solved by the Photochemical Air Quality <span class="hlt">Model</span> (PAQM) reproduces the atmospheric processes (dynamical, physical, chemical and radiative), such as moving and mixing air parcels from one grid cell to another, calculating chemical reactions, injecting new emissions. The whole <span class="hlt">modeling</span> procedure includes several sources of uncertainty, especially in the large data sets that describe the status of the domain (boundary conditions, emissions, chemical reaction rates and several others). The robustness of the photochemical simulation is addressed in this work through the deterministic approach of sensitivity analysis. The automatic differentiation tool ADIFOR is applied on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PAQM CAMx and augments its Fortran 77 code by introducing new lines of code that additionally calculate, in only one run, the gradient of the solution vector with respect to its input parameters. The applicability of the approach is evaluated through a sensitivity study of the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> concentrations to perturbations at the boundary conditions and the emissions, for three essentially dissimilar European Metropolises of the Auto-Oil II programme (Athens, Milan, and London).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..581T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL5..581T"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Benchmark for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometry Extraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parametric <span class="hlt">models</span> of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created <span class="hlt">model</span>. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference <span class="hlt">model</span>. The datasets can be found at: <a href="http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench"target="_blank">http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench</a>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H23B1496L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H23B1496L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Eutrophication <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for Lake Simcoe, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality <span class="hlt">model</span> of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 <span class="hlt">model</span>. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSAIS..26..139S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSAIS..26..139S"><span id="translatedtitle">Planetary subsurface investigation by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization <span class="hlt">model</span> .</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seu, R.; Catallo, C.; Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Cinquepalmi, L.</p> <p></p> <p>Subsurface data analysis and visualization represents one of the main aspect in Planetary Observation (i.e. search for water or geological characterization). The data are collected by subsurface sounding radars as instruments on-board of deep space missions. These data are generally represented as 2D radargrams in the perspective of space track and z axes (perpendicular to the subsurface) but without direct correlation to other data acquisition or knowledge on the planet . In many case there are plenty of data from other sensors of the same mission, or other ones, with high continuity in time and in space and specially around the scientific sites of interest (i.e. candidate landing areas or particular scientific interesting sites). The 2D perspective is good to analyse single acquisitions and to perform detailed analysis on the returned echo but are quite useless to compare very large dataset as now are available on many planets and moons of solar system. The best way is to approach the analysis on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization <span class="hlt">model</span> generated from the entire stack of data. First of all this approach allows to navigate the subsurface in all directions and analyses different sections and slices or moreover navigate the iso-surfaces respect to a value (or interval). The last one allows to isolate one or more iso-surfaces and remove, in the visualization mode, other data not interesting for the analysis; finally it helps to individuate the underground <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bodies. Other aspect is the needs to link the on-ground data, as imaging, to the underground one by geographical and context field of view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713245O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713245O"><span id="translatedtitle">Accurate, low-cost <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-models</span> of gullies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Soil erosion is a widespread problem in arid and semi-arid areas. The most severe form is the gully erosion. They often cut into agricultural farmland and can make a certain area completely unproductive. To understand the development and processes inside and around gullies, we calculated detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-models</span> of gullies in the Souss Valley in South Morocco. Near Taroudant, we had four study areas with five gullies different in size, volume and activity. By using a Canon HF G30 Camcorder, we made varying series of Full HD videos with 25fps. Afterwards, we used the method Structure from Motion (SfM) to create the <span class="hlt">models</span>. To generate accurate <span class="hlt">models</span> maintaining feasible runtimes, it is necessary to select around 1500-1700 images from the video, while the overlap of neighboring images should be at least 80%. In addition, it is very important to avoid selecting photos that are blurry or out of focus. Nearby pixels of a blurry image tend to have similar color values. That is why we used a MATLAB script to compare the derivatives of the images. The higher the sum of the derivative, the sharper an image of similar objects. MATLAB subdivides the video into image intervals. From each interval, the image with the highest sum is selected. E.g.: 20min. video at 25fps equals 30.000 single images. The program now inspects the first 20 images, saves the sharpest and moves on to the next 20 images etc. Using this algorithm, we selected 1500 images for our <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. With VisualSFM, we calculated features and the matches between all images and produced a point cloud. Then, MeshLab has been used to build a surface out of it using the Poisson surface reconstruction approach. Afterwards we are able to calculate the size and the volume of the gullies. It is also possible to determine soil erosion rates, if we compare the data with old recordings. The final step would be the combination of the terrestrial data with the data from our aerial photography. So far, the method works well and we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4712E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4712E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of India-Asia-like collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>-Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich <span class="hlt">model</span> (Burov and Watts, 2006). <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of the dynamics of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution <span class="hlt">Model</span>), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)1016<1134:TLTSOC>1132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet <span class="hlt">models</span> with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multilayer <span class="hlt">models</span> for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=additive+AND+manufacturing&id=EJ1036361','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=additive+AND+manufacturing&id=EJ1036361"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Additive manufacturing, commonly known as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1532..311L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1532..311L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-FE</span> study on deformation behaviors in cold pilgering of high strength TA18 titanium alloy tube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Heng; Shi, Kaipeng; Yang, He</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Regarding stress/strain changing tendencies and material flow trajectories, the deformation behaviors of high strength TA18 titanium alloy tube in whole tube cold pilgering are numerically studied. Under ABAQUS/Explicit platform, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elastic-plastic <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is established and validated by the law of energy conservation. Key <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technologies are solved, such as geometry definition of variable cross-section rollers and parabola-shape mandrel, coordinate movement of tools and elimination of excessively distorted meshes. The main results show that: 1) During the whole process, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stresses fluctuate between tension and compression. In the instantaneous deformation zone, radial stress keeps constant along thickness. In the roller flange area, hoop and axial stresses on inner surface are larger than which on outside surface, while opposite in the roller groove bottom. (2) During the whole tube cold pilgering, Compressive radial and hoop strains decrease while tensile axial strain increases. In the instantaneous deformation zone, hoop strain keeps constant along thickness, while radial and axial strains on inner surface are slightly larger than which on outside surface. 3) With preform tube deformed into final tube, tube materials move forward along the helix trajectories, and it can be concluded that tube elongation increases linearly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1816089P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1816089P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papritz, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical <span class="hlt">model</span> with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this <span class="hlt">model</span> is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span> (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear <span class="hlt">model</span> with spatially correlated errors to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816089P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816089P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papritz, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical <span class="hlt">model</span> with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this <span class="hlt">model</span> is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive <span class="hlt">models</span> (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear <span class="hlt">model</span> with spatially correlated errors to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....12788E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....12788E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Difference <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Basaltic Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engell-Sørensen, L.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The main purpose of the work was to generate realistic data to be applied for testing of processing and migration tools for basaltic regions. The project is based on the three - dimensional finite difference code (FD), TIGER, made by Sintef. The FD code was optimized (parallelized) by the author, to run on parallel computers. The parallel code enables us to <span class="hlt">model</span> large-scale realistic geological <span class="hlt">models</span> and to apply traditional seismic and micro seismic sources. The parallel code uses multiple processors in order to manipulate subsets of large amounts of data simultaneously. The general anisotropic code uses 21 elastic coefficients. Eight independent coefficients are needed as input parameters for the general TI medium. In the FD code, the elastic wave field computation is implemented by a higher order FD solution to the elastic wave equation and the wave fields are computed on a staggered grid, shifted half a node in one or two directions. The geological <span class="hlt">model</span> is a gridded basalt <span class="hlt">model</span>, which covers from 24 km to 37 km of a real shot line in horizontal direction and from the water surface to the depth of 3.5 km. The 2frac {1}{2}D <span class="hlt">model</span> has been constructed using the compound <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software from Norsk Hydro. The vertical parameter distribution is obtained from observations in two wells. At The depth of between 1100 m to 1500 m, a basalt horizon covers the whole sub surface layers. We have shown that it is possible to simulate a line survey in realistic (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) geological <span class="hlt">models</span> in reasonable time by using high performance computers. The author would like to thank Norsk Hydro, Statoil, GEUS, and SINTEF for very helpful discussions and Parallab for being helpful with the new IBM, p690 Regatta system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294109"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernando, Bastida-González; Yersin, Celaya-Trejo; José, Correa-Basurto; Paola, Zárate-Segura</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conformation. The molecular <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular dynamics was obtained. PMID:27294109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879324','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4879324"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fernando, Bastida-González; Yersin, Celaya-Trejo; José, Correa-Basurto; Paola, Zárate-Segura</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> conformation. The molecular <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular dynamics was obtained. PMID:27294109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...98L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.380...98L"><span id="translatedtitle">Collision of continental corner from <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhong-Hai; Xu, Zhiqin; Gerya, Taras; Burg, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Continental collision has been extensively investigated with 2-D numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> assuming infinitely wide plates or insignificant along-strike deformation in the third dimension. However, the corners of natural collision zones normally have structural characteristics that differ from linear parts of mountain belt. We conducted <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> high-resolution numerical simulations to study the dynamics of a continental corner (lateral continental/oceanic transition zone) during subduction/collision. The results demonstrate different modes between the oceanic subduction side (continuous subduction and retreating trench) and the continental collision side (slab break-off and topography uplift). Slab break-off occurs at a depth (⩽100 km to ˜300 km) that depends on the convergence velocity. The numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> produce lateral extrusion of the overriding crust from the collisional side to the subduction side, which is also a phenomenon recognized around natural collision of continental corners, for instance around the western corner of the Arabia-Asia collision zone and around the eastern corner of the India-Asia collision zone. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> results also indicate that extrusion tectonics may be driven both from above by the topography and gravitational potentials and from below by the trench retreat and asthenospheric mantle return flow, which supports the link between deep mantle dynamics and shallower crustal deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CG.....64..126T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CG.....64..126T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GEM: Geo-technical extension towards an integrated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information <span class="hlt">model</span> for infrastructural development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tegtmeier, W.; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Hack, H. R. G. K.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In infrastructural projects, communication as well as information exchange and (re-)use in and between involved parties is difficult. Mainly this is caused by a lack of information harmonisation. Various specialists are working together on the development of an infrastructural project and all use their own specific software and definitions for various information types. In addition, the lack of and/or differences in the use and definition of thematic semantic information regarding the various information types adds to the problem. Realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> describing and integrating parts of the earth already exist, but are generally neglecting the subsurface, and especially the aspects of geology and geo-technology. This paper summarises the research towards the extension of an existing integrated semantic information <span class="hlt">model</span> to include surface as well as subsurface objects and in particular, subsurface geological and geotechnical objects. The major contributions of this research are the definition of geotechnical objects and the mechanism to link them with CityGML, GeoSciML and O&M standard <span class="hlt">models</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is called <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-GEM, short for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geotechnical Extension <span class="hlt">Model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16970419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16970419"><span id="translatedtitle">On the presence of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>(IV) in <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-ZSM-5 and <span class="hlt">Fe</span>SrO3-x --unequivocal detection of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>4 spin system by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pirngruber, Gerhard D; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Kalytta, Andreas; Reller, Armin; Safonova, Olga V; Glatzel, Pieter</p> <p>2006-09-21</p> <p>The contribution of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>(4) spin configuration to the valence electronic structure of <span class="hlt">Fe</span> compounds can be probed via spin-selective <span class="hlt">Fe</span> K-pre-edge absorption spectra, using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>(4) configuration of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>(IV) can be unequivocally detected even in a mixture with the high-spin <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>(5) configuration of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>(III). This is demonstrated on the perovskite <span class="hlt">Fe</span>SrO(3-x) with formal oxidation state <span class="hlt">Fe</span>(IV). When the technique was applied to an <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-ZSM-5 catalyst during reaction with N(2)O, no <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>(4) configuration was detected. The formation of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>(IV) upon reaction of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-ZSM-5 with N(2)O can, therefore, be ruled out. PMID:16970419</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014yCat..35730090M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014yCat..35730090M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">VizieR Online Data Catalog: STAGGER-grid of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stellar <span class="hlt">models</span>. IV. (Magic+, 2015)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magic, Z.; Chiavassa, A.; Collet, R.; Asplund, M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We compute the emergent stellar spectra from the UV to far infrared for different viewing angles using realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres for a large range in stellar parameters to predict the stellar limb darkening. We have computed full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LTE synthetic spectra based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative hydrodynamic atmosphere <span class="hlt">models</span> from the Stagger-grid in the ranges: Teff from 4000 to 7000K, logg from 1.5 to 5.0, and [<span class="hlt">Fe</span>/H], from -4.0 to +0.5. From the resulting intensities at different wavelength, we derived coefficients for the standard limb darkening laws considering a number of often-used photometric filters. Furthermore, we calculated theoretical transit light curves, in order to quantify the differences between predictions by the widely used 1D <span class="hlt">model</span> atmosphere and our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. (1 data file).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..91.1149Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITI..91.1149Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Segmentation and Representation with Implicit Polynomials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Bo; Takamatsu, Jun; Ikeuchi, Katsushi</p> <p></p> <p>When large-scale and complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects are obtained by range finders, it is often necessary to represent them by algebraic surfaces for such purposes as data compression, multi-resolution, noise elimination, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> recognition. Representing the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data with algebraic surfaces of an implicit polynomial (IP) has proved to offer the advantages that IP representation is capable of encoding geometric properties easily with desired smoothness, few parameters, algebraic/geometric invariants, and robustness to noise and missing data. Unfortunately, generating a high-degree IP surface for a whole complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape is impossible because of high computational cost and numerical instability. In this paper we propose a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segmentation method based on a cut-and-merge approach. Two cutting procedures adopt low-degree IPs to divide and fit the surface segments simultaneously, while avoiding generating high-curved segments. A merging procedure merges the similar adjacent segments to avoid over-segmentation. To prove the effectiveness of this segmentation method, we open up some new vistas for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> applications such as <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matching, recognition, and registration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..3HL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..3HL"><span id="translatedtitle">Object-oriented urban <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial data <span class="hlt">model</span> organization method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jing-wen; Li, Wen-qing; Lv, Nan; Su, Tao</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper combined the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> data <span class="hlt">model</span> with object-oriented organization method, put forward the <span class="hlt">model</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> data based on object-oriented method, implemented the city <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to quickly build logical semantic expression and <span class="hlt">model</span>, solved the city <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> spatial information representation problem of the same location with multiple property and the same property with multiple locations, designed the space object structure of point, line, polygon, body for city of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> spatial database, and provided a new thought and method for the city <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> GIS <span class="hlt">model</span> and organization management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6956383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6956383"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world <span class="hlt">model</span> builder with a mobile robot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Z.; Faugeras, O. )</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>This article describes a system to incrementally build a world <span class="hlt">model</span> with a mobile robot in an unknown environment. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is, for the moment, segment based. A trinocular stereo system is used to build a local map about the environment. A global map is obtained by integrating a sequence of stereo frames taken when the robot navigates in the environment. The emphasis of this article is on the representation of the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> segments from stereo and on the integration of segments from multiple views. The proposed representation is simple and very convenient to characterize the uncertainty of segment. A Kalman filter is used to merge matched line segments. An important characteristic of this integration strategy is that a segment observed by the stereo system corresponds only to one part of the segment in space, so the union of the different observations gives a better estimate on the segment in space. The authors have succeeded in integrating 35 stereo frames taken in their robot room.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007853','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120007853"><span id="translatedtitle">Pros and Cons of ID vs. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klimchuk, James A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..275X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPRS..101..275X"><span id="translatedtitle">Flexible building primitives for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, B.; Jancosek, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span>, being the main part of a digital city scene, are essential to all applications related to human activities in urban environments. The development of range sensors and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) technology facilitates our ability to automatically reconstruct level of details 2 (LoD2) <span class="hlt">models</span> of buildings. However, because of the high complexity of building structures, no fully automatic system is currently available for producing building <span class="hlt">models</span>. In order to simplify the problem, a lot of research focuses only on particular buildings shapes, and relatively simple ones. In this paper, we analyze the property of topology graphs of object surfaces, and find that roof topology graphs have three basic elements: loose nodes, loose edges, and minimum cycles. These elements have interesting physical meanings: a loose node is a building with one roof face; a loose edge is a ridge line between two roof faces whose end points are not defined by a third roof face; and a minimum cycle represents a roof corner of a building. Building primitives, which introduce building shape knowledge, are defined according to these three basic elements. Then all buildings can be represented by combining such building primitives. The building parts are searched according to the predefined building primitives, reconstructed independently, and grouped into a complete building <span class="hlt">model</span> in a CSG-style. The shape knowledge is inferred via the building primitives and used as constraints to improve the building <span class="hlt">models</span>, in which all roof parameters are simultaneously adjusted. Experiments show the flexibility of building primitives in both lidar point cloud and stereo point cloud.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1685i0008C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1685i0008C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of sonic boom in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinematic turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p> stratified wind superimposed to a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> random turbulent realization. Propagation is performed either in the case of a shadow zone or of an atmospheric waveguide. To <span class="hlt">model</span> the turbulent ABL, the mean flow and the fluctuations are handled separately. The wind fluctuations are generated using the Random Fluctuations Generation method assuming a von Kármán spectrum and a homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The mean stratified wind is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> based on the Monin-Obhukov Similarity Theory (MOST). To illustrate the method, the typical case of a sunny day with a strong wind has been chosen. Statistics are obtained on several parameters. It shows the importance of turbulence, which leads to an increase of the mean maximum peak pressure in the shadow zone and to its decrease in the waveguide. Moreover, the formation of random caustics that can lead to an increase of the noise perceived locally is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15..729W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPArXL15..729W"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods for Geometric Data Validation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Geometric quality of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1378P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1378P"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of topography in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> continental-collision <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the formation and evolution of high mountain belts, such as the Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau, has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we employ <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations to investigate the role that subduction, collision, and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and to analyze the conditions under which large topographic plateaus can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper mantle-scale <span class="hlt">model</span>. Distinct dynamics are obtained for the oceanic subduction side (trench retreat, slab rollback) and the continental-collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift, lateral extrusion). We show that slab pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate, and that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus. Moreover, scaling is used to predict four different modes of surface expression in continental-collision <span class="hlt">models</span>: (I) low-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (II) high-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (III) Alpine-type topography with topographic front and low plateau, and (IV) Tibet-Himalaya-type topography with topographic front and high plateau. Results of semianalytical <span class="hlt">models</span> suggest that the Argand number governs the formation of high topographic fronts, while the amplitude of plateaus is controlled by the initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Applying these results to natural examples, we show that the Alps belong to regime (III), the Himalaya-Tibet to regime (IV), whereas the Andes-Altiplano fall at the boundary between regimes (III) and (IV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93462','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93462"><span id="translatedtitle">EM <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for GPIR using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> FDTD <span class="hlt">modeling</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, S.D.</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts. Purpose of the experimental and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and <span class="hlt">modeled</span> data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...291...75L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...291...75L"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of electrochemical performances for Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4/C with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-grape-bunch structure and selection of suitable equivalent circuit for fitting EIS results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xiangfeng; Luo, Dongmei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhao</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4/C composite with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-grape-bunch structure is successfully synthesized through a novel hydrothermal method. Sucrose is used as in-situ coating carbon source, and the hydroxylated MWCNTs are used as connecting carbon wires which can be embedded into the carbon coating via self-assembling of the hydrophilic groups to form <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-grape-bunch structure. The influences of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-grape-bunch structure on the morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4/C composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Especially, four kinds of the equivalent circuit <span class="hlt">models</span> usually employed to analysis the EISs of Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4 as cathode material for Li-ion battery are discussed, and the suitable equivalent circuit for fitting EIS of Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4/C composite with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-grape-bunch structure is selected. The optimal Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4/C composite with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-grape-bunch structure owing to its good conductive network and high graphitic degree (low ID/IG value) of residual carbon exhibits a stable and high reversible capacity of 160.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C and 108.4 mAh g-1 even at 10.0C, and the cycling capacity retention rate reaches 99.9% over 60 cycles. Moreover, it also exhibits high conductivity, good reversibility and excellent stability in EIS and CV tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22123011"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D-FE</span> analysis of functionally graded structured dental posts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abu Kasim, Noor H; Madfa, Ahmed A; Hamdi, Mohd; Rahbari, Ghahnavyeh R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to compare the biomechanical behaviour of functionally graded structured posts (FGSPs) and homogenous-type posts in simulated <span class="hlt">models</span> of a maxillary central incisor. Two <span class="hlt">models</span> of FGSPs consisting of a multilayer xTi-yHA composite design, where zirconia and alumina was added as the first layer for <span class="hlt">models</span> A and B respectively were compared to homogenous zirconia post (<span class="hlt">model</span> C) and a titanium post (<span class="hlt">model</span> D). The amount of Ti and HA in the FGSP <span class="hlt">models</span> was varied in gradations. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-FEA was performed on all <span class="hlt">models</span> and stress distributions were investigated along the dental post. In addition, interface stresses between the posts and their surrounding structures were investigated under vertical, oblique, and horizontal loadings. Strain distribution along the post-dentine interface was also investigated. The results showed that FGSPs <span class="hlt">models</span>, A and B demonstrated better stress distribution than <span class="hlt">models</span> C and D, indicating that dental posts with multilayered structure dissipate localized and interfacial stress and strain more efficiently than homogenous-type posts. PMID:22123011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287561','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1287561"><span id="translatedtitle">West Flank Coso, CA FORGE <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Doug Blankenship</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>x,y,z data of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> temperature <span class="hlt">model</span> for the West Flank Coso FORGE site. <span class="hlt">Model</span> grid spacing is 250m. The temperature <span class="hlt">model</span> for the Coso geothermal field used over 100 geothermal production sized wells and intermediate-depth temperature holes. At the near surface of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, two boundary temperatures were assumed: (1) areas with surface manifestations, including fumaroles along the northeast striking normal faults and northwest striking dextral faults with the hydrothermal field, a temperature of ~104ËšC was applied to datum at +1066 meters above sea level elevation, and (2) a near-surface temperature at about 10 meters depth, of 20ËšC was applied below the diurnal and annual conductive temperature perturbations. These assumptions were based on heat flow studies conducted at the CVF and for the Mojave Desert. On the edges of the hydrothermal system, a 73ËšC/km (4ËšF/100’) temperature gradient contour was established using conductive gradient data from shallow and intermediate-depth temperature holes. This contour was continued to all elevation datums between the 20ËšC surface and -1520 meters below mean sea level. Because the West Flank is outside of the geothermal field footprint, during Phase 1, the three wells inside the FORGE site were incorporated into the preexisting temperature <span class="hlt">model</span>. To ensure a complete <span class="hlt">model</span> was built based on all the available data sets, measured bottom-hole temperature gradients in certain wells were downward extrapolated to the next deepest elevation datum (or a maximum of about 25% of the well depth where conductive gradients are evident in the lower portions of the wells). After assuring that the margins of the geothermal field were going to be adequately <span class="hlt">modelled</span>, the data was contoured using the Kriging method algorithm. Although the extrapolated temperatures and boundary conditions are not rigorous, the calculated temperatures are anticipated to be within ~6ËšC (20ËšF), or one contour interval, of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EAS....60..243M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EAS....60..243M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Betelgeuse's Bow Shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, S.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Betelgeuse, the bright red supergiant (RSG) in Orion, is a runaway star. Its supersonic motion through the interstellar medium has resulted in the formation of a bow shock, a cometary structure pointing in the direction of motion. We present the first <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of Betelgeuse's bow shock. We show that the bow shock morphology depends substantially on the growth timescale for Rayleigh-Taylor versus Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We discuss our <span class="hlt">models</span> in light of the recent Herschel, GALEX and VLA observations. If the mass in the bow shock shell is low (~few × 10-3 M⊙), as seems to be implied by the AKARI and Herschel observations, then Betelgeuse's bow shock is very young and is unlikely to have reached a steady state. The circular, smooth bow shock shell is consistent with this conclusion. We further discuss the implications of our results, in particular, the possibility that Betelgeuse may have only recently entered the RSG phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524631','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524631"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Simulation <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the Tooth Wear Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dai, Ning; Hu, Jian; Liu, Hao</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function) implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation. PMID:26241942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPFP1082T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DPPFP1082T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of beam kicker in DARHT-2 accelerator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thoma, Carsten; Genoni, Thomas; Hughes, Thomas</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The DARHT-2 beamline uses a fast stripline kicker developed at LLNL [1] to create a series of short pulses out of a 2 microsecond pulse for use in high resolution x-ray radiography. Normally, a static bias dipole bends the 2 kA, 18 MeV electron beam off axis into a dump. When the fast stripline kicker is activated, the static dipole kick is cancelled by the dynamic dipole field of the kicker, and the beam travels to the x-ray converter. <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> PIC simulations are performed to compute the effect of the kicker on the beam. The calculations incorporate the kicker biplate conductor geometry, allowing for accurate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the effects of higher multipole fields as well as beam wakefield effects. Beam emittance growth through the kicker is investigated for various beam loads. [1] B.R. Poole and Y.-J. Chen, "Particle Simulations of DARHT-2 Transport System", Proc. PAC 2001 Conference (http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/AccelConf/p01/PAPERS/RPPH034.PDF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1706f0012U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1706f0012U"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluating air-coupled ultrasonic measurements of nonlinear Rayleigh waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uhrig, Matthias P.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This research presents a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical finite element (<span class="hlt">FE</span>) <span class="hlt">model</span> which, previously developed, precisely simulates non-contact, air-coupled measurements of nonlinear Rayleigh wave propagation. The commercial <span class="hlt">FE</span>-solver ABAQUS is used to perform the simulations. First, frequency dependent pressure wave attenuation is investigated numerically to reconstruct the sound pressure distribution along the active surface of the non-contact receiver. Second, constitutive law and excitation source properties are optimized to match nonlinear ultrasonic experimental data. Finally, the <span class="hlt">FE-model</span> data are fit with analytical solutions showing a good agreement and thus, indicating the significance of the study performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014MNRAS.442..229T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014MNRAS.442..229T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> for Kepler's supernova remnant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Esquivel, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Reynoso, E. M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We present new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations for Kepler's supernova remnant. In this work we revisit the possibility that the asymmetric shape of the remnant in X-rays is the product of a Type Ia supernova explosion which occurs inside the wind bubble previously created by an AGB companion star. Due to the large peculiar velocity of the system, the interaction of the strong AGB wind with the interstellar medium results in a bow shock structure. In this new <span class="hlt">model</span> we propose that the AGB wind is anisotropic, with properties such as mass-loss rate and density having a latitude dependence, and that the orientation of the polar axis of the AGB star is not aligned with the direction of motion. The ejecta from the Type Ia supernova explosion is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using a power-law density profile, and we let the remnant evolve for 400 yr. We computed synthetic X-ray maps from the numerical results. We find that the estimated size and peculiar X-ray morphology of Kepler's supernova remnant are well reproduced by considering an AGB mass-loss rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1, a wind terminal velocity of 10 km s-1, an ambient medium density of 10-3 cm-3 and an explosion energy of 7 × 1050 erg. The obtained total X-ray luminosity of the remnant in this <span class="hlt">model</span> reaches 6 × 1050 erg, which is within a factor of 2 of the observed value, and the time evolution of the luminosity shows a rate of decrease in recent decades of ˜2.4 per cent yr-1 that is consistent with the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9838B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9838B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of carbonates petro-acoustic heterogeneities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baden, Dawin; Guglielmi, Yves; Saracco, Ginette; Marié, Lionel; Viseur, Sophie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Characterizing carbonate reservoirs heterogeneity is a challenging issue for Oil & Gas Industry, CO2 sequestration and all kinds of fluid manipulations in natural reservoirs, due to the significant impact of heterogeneities on fluid flow and storage within the reservoir. Although large scale (> meter) heterogeneities such as layers petrophysical contrasts are well addressed by computing facies-based <span class="hlt">models</span>, low scale (< meter) heterogeneities are often poorly constrained because of the complexity in predicting their spatial arrangement. In this study, we conducted petro-acoustic measurements on cores of different size and diameter (Ø = 1", 1.5" and 5") in order to evaluate anisotropy or heterogeneity in carbonates at different laboratory scales. Different types of heterogeneities which generally occur in carbonate reservoir units (e.g. petrographic, diagenetic, and tectonic related) were sampled. Dry / wet samples were investigated with different ultrasonic apparatus and using different sensors allowing acoustic characterization through a bandwidth varying from 50 to 500 kHz. Comprehensive measurements realized on each samples allowed statistical analyses of petro-acoustic properties such as attenuation, shear and longitudinal wave velocity. The cores properties (geological and acoustic facies) were <span class="hlt">modeled</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> using photogrammetry and GOCAD geo-<span class="hlt">modeler</span>. This method successfully allowed detecting and imaging in three dimensions differential diagenesis effects characterized by the occurrence of decimeter-scale diagenetic horizons in samples assumed to be homogeneous and/or different diagenetic sequences between shells filling and the packing matrix. We then discuss how small interfaces such as cracks, stylolithes and laminations which are also imaged may have guided these differential effects, considering that understanding the processes may be taken as an analogue to actual fluid drainage complexity in deep carbonate reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5092/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5092/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Slope Stability of Coastal Bluffs Using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Ground-Water Flow, Southwestern Seattle, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brien, Dianne L.; Reid, Mark E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Landslides are a common problem on coastal bluffs throughout the world. Along the coastal bluffs of the Puget Sound in Seattle, Washington, landslides range from small, shallow failures to large, deep-seated landslides. Landslides of all types can pose hazards to human lives and property, but deep-seated landslides are of significant concern because their large areal extent can cause extensive property damage. Although many geomorphic processes shape the coastal bluffs of Seattle, we focus on large (greater than 3,000 m3), deepseated, rotational landslides that occur on the steep bluffs along Puget Sound. Many of these larger failures occur in advance outwash deposits of the Vashon Drift (Qva); some failures extend into the underlying Lawton Clay Member of the Vashon Drift (Qvlc). The slope stability of coastal bluffs is controlled by the interplay of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) variations in gravitational stress, strength, and pore-water pressure. We assess <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> slope-stability using SCOOPS (Reid and others, 2000), a computer program that allows us to search a high-resolution digital-elevation <span class="hlt">model</span> (DEM) to quantify the relative stability of all parts of the landscape by computing the stability and volume of thousands of potential spherical failures. SCOOPS incorporates topography, <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> strength variations, and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> pore pressures. Initially, we use our <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> analysis methods to examine the effects of topography and geology by using heterogeneous material properties, as defined by stratigraphy, without pore pressures. In this scenario, the least-stable areas are located on the steepest slopes, commonly in Qva or Qvlc. However, these locations do not agree well with observations of deep-seated landslides. Historically, both shallow colluvial landslides and deep-seated landslides have been observed near the contact between Qva and Qvlc, and commonly occur in Qva. The low hydraulic conductivity of Qvlc impedes ground-water flow, resulting in elevated pore pressures at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000768','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000768"><span id="translatedtitle">Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence <span class="hlt">Model</span> in FUN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The implementation of the k-kL turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL <span class="hlt">model</span> is a two-equation turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation <span class="hlt">model</span>. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation <span class="hlt">models</span>. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> as implemented in the CFD codes Fun<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and CFL<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than results using the SST turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.S43A1371W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006AGUFM.S43A1371W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geologic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Southern Great Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagoner, J. L.; Myers, S. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We have constructed a regional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The <span class="hlt">model</span> is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5° to -112.6°, latitude 34.5° to 39.8°, and a depth from the surface to 150 km below sea level. Hence, the <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by geologic and geophysical studies, and the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 8 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas we scanned and hand digitized geologic maps for California and Utah. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and constrain the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m resolution DEM elsewhere. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used the Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) software to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a <span class="hlt">model</span> of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is an integer index representing the geologic unit. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5328Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5328Q"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We present a case study on using integrated geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> elaborate geological <span class="hlt">model</span> has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span>, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span> have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span>, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">models</span>. It is expected that the final <span class="hlt">models</span> not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">model</span> in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of <span class="hlt">Model</span>: Defining the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> limits of the <span class="hlt">model</span> area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the <span class="hlt">model</span> area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment according to their profile locations to build a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> by using geostatistics method. (3) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> gravity and magnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: we calculate the potential field responses of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, and compare the predicted and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5911B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5911B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Convective Flow In The Rhine Graben</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bächler, D.; Kohl, T.; Rybach, L.</p> <p></p> <p>Detailed investigations of the temperature distribution in the Rhine Graben indi- cate regular pattern of thermal anomalies following major north-south striking faults. These anomalies remain unexplained by conventional Rhine Graben studies based on 2D east-west striking sections. First analytical solutions for convective flow in vertical faults are applied for a clearly observable anomalous temperature pattern along ma- jor Rhine Graben faults. By these calculations the fault height, fault aperture, minimal fault permeability and time to convective onset is derived from the observed distances. Since analytical solutions are limited to simple <span class="hlt">model</span> geometries further improvement was achieved by numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations, which allow to assume more com- plex initial and boundary conditions. Using the finite volume code TOUGH2 series of anomalies following the same fault were simulated by a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span>. Fo- cussing on the predominant north-south permeability structure the <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a vertical north-south striking fault and surrounding matrix. The fault geometries are based on the analytically predicted fault geometries (aperture=200m, height=3500m) and on the observed temperatures. Comparison of simulation results with observed temperatures shows that the fault is situated between 500 to 600m and 4200m. The fault permeability is taken as 5*10-13m2 and the fluid velocity in the fault is calcu- lated as 10-9 to 10-10 m/s. These results indicate the importance of our considerations since mass flux is much higher in the faults than across them. The minimal age of the anomaly is considered to be 77'000 years, since steady state is reached after this time span. The study proves that the observed temperature anomaly pattern along the gamma fault at Landau can be explained by north-south striking convection systems within fault zones. Similar situations have been found at Soultz. This may be a hint on a general feature of the major north-south striking</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1011K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1011K"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Results of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Moon Accumulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>For the last time for the <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Moon usually had been used the <span class="hlt">model</span> of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32B0632P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.S32B0632P"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards an Anisotropic Whole Mantle <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Elastic Velocity <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panning, M. P.; Romanowicz, B.; Gung, Y.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Many studies have documented the existence of anisotropy in the earth's upper mantle, concentrated in the top 200 km. This evidence comes from the study of surface waves as well as shear wave splitting. There is also evidence for shear wave splitting in D", at least in well sampled regions. There are some hints of anisotropy at the base of the transition zone. Tomographic <span class="hlt">models</span> of the upper mantle have been developed with simplifying assumptions about the nature of the anisotropy, in order to minimize the number of free parameters in the inversions. Some assume transverse isotropy (e.g Ekström and Dziewonski, 1997), others include additional degrees of freedom with some realistic constraints on mineralogy (e.g. Montagner and Tanimoto, 1991). Our goal is to investigate anisotropy in the whole mantle, using the framework of waveform inversion, and the nonlinear asymptotic mode coupling theory (NACT), previously developed and applied to the construction of whole-mantle SH velocity <span class="hlt">models</span> (Li and Romanowicz, 1996; Mégnin and Romanowicz, 2000). For this we require a 3 component dataset, and we have extended our automatic transverse (T) component wavepicking procedures to the vertical (Z) and longitudinal (L) component - a non-trivial task given the large number of phases present in the coupled P-SV system. A useful initial assumption, for which the theory has been readily adapted, is that of transverse isotropy. As a first step towards this, we have been investigating inversions using T component and Z,L component data separately. In particular, this allows us to explore the sampling that can be achieved with Z,L component data alone in the deepest part of the mantle. Indeed, D" is in general much better sampled in SH than in SV, owing to the availability of SHdiff at large distances, while SVdiff decays more rapidly due to mantle-core coupling. We present the results of our resolution experiments and discuss the differences between the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SV <span class="hlt">model</span> obtained in well</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003380','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003380"><span id="translatedtitle">Orbiter/External Tank Mate <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Solid <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Godfrey, G. S.; Brandt, B.; Rorden, D.; Kapr, F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This research and development project presents an overview of the work completed while attending a summer 2004 American Society of Engineering Education/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ASEE/NASA) Faculty Fellowship. This fellowship was completed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The scope of the project was to complete parts, assemblies, and drawings that could be used by Ground Support Equipment (GSE) personnel to simulate situations and scenarios commonplace to the space shuttle Orbiter/External Tank (ET) Mate (50004). This mate takes place in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). These simulations could then be used by NASA engineers as decision-making tools. During the summer of 2004, parts were created that defined the Orbiter/ET structural interfaces. Emphasis was placed upon assemblies that included the Orbiter/ET forward attachment (EO-1), aft left thrust strut (EO-2), aft right tripod support structure (EO-3), and crossbeam and aft feedline/umbilical supports. These assemblies are used to attach the Orbiter to the ET. The Orbiter/ET Mate assembly was then used to compare and analyze clearance distances using different Orbiter hang angles. It was found that a 30-minute arc angle change in Orbiter hang angle affected distance at the bipod strut to Orbiter yoke fitting 8.11 inches. A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> solid <span class="hlt">model</span> library was established as a result of this project. This library contains parts, assemblies, and drawings translated into several formats. This library contains a collection of the following files: sti for sterolithography, stp for neutral file work, shrinkwrap for compression. tiff for photoshop work, jpeg for Internet use, and prt and asm for Pro/Engineer use. This library was made available to NASA engineers so that they could access its contents to make angle, load, and clearance analysis studies. These decision-making tools may be used by Pro/Engineer users and non-users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004SPIE.5370.1312V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004SPIE.5370.1312V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated robust generation of compact <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> statistical shape <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Tomazevic, Dejan; Pernus, Franjo</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Ascertaining the detailed shape and spatial arrangement of anatomical structures is important not only within diagnostic settings but also in the areas of planning, simulation, intraoperative navigation, and tracking of pathology. Robust, accurate and efficient automated segmentation of anatomical structures is difficult because of their complexity and inter-patient variability. Furthermore, the position of the patient during image acquisition, the imaging device and protocol, image resolution, and other factors induce additional variations in shape and appearance. Statistical shape <span class="hlt">models</span> (SSMs) have proven quite successful in capturing structural variability. A possible approach to obtain a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SSM is to extract reference voxels by precisely segmenting the structure in one, reference image. The corresponding voxels in other images are determined by registering the reference image to each other image. The SSM obtained in this way describes statistically plausible shape variations over the given population as well as variations due to imperfect registration. In this paper, we present a completely automated method that significantly reduces shape variations induced by imperfect registration, thus allowing a more accurate description of variations. At each iteration, the derived SSM is used for coarse registration, which is further improved by describing finer variations of the structure. The method was tested on 64 lumbar spinal column CT scans, from which 23, 38, 45, 46 and 42 volumes of interest containing vertebra L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5, respectively, were extracted. Separate SSMs were generated for each vertebra. The results show that the method is capable of reducing the variations induced by registration errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19858561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19858561"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-assembled <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flower-like Ni2+-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>3+ layered double hydroxides and their calcined products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Ting; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhiyong; Li, Dawei; Hu, Xiaoyan; Li, Bihui; Luo, Lijuan</p> <p>2009-11-25</p> <p>This paper describes a facile solvothermal method to synthesize self-assembled three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) Ni2+-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>3+ layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Flower-like Ni2+-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>3+ LDHs constructed of thin nanopetals were obtained using ethylene glycol (EG) as a chelating reagent and urea as a hydrolysis agent. The reaction mechanism and self-assembly process are discussed. After calcinating the as-prepared LDHs at 450 degrees C in nitrogen gas, porous NiO/Ni<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2O4 nanosheets were obtained. This work resulted in the development of a simple, cheap, and effective route for the fabrication of large area Ni2+-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>3+ LDHs as well as porous NiO/Ni<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2O4 nanosheets. PMID:19858561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..2DL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9808E..2DL"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on urban rapid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and application based on CGA rule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jing-wen; Jiang, Jian-wu; Zhou, Song; Yin, Shou-qiang</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Use CityEngine as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> platform, research on urban rapid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technology based on the CGA(Computer Generated Architectur) rule , solved the problem of the rapid creation of urban <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> in large scenes , and research on building texture processing and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> optimization techniques based on CGA rule , using component <span class="hlt">modeling</span> method , solved the problem of texture distortion and <span class="hlt">model</span> redundancy in the traditional fast <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> , and development of a three-dimensional view and analysis system based on ArcGIS Engine , realization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> query , distance measurement , specific path flight , <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> marking , Scene export,etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047931','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1047931"><span id="translatedtitle">Examination of 1D Solar Cell <span class="hlt">Model</span> Limitations Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPICE <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPICE-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a <span class="hlt">model</span> cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this <span class="hlt">modeling</span> give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AutoCAD&pg=2&id=EJ421949','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AutoCAD&pg=2&id=EJ421949"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geometric <span class="hlt">Models</span> to Teach Spatial Geometry Concepts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bertoline, Gary R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An explanation of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Computer Aided Design (CAD) usage to teach spatial geometry concepts using nontraditional techniques is presented. The software packages CADKEY and AutoCAD are described as well as their usefulness in solving space geometry problems. (KR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..35...44F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..35...44F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical <span class="hlt">modelling</span>: Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography <span class="hlt">models</span>. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures (objects) based on the seismic tomography <span class="hlt">models</span> and then forward <span class="hlt">modelling</span> these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this research, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object-oriented image analysis (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> OOA) approach was implemented to extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shear wave seismic tomography <span class="hlt">model</span> of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects from the tomography <span class="hlt">model</span> were reconstructed in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interactive <span class="hlt">modelling</span> environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> subsurface objects from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical data. We also introduce a new approach to constrain the interpretation of the satellite gravity measurements that can be applied using any <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communication+AND+facial&id=EJ1095136','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communication+AND+facial&id=EJ1095136"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-Facial Communication for Online Learning Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Yushun; Zhuang, Yueting</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Online interaction with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial animation is an alternative way of face-to-face communication for distance education. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is essential for virtual educational environments establishment. This article presents a novel <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> facial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> solution that facilitates quasi-facial communication for online learning. Our algorithm builds…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040616','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040616"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving <span class="hlt">Models</span>: Forward <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Howard Barker; Jason Cole</p> <p>2012-05-17</p> <p>Utilization of cloud-resolving <span class="hlt">models</span> and multi-dimensional radiative transfer <span class="hlt">models</span> to investigate the importance of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL2b.105T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL2b.105T"><span id="translatedtitle">Transforming 2d Cadastral Data Into a Dynamic Smart <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> property registration has become an imperative need in order to optimally reflect all complex cases of the multilayer reality of property rights and restrictions, revealing their vertical component. This paper refers to the potentials and multiple applications of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastral systems and explores the current state-of-the art, especially the available software with which <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization can be achieved. Within this context, the Hellenic Cadastre's current state is investigated, in particular its data <span class="hlt">modeling</span> frame. Presenting the methodologies and specifications addressing the registration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> properties, the operating cadastral system's shortcomings and merits are pointed out. Nonetheless, current technological advances as well as the availability of sophisticated software packages (proprietary or open source) call for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In order to register and visualize the complex reality in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, Esri's CityEngine <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software has been used, which is specialized in the generation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban environments, transforming 2D GIS Data into Smart <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">Models</span>. The application of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> concerns the Campus of the National Technical University of Athens, in which a complex ownership status is established along with approved special zoning regulations. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was built using different parameters based on input data, derived from cadastral and urban planning datasets, as well as legal documents and architectural plans. The process resulted in a final <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, optimally describing the cadastral situation and built environment and proved to be a good practice example of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL4..103C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL4..103C"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, to create a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> and generally suit to generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> road <span class="hlt">model</span>, street furniture <span class="hlt">model</span>, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final <span class="hlt">model</span> automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21340802M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21340802M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the Massive Binary Wind Interaction Region in Eta Carinae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madura, Thomas; Gull, T.; Owocki, S.; Okazaki, A.; Russell, C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We present recent work on the theoretical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of low excitation ([<span class="hlt">Fe</span> II]) and high excitation ([<span class="hlt">Fe</span> III]) wind lines observed in Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. The spatially resolved structures seen in these lines are interpreted as the time-averaged, outer extensions of the wind from the primary star and the wind-wind interaction region of the massive binary system. For most of the orbit, the wind-wind interface can be approximated as a cone with a half-opening angle of 65° whose axis of rotation is aligned with the major axis of the binary orbit and appears to lie in the plane of the Homunculus disk. However, because the orbit is highly elliptical, this approximation breaks down at periastron and so full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations become necessary. By analyzing the results of these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> SPH simulations of the binary interactions and comparing them to the spectra obtained with the HST/STIS we place further constraints on the orientation of the binary orbit, and hope to eventually determine how/where UV light is escaping in the system, to search for any direct signatures of the companion star, and to ultimately establish a mass ratio for the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...51K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...51K"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Results of Earth's Core Accumulation <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>For a long time as a most convenient had been the <span class="hlt">model</span> of mega impact in which the early forming of the Earth's core and mantle had been the consequence of formed protoplanet collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical <span class="hlt">models</span> of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,3] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius, the growing area of the future core can save also the silicate envelope fragments. All existing dynamical accumulation <span class="hlt">models</span> are constructed by using a spherical-symmetrical <span class="hlt">model</span>. Hence for understanding the further planet evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on the planet accumulation stage. In that paper we are <span class="hlt">modeling</span> distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity of matter flowing in a block of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>- spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach. The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..63..491V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMPSo..63..491V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> crystal plasticity by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation dynamics and the finite element method: The Discrete-Continuous <span class="hlt">Model</span> revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vattré, A.; Devincre, B.; Feyel, F.; Gatti, R.; Groh, S.; Jamond, O.; Roos, A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A unified <span class="hlt">model</span> coupling <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations with the finite element (<span class="hlt">FE</span>) method is revisited. The so-called Discrete-Continuous <span class="hlt">Model</span> (DCM) aims to predict plastic flow at the (sub-)micron length scale of materials with complex boundary conditions. The evolution of the dislocation microstructure and the short-range dislocation-dislocation interactions are calculated with a DD code. The long-range mechanical fields due to the dislocations are calculated by a <span class="hlt">FE</span> code, taking into account the boundary conditions. The coupling procedure is based on eigenstrain theory, and the precise manner in which the plastic slip, i.e. the dislocation glide as calculated by the DD code, is transferred to the integration points of the <span class="hlt">FE</span> mesh is described in full detail. Several test cases are presented, and the DCM is applied to plastic flow in a single-crystal Nickel-based superalloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20962723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20962723"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel alternative method for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualisation in Parasitology: the construction of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of a parasite from 2D illustrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">models</span> of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal <span class="hlt">modelling</span> method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structures. Appropriately orientated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from 2D illustrations for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms. PMID:20962723</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JIEIC.tmp...49P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JIEIC.tmp...49P"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Simulation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Thermo-Elastic Fatigue Crack Growth Problems Using Coupled <span class="hlt">FE</span>-EFG Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pathak, Himanshu; Singh, Akhilendra; Singh, Indra Vir</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this work, finite element method (FEM) and element free Galerkin method (EFGM) are coupled for solving <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crack domains subjected to cyclic thermal load of constant amplitude. Crack growth contours and fatigue life have been obtained for each of the considered numerical examples. Thermo-elastic problems are decoupled into thermal and elastic problems . Firstly, the unknown temperature field is obtained by solving heat conduction equation, then, it is used as the input load in the elastic problem to calculate the displacement and stress fields. The geometrical discontinuity across crack surface is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> by extrinsically enriched EFGM and the remaining part of the domain is approximated by standard finite element method. At the crack interface, a ramp function based interpolation scheme has been implemented. This coupled approach combines the advantages of both EFGM and FEM. A linear successive crack increment approach is used to <span class="hlt">model</span> crack growth. The growing crack surface is traced by level set function. Standard Paris law is used for life estimation of the three-dimensional crack <span class="hlt">models</span>. Different cases of planar and non-planar crack problems have been solved and their results are compared with the results obtained using extended finite element method to check accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the coupled <span class="hlt">FE</span>-EFG approach implemented in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316880"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of the ALICE Photoinjector Upgrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKenzie, J. W.; Militsyn, B. L.; Saveliev, Y. M.</p> <p>2009-08-04</p> <p>The injector for the ALICE machine (Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments) at Daresbury Laboratory is based around a 350 kV DC photocathode electron gun. An upgrade is proposed to introduce a load-lock GaAs photocathode preparation facility to allow rapid transfer of photocathodes to the gun without breaking the vacuum system. In the current design this requires side-loading of the photocathodes into the cathode ball. An alternative is to relocate the ceramic insulator vertically which will allow back-loading and also backillumination of the photocathodes. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electrostatic simulations of the gun chamber are presented for both options along with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> beam dynamic simulations for an off-axis photocathode, introduced to increase photocathode lifetime by reducing damage by ion backbombardment. Beam dynamic simulations are also presented for the entire injector beamline as well as for a proposed extension to the injector beamline to include a diagnostic section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015wrs..conf..363R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015wrs..conf..363R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> for NGC 6888 Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyes-Iturbide, J.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rosado, M.</p> <p></p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical simulations of the NGC6888 nebula considering the proper motion and the evolution of the star, from the red supergiant (RSG) to the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase. Our simulations reproduce the limb-brightened morphology observed in [OIII] and X-ray emission maps. The synthetic maps computed by the numerical simulations show filamentary and clumpy structures produced by instabilities triggered in the interaction between the WR wind and the RSG shell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..DPP..1P29T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..DPP..1P29T"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of Current Generation in a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Plasma <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsung, F. S.; Dawson, J. M.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>In the advanced tokamak regime, transport phenomena can account for a signficant fraction of the toroidal current, possibly over that driven directly by the ohmic heating electric fields. Bootstrap theory accounts for contributions of the collisional modification of banana orbits on the toroidal currents. In our previous simulations in 21/2-D, currents were spontaneously generated in both the cylindrical and the toroidal geometries, contrary to neoclassical predictions. In these calculations, it was believed that the driving mechanism is the preferential loss of particles whose initial velocity is opposite to that of the plasma current. We are extending these simulations to three dimensions. A parallel <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic PIC code running on the IBM SP2, with a localized field-solver has been developed to investigate the effects of perturbations parallel to the field lines, and direct comparisons has been made between the 21/2-D and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> simulations and we have found good agreements between the 2 1/2-D calculations and the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> results. We will present our new results at the meeting. Research partially supported by NSF and DOE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printing&pg=2&id=EJ1073047','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=3d+AND+printing&pg=2&id=EJ1073047"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual and Printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Both, virtual and printed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crystal <span class="hlt">models</span> can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> design to study point-symmetry. The use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing to…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921740"><span id="translatedtitle">ODTLES : a <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence <span class="hlt">modeling</span> concepts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) <span class="hlt">model</span> of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) domains. This <span class="hlt">model</span>, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES <span class="hlt">model</span>. In ODTLES, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh. The ODTLES <span class="hlt">model</span> is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...81S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CG.....85...81S"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of gravel unconstrained flow experiments with the DAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and RASH<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sauthier, Claire; Pirulli, Marina; Pisani, Gabriele; Scavia, Claudio; Labiouse, Vincent</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Landslide continuum dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> have improved considerably in the last years, but a consensus on the best method of calibrating the input resistance parameter values for predictive analyses has not yet emerged. In the present paper, numerical simulations of a series of laboratory experiments performed at the Laboratory for Rock Mechanics of the EPF Lausanne were undertaken with the RASH<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and DAN<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical codes. They aimed at analysing the possibility to use calibrated ranges of parameters (1) in a code different from that they were obtained from and (2) to simulate potential-events made of a material with the same characteristics as back-analysed past-events, but involving a different volume and propagation path. For this purpose, one of the four benchmark laboratory tests was used as past-event to calibrate the dynamic basal friction angle assuming a Coulomb-type behaviour of the sliding mass, and this back-analysed value was then used to simulate the three other experiments, assumed as potential-events. The computational findings show good correspondence with experimental results in terms of characteristics of the final deposits (i.e., runout, length and width). Furthermore, the obtained best fit values of the dynamic basal friction angle for the two codes turn out to be close to each other and within the range of values measured with pseudo-dynamic tilting tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/521637','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/521637"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic finite element <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, E.M.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JIEIC..93..365D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JIEIC..93..365D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Coupled <span class="hlt">FE</span> Analysis and Experimental Validation of Restrained Welding to Control Angular Distortion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Damale, A. V.; Nandurkar, K. N.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Welding induced distortion is one of the critical defects in the welded structures. Angular distortion is most pronounced which badly affects the welded structures. Non-uniform heating during welding develops this angular distortion. Various methods are available to control/minimize the welding distortions. One of the methods available to control this distortion is restraining, in which clamping pressure is applied on the deforming edges of the plates. In the present study, a 3-dimensional coupled transient thermal analysis is done for simulating the restraining phenomenon of welding. The developed transient thermal heat source was used to simulate the arc welding phenomenon. The element birth and death technique was used for simulating filler material deposition. Thermal <span class="hlt">model</span> was verified by comparing the macrograph of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) <span class="hlt">model</span> and the weld and verification of structural <span class="hlt">model</span> was done by comparing the measured and predicted angular distortions. Experimental and Finite Element (<span class="hlt">FE</span>) analysis is done for both conventional welding and welding under restraining pressure. Transient thermal and non-linear structural analyses were carried out in order to predict angular distortions. The Finite Element Method analysis and experimental verification is done for manual metal arc welding process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21399271','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21399271"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational approaches to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of RNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laing, Christian; Schlick, Tamar</p> <p>2010-07-21</p> <p>Many exciting discoveries have recently revealed the versatility of RNA and its importance in a variety of functions within the cell. Since the structural features of RNA are of major importance to their biological function, there is much interest in predicting RNA structure, either in free form or in interaction with various ligands, including proteins, metabolites and other molecules. In recent years, an increasing number of researchers have developed novel RNA algorithms for predicting RNA secondary and tertiary structures. In this review, we describe current experimental and computational advances and discuss recent ideas that are transforming the traditional view of RNA folding. To evaluate the performance of the most recent RNA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> folding algorithms, we provide a comparative study in order to test the performance of available <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure prediction algorithms for an RNA data set of 43 structures of various lengths and motifs. We find that the algorithms vary widely in terms of prediction quality across different RNA lengths and topologies; most predictions have very large root mean square deviations from the experimental structure. We conclude by outlining some suggestions for future RNA folding research. PMID:21399271</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..96...96F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..96...96F"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduced order <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of an unstructured mesh air pollution <span class="hlt">model</span> and application in 2D/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban street canyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, F.; Zhang, T.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C. C.; Buchan, A. G.; Navon, I. M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A novel reduced order <span class="hlt">model</span> (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed for a finite-element (<span class="hlt">FE</span>) adaptive mesh air pollution <span class="hlt">model</span>. A quadratic expansion of the non-linear terms is employed to ensure the method remained efficient. This is the first time such an approach has been applied to air pollution LES turbulent simulation through three dimensional landscapes. The novelty of this work also includes POD's application within a <span class="hlt">FE</span>-LES turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> that uses adaptive resolution. The accuracy of the reduced order <span class="hlt">model</span> is assessed and validated for a range of 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban street canyon flow problems. By comparing the POD solutions against the fine detail solutions obtained from the full <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> it is shown that the accuracy is maintained, where fine details of the air flows are captured, whilst the computational requirements are reduced. In the examples presented below the size of the reduced order <span class="hlt">models</span> is reduced by factors up to 2400 in comparison to the full <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> while the CPU time is reduced by up to 98% of that required by the full <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2008L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2008L"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of Tibetan Plateau formation: Thin-sheet versus fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lechmann, S. M.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Kaus, B. J. P.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge about the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau is still incomplete and many open questions remain concerning the deformation style of the crustal thickening, causing the abnormally high elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. Different <span class="hlt">models</span> have been suggested explaining the crustal thickening by (1) homogeneous, continuous deformation using thin-sheet <span class="hlt">models</span>, (2) discrete movement along thrusts developing crustal wedges and (3) lateral crustal flow due to pressure gradients resulting from topography. Most existing <span class="hlt">models</span> are not fully three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">models</span> (e.g. thin-sheet <span class="hlt">models</span>) and assume a certain deformation style a priori, which makes it difficult to judge the applicability of such constrained <span class="hlt">models</span> to the formation of the Tibetan Plateau. We present a comparison of deformation styles during continent indentation resulting from a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> and a thin-sheet <span class="hlt">model</span>. The rheology for both <span class="hlt">models</span> is power-law. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of four layers representing a simplified lithosphere: strong upper crust, weak lower crust, strong upper mantle and weak lower mantle. From the effective viscosity distribution of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> a vertically averaged effective viscosity is calculated and used for the thin-sheet <span class="hlt">model</span> to make direct comparisons between the two <span class="hlt">models</span>. Simulating indentation is achieved by assigning free slip at one lateral side of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and fixing two other sides. The boundary at which indentation is taking place, exhibits a tripartite velocity profile: Next to the free slip side a section with constant horizontal velocity is applied. The velocity then gradually decreases towards zero, applying a cosine-function. The last section of the indenting boundary next to the fixed side is also fixed. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> additionally exhibits a free surface and a bottom boundary allowing free slip. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code employs the finite element method with a mixed velocity-pressure formulation to simulate incompressible flow. A Lagrangian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012uuu..conf02001B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012uuu..conf02001B"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the impact of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data geometric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on spatial analysis: Illustration with Skyview factor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brasebin, M.; Perret, J.; Mustière, S.; Weber, C.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The increased availability of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban data reflects a growing interest in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial analysis. As <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial analysis often uses complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data, studies of the potential gains of using more detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban databases for specific uses is an important issue. First, more complex data implies an increase in time and memory usage for the analysis (and calls for more research on the efficiency of the algorithms used). Second, detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban data are complex to produce, expensive and it is important to be well informed in order to decide whether of not to invest in such data. Currently, many studies have been led about the fitness for use of 2D data but they are very scarce concerning <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data. This article presents a method to determine the influence of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on the results of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> analysis by isolating the potential sources of errors (such as roof <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and geometric accuracy). This method is applied on two <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> datasets (LOD1 and LOD2) and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indicator (the sky view factor or SVF). The results show that the significant influence of roof <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is globally compensated by the difference in geometric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> but that important local variations are noticed. Nevertheless, for 75% of the SVF processed the difference between the results using these two databases is lower than 2%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMMM..310.1706S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMMM..310.1706S"><span id="translatedtitle">Competition between <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> and 4f magnetism in Ce2<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2S5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schneidewind, A.; Mills, A. M.; Schnelle, W.; Stockert, O.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Ruck, M.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Magnetic susceptibility measurements and neutron powder diffraction were performed on the rare-earth transition-metal sulfide Ce2<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2S5 to study the effect of the substitution of nonmagnetic La(4f0) by Ce4f1). Ce2<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2S5, which is isostructural to La2<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2S5, contains <span class="hlt">Fe</span> ions within chains of iron-sulfur octahedra and tetrahedra that are interconnected by Ce ions. Two antiferromagnetic phases, both with the propagation vector τ=({1}/{2} {1}/{2} 0), are observed: at 5 K⩽T⩽80 K ordering of the <span class="hlt">Fe</span> moments is found; at T⩽5 K the Ce ions also participate in the magnetic ordering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3810373','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3810373"><span id="translatedtitle">A Deformable Generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Haptoral Anchor of Monogenean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to obtain a smoother and more natural <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. This deformable generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can be deformed into different desired <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes are formed. In this generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204903"><span id="translatedtitle">A deformable generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to obtain a smoother and more natural <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. This deformable generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can be deformed into different desired <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shapes are formed. In this generic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563862','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/563862"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The M<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (Multi-level <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD <span class="hlt">models</span> are presented; high-{beta} disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code, {omega}{sub *i} stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-K code, and unstructured mesh MH<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>{sup ++} code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I4....1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I4....1A"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing and Testing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Cadastral Data <span class="hlt">Model</span> a Case Study in Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aien, A.; Kalantari, M.; Rajabifard, A.; Williamson, I. P.; Shojaei, D.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Population growth, urbanization and industrialization place more pressure on land use with the need for increased space. To extend the use and functionality of the land, complex infrastructures are being built, both vertically and horizontally, layered and stacked. These three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) developments affect the interests (Rights, Restrictions, and Responsibilities (RRRs)) attached to the underlying land. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastre will assist in managing the effects of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> development on a particular extent of land. There are many elements that contribute to developing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastre, such as existing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> property legislations, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> DBMS, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization. However, data <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is one of the most important elements of a successful <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastre. As architectural <span class="hlt">models</span> of houses and high rise buildings help their users visualize the final product, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastre data <span class="hlt">model</span> supports <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastre users to understand the structure or behavior of the system and has a template that guides them to construct and implement the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastre. Many jurisdictions, organizations and software developers have built their own cadastral data <span class="hlt">model</span>. Land Administration Domain <span class="hlt">Model</span> (DIS-ISO 19152, The Netherlands) and ePlan (Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping, Australia) are examples of existing data <span class="hlt">models</span>. The variation between these data <span class="hlt">models</span> is the result of different attitudes towards cadastres. However, there is a basic common thread among them all. Current cadastral data <span class="hlt">models</span> use a 2D land-parcel concept and extend it to support <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> requirements. These data <span class="hlt">models</span> cannot adequately manage and represent the spatial extent of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> RRRs. Most of the current cadastral data <span class="hlt">models</span> have been influenced by a very broad understanding of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cadastral concepts because better clarity in what needs to be represented and analysed in the cadastre needs to be established. This paper presents the first version of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cadastral Data <span class="hlt">Model</span> (3DCDM_Version 1.0). 3DCDM <span class="hlt">models</span> both the legal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960014809','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960014809"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementation of algebraic stress <span class="hlt">models</span> in a general <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Navier-Stokes method (PAB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional multiblock Navier-Stokes code, PAB<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, which was developed for propulsion integration and general aerodynamic analysis, has been used extensively by NASA Langley and other organizations to perform both internal (exhaust) and external flow analysis of complex aircraft configurations. This code was designed to solve the simplified Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A two-equation k-epsilon turbulence <span class="hlt">model</span> has been used with considerable success, especially for attached flows. Accurate predicting of transonic shock wave location and pressure recovery in separated flow regions has been more difficult. Two algebraic Reynolds stress <span class="hlt">models</span> (ASM) have been recently implemented in the code that greatly improved the code's ability to predict these difficult flow conditions. Good agreement with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for a subsonic flat plate was achieved with ASM's developed by Shih, Zhu, and Lumley and Gatski and Speziale. Good predictions were also achieved at subsonic and transonic Mach numbers for shock location and trailing edge boattail pressure recovery on a single-engine afterbody/nozzle <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II5..329S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II5..329S"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach towards image based virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by using close range photogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, second method is Procedural grammar based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span> by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of area created. In third section, this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this <span class="hlt">model</span>, a final photo-realistic textured <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> created. This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> transferred into walk-through <span class="hlt">model</span> or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this <span class="hlt">model</span> is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN31C1521T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN31C1521T"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground and Structure Deformation <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> with a Tin Based Property <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>With the development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>( three-dimensional) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and visualization, more and more <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) based property <span class="hlt">model</span> for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new <span class="hlt">model</span> can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume <span class="hlt">model</span> based property <span class="hlt">model</span>, this new property <span class="hlt">model</span> can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property <span class="hlt">model</span> can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed <span class="hlt">model</span> of a much more large scale. To construct the <span class="hlt">models</span> of deformation filed based on TIN <span class="hlt">model</span>, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN <span class="hlt">model</span> refinement is a process of sampling the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN <span class="hlt">model</span> by adding more vertexes and triangles where the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN <span class="hlt">model</span> with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..450..140K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHyd..450..140K"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sorek, S.; Weisbrod, N.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>SummaryThe complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow <span class="hlt">models</span>. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas the flow and transport through groundwater are viewed as 2D or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> variably saturated flow using quasi <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Richards' equation and finite difference scheme is presented. The corresponding numerical algorithm and the QUASI-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computer code were developed. Results of the groundwater level simulations were compared with transient laboratory experimental data for 2D data constant-flux infiltration, quasi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HYDRUS-MODFLOW numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> and a FULL-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> using Richards' equation. Hypothetical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> examples of infiltration, pumping and groundwater mound dissipation for different spatial-time scales are presented. Water flow simulation for the Alto Piura aquifer (Peru) demonstrates the QUASI-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> application at the regional scale. Computationally the QUASI-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code was found to be more efficient by an order of 10-300%, while being accurate with respect to the benchmark fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> variable saturation code, when the capillary fringe was considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014MPLB...2850051L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014MPLB...2850051L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photocatalytic α-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2O3 structure using direct ink writing method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yayun; Li, Bo; Li, Longtu</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) photocatalytic devices are economical and environmental, since they can be easily recycled and reused. In this paper, a kind of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photocatalytic device with a rod diameter of 250 μm was fabricated using the aqueous-based α-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2O3 ceramic inks by direct ink writing (DIW) method. The properties of the DIW woodpile samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. The result shows that the ink with solid content of 71.4 wt.% exhibits a shear thinning behavior and proper viscoelastic properties, which ensure a feasible extrusion in the whole shaping process. The sample sintered at 800°C in air causes photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under the ultraviolet (UV) light. The photocatalytic properties of the α-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>2O3 woodpile structure was characterized by the UV-visible light spectrophotometer, and it was found to be better than that of bulk sample with same weight for its higher specific surface. The DIW technique would offer a potential method for the design and fabrication of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photocatalytic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAnIII7...89R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAnIII7...89R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Disease Symptoms on Hyperspectral <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Plant <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roscher, Ribana; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Dupuis, Jan; Kuhlmann, Heiner; Plümer, Lutz</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We analyze the benefit of combining hyperspectral images information with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometry information for the detection of Cercospora leaf spot disease symptoms on sugar beet plants. Besides commonly used one-class Support Vector Machines, we utilize an unsupervised sparse representation-based approach with group sparsity prior. Geometry information is incorporated by representing each sample of interest with an inclination-sorted dictionary, which can be seen as an 1D topographic dictionary. We compare this approach with a sparse representation based approach without geometry information and One-Class Support Vector Machines. One-Class Support Vector Machines are applied to hyperspectral data without geometry information as well as to hyperspectral images with additional pixelwise inclination information. Our results show a gain in accuracy when using geometry information beside spectral information regardless of the used approach. However, both methods have different demands on the data when applied to new test data sets. One-Class Support Vector Machines require full inclination information on test and training data whereas the topographic dictionary approach only need spectral information for reconstruction of test data once the dictionary is build by spectra with inclination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRB..117.6408L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRB..117.6408L"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of free subduction from <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> boundary element <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhong-Hai; Ribe, Neil M.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>In order better to understand the physical mechanisms underlying free subduction, we perform three-dimensional boundary-element numerical simulations of a dense fluid sheet with thickness h and viscosity η2 sinking in an `ambient mantle' with viscosity η1. The mantle layer is bounded above by a traction-free surface, and is either (1) infinitely deep or (2) underlain by a rigid boundary at a finite depth H + d, similar to the typical geometry used in laboratory experiments. Instantaneous solutions in configuration (1) show that the sheet's dimensionless `stiffness' S determines whether the slab's sinking speed is controlled by the viscosity of the ambient mantle (S < 1) or the viscosity of the sheet itself (S > 10). Time-dependent solutions with tracers in configuration (2) demonstrate a partial return flow around the leading edge of a retreating slab and return flow around its sides. The extra `edge drag' exerted by the flow around the sides causes transverse deformation of the slab, and makes the sinking speed of a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> slab up to 40% less than that of a 2-D slab. A systematic investigation of the slab's interaction with the bottom boundary as a function of η2/η1 and H/h delineates a rich regime diagram of different subduction modes (trench retreating, slab folding, trench advancing) and reveals a new `advancing-folding' mode in which slab folding is preceded by advancing trench motion. The solutions demonstrate that mode selection is controlled by the dip of the leading edge of the slab at the time when it first encounters the bottom boundary.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10977532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10977532"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and modification of medical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects. The benefit of using a haptic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kling-Petersen, T; Rydmark, M</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Computer Laboratory of the medical faculty in Goteborg (Mednet) has since the end of 1998 been one of a limited numbers of participants in the development of a new <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool together with SensAble Technologies Inc [http:¿www.sensable.com/]. The software called SensAble FreeForm was officially released at Siggraph September 1999. Briefly, the software mimics the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques traditionally used by clay artists. An imported <span class="hlt">model</span> or a user defined block of "clay" can be modified using different tools such as a ball, square block, scrape etc via the use of a SensAble Technologies PHANToM haptic arm. The <span class="hlt">model</span> will deform in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> as a result of touching the "clay" with any selected tool and the amount of deformation is linear to the force applied. By getting instantaneous haptic as well as visual feedback, precise and intuitive changes are easily made. While SensAble FreeForm lacks several of the features normally associated with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> program (such as text handling, application of surface and bumpmaps, high-end rendering engines, etc) it's strength lies in the ability to rapidly create non-geometric <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. For medical use, very few anatomically correct <span class="hlt">models</span> are created from scratch. However, FreeForm features tools enable advanced modification of reconstructed or <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanned <span class="hlt">models</span>. One of the main problems with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laserscanning of medical specimens is that the technique usually leaves holes or gaps in the dataset corresponding to areas in shadows such as orifices, deep grooves etc. By using FreeForms different tools, these defects are easily corrected and gaps are filled out. Similarly, traditional <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction (based on serial sections etc) often shows artifacts as a result of the triangulation and/or tessellation processes. These artifacts usually manifest as unnatural ridges or uneven areas ("the accordion effect"). FreeForm contains a smoothing algorithm that enables the user to select an area to be modified and subsequently apply</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMiMi..22k5001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMiMi..22k5001R"><span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> active mixer based on deformable <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-doped PDMS cones with magnetic actuation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riahi, Mohammadreza; Alizadeh, Elaheh</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In this paper an active <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mixer for lab-on-chip applications is presented. The micrometer size cone shape holes are ablated on a PMMA sheet utilizing a CO2 laser. The holes are filled with <span class="hlt">Fe</span> micro-particles and the whole structure is molded with PDMS which cause the <span class="hlt">Fe</span> micro-particles to be trapped in a PDMS cone structure. These <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-doped PDMS cones are placed in a PMMA micro-channel structure fabricated by CO2 laser machining. By applying an external periodic magnetic field, the cones periodically bend in the micro-channel and stir the fluid. The fabrication method and the effect of the magnetic field on the bending of the cones with different aspect ratios is also discussed utilizing computer simulation. Doping the polymers with micro- and nano-metallic particles has been carried out by different research groups before, but according to our knowledge, application of such structures for the fabrication of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> active mixer has not been presented before.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B4...63Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B4...63Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Model</span> Recognition for Grammar-Based Automatic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Building <span class="hlt">Model</span> Reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Qian; Helmholz, Petra; Belton, David</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In recent years, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are in high demand by many public and private organisations, and the steadily growing capacity in both quality and quantity are increasing demand. The quality evaluation of these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> is a relevant issue both from the scientific and practical points of view. In this paper, we present a method for the quality evaluation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building <span class="hlt">models</span> which are reconstructed automatically from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on an attributed building grammar. The entire evaluation process has been performed in all the three dimensions in terms of completeness and correctness of the reconstruction. Six quality measures are introduced to apply on four datasets of reconstructed building <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to describe the quality of the automatic reconstruction, and also are assessed on their validity from the evaluation point of view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..439K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B4..439K"><span id="translatedtitle">Combination of Virtual Tours, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> and Digital Data in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Archaeological Knowledge and Information System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAn.II2a.299Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAn.II2a.299Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards Precise Metadata-set for Discovering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geospatial <span class="hlt">Models</span> in Geo-portals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zamyadi, A.; Pouliot, J.; Bédard, Y.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Accessing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geospatial <span class="hlt">models</span>, eventually at no cost and for unrestricted use, is certainly an important issue as they become popular among participatory communities, consultants, and officials. Various geo-portals, mainly established for 2D resources, have tried to provide access to existing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> resources such as digital elevation <span class="hlt">model</span>, LIDAR or classic topographic data. Describing the content of data, metadata is a key component of data discovery in geo-portals. An inventory of seven online geo-portals and commercial catalogues shows that the metadata referring to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information is very different from one geo-portal to another as well as for similar <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> resources in the same geo-portal. The inventory considered 971 data resources affiliated with elevation. 51% of them were from three geo-portals running at Canadian federal and municipal levels whose metadata resources did not consider <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> by any definition. Regarding the remaining 49% which refer to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, different definition of terms and metadata were found, resulting in confusion and misinterpretation. The overall assessment of these geo-portals clearly shows that the provided metadata do not integrate specific and common information about <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geospatial <span class="hlt">models</span>. Accordingly, the main objective of this research is to improve <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geospatial <span class="hlt">model</span> discovery in geo-portals by adding a specific metadata-set. Based on the knowledge and current practices on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> data acquisition and management, a set of metadata is proposed to increase its suitability for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geospatial <span class="hlt">models</span>. This metadata-set enables the definition of genuine classes, fields, and code-lists for a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> metadata profile. The main structure of the proposal contains 21 metadata classes. These classes are classified in three packages as General and Complementary on contextual and structural information, and Availability on the transition from storage to delivery format. The proposed metadata set is compared with Canadian Geospatial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1009..103T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC.1009..103T"><span id="translatedtitle">Why <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>? The Need for Solution Based <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> in a National Geoscience Organization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Terrington, Ricky; Napier, Bruce; Howard, Andy; Ford, Jon; Hatton, William</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>In recent years national geoscience organizations have increasingly utilized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> data as an output to the stakeholder community. Advances in both software and hardware have led to an increasing use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> depictions of geoscience data alongside the standard 2D data formats such as maps and GIS data. By characterizing geoscience data in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, knowledge transfer between geoscientists and stakeholders is improved as the mindset and thought processes are communicated more effectively in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> than in a 2D flat file format. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> allow the user to understand the conceptual basis of the 2D data and aids the decision making process at local, regional and national scales. Some of these issues include foundation and engineering conditions, ground water vulnerability, aquifer recharge and flow, and resource extraction and storage. The British Geological Survey has established a mechanism and infrastructure through the Digital Geoscience Spatial <span class="hlt">Model</span> Programme (DGSM) to produce these types of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience outputs. This cyber-infrastructure not only allows good data and information management, it enables geoscientists to capture their know-how and implicit and tacit knowledge for their <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interpretations. A user of this data will then have access to value-added information for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> dataset including the knowledge, approach, inferences, uncertainty, wider context and best practice acquired during the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interpretation. To complement this cyber-infrastructure, an immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Facility was constructed at the British Geological Survey offices in Keyworth, Nottingham and Edinburgh. These custom built facilities allow stereo projection of geoscience data, immersing the users and stakeholders in a wealth of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological data. Successful uses of these facilities include collaborative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, demonstrations to public stakeholders and Virtual Field Mapping Reconnaissance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.5220D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.5220D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Integration of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> photogrammetric outcrop <span class="hlt">models</span> in the reservoir <span class="hlt">modelling</span> workflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. The technology used for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise <span class="hlt">models</span>. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue <span class="hlt">models</span> for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> outcrop <span class="hlt">models</span> with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> outcrops into the reservoir <span class="hlt">modelling</span> tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop <span class="hlt">model</span> are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geocellular <span class="hlt">models</span> are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface <span class="hlt">models</span>: the detailed facies <span class="hlt">models</span> of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic <span class="hlt">models</span>, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. The detailed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A <span class="hlt">modelling</span> workflow has been designed to <span class="hlt">model</span> reservoir geometries and properties from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AutoCAD&id=EJ854213','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AutoCAD&id=EJ854213"><span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking Design Process: Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Digital <span class="hlt">Models</span> as an Interface in Collaborative Session</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ding, Suining</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a pilot study for an alternative design process by integrating a designer-user collaborative session with digital <span class="hlt">models</span>. The collaborative session took place in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> AutoCAD class for a real world project. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> served as an interface for designer-user collaboration during the design process. Students not only learned…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..403S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL5..403S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. In our experiments, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> will be represented by using standard formats of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24977236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24977236"><span id="translatedtitle">A topological framework for interactive queries on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> in the Web.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Several technologies exist to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content for the web. With X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological <span class="hlt">model</span> for Triangle meshes) for Web<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> servers that builds the topological <span class="hlt">model</span> for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold <span class="hlt">models</span>. Web<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> applications. PMID:24977236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3997994','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3997994"><span id="translatedtitle">A Topological Framework for Interactive Queries on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> in the Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Figueiredo, Mauro; Rodrigues, José I.; Silvestre, Ivo; Veiga-Pires, Cristina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Several technologies exist to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> content for the web. With X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological <span class="hlt">model</span> for Triangle meshes) for Web<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> servers that builds the topological <span class="hlt">model</span> for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold <span class="hlt">models</span>. Web<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> applications. PMID:24977236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20719192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20719192"><span id="translatedtitle">Initial Comparison Between a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">Model</span> and the HAFv2 Kinematic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span>: The October/November 2003 Events from the Sun to 6 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Intriligator, Devrie S.; Detman, Thomas; Fry, Craig D.; Sun Wei; Deehr, Charles; Intriligator, James</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>A first-generation <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> kinematic, space weather forecasting solar wind <span class="hlt">model</span> (HAFv2) has been used to show the importance of solar generated disturbances in Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observations in the outer heliosphere. We extend this work by using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MHD <span class="hlt">model</span> (HHMS) that, like HAFv2, incorporates a global, pre-event, inhomogeneous, background solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field. Initial comparisons are made between the two <span class="hlt">models</span> of the solar wind out to 6 AU and with in-situ observations at the ACE spacecraft before and after the October/November 2003 solar events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=d&pg=2&id=EJ1098731','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=d&pg=2&id=EJ1098731"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printed <span class="hlt">Models</span> in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical <span class="hlt">models</span>, however, evidence for the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NTE....31...45P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NTE....31...45P"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic charge <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MMM signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pengpeng, Shi; Xiaojing, Zheng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Stress concentration is a major cause of metal structure failures. Based on the metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique, detailed information of stress concentration or defects on ferromagnetic materials can be obtained from the changed magnetic signals. The magnetic charge <span class="hlt">model</span> of MMM signal is described, and simulations based on this <span class="hlt">model</span> are performed for a sample with stress-concentration zone or a long elliptical defect. Some basic characteristics produced by present <span class="hlt">model</span> are coincident with existed experimental measurements. The agreements between simulations and experimental results confirm that the present magnetic charge <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used as an MMM signal forward technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4..357Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4..357Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Route <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Based On Estate Spatial Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, H.; Wen, Y.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Indoor three-dimensional route <span class="hlt">model</span> is essential for space intelligence navigation and emergency evacuation. This paper is motivated by the need of constructing indoor route <span class="hlt">model</span> automatically and as far as possible. By comparing existing building data sources, this paper firstly explained the reason why the estate spatial management data is chosen as the data source. Then, an applicable method of construction three-dimensional route <span class="hlt">model</span> in a building is introduced by establishing the mapping relationship between geographic entities and their topological expression. This data <span class="hlt">model</span> is a weighted graph consist of "node" and "path" to express the spatial relationship and topological structure of a building components. The whole process of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> internal space of a building is addressed by two key steps: (1) each single floor route <span class="hlt">model</span> is constructed, including path extraction of corridor using Delaunay triangulation algorithm with constrained edge, fusion of room nodes into the path; (2) the single floor route <span class="hlt">model</span> is connected with stairs and elevators and the multi-floor route <span class="hlt">model</span> is eventually generated. In order to validate the method in this paper, a shopping mall called "Longjiang New City Plaza" in Nanjing is chosen as a case of study. And the whole building space is constructed according to the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> method above. By integrating of existing path finding algorithm, the usability of this <span class="hlt">modelling</span> method is verified, which shows the indoor three-dimensional route <span class="hlt">modelling</span> method based on estate spatial data in this paper can support indoor route planning and evacuation route design very well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7513E..2JX','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7513E..2JX"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing photorealistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> from image sequence using domain decomposition method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>In the fields of industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation, physical objects are usually digitalized by reverse engineering through some <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scanning methods. Structured light and photogrammetry are two main methods to acquire <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> information, and both are expensive. Even if these expensive instruments are used, photorealistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are seldom available. In this paper, a new method to reconstruction photorealistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> using a single camera is proposed. A square plate glued with coded marks is used to place the objects, and a sequence of about 20 images is taken. From the coded marks, the images are calibrated, and a snake algorithm is used to segment object from the background. A rough <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is obtained using shape from silhouettes algorithm. The silhouettes are decomposed into a combination of convex curves, which are used to partition the rough <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> into some convex mesh patches. For each patch, the multi-view photo consistency constraints and smooth regulations are expressed as a finite element formulation, which can be resolved locally, and the information can be exchanged along the patches boundaries. The rough <span class="hlt">model</span> is deformed into a fine <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> through such a domain decomposition finite element method. The textures are assigned to each element mesh, and a photorealistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is got finally. A toy pig is used to verify the algorithm, and the result is exciting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAn.II4...59P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ISPAn.II4...59P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Services Oriented Smart City Platform Based On <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Model</span> Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prandi, F.; Soave, M.; Devigili, F.; Andreolli, M.; De Amicis, R.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The rapid technological evolution, which is characterizing all the disciplines involved within the wide concept of smart cities, is becoming a key factor to trigger true user-driven innovation. However to fully develop the Smart City concept to a wide geographical target, it is required an infrastructure that allows the integration of heterogeneous geographical information and sensor networks into a common technological ground. In this context <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> will play an increasingly important role in our daily lives and become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure). The work presented in this paper describes an innovative Services Oriented Architecture software platform aimed at providing smartcities services on top of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are the basis of many applications and can became the platform for integrating city information within the Smart-Cites context. In particular the paper will investigate how the efficient visualisation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> using different levels of detail (LODs) is one of the pivotal technological challenge to support Smart-Cities applications. The goal is to provide to the final user realistic and abstract <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> representations of the urban environment and the possibility to interact with a massive amounts of semantic information contained into the geospatial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>. The proposed solution, using OCG standards and a custom service to provide <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span>, lets the users to consume the services and interact with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> via Web in a more effective way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..2HW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6045E..2HW"><span id="translatedtitle">An object-oriented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> integral data <span class="hlt">model</span> for digital city and digital mine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Lixin; Wang, Yanbing; Che, Defu; Xu, Lei; Chen, Xuexi; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Wenzhong</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>With the rapid development of urban, city space extended from surface to subsurface. As the important data source for the representation of city spatial information, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city spatial data have the characteristics of multi-object, heterogeneity and multi-structure. It could be classified referring to the geo-surface into three kinds: above-surface data, surface data and subsurface data. The current research on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city spatial information system is divided naturally into two different branch, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City GIS (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CGIS) and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> (3DGM). The former emphasizes on the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization of buildings and the terrain of city, while the latter emphasizes on the visualization of geological bodies and structures. Although, it is extremely important for city planning and construction to integrate all the city spatial information including above-surface, surface and subsurface objects to conduct integral analysis and spatial manipulation. However, either <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CGIS or 3DGM is currently difficult to realize the information integration, integral analysis and spatial manipulation. Considering <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> theory and methodologies, an object-oriented <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> integral spatial data <span class="hlt">model</span> (OO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ISDM) is presented and software realized. The <span class="hlt">model</span> integrates geographical objects, surface buildings and geological objects together seamlessly with TIN being its coupling interface. This paper introduced the conceptual <span class="hlt">model</span> of OO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-ISDM, which is comprised of 4 spatial elements, i.e. point, line, face and body, and 4 geometric primitives, i.e. vertex, segment, triangle and generalized tri-prism (GTP). The spatial <span class="hlt">model</span> represents the geometry of surface buildings and geographical objects with triangles, and geological objects with GTP. Any of the represented objects, no mater surface buildings, terrain or subsurface objects, could be described with the basic geometry element, i.e. triangle. So the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> spatial objects, surface buildings, terrain and geological objects can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computer+AND+aided+AND+design&pg=5&id=EJ596027','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computer+AND+aided+AND+design&pg=5&id=EJ596027"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Geometric <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for the 21st Century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ault, Holly K.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Describes new geometric computer <span class="hlt">models</span> used in contemporary computer-aided design (CAD) software including wire frame, surface, solid, and parametric <span class="hlt">models</span>. Reviews their use in engineering design and discusses the impact of these new technologies on the engineering design graphics curriculum. (Author/CCM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1293...55M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1293...55M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Fluid-Structure <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of a Monofin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monier, L.; Razafimahery, F.; Rakotomanana, L.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to develop a numerical modelisation for the behaviour of a monofin. We have developped a fluid struture <span class="hlt">model</span> simulating the movement of a fin in a swimming pool. We first present the geometry and the equations and then proceed to different numerical experiments in order to validate the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=318951&keyword=CONTROL+AND+INTERNAL&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77966436&CFTOKEN=50953003','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=318951&keyword=CONTROL+AND+INTERNAL&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77966436&CFTOKEN=50953003"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Human Respiratory System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We are developing a comprehensive, morphologically-realistic computational <span class="hlt">model</span> of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while being adaptable for age, race, gender, and health/disease status. The <span class="hlt">model</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.3943M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.3943M"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in dissolved iron deposition to the oceans driven by human activity: a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> global <span class="hlt">modelling</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Baker, A. R.; Nenes, A.; Kanakidou, M.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The global atmospheric iron (<span class="hlt">Fe</span>) cycle is parameterized in the global <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> chemical transport <span class="hlt">model</span> TM4-ECPL to simulate the proton- and the organic ligand-promoted mineral <span class="hlt">Fe</span> dissolution as well as the aqueous-phase photochemical reactions between the oxidative states of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>(III/II). Primary emissions of total (TFe) and dissolved (DFe) <span class="hlt">Fe</span> associated with dust and combustion processes are also taken into account. TFe emissions are calculated to amount to ~35 Tg <span class="hlt">Fe</span> yr-1. The <span class="hlt">model</span> reasonably simulates the available <span class="hlt">Fe</span> observations, supporting the reliability of the results of this study. Accounting for proton- and organic ligand-promoted <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-dissolution in present-day TM4-ECPL simulations, the total <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-dissolution is calculated to be ~0.163 Tg <span class="hlt">Fe</span> yr-1 that accounts for up to ~50% of the calculated total DFe emissions. The atmospheric burden of DFe is calculated to be ~0.012 Tg <span class="hlt">Fe</span>. DFe deposition presents strong spatial and temporal variability with an annual deposition flux ~0.489 Tg <span class="hlt">Fe</span> yr-1 from which about 25% (~0.124 Tg <span class="hlt">Fe</span> yr-1) are deposited over the ocean. The impact of air-quality on <span class="hlt">Fe</span> deposition is studied by performing sensitivity simulations using preindustrial (year 1850), present (year 2008) and future (year 2100) emission scenarios. These simulations indicate that an increase (~2 times) in <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-dissolution may have occurred in the past 150 years due to increasing anthropogenic emissions and thus atmospheric acidity. On the opposite, a decrease (~2 times) of <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-dissolution is projected for near future, since atmospheric acidity is expected to be lower than present-day due to air-quality regulations of anthropogenic emissions. The organic ligand contribution to <span class="hlt">Fe</span> dissolution shows inverse relationship to the atmospheric acidity thus its importance has decreased since the preindustrial period but is projected to increase in the future. The calculated changes also show that the atmospheric DFe supply to High-Nutrient-Low-Chlorophyll oceanic areas (HNLC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812412Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812412Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> smoothed seismicity <span class="hlt">model</span> of induced earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zechar, Jeremy; Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As more energy exploration and extraction efforts cause earthquakes, it becomes increasingly important to control induced seismicity. Risk management schemes must be improved and should ultimately be based on near-real-time forecasting systems. With this goal in mind, we propose a test bench to evaluate <span class="hlt">models</span> of induced seismicity based on metrics developed by the CSEP community. To illustrate the test bench, we consider a <span class="hlt">model</span> based on the so-called seismogenic index and a rate decay; to produce three-dimensional forecasts, we smooth past earthquakes in space and time. We explore four variants of this <span class="hlt">model</span> using the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 datasets to make short-term forecasts, test their consistency, and rank the <span class="hlt">model</span> variants. Our results suggest that such a smoothed seismicity <span class="hlt">model</span> is useful for forecasting induced seismicity within three days, and giving more weight to recent events improves forecast performance. Moreover, the location of the largest induced earthquake is forecast well by this <span class="hlt">model</span>. Despite the good spatial performance, the <span class="hlt">model</span> does not estimate the seismicity rate well: it frequently overestimates during stimulation and during the early post-stimulation period, and it systematically underestimates around shut-in. In this presentation, we also describe a robust estimate of information gain, a modification that can also benefit forecast experiments involving tectonic earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1411632B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1411632B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of CMEs observed with STEREO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bosman, E.; Bothmer, V.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>From January 2007 until end of 2010, 565 typical large-scale coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been identified in the SECCHI/COR2 synoptic movies of the STEREO Mission. A subset comprising 114 CME events, selected based on the CME's brightness appearance in the SECCHI/COR2 images, has been <span class="hlt">modeled</span> through the Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) <span class="hlt">Model</span> developed by Thernisien et al. (2006). This study presents an overview of the GCS forward-<span class="hlt">modeling</span> results and an interpretation of the CME characteristics in relationship to their solar source region properties and solar cycle appearances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5895666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5895666"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavelengths of the 3p-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> transitions of the Co- and <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-like ions: The effects of electron correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Mau Hsiung</p> <p>1987-09-02</p> <p>The experimental observations of the 3p/sup 6/ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>/sup 9/ /sup 2/D - 3p/sup 5/ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>/sup 10/ /sup 2/p transitions of the Co-like ions and 3p/sup 6/ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>/sup 8/ /sup 3/F/sub 4/ - 3p/sup 5/ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>/sup 9/ /sup 3/F/sub 3/ of the <span class="hlt">Fe</span>-like ions have recently been extended to highly charged ions of heavy elements up to uranium (Z = 92). A comparison between the observed energies and calculated values from the Dirac-Fock <span class="hlt">model</span> indicated persistent discrepancies of 3 to 4 eV for all ions. Systematic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations for these transitions have been carried out with emphases on the effects of electron correlation. The previously found discrepancies theory and experiment have mostly removed after the inclusion of the electron-electron correlation effects in the theoretical calculations. 13 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841681"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Shortwave Radiative Effects within the Weather Research and Forecasting <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Gautier, C.</p> <p>2005-03-18</p> <p>A principal goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to understand the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cloud-radiation problem from scales ranging from the local to the size of global climate <span class="hlt">model</span> (GCM) grid squares. For climate <span class="hlt">models</span> using typical cloud overlap schemes, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects are minimal for all but the most complicated cloud fields. However, with the introduction of ''superparameterization'' methods, where sub-grid cloud processes are accounted for by embedding high resolution 2D cloud system resolving <span class="hlt">models</span> within a GCM grid cell, the impact of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects on the local scale becomes increasingly relevant (Randall et al. 2003). In a recent study, we examined this issue by comparing the heating rates produced from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and 1D shortwave radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> for a variety of radar derived cloud fields (O'Hirok and Gautier 2005). As demonstrated in Figure 1, the heating rate differences for a large convective field can be significant where <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects produce areas o f intense local heating. This finding, however, does not address the more important question of whether <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects can alter the dynamics and structure of a cloud field. To investigate that issue we have incorporated a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer algorithm into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) <span class="hlt">model</span>. Here, we present very preliminary findings of a comparison between cloud fields generated from a high resolution non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical weather <span class="hlt">model</span> using 1D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PASA...21..228H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PASA...21..228H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Galaxies with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Multi-Phase ISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harfst, Stefan; Theis, Christian; Hensler, Gerhard</p> <p></p> <p>We present a modified TREE-SPH code to <span class="hlt">model</span> galaxies in three dimensions. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes a multi-phase description of the interstellar medium which combines two numerical techniques. A diffuse warm/hot gas phase is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> by SPH, whereas a cloudy medium is represented by a sticky particle scheme. Interaction processes (such as star formation and feedback), cooling, and mixing by condensation and evaporation, are taken into account. Here we apply our <span class="hlt">model</span> to the evolution of a Milky Way type galaxy. After an initial stage, a quasi-equilibrium state is reached. It is characterised by a star formation rate of ~1 Msolar yr-1. Condensation and evaporation rates are in balance at 0.1-1 Msolar yr-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934856','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934856"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated mask creation from a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> using Faethm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schiek, Richard Louis; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>We have developed and implemented a method which given a three-dimensional object can infer from topology the two-dimensional masks needed to produce that object with surface micro-machining. The masks produced by this design tool can be generic, process independent masks, or if given process constraints, specific for a target process. This design tool calculates the two-dimensional mask set required to produce a given three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> by investigating the vertical topology of the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1495....3S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1495....3S"><span id="translatedtitle">Computational ocean acoustics: Advances in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ocean acoustic <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Henrik; Jensen, Finn B.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of ocean acoustic propagation developed in the 1980's are still in widespread use today, and the field of computational ocean acoustics is often considered a mature field. However, the explosive increase in computational power available to the community has created opportunities for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> phenomena that earlier were beyond reach. Most notably, three-dimensional propagation and scattering problems have been prohibitive computationally, but are now addressed routinely using brute force numerical approaches such as the Finite Element Method, in particular for target scattering problems, where they are being combined with the traditional wave theory propagation <span class="hlt">models</span> in hybrid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> frameworks. Also, recent years has seen the development of hybrid approaches coupling oceanographic circulation <span class="hlt">models</span> with acoustic propagation <span class="hlt">models</span>, enabling the forecasting of sonar performance uncertainty in dynamic ocean environments. These and other advances made over the last couple of decades support the notion that the field of computational ocean acoustics is far from being mature. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 321OA].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..984B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..984B"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> crustal <span class="hlt">model</span> of Asia region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranov, A. A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Southern and Central Asia is tectonically complex region with great collision between Asian and Indian plates and its evolution is strongly related to the active subduction along the Pacific border. Previous global crustal <span class="hlt">model</span> (CRUST 2.0.) for Asia region have resolution 2x2 degree. <span class="hlt">Model</span> AsCRUST-08 (Baranov et al., 2008) of Central and Southern Asia with resolution of 1x1 degree was sufficiently improved in several regions and we built integrated <span class="hlt">model</span> of the crust for Asia region. Also we add several regions in North Eurasia as Mongolia, Kazahstan and others. For such regions as Red and Dead sea, Northern China, Southern India we built regional maps with more detailed resolution. It was used data of deep seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies from published papers. The existing data were verified and crosschecked. As the first result, we demonstrate a new Moho map for the region. The complex crustal <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of three layers: upper, middle and lower crust. Besides depth to the boundaries, we provide average P-wave velocities in the upper, middle and lower parts of the crystalline crust. Limits for Vp velocities are: for upper crust 5.5-6.2 km/s, for middle 6.0-6.6 km/s, for lower crust 6.6-7.5km/s. Also we recalculated seismic P velocity data to density in crustal layers using rheology properties and geology data. Conclusions: Moho map and the velocity structure of the crust are much more heterogeneous than in previous maps CRUST 2.0. (Bassin et al., 2000), and CRUST 5.1. (Mooney et al., 1998). Our <span class="hlt">model</span> offers a starting point for numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of deep structures by allowing correction for crustal effects beforehand and to resolve trade-off with mantle heterogeneities. This <span class="hlt">model</span> will be used as a starting point in the gravity <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the lithosphere and mantle structure. [1] A. Baranov et al., First steps towards a new crustal <span class="hlt">model</span> of South and Central Asia , Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-05313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI52A..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI52A..08D"><span id="translatedtitle">Congruence of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Whole Mantle <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Shear Velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dziewonski, A. M.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The range of shear velocity anomalies in published whole mantle <span class="hlt">models</span> is considerable. This impedes drawing conclusions of importance for geodynamic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and for interpretation of mineral physics results. However, if one considers only the <span class="hlt">models</span> that were built using data that are sensitive to mantle structure at all depths, these <span class="hlt">models</span> show robust features in their power spectra as a function of depth. On this basis we propose that there are five depth intervals with distinct spectral characteristics. 1. Heterosphere (Moho - 300 km) is characterized by strong power spectrum relatively flat up to degree 6. With lateral shear wavespeed variations as large as 15%, this zone accounts for more than 50% of the entire heterogeneity in the mantle. Differences among <span class="hlt">models</span> for different tectonic regions decrease rapidly below 300 km depth. 2. Upper mantle buffer zone (300- 500 km) has a flat spectrum and the overall power of heterogeneity drops by an order of magnitude compared to the region above. There may be still weak difference between continents and oceans, but the oceanic regions lose their age dependence. The spectral characteristics do not change across the 410 km discontinuity. 3. Transition zone (500 - 650 km) The degree 2 anomaly becomes dominant. There are long wavelength anomalies in regions of the fastest plate subduction during the last 15-20 Ma, suggesting slab ponding above the 650 km discontinuity. Several slower-than-average anomalies of unknown origin are present in this depth range. 4. Lower mantle buffer zone (650 - 2300 km) has a weak, flat spectrum without long wavelength velocity anomalies that could be interpreted as unfragmented subducted slabs. However, there are three relatively narrow and short high velocity anomalies under Peru, Tonga and Indonesia that may indicate limited slab penetration. 5 Abyssal layer (2300 - CMB) Strong spectrum dominated by degrees 2 and 3. The amplitude is the largest at the CMB and decreases rapidly up to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9675E..25X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9675E..25X"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by integration visual and tactile cues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>With the progress in CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems, many mechanical components can be designed efficiently with high precision. But, such a system is unfit for some organic shapes, for example, a toy. In this paper, an easy way to dealing with such shapes is presented, combing visual perception with tangible interaction. The method is divided into three phases: two tangible interaction phases and one visual reconstruction. In the first tangible phase, a clay <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to represent the raw shape, and the designer can change the shape intuitively with his hands. Then the raw shape is scanned into a digital volume <span class="hlt">model</span> through a low cost vision system. In the last tangible phase, a desktop haptic device from SensAble is used to refine the scanned volume <span class="hlt">model</span> and convert it into a surface <span class="hlt">model</span>. A physical clay <span class="hlt">model</span> and a virtual clay mode are all used in this method to deal with the main shape and the details respectively, and the vision system is used to bridge the two tangible phases. The vision reconstruction system is only made of a camera to acquire raw shape through shape from silhouettes method. All of the systems are installed on a single desktop, make it convenient for designers. The vision system details and a design example are presented in the papers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6726099','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6726099"><span id="translatedtitle">MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: a 3 dimensional magnetotelluric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> program (user's guide and documentation for Rev. 1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nutter, C.; Wannamaker, P.E.</p> <p>1980-11-01</p> <p>MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.REV1 is a non-interactive computer program written in FORTRAN to do 3-dimensional magnetotelluric <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> volume integral equation has been adapted to simulate the MT response of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> body in the earth. An integro-difference scheme has been incorporated to increase the accuracy. This is a user's guide for MT<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>.REV1 on the University of Utah Research Institute's (UURI) PRIME 400 computer operating under PRIMOS IV, Rev. 17.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6377M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6377M"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel processing for efficient <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> slope stability <span class="hlt">modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Metz, Markus; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We test the performance of the GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability <span class="hlt">model</span> r.slope.stability. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed as a C- and python-based raster module of the GRASS GIS software. It considers the three-dimensional geometry of the sliding surface, adopting a modification of the <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed by Hovland (1977), and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a terrain elevation map and a set of relevant thematic layers, the <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluates the stability of slopes for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal or truncated in shape. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a value of the factor of safety, FS. For each pixel, the minimum value of FS and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information is used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable slopes in the study area. We test the <span class="hlt">model</span> in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, an area known to be susceptible to landslides of different type and size. Availability of a comprehensive and detailed landslide inventory map allowed for a critical evaluation of the <span class="hlt">model</span> results. The r.slope.stability code automatically splits the study area into a defined number of tiles, with proper overlap in order to provide the same statistical significance for the entire study area. The tiles are then processed in parallel by a given number of processors, exploiting a multi-purpose computing environment at CNR IRPI, Perugia. The map of the FS is obtained collecting the individual results, taking the minimum values on the overlapping cells. This procedure significantly reduces the processing time. We show how the gain in terms of processing time depends on the tile dimensions and on the number of cores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCoPh.313..121D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCoPh.313..121D"><span id="translatedtitle">A Cartesian scheme for compressible multimaterial <span class="hlt">models</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Brauer, Alexia; Iollo, Angelo; Milcent, Thomas</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We <span class="hlt">model</span> the three-dimensional interaction of compressible materials separated by sharp interfaces. We simulate fluid and hyperelastic solid flows in a fully Eulerian framework. The scheme is the same for all materials and can handle large deformations and frictionless contacts. Necessary conditions for hyperbolicity of the hyperelastic neohookean <span class="hlt">model</span> in three dimensions are proved thanks to an explicit computation of the characteristic speeds. We present stiff multimaterial interactions including air-helium and water-air shock interactions, projectile-shield impacts in air and rebounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MNRAS.459.1159L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MNRAS.459.1159L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of stellar auroral radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Buemi, C. S.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Cerrigone, L.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The electron cyclotron maser is the coherent emission process that gives rise to the radio lighthouse effect observed in the hot magnetic chemically peculiar star CU Virginis. It has also been proposed to explain the highly circularly polarized radio pulses observed in some ultracool dwarfs with spectral type earlier than M7. Coherent events of this kind resemble auroral radio emission from the magnetized planets of the Solar system. In this article, we present a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> able to simulate the timing and profile of the pulses emitted by those stars characterized by a dipolar magnetic field by following the hypothesis of the laminar source <span class="hlt">model</span>, used to explain the beaming of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation. This <span class="hlt">model</span> proves to be a powerful tool with which to understand the auroral radio emission phenomenon, allowing us to derive some general conclusions about the effects of the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s free parameters on the features of coherent pulses and to learn more about the detectability of such pulsed radio emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647435"><span id="translatedtitle">Cotranslational processing mechanisms: towards a dynamic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giglione, Carmela; Fieulaine, Sonia; Meinnel, Thierry</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Recent major advances have been made in understanding how cotranslational events are achieved in the course of protein biosynthesis. Specifically, several studies have shed light into the dynamic process of how nascent chains emerging from the ribosome are supported by protein biogenesis factors to ensure both processing and folding mechanisms. To take into account the awareness that coordination is needed, a new 'concerted <span class="hlt">model</span>' recently proposed simultaneous action of both processes on the ribosome. In the <span class="hlt">model</span>, any emerging nascent chain is first encountered by the chaperone trigger factor (TF), which forms an open cradle underneath the ribosomal exit tunnel. This cradle serves as a passive router that channels the nascent chains to the first cotranslational event, the proteolysis event performed by the N-terminal methionine excision machinery. Although fascinating, this <span class="hlt">model</span> clearly raises more questions than it answers. Does the data used to develop this <span class="hlt">model</span> stand up to scrutiny and, if not, what are the alternative mechanisms that the data suggest? PMID:19647435</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5638..835L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5638..835L"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of portable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision coordinate measuring system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Shugui; Huang, Fengshan; Peng, Kai</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>The portable three-dimensional vision coordinate measuring system, which consists of a light pen, a CCD camera and a laptop computer, can be widely applied in most coordinate measuring fields especially on the industrial spots. On the light pen there are at least three point-shaped light sources (LEDs) acting as the measured control characteristic points and a touch trigger probe with a spherical stylus which is used to contact the point to be measured. The most important character of this system is that three light sources and the probe stylus are aligned in one line with known positions. In building and studying this measuring system, how to construct the system"s mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> is the most key problem called perspective of three-collinear-points problem, which is a particular case of perspective of three-points problem (P3P). On the basis of P3P and spatial analytical geometry theory, the system"s mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> is established in this paper. What"s more, it is verified that perspective of three-collinear-points problem has a unique solution. And the analytical equations of the measured point"s coordinates are derived by using the system"s mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> and the restrict condition that three light sources and the probe stylus are aligned in one line. Finally, the effectiveness of the mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> is confirmed by experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010056"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> orbital evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> of outer asteroid belt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Solovaya, Nina A.; Gerasimov, Igor A.; Pittich, Eduard M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of minor planets in the outer part of the asteroid belt is considered. In the framework of the semi-averaged elliptic restricted three-dimensional three-body <span class="hlt">model</span>, the boundary of regions of the Hill's stability is found. As was shown in our work, the Jacobian integral exists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19263096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19263096"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> pharmacophore <span class="hlt">models</span> for thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Jing; Liu, Yixi; Wang, Songqing</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an endogenous arachidonic acid derivative closely correlated to thrombosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The action of TXA(2) can be effectively inhibited with TXA(2) receptor antagonists (TXRAs). Previous studies have attempted to describe the interactions between the TXA(2) receptor and its ligands, but their conclusions are still controversial. In this study, ligand-based computational drug design is used as a new and effective way to investigate the structure-activity relationship of TXRAs. Three-dimensional pharmacophore <span class="hlt">models</span> of TXRAs were built with HypoGenRefine and HipHop modules in CATALYST software. The optimal HypoGenRefine <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed on the basis of 25 TXRAs. It consists of two hydrophobic groups, one aromatic ring, one hydrogen-bond acceptor and four excluded volumes. The optimal HipHop <span class="hlt">model</span> contains two hydrophobic groups and two hydrogen-bond acceptors. These <span class="hlt">models</span> describe the key structure-activity relationship of TXRAs, can predict their activities, and can thus be used to design novel antagonists. PMID:19263096</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARQ40004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARQ40004S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> cell migration on filamentous tracks in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwarz, J. M.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Cell motility is integral to a number of physiological processes ranging from wound healing to immune response to cancer metastasis. Many studies of cell migration, both experimental and theoretical, have addressed various aspects of it in two dimensions, including protrusion and retraction at the level of single cells. However, the in vivo environment for a crawling cell is typically a three-dimensional environment, consisting of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and surrounding cells. Recent experiments demonstrate that some cells crawling along fibers of the ECM mimic the geometry of the fibers to become long and thin, as opposed to fan-like in two dimensions, and can remodel the ECM. Inspired by these experiments, a <span class="hlt">model</span> cell consisting of beads and springs that moves along a tense semiflexible filamentous track is constructed and studied, paying particular attention to the mechanical feedback between the <span class="hlt">model</span> cell and the track, as mediated by the active myosin-driven contractility and the catch/slip bond behavior of the focal adhesions, as the <span class="hlt">model</span> cell crawls. This simple construction can then be scaled up to a <span class="hlt">model</span> cell moving along a three-dimensional filamentous network, with a prescribed microenvironment, in order to make predictions for proposed experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676981','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676981"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> parallel SGILD <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xie, G.; Li, J.; Majer, E.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, a new parallel <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and inversion algorithm using a Stochastic Global Integral and Local Differential equation (SGILD) is presented. The authors derived new acoustic integral equations and differential equation for statistical moments of the parameters and field. The new statistical moments integral equation on the boundary and local differential equations in domain will be used together to obtain mean wave field and its moments in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The new moments global Jacobian volume integral equation and the local Jacobian differential equations in domain will be used together to update the mean parameters and their moments in the inversion. A new parallel multiple hierarchy substructure direct algorithm or direct-iteration hybrid algorithm will be used to solve the sparse matrices and one smaller full matrix from domain to the boundary, in parallel. The SGILD <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and imaging algorithm has many advantages over the conventional imaging approaches. The SGILD algorithm can be used for the stochastic acoustic, electromagnetic, and flow <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and inversion, and are important for the prediction of oil, gas, coal, and geothermal energy reservoirs in geophysical exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006A%26A...449..509H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006A%26A...449..509H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> galaxies with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> multi-phase ISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harfst, S.; Theis, Ch.; Hensler, G.</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>We present a new particle code for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the evolution of galaxies. The code is based on a multi-phase description for the interstellar medium (ISM). We include star formation (SF), stellar feedback by massive stars and planetary nebulae, phase transitions, and interactions between gas clouds and ambient diffuse gas, namely condensation, evaporation, drag, and energy dissipation. The last is realised by radiative cooling and inelastic cloud-cloud collisions. We present new schemes for SF and stellar feedback that include a consistent calculation of the star-formation efficiency (SFE) based on ISM properties, as well as a detailed redistribution of the feedback energy into the different ISM phases. As a first test we show a <span class="hlt">model</span> of the evolution of a present day Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibits a quasi-stationary behaviour in global properties like mass fractions or surface densities, the evolution of the ISM is strongly variable locally depending on the local SF and stellar feedback. We start only with two distinct phases, but a three-phase ISM is formed soon and consists of cold molecular clouds, a warm gas disk, and a hot gaseous halo. Hot gas is also found in bubbles in the disk accompanied by type II supernovae explosions. The volume-filling factor of the hot gas in the disk is 35%. The mass spectrum of the clouds follows a power-law with an index of α ≈ -2. The star-formation rate (SFR) is 1.6 M⊙ yr-1 on average, decreasing slowly with time due to gas consumption. In order to maintain a constant SFR, gas replenishment, e.g. by infall, of the order 1 M⊙ yr-1 is required. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> is in fair agreement with Kennicutt's (1998, ApJ, 498, 541) SF law including the cut-off at 10 M⊙ pc-2. <span class="hlt">Models</span> with a constant SFE, i.e. no feedback on the SF, fail to reproduce Kennicutt's law. We performed a parameter study varying the particle resolution, feedback energy, cloud radius, SF time scale, and metallicity. In most these cases the evolution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJ...610..616B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJ...610..616B"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Measurements of the <span class="hlt">Fe</span> XVII 2p-3s and 2p-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Transitions and Comparison with Solar and Astrophysical Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K. W.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The L-shell emission spectrum of <span class="hlt">Fe</span> XVII is measured in high-temperature laboratory plasmas, and the inferred intensities of the 3s-->2p transitions relative to those of the dominant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-->2p transition are compared to solar observations, as well as to observations of Capella, Procyon, Castor C, II Pegassi, and NGC 4636 with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. The results from laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are in very good agreement, indicating that the collisional line formation processes found in low-density, high-temperature laboratory plasmas are a good description of those found in astrophysical plasmas. The laboratory observations disagree, however, to varying degrees with spectral <span class="hlt">modeling</span> calculations. A review of existing laboratory measurements suggests that the intensity of the dominant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-->2p transition is overestimated by spectral <span class="hlt">modeling</span> predications. By calibrating spectral <span class="hlt">models</span> with laboratory data, especially by decreasing the strength of the dominant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span>-->2p transition, spectral <span class="hlt">models</span> can be brought into agreement with the majority of solar and astrophysical observations. Without doing so, opacity effects may be grossly overestimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......248A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......248A"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> strategy on science learning of the solar system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alharbi, Mohammed</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> software to create <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> (no <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, premade <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>, and create <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686614','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686614"><span id="translatedtitle">Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> digital study <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To compare traditional plaster casts, digital <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed copies of dental plaster casts based on various criteria. To determine whether <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed copies obtained using open source system RepRap can replace traditional plaster casts in dental practice. To compare and contrast the qualities of two possible <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing options – open source system RepRap and commercially available <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing. Design and settings A method comparison study on 10 dental plaster casts from the Orthodontic department, Department of Stomatology, 2nd medical Faulty, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic. Material and methods Each of 10 plaster casts were scanned by inEos Blue scanner and the printed on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer RepRap [10 <span class="hlt">models</span>] and ProJet HD3000 <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printer [1 <span class="hlt">model</span>]. Linear measurements between selected points on the dental arches of upper and lower jaws on plaster casts and its <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> copy were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed copies have many advantages over traditional plaster casts. The precision and accuracy of the RepRap <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed copies of plaster casts were confirmed based on the statistical analysis. Although the commercially available <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing enables to print more details than the RepRap system, it is expensive and for the purpose of clinical use can be replaced by the cheaper prints obtained from RepRap printed copies. Conclusions Scanning of the traditional plaster casts to obtain a digital <span class="hlt">model</span> offers a pragmatic approach. The scans can subsequently be used as a template to print the plaster casts as required. Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printers can replace traditional plaster casts primarily due to their accuracy and price. PMID:23721330</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114032','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114032"><span id="translatedtitle">Time efficient <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> on massively parallel computers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>A numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> algorithm has been developed to simulate the electromagnetic response of a three dimensional earth to a dipole source for frequencies ranging from 100 to 100MHz. The numerical problem is formulated in terms of a frequency domain--modified vector Helmholtz equation for the scattered electric fields. The resulting differential equation is approximated using a staggered finite difference grid which results in a linear system of equations for which the matrix is sparse and complex symmetric. The system of equations is solved using a preconditioned quasi-minimum-residual method. Dirichlet boundary conditions are employed at the edges of the mesh by setting the tangential electric fields equal to zero. At frequencies less than 1MHz, normal grid stretching is employed to mitigate unwanted reflections off the grid boundaries. For frequencies greater than this, absorbing boundary conditions must be employed by making the stretching parameters of the modified vector Helmholtz equation complex which introduces loss at the boundaries. To allow for faster calculation of realistic <span class="hlt">models</span>, the original serial version of the code has been modified to run on a massively parallel architecture. This modification involves three distinct tasks; (1) mapping the finite difference stencil to a processor stencil which allows for the necessary information to be exchanged between processors that contain adjacent nodes in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, (2) determining the most efficient method to input the <span class="hlt">model</span> which is accomplished by dividing the input into ``global`` and ``local`` data and then reading the two sets in differently, and (3) deciding how to output the data which is an inherently nonparallel process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/102238','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/102238"><span id="translatedtitle">Some results on hyperscaling in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, G.A. Jr.; Kawashima, Naoki</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The authors review exact studies on finite-sized 2 dimensional Ising <span class="hlt">models</span> and show that the point for an infinite-sized <span class="hlt">model</span> at the critical temperature is a point of nonuniform approach in the temperature-size plane. They also illuminate some strong effects of finite-size on quantities which do not diverge at the critical point. They then review Monte Carlo studies for 3 dimensional Ising <span class="hlt">models</span> of various sizes (L = 2--100) at various temperatures. From these results they find that the data for the renormalized coupling constant collapses nicely when plotted against the correlation length, determined in a system of edge length L, divided by L. They also find that {zeta}{sub L}/L {ge} 0.26 is definitely too large for reliable studies of the critical value, g*, of the renormalized coupling constant. They have reasonable evidence that {zeta}{sub L}/L {approx} 0.1 is adequate for results that are within one percent of those for the infinite system size. On this basis, they have conducted a series of Monte Carlo calculations with this condition imposed. These calculations were made practical by the development of improved estimators for use in the Swendsen-Wang cluster method. The authors found from these results, coupled with a reversed limit computation (size increases with the temperature fixed at the critical temperature), that g* > 0, although there may well be a sharp downward drop in g as the critical temperature is approached in accord with the predictions of series analysis. The results support the validity of hyperscaling in the 3 dimensional Ising <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020075050','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020075050"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann <span class="hlt">Models</span> in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>dHumieres, Dominique; Ginzburg, Irina; Krafczyk, Manfred; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This article provides a concise exposition of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation, with examples of fifteen-velocity and nineteen-velocity <span class="hlt">models</span> in three dimensions. Simulation of a diagonally lid-driven cavity flow in three dimensions at Re=500 and 2000 is performed. The results clearly demonstrate the superior numerical stability of the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation over the popular lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000110368&hterms=System+treatment+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSystem%2Btreatment%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000110368&hterms=System+treatment+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSystem%2Btreatment%2Bwater"><span id="translatedtitle">The Martian Water Cycle Based on <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houben, H.; Haberle, R. M.; Joshi, M. M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the distribution of Martian water is a major goal of the Mars Surveyor program. However, until the bulk of the data from the nominal missions of TES, PMIRR, GRS, MVACS, and the DS2 probes are available, we are bound to be in a state where much of our knowledge of the seasonal behavior of water is based on theoretical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. We therefore summarize the results of this <span class="hlt">modeling</span> at the present time. The most complete calculations come from a somewhat simplified treatment of the Martian climate system which is capable of simulating many decades of weather. More elaborate meteorological <span class="hlt">models</span> are now being applied to study of the problem. The results show a high degree of consistency with observations of aspects of the Martian water cycle made by Viking MAWD, a large number of ground-based measurements of atmospheric column water vapor, studies of Martian frosts, and the widespread occurrence of water ice clouds. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSH23A1944B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSH23A1944B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of ICME in the interplanetary medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borgazzi, A.; Lara, A.; Niembro, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We developed a method that describes with simply geometry the coordinates of intersection between the leading edge of an ICME and the position of an arbitrary satellite. When a fast CME is ejected from the Sun to the interplanetary space in most of the cases drives a shock. As the CME moves in the corona and later in the interplanetary space more material is stacking in the front and edges of the ejecta. In a first approximation, it is possible to assume the shape of these structures, the CME and the stacked material as a cone of revolution, (the ice-cream <span class="hlt">model</span> [Schwenn et al., (2005)]). The interface may change due to the interaction of the structure and the non-shocked material in front of the ICME but the original shape of a cone of revolution is preserved. We assume, in a three dimensional geometry, an ice-cream cone shape for the ICME and apply an analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> for its transport in the interplanetary medium. The goal of the present method is to give the time and the intersection coordinates between the leading edge of the ICME and any satellite that may be in the path of the ICME. With this information we can <span class="hlt">modelate</span> the travel of the ICME in the interplanetary space using STEREO data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PASA...32...42J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PASA...32...42J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing a New <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Dynamical <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Barred Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar, we introduce a new simple dynamical <span class="hlt">model</span> and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar, as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First, we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane z = pz = 0 using the Poincaré map as a basic tool and then study the full three-dimensional case using the Smaller Alignment index method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar <span class="hlt">model</span> can realistically describe the formation and the evolution of the observed twin spiral structure in barred galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000APS..MARI33003R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000APS..MARI33003R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Elastic properties of <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> porous ceramics and foams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, Anthony; Garboczi, Edward</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>The novel properties of many new porous materials are related to their interesting internal microstructure. Apart from simple cases, there exist no theoretical means of predicting the bulk properties of these materials. This limits our ability to guide microstructure optimization for a particular purpose. We use a large scale finite element method to demonstrate the complex relationship between microstructure and the effective properties of realistic three-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> porous ceramics and foams. We find that pore-shape and interconnectivity strongly influence the properties of sintered ceramics. For porous foams we have studied the role of coordination number, random disorder, and strut shape on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We find that that Voronoi tesselations, commonly used to <span class="hlt">model</span> solid foams, show unphysical behavior, in particular they are incompressible (rubber-like) at low densities. Deletion of just 10% of the bonds in the <span class="hlt">model</span> reduces the bulk modulus by 75%, more in line with experimental evidence. The FEM results are generally in good agreement with experimental data for ceramics and foams, and can be used as both a predictive and interpretative tool by experimentalists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.9045E..1NQ&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.9045E..1NQ&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Blind watermark algorithm on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion <span class="hlt">model</span> based on wavelet transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qi, Hu; Zhai, Lang</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>With the continuous development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vision technology, digital watermark technology, as the best choice for copyright protection, has fused with it gradually. This paper proposed a blind watermark plan of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion <span class="hlt">model</span> based on wavelet transform, and made it loaded into the Vega real-time visual simulation system. Firstly, put <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> into affine transform, and take the distance from the center of gravity to the vertex of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object in order to generate a one-dimensional discrete signal; then make this signal into wavelet transform to change its frequency coefficients and embed watermark, finally generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> motion <span class="hlt">model</span> with watermarking. In fixed affine space, achieve the robustness in translation, revolving and proportion transforms. The results show that this approach has better performances not only in robustness, but also in watermark- invisibility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..229..101L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JHyd..229..101L"><span id="translatedtitle">Approximate analytic solutions to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> unconfined groundwater flow within regional 2D <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luther, K.; Haitjema, H. M.</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>We present methods for finding approximate analytic solutions to three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) unconfined steady state groundwater flow near partially penetrating and horizontal wells, and for combining those solutions with regional two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">models</span>. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> solutions use distributed singularities (analytic elements) to enforce boundary conditions on the phreatic surface and seepage faces at vertical wells, and to maintain fixed-head boundary conditions, obtained from the 2D <span class="hlt">model</span>, at the perimeter of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. The approximate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> solutions are analytic (continuous and differentiable) everywhere, including on the phreatic surface itself. While continuity of flow is satisfied exactly in the infinite <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flow domain, water balance errors can occur across the phreatic surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002hst..prop.9544T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002hst..prop.9544T"><span id="translatedtitle">Supernova Spectrum Synthesis for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Composition <span class="hlt">Models</span> with the Monte Carlo Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Rollin</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>newcommandBruteextttBrute Relying on spherical symmetry when <span class="hlt">modelling</span> supernova spectra is clearly at best a good approximation. Recent polarization measurements, interesting features in flux spectra, and the clumpy textures of supernova remnants suggest that supernova envelopes are rife with fine structure. To account for this fine structure and create a complete picture of supernovae, new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> explosion <span class="hlt">models</span> will be forthcoming. To reconcile these <span class="hlt">models</span> with observed spectra, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative transfer will be necessary. We propose a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, Brute, and improvements that will move it toward a fully self-consistent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transfer code. Spectroscopic HST observations of supernovae past, present and future will definitely benefit. Other <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> transfer problems of interest to HST users like AGNs will benefit from the techniques developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3545..401W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3545..401W"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal-spatial <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of fast-moving and deforming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Xiaoliang; Wei, Youzhi</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>This paper gives a brief description of the method and techniques developed for the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and reconstruction of fast moving and deforming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects. A new approach using close-range digital terrestrial photogrammetry in conjunction with high speed photography and videography is proposed. A sequential image matching method (SIM) has been developed to automatically process pairs of images taken continuously of any fast moving and deforming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects. Using the SIM technique a temporal-spatial <span class="hlt">model</span> (TSM) of any fast moving and deforming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects can be developed. The TSM would include a series of reconstructed surface <span class="hlt">models</span> of the fast moving and deforming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object in the form of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images. The TSM allows the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> objects to be visualized and analyzed in sequence. The SIM method, specifically the left-right matching and forward-back matching techniques are presented in the paper. An example is given which deals with the monitoring of a typical blast rock bench in a major open pit mine in Australia. With the SIM approach and the TSM <span class="hlt">model</span> it is possible to automatically and efficiently reconstruct the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images of the blasting process. This reconstruction would otherwise be impossible to achieve using a labor intensive manual processing approach based on 2D images taken from conventional high speed cameras. The case study demonstrates the potential of the SIM approach and the TSM for the automatic identification, tracking and reconstruction of any fast moving and deforming <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20826839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20826839"><span id="translatedtitle">RETRAN-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MOD003 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Multidimensional Kinetics Analysis <span class="hlt">Models</span> and Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mori, Michitsugu; Ogura, Katsunori; Gose, Garry C.; Wu, J.-Y</p> <p>2003-04-15</p> <p>An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 (PB2/TT2) has been performed using RETRAN-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> MOD003. The purpose of the analysis was to investigate the PB2/TT2 overpressurization transient using the RETRAN-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multidimensional kinetics <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219589','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219589"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the diffusion of phosphorus in silicon in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, K.R.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The use of matrix preconditioning in semiconductor process simulation is examined. The simplified nonlinear single-species <span class="hlt">model</span> for the diffusion of phosphorus into silicon is considered. The experimental three-dimensional simulator, PEPPER3, which uses finite differences and the numerical method of lines to implement the reaction-diffusion equation is modified to allow NSPCG to be called to solve the linear system in the inner Newton loop. Use of NSPCG allowed various accelerators such as Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) and Conjugate Gradient (CG) to be used in conjunction with preconditioners such as Richardson, Jacobi, and Incomplete Cholesky.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030020624','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030020624"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Mital, Subodh K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Three different approaches are being pursued at the NASA Glenn Research Center to predict the nanostructural behavior of three-dimensional woven ceramic matrix composites. These are: a micromechanics-based approach using W-CEMCAN (Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite Analyzer), a laminate analogy method and a structural frame approach (based on the finite element method). All three techniques are applied to predict the thermomechanical properties of a three-dimensional woven angle interlock C/SiC composite. The properties are predicted for room temperature and 1100 C and the predicted properties are compared to measurements. General observations regarding the three approaches for three-dimensional composite <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9531E..1HC&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SPIE.9531E..1HC&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Monte Carlo radiation transfer <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of photodynamic therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campbell, C. Louise; Christison, Craig; Brown, C. Tom A.; Wood, Kenneth; Valentine, Ronan M.; Moseley, Harry</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The effects of ageing and skin type on Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for different treatment methods have been theoretically investigated. A multilayered Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented where both daylight activated PDT and conventional PDT are compared. It was found that light penetrates deeper through older skin with a lighter complexion, which translates into a deeper effective treatment depth. The effect of ageing was found to be larger for darker skin types. The investigation further strengthens the usage of daylight as a potential light source for PDT where effective treatment depths of about 2 mm can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875581','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875581"><span id="translatedtitle">Synergia: an accelerator <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> space charge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Amundson, James F.; Spentzouris, P.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>High precision <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of space-charge effects, together with accurate treatment of single-particle dynamics, is essential for designing future accelerators as well as optimizing the performance of existing machines. We describe Synergia, a high-fidelity parallel beam dynamics simulation package with fully three dimensional space-charge capabilities and a higher order optics implementation. We describe the computational techniques, the advanced human interface, and the parallel performance obtained using large numbers of macroparticles. We also perform code benchmarks comparing to semi-analytic results and other codes. Finally, we present initial results on particle tune spread, beam halo creation, and emittance growth in the Fermilab booster accelerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPUO4008G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPUO4008G"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Hot-Spot Formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> describing the formation of a hot-spot in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions is presented. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes thermal conduction and mass ablation effects in a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> distorted hot spot using an approach developed by Sanz. Evolution of the nonuniformity growth is calculated based on a sharp boundary <span class="hlt">model</span>. The results of the <span class="hlt">model</span> will be compared against 2-D DRACO and <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamic code calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1406...69L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1406...69L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and optimization of the ITER ICRH antenna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Louche, F.; Dumortier, P.; Durodié, F.; Messiaen, A.; Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The prediction of the coupling properties of the ITER ICRH antenna necessitates the accurate evaluation of the resistance and reactance matrices. The latter are mostly dependent on the geometry of the array and therefore a <span class="hlt">model</span> as accurate as possible is needed to precisely compute these matrices. Furthermore simulations have so far neglected the poloidal and toroidal profile of the plasma, and it is expected that the loading by individual straps will vary significantly due to varying strap-plasma distance. To take this curvature into account, some modifications of the alignment of the straps with respect to the toroidal direction are proposed. It is shown with CST Microwave Studio® [1] that considering two segments in the toroidal direction, i.e. a "V-shaped" toroidal antenna, is sufficient. A new CATIA <span class="hlt">model</span> including this segmentation has been drawn and imported into both MWS and TOPICA [2] codes. Simulations show a good agreement of the impedance matrices in vacuum. Various modifications of the geometry are proposed in order to further optimize the coupling. In particular we study the effect of the strap box parameters and the recess of the vertical septa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/508537','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/508537"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of field development plans using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reservoir <span class="hlt">modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seifert, D.; Lewis, J.J.M.; Newbery, J.D.H.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional reservoir <span class="hlt">modelling</span> has become an accepted tool in reservoir description and is used for various purposes, such as reservoir performance prediction or integration and visualisation of data. In this case study, a small Northern North Sea turbiditic reservoir was to be developed with a line drive strategy utilising a series of horizontal producer and injector pairs, oriented north-south. This development plan was to be evaluated and the expected outcome of the wells was to be assessed and risked. Detailed analyses of core, well log and analogue data has led to the development of two geological {open_quotes}end member{close_quotes} scenarios. Both scenarios have been stochastically <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using the Sequential Indicator Simulation method. The resulting equiprobable realisations have been subjected to detailed statistical well placement optimisation techniques. Based upon bivariate statistical evaluation of more than 1000 numerical well trajectories for each of the two scenarios, it was found that the wells inclinations and lengths had a great impact on the wells success, whereas the azimuth was found to have only a minor impact. After integration of the above results, the actual well paths were redesigned to meet external drilling constraints, resulting in substantial reductions in drilling time and costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.702E..68M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.702E..68M"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightning <span class="hlt">Modelling</span>: From <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> to Circuit Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moussa, H.; Abdi, M.; Issac, F.; Prost, D.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The topic of this study is electromagnetic environment and electromagnetic interferences (EMI) effects, specifically the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of lightning indirect effects [1] on aircraft electrical systems present on deported and highly exposed equipments, such as nose landing gear (NLG) and nacelle, through a circuit approach. The main goal of the presented work, funded by a French national project: PREFACE, is to propose a simple equivalent electrical circuit to represent a geometrical structure, taking into account mutual, self inductances, and resistances, which play a fundamental role in the lightning current distribution. Then this <span class="hlt">model</span> is intended to be coupled to a functional one, describing a power train chain composed of: a converter, a shielded power harness and a motor or a set of resistors used as a load for the converter. The novelty here, is to provide a pre-sizing qualitative approach allowing playing on integration in pre-design phases. This tool intends to offer a user-friendly way for replying rapidly to calls for tender, taking into account the lightning constraints. Two cases are analysed: first, a NLG that is composed of tubular pieces that can be easily approximated by equivalent cylindrical straight conductors. Therefore, passive R, L, M elements of the structure can be extracted through analytical engineer formulas such as those implemented in the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) [2] technique. Second, the same approach is intended to be applied on an electrical de-icing nacelle sub-system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013532"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Localized Neutral Particle Sources in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Edge Plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Umansky, M V; Rognlien, T D; Fenstermacher, M E; Borchardt, M; Mutzke, A; Riemann, J; Schneider, R; Owen, L W</p> <p>2002-05-23</p> <p>A new edge plasma code BoRiS [1] has a fully <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fluid plasma <span class="hlt">model</span>. We supplement BoRiS with a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fluid neutral <span class="hlt">model</span> including equations for parallel momentum and collisional perpendicular diffusion. This makes BoRiS an integrated plasma-neutral <span class="hlt">model</span> suitable for a variety of applications. We present <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results for a localized gas source in the geometry of the NCSX stellarator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260144"><span id="translatedtitle">Simplified generation of biomedical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surface <span class="hlt">model</span> data for embedding into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> portable document format (PDF) files for publication and education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Newe, Axel; Ganslandt, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The usefulness of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Portable Document Format (PDF) for clinical, educational, and research purposes has recently been shown. However, the lack of a simple tool for converting biomedical data into the <span class="hlt">model</span> data in the necessary Universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) file format is a drawback for the broad acceptance of this new technology. A new module for the image processing and rapid prototyping framework MeVisLab does not only provide a platform-independent possibility to create surface meshes out of biomedical/DICOM and other data and to export them into U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>--it also lets the user add meta data to these meshes to predefine colors and names that can be processed by a PDF authoring software while generating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF files. Furthermore, the source code of the respective module is available and well documented so that it can easily be modified for own purposes. PMID:24260144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3829830','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3829830"><span id="translatedtitle">Simplified Generation of Biomedical <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Model</span> Data for Embedding into <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Portable Document Format (PDF) Files for Publication and Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Newe, Axel; Ganslandt, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The usefulness of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Portable Document Format (PDF) for clinical, educational, and research purposes has recently been shown. However, the lack of a simple tool for converting biomedical data into the <span class="hlt">model</span> data in the necessary Universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) file format is a drawback for the broad acceptance of this new technology. A new module for the image processing and rapid prototyping framework MeVisLab does not only provide a platform-independent possibility to create surface meshes out of biomedical/DICOM and other data and to export them into U<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> – it also lets the user add meta data to these meshes to predefine colors and names that can be processed by a PDF authoring software while generating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> PDF files. Furthermore, the source code of the respective module is available and well documented so that it can easily be modified for own purposes. PMID:24260144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21K..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21K..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Hillslope Hydrological <span class="hlt">Model</span> in a Real-World Controlled Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D. J.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Hillslopes play an important role for converting rainfall into runoff, and as such, influence theterrestrial dynamics of the Earth's climate system. Recently, we have developed a hybrid-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) hillslope hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> that couples a 1D vertical soil column <span class="hlt">model</span> with a lateral pseudo-2D saturated zone and overland flow <span class="hlt">model</span>. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> gives similar results as the CATchment HYdrological <span class="hlt">model</span> (CATHY), which simulates the subsurface movement of water with the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Richards equation, though the runtime efficiency of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is about 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. In the current work, the ability of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to predict real-world hydrological dynamics is assessed using a number of recharge-drainage experiments within the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) at the Biosphere 2 near Tucson, Arizona, USA. LEO offers accurate and high-resolution (both temporally and spatially) observations of the inputs, outputs and storage dynamics of several hillslopes. The level of detail of these observations is generally not possible with real-world hillslope studies. Therefore, LEO offers an optimal environment to test the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> captures the observed storage, baseflow, and overland flow dynamics of both a larger and a smaller hillslope. Furthermore, it simulates overland flow better than CATHY. The h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> has difficulties correctly representing the height of the saturated zone close to the seepage face of the smaller hillslope, though. There is a gravel layer near this seepage face, and the numerical boundary condition of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is insufficient to capture the hydrological dynamics within this region. In addition, the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to test the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters change through time due to the migration of soil particles during the recharge-drainage experiments. An in depth calibration of the h<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters reveals that the best results are obtained by applying an event-based optimization procedure as compared</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829359','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829359"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Branching Structures for Anatomical Instruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mattingly, William A.; Chariker, Julia H.; Paris, Richard; Chang, Dar-jen; Pani, John R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Branching tubular structures are prevalent in many different organic and synthetic settings. From trees and vegetation in nature, to vascular structures throughout human and animal biology, these structures are always candidates for new methods of graphical and visual expression. We present a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tool for the creation and interactive modification of these structures. Parameters such as thickness and position of branching structures can be modified, while geometric constraints ensure that the resulting mesh will have an accurate anatomical structure by not having inconsistent geometry. We apply this method to the creation of accurate representations of the different types of retinal cells in the human eye. This method allows a user to quickly produce anatomically accurate structures with low polygon counts that are suitable for rendering at interactive rates on commodity computers and mobile devices. PMID:27087764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B5...93N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B5...93N"><span id="translatedtitle">On Fundamental Evaluation Using Uav Imagery and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakano, K.; Suzuki, H.; Tamino, T.; Chikatsu, H.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which have been widely used in recent years, can acquire high-resolution images with resolutions in millimeters; such images cannot be acquired with manned aircrafts. Moreover, it has become possible to obtain a surface reconstruction of a realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> using high-overlap images and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software such as Context capture, Pix4Dmapper, Photoscan based on computer vision technology such as structure from motion and multi-view stereo. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software has many applications. However, most of them seem to not have obtained appropriate accuracy control in accordance with the knowledge of photogrammetry and/or computer vision. Therefore, we performed flight tests in a test field using an UAV equipped with a gimbal stabilizer and consumer grade digital camera. Our UAV is a hexacopter and can fly according to the waypoints for autonomous flight and can record flight logs. We acquired images from different altitudes such as 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m. We obtained <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction results of orthoimages, point clouds, and textured TIN <span class="hlt">models</span> for accuracy evaluation in some cases with different image scale conditions using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software. Moreover, the accuracy aspect was evaluated for different units of input image—course unit and flight unit. This paper describes the fundamental accuracy evaluation for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> using UAV imagery and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> software from the viewpoint of close-range photogrammetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809..148T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809..148T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Atmospheres for Extremely Low-mass White Dwarfs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tremblay, P.-E.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Hermes, J. J.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulations covering Teff = 6000–11,500 K and log g = 5–6.5 (g in cm s‑2) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, the 1D to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., log g = 5–9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few percent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + millisecond pulsar binary systems. We also use the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> corrections to revise the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, including the recently found ELM pulsators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920024063','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920024063"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electromagnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools for airborne vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Volakis, John L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The main goal of this project is to develop methodologies for scattering by airborne composite vehicles. Although our primary focus continues to be the development of a general purpose code for analyzing the entire structure as a single unit, a number of other tasks are also pursued in parallel with this effort. These tasks are important in testing the overall approach and in developing suitable <span class="hlt">models</span> for materials coatings, junctions and, more generally, in assessing the effectiveness of the various parts comprising the final code. Here, we briefly discuss our progress on the five different tasks which were pursued during this period. Our progress on each of these tasks is described in the detailed reports (listed at the end of this report) and the memoranda included. The first task described below is, of course, the core of this project and deals with the development of the overall code. Undoubtedly, it is the outcome of the research which was funded by NASA-Ames and the Navy over the past three years. During this year we developed the first finite element code for scattering by structures of arbitrary shape and composition. The code employs a new absorbing boundary condition which allows termination of the finite element mesh only 0.3 lambda from the outer surface of the target. This leads to a remarkable reduction of the mesh size and is a unique feature of the code. Other unique features of this code include capabilities to <span class="hlt">model</span> resistive sheets, impedance sheets and anisotropic materials. This last capability is the latest feature of the code and is still under development. The code has been extensively validated for a number of composite geometries and some examples are given. The validation of the code is still in progress for anisotropic and larger non-metallic geometries and cavities. The developed finite element code is based on a Galerkin's formulation and employs edge-based tetrahedral elements for discretizing the dielectric sections and the region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......159R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......159R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, 9-C anisotropic seismic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusmanugroho, Herurisa</p> <p></p> <p>The most complete representation of an elastic medium consists of an elastic tensor with 21 independent moduli. All 21 can be estimated from compressional and shear wave polarization and slowness vectors corresponding to wide apertures of polar and azimuth angles. In isotropic media, when seismic source and receiver components have the same orientation (such as XX and YY), the reflection amplitude contours align approximately perpendicular to the particle motions. The mixed components (such as XY and YX) have amplitude patterns that are in symmetrical pairs of either the same, or of opposite, polarity on either side of the diagonal of the 9-C response matrix. In anisotropic media, amplitude variations with azimuth show the same basic patterns and symmetries as for isotropic, but with a superimposed tendency for alignment parallel to the strike of the vertical cracks. Solutions for elastic tensor elements from synthetic slowness and polarization data calculated directly from the Christoffel equation are more sensitive to the polar angle aperture than to the azimuth aperture. Nine-component synthetic elastic vertical seismic profile data for a <span class="hlt">model</span> with triclinic symmetry calculated by finite-differencing allows estimation of the elastic 21 tensor elements in the vicinity of a three-component borehole receiver. Wide polar angle and azimuth apertures are needed for accurately estimating the elastic tensor elements. The tensor elements become less independent as the data apertures decrease. Results obtained by extracting slowness and polarization data from the corresponding synthetic seismograms show similar results. The inversion algorithm has produced good results from field vertical seismic profile data set from the Weyburn Field in Southern Saskatchewan in Canada. Synthetic nine-component seismograms calculated from the extracted tensor are able to explain most of the significant features in the field data. The inverted stiffness elastic tensor shows orthorhombic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CG.....30..405W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CG.....30..405W"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological relations embodied in a generalized tri-prism (GTP) <span class="hlt">model</span> for a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Lixin</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GMS) embodied with topological relations is of extreme importance for Geosciences. This paper presents a universal <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, generalized tri-prism (GTP) for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GMS and real-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS, which is a modification and improvement of former presented analogous tri-prism (ATP) <span class="hlt">model</span> and is the common <span class="hlt">model</span> of pyramid <span class="hlt">model</span>, tetrahedron <span class="hlt">model</span> and tri-prism (TP) <span class="hlt">model</span>. The GTP <span class="hlt">model</span> takes the divergent drill holes, rather than triangulation network after interpolation or vertical parallel drill holes after projection transformation, as its direct data source. Hence, the reliability and quality of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is maximatily ensured. The GTP component is comprised of six primitives as node, TIN-edge, side-edge, TIN-face, side-face and GTP. Besides, three intermediary diagonal lines in each GTP component are temporary applied for spatial operations. Six groups of topological relations between the six primitives are carefully designed for geo-spatial inquiry and geo-spatial analysis. The mechanisms of chipping, dynamic updating and local refining operations of so constructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> are introduced. A real-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> software platform, GeoMo <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>@, developed with VC ++, OPGL and SQL server, demonstrates most of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geo-spatial operations including clipping, separating, uncovering and geo-fence diagram generating based on an actual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> of a coal mine, Tangshan, P.R. China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.395...71T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.395...71T"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Paleoproterozoic glaciations with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> climate <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teitler, Yoram; Le Hir, Guillaume; Fluteau, Frédéric; Philippot, Pascal; Donnadieu, Yannick</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>It is generally assumed that the Earth's surface was warm during most of its early history but that significant cooling occurred between 2.45 and 2.22 Ga leading to the first global and cyclical glacial epoch. This onset of snowball Earth conditions was coeval with a large pulse of oxygenation that permanently oxygenated the atmosphere and shallow oceans (Great Oxygenation Event, GOE), though it is not known whether one influenced the other or if they were independent events. Hereafter we used a General Circulation climate <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GCM) to estimate the partial pressures of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) required to account for the onset of snowball Earth conditions during the Paleoproterozoic. We show that Earth's surface can be maintained in an ice-free state under atmospheric CO2 concentrations lower than 2.6×10-2 bar without invoking the need of high CH4 concentrations. Assuming that the cooling of the Earth's surface is related to the collapse of atmospheric greenhouse gases, we tested the relevance of different scenarios including (i) the collapse of pCH4 in response to the GOE and (ii) the drawdown of pCO2 due to both a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate and an increase in global weathering efficiency. We show that the cyclical character of Paleoproterozoic glaciations is best explained by a long-lasted decrease of pCO2. To support this scenario, we examine how the long-term carbon cycle and the equilibrium pCO2 respond to the emplacement of large subaerial basaltic provinces (LIPs) and to a temporary shutdown of volcanism as supported by geologic data. We show that the sink of pCO2 through silicate weathering is limited by the absence of terrestrial higher plants. In such conditions, the equilibrium pCO2 remains high enough to preclude the onset of snowball conditions regardless the intensity of the pCH4 collapse. The combination of an increase in weathering efficiency and a decrease in volcanic outgassing rate can significantly reduce the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000059211','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000059211"><span id="translatedtitle">A Shell/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Technique for the Analysis of Delaminated Composite Laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krueger, Ronald; OBrien, T. Kevin</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A shell/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technique was developed for which a local solid finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> is used only in the immediate vicinity of the delamination front. The goal was to combine the accuracy of the full three-dimensional solution with the computational efficiency of a shell finite element <span class="hlt">model</span>. Multi-point constraints provided a kinematically compatible interface between the local <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> and the global structural <span class="hlt">model</span> which has been meshed with shell finite elements. Double Cantilever Beam, End Notched Flexure, and Single Leg Bending specimens were analyzed first using full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> finite element <span class="hlt">models</span> to obtain reference solutions. Mixed mode strain energy release rate distributions were computed using the virtual crack closure technique. The analyses were repeated using the shell/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> technique to study the feasibility for pure mode I, mode II and mixed mode I/II cases. Specimens with a unidirectional layup and with a multidirectional layup were simulated. For a local <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, extending to a minimum of about three specimen thicknesses on either side of the delamination front, the results were in good agreement with mixed mode strain energy release rates obtained from computations where the entire specimen had been <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with solid elements. For large built-up composite structures the shell/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technique offers a great potential for reducing the <span class="hlt">model</span> size, since only a relatively small section in the vicinity of the delamination front needs to be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with solid elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApSS..378..540M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApSS..378..540M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of Nd<span class="hlt">Fe</span>B magnets in atmospheric conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meakin, J. P.; Speight, J. D.; Sheridan, R. S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I. R.; Williams, A. J.; Walton, A.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Neodymium iron boron (Nd<span class="hlt">Fe</span>B) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.- computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-<span class="hlt">Fe</span>-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of Nd<span class="hlt">Fe</span>B magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered Nd<span class="hlt">Fe</span>B magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd2O3 and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10-13 cm2/sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth observations at elevated temperatures in the literature. This indicates that the growth of the room temperature oxidation products are likely defect enhanced processes at the Nd<span class="hlt">Fe</span>B triple junctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763170','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763170"><span id="translatedtitle">KENO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Visualization Tool for KENO V.a and KENO-VI Geometry <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Horwedel, J.E.; Bowman, S.M.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>Criticality safety analyses often require detailed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of complex geometries. Effective visualization tools can enhance checking the accuracy of these <span class="hlt">models</span>. This report describes the KENO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> visualization tool developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide visualization of KENO V.a and KENO-VI criticality safety <span class="hlt">models</span>. The development of KENO<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is part of the current efforts to enhance the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluations) computer software system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9498E..0BB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9498E..0BB"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> on the performance of vision algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Lynch, Robert</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In previous work, we have shown how a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> can be built in real time and synchronized with the environment. This world <span class="hlt">model</span> permits a robot to predict dynamics in its environment and classify behaviors. In this paper we evaluate the effect of such a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> on the accuracy and speed of various computer vision algorithms, including tracking, optical flow and stereo disparity. We report results based on the KITTI database and on our own videos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8671E..1PK&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8671E..1PK&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformable organ <span class="hlt">model</span> based liver motion tracking in ultrasound videos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jung-Bae; Hwang, Youngkyoo; Oh, Young-Taek; Bang, Won-Chul; Lee, Heesae; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents a novel method of using 2D ultrasound (US) cine images during image-guided therapy to accurately track the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position of a tumor even when the organ of interest is in motion due to patient respiration. Tracking is possible thanks to a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> deformable organ <span class="hlt">model</span> we have developed. The method consists of three processes in succession. The first process is organ <span class="hlt">modeling</span> where we generate a personalized <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> organ <span class="hlt">model</span> from high quality <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> CT or MR data sets captured during three different respiratory phases. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the organ surface, vessel and tumor, which can all deform and move in accord with patient respiration. The second process is registration of the organ <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> US images. From 133 respiratory phase candidates generated from the deformable organ <span class="hlt">model</span>, we resolve the candidate that best matches the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> US images according to vessel centerline and surface. As a result, we can determine the position of the US probe. The final process is real-time tracking using 2D US cine images captured by the US probe. We determine the respiratory phase by tracking the diaphragm on the image. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is then deformed according to respiration phase and is fitted to the image by considering the positions of the vessels. The tumor's <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> positions are then inferred based on respiration phase. Testing our method on real patient data, we have found the accuracy of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> position is within 3.79mm and processing time is 5.4ms during tracking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920860','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920860"><span id="translatedtitle">Considerations on the Use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Geophysical <span class="hlt">Models</span> to Predict Test Ban Monitoring Observables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harris, D B; Zucca, J J; McCallen, D B; Pasyanos, M E; Flanagan, M P; Myers, S C; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Harben, P E</p> <p>2007-07-09</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical <span class="hlt">models</span> to predict nuclear test ban monitoring observables (phase travel times, amplitudes, dispersion, etc.) is widely anticipated to provide improvements in the basic seismic monitoring functions of detection, association, location, discrimination and yield estimation. A number of questions arise when contemplating a transition from 1-D, 2-D and 2.5-D <span class="hlt">models</span> to constructing and using <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, among them: (1) Can a <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> geophysical <span class="hlt">model</span> or a collection of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> provide measurably improved predictions of seismic monitoring observables over existing 1-D <span class="hlt">models</span>, or 2-D and 2 1/2-D <span class="hlt">models</span> currently under development? (2) Is a single <span class="hlt">model</span> that can predict all observables achievable, or must separate <span class="hlt">models</span> be devised for each observable? How should joint inversion of disparate observable data be performed, if required? (3) What are the options for <span class="hlt">model</span> representation? Are multi-resolution <span class="hlt">models</span> essential? How does representation affect the accuracy and speed of observable predictions? (4) How should <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty be estimated, represented and how should it be used? Are stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> desirable? (5) What data types should be used to construct the <span class="hlt">models</span>? What quality control regime should be established? (6) How will <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> be used in operations? Will significant improvements in the basic monitoring functions result from the use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>? Will the calculation of observables through <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> be fast enough for real-time use or must a strategy of pre-computation be employed? (7) What are the theoretical limits to <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> development (resolution, uncertainty) and performance in predicting monitoring observables? How closely can those limits be approached with projected data availability, station distribution and inverse methods? (8) What priorities should be placed on the acquisition of event ground truth information, deployment of new stations, development of new inverse techniques, exploitation of large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPS...324..358L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPS...324..358L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Relating the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> electrode morphology to Li-ion battery performance; a case for Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhao; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Singh, Deepak P.; Wang, Hongqian; Wagemaker, Marnix; Barnett, Scott</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>One of the main goals in lithium ion battery electrode design is to increase the power density. This requires insight in the relation between the complex heterogeneous microstructure existing of active material, conductive additive and electrolyte providing the required electronic and Li-ion transport. FIB-SEM is used to determine the three phase <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> morphology, and Li-ion concentration profiles obtained with Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) are compared for two cases, conventional Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4 electrodes and better performing carbonate templated Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4 electrodes. This provides detailed understanding of the impact of key parameters such as the tortuosity for electron and Li-ion transport though the electrodes. The created hierarchical pore network of the templated electrodes, containing micron sized pores, appears to be effective only at high rate charge where electrolyte depletion is hindering fast discharge. Surprisingly the carbonate templating method results in a better electronic conductive CB network, enhancing the activity of Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4 near the electrolyte-electrode interface as directly observed with NDP, which in a large part is responsible for the improved rate performance both during charge and discharge. The results demonstrate that standard electrodes have a far from optimal charge transport network and that significantly improved electrode performance should be possible by engineering the microstructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227980','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227980"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of hybrid <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for the NCAR Community Earth System <span class="hlt">Model</span> (CESM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zeng, Xubin; Troch, Peter; Pelletier, Jon; Niu, Guo-Yue; Gochis, David</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System <span class="hlt">Model</span> (CESM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4498430','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4498430"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed <span class="hlt">models</span> for planning and guidance during endovascular intervention: a technical advance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Itagaki, Michael W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing applications in medicine have been limited due to high cost and technical difficulty of creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed objects. It is not known whether patient-specific, hollow, small-caliber vascular <span class="hlt">models</span> can be manufactured with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, and used for small vessel endoluminal testing of devices. Manufacture of anatomically accurate, patient-specific, small-caliber arterial <span class="hlt">models</span> was attempted using data from a patient’s CT scan, free open-source software, and low-cost Internet <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing services. Prior to endovascular treatment of a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed <span class="hlt">model</span> was used preoperatively to test catheter equipment and practice the procedure. A second <span class="hlt">model</span> was used intraoperatively as a reference. Full-scale plastic <span class="hlt">models</span> were successfully produced. Testing determined the optimal puncture site for catheter positioning. A guide catheter, base catheter, and microcatheter combination selected during testing was used intraoperatively with success, and the need for repeat angiograms to optimize image orientation was minimized. A difficult and unconventional procedure was successful in treating the aneurysms while preserving splenic function. We conclude that creation of small-caliber vascular <span class="hlt">models</span> with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is possible. Free software and low-cost printing services make creation of these <span class="hlt">models</span> affordable and practical. <span class="hlt">Models</span> are useful in preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. PMID:26027767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26027767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26027767"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed <span class="hlt">models</span> for planning and guidance during endovascular intervention: a technical advance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Itagaki, Michael W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing applications in medicine have been limited due to high cost and technical difficulty of creating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed objects. It is not known whether patient-specific, hollow, small-caliber vascular <span class="hlt">models</span> can be manufactured with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing, and used for small vessel endoluminal testing of devices. Manufacture of anatomically accurate, patient-specific, small-caliber arterial <span class="hlt">models</span> was attempted using data from a patient's CT scan, free open-source software, and low-cost Internet <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing services. Prior to endovascular treatment of a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed <span class="hlt">model</span> was used preoperatively to test catheter equipment and practice the procedure. A second <span class="hlt">model</span> was used intraoperatively as a reference. Full-scale plastic <span class="hlt">models</span> were successfully produced. Testing determined the optimal puncture site for catheter positioning. A guide catheter, base catheter, and microcatheter combination selected during testing was used intraoperatively with success, and the need for repeat angiograms to optimize image orientation was minimized. A difficult and unconventional procedure was successful in treating the aneurysms while preserving splenic function. We conclude that creation of small-caliber vascular <span class="hlt">models</span> with <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing is possible. Free software and low-cost printing services make creation of these <span class="hlt">models</span> affordable and practical. <span class="hlt">Models</span> are useful in preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. PMID:26027767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468636"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printed <span class="hlt">models</span> in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical <span class="hlt">models</span>, however, evidence for the use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26468636</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53D3823H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53D3823H"><span id="translatedtitle">Web Based Interactive Anaglyph Stereo Visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Geoscience Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to create interactive online tool for generating and viewing the anaglyph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereo image on a Web browser via Internet. To achieve this, we designed and developed the prototype system. Three-dimensional visualization is well known and becoming popular in recent years to understand the target object and the related physical phenomena. Geoscience data have the complex data <span class="hlt">model</span>, which combines large extents with rich small scale visual details. So, the real-time visualization of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geoscience data <span class="hlt">model</span> on the Internet is a challenging work. In this paper, we show the result of creating which can be viewed in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> anaglyph of geoscience data in any web browser which supports WebGL. We developed an anaglyph image viewing prototype system, and some representative results are displayed by anaglyph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereo image generated in red-cyan colour from pairs of air-photo/digital elevation <span class="hlt">model</span> and geological map/digital elevation <span class="hlt">model</span> respectively. The best viewing is achieved by using suitable <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> red-cyan glasses, although alternatively red-blue or red-green spectacles can be also used. The middle mouse wheel can be used to zoom in/out the anaglyph image on a Web browser. Application of anaglyph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereo image is a very important and easy way to understand the underground geologic system and active tectonic geomorphology. The integrated strata with fine three-dimensional topography and geologic map data can help to characterise the mineral potential area and the active tectonic abnormal characteristics. To conclude, it can be stated that anaglyph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereo image provides a simple and feasible method to improve the relief effect of geoscience data such as geomorphology and geology. We believe that with further development, the anaglyph <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stereo imaging system could as a complement to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geologic <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, constitute a useful tool for better understanding of the underground geology and the active tectonic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6391B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6391B"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality control of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Geological <span class="hlt">Models</span> using an Attention <span class="hlt">Model</span> based on Gaze</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Busschers, Freek S.; van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Brouwer, Anne-Marie</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) produces <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stochastic geological <span class="hlt">models</span> of the upper 50 meters of the Dutch subsurface. The voxel <span class="hlt">models</span> are regarded essential in answering subsurface questions on, for example, aggregate resources, groundwater flow, land subsidence studies and the planning of large-scale infrastructural works such as tunnels. GeoTOP is the most recent and detailed generation of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> voxel <span class="hlt">models</span>. This <span class="hlt">model</span> describes <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithological variability up to a depth of 50 m using voxels of 100*100*0.5m. Due to the expected increase in data-flow, <span class="hlt">model</span> output and user demands, the development of (semi-)automated quality control systems is getting more important in the near future. Besides numerical control systems, capturing <span class="hlt">model</span> errors as seen from the expert geologist viewpoint is of increasing interest. We envision the use of eye gaze to support and speed up detection of errors in the geological voxel <span class="hlt">models</span>. As a first step in this direction we explore gaze behavior of 12 geological experts from the GSN during quality control of part of the GeoTOP <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geological <span class="hlt">model</span> using an eye-tracker. Gaze is used as input of an attention <span class="hlt">model</span> that results in 'attended areas' for each individual examined image of the GeoTOP <span class="hlt">model</span> and each individual expert. We compared these attended areas to errors as marked by the experts using a mouse. Results show that: 1) attended areas as determined from experts' gaze data largely match with GeoTOP errors as indicated by the experts using a mouse, and 2) a substantial part of the match can be reached using only gaze data from the first few seconds of the time geologists spend to search for errors. These results open up the possibility of faster GeoTOP <span class="hlt">model</span> control using gaze if geologists accept a small decrease of error detection accuracy. Attention data may also be used to make independent comparisons between different geologists varying in focus and expertise. This would facilitate a more effective use of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApCM...17..389L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApCM...17..389L"><span id="translatedtitle">Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Properties of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Four-directional Rectangular Braided Composites—Part 2: Validation of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Dian-Sen; Fang, Dai-Ning; Lu, Zi-Xing; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Nan</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>In the first part of the work, we have established a new parameterized three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> (FEM) which precisely simulated the spatial configuration of the braiding yarns and considered the cross-section deformation as well as the surface contact relationship between the yarns. This paper presents a prediction of the effective elastic properties and the meso-scale mechanical response of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> braided composites to verify the validation of the FEM. The effects of the braiding parameters on the mechanical properties are investigated in detail. By analyzing the deformation and stress nephogram of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, a reasonable overall stress field is provided and the results well support the strength prediction. The results indicate it is convenient to predict all the elastic constants of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> braided composites with different parameters simultaneously using the FEM. Moreover, the FEM can successfully predict the meso-scale mechanical response of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> braided composites containing periodical structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22346575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22346575"><span id="translatedtitle">A featureless approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polyhedral building <span class="hlt">modeling</span> from aerial images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hammoudi, Karim; Dornaika, Fadi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach for reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polyhedral building <span class="hlt">models</span> from aerial images. The proposed approach exploits some geometric and photometric properties resulting from the perspective projection of planar structures. Data are provided by calibrated aerial images. The novelty of the approach lies in its featurelessness and in its use of direct optimization based on image rawbrightness. The proposed framework avoids feature extraction and matching. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polyhedral <span class="hlt">model</span> is directly estimated by optimizing an objective function that combines an image-based dissimilarity measure and a gradient score over several aerial images. The optimization process is carried out by the Differential Evolution algorithm. The proposed approach is intended to provide more accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction than feature-based approaches. Fast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> rectification and updating can take advantage of the proposed method. Several results and evaluations of performance from real and synthetic images show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. PMID:22346575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274105','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274105"><span id="translatedtitle">A Featureless Approach to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Polyhedral Building <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> from Aerial Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hammoudi, Karim; Dornaika, Fadi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach for reconstructing <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polyhedral building <span class="hlt">models</span> from aerial images. The proposed approach exploits some geometric and photometric properties resulting from the perspective projection of planar structures. Data are provided by calibrated aerial images. The novelty of the approach lies in its featurelessness and in its use of direct optimization based on image rawbrightness. The proposed framework avoids feature extraction and matching. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> polyhedral <span class="hlt">model</span> is directly estimated by optimizing an objective function that combines an image-based dissimilarity measure and a gradient score over several aerial images. The optimization process is carried out by the Differential Evolution algorithm. The proposed approach is intended to provide more accurate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> reconstruction than feature-based approaches. Fast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> rectification and updating can take advantage of the proposed method. Several results and evaluations of performance from real and synthetic images show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. PMID:22346575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223892','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223892"><span id="translatedtitle">Poly <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> fault <span class="hlt">modeling</span> scripts/data for permeability potential of Washington State geothermal prospects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Michael Swyer</p> <p>2015-02-05</p> <p>Matlab scripts/functions and data used to build Poly<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> and create permeability potential GIS layers for 1) Mount St Helen's, 2) Wind River Valley, and 3) Mount Baker geothermal prospect areas located in Washington state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030032287&hterms=Sud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSud','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030032287&hterms=Sud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DSud"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation Processes Developed During ARM (1997), TOGA COARE (1992) GATE (1974), SCSMEX (1998), and KWAJEX (1999): Consistent <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>, Semi-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Cloud Resolving <span class="hlt">Model</span> Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, W.-K.; Hou, A.; Atlas, R.; Starr, D.; Sud, Y.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving <span class="hlt">models</span> (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D) have been used to study the response of clouds to large-scale forcing. IN these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> simulators, the <span class="hlt">model</span> domain was small, and the integration time was 6 hours. Only recently have <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical clouds systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and at NASA Goddard Space Center. At Goddard, a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cumulus Ensemble (GCE) <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE, GATE, SCSMEX, ARM, and KWAJEX using a 512 by 512 km domain (with 2-km resolution). The result indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are very similar between the 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GCE <span class="hlt">model</span> simulation. The major objective of this paper are: (1) to assess the performance of the super-parametrization technique, (2) calculate and examine the surface energy (especially radiation) and water budget, and (3) identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between simulated 2D and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cloud systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TDR.....7...78T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TDR.....7...78T"><span id="translatedtitle">A Secret <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Sharing Scheme with Reversible Data Hiding Based on Space Subdivision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Yuan-Yu</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Secret sharing is a highly relevant research field, and its application to 2D images has been thoroughly studied. However, secret sharing schemes have not kept pace with the advances of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. With the rapid development of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> multimedia techniques, extending the application of secret sharing schemes to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> has become necessary. In this study, an innovative secret <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> sharing scheme for point geometries based on space subdivision is proposed. Each point in the secret point geometry is first encoded into a series of integer values that fall within [0, p - 1], where p is a predefined prime number. The share values are derived by substituting the specified integer values for all coefficients of the sharing polynomial. The surface reconstruction and the sampling concepts are then integrated to derive a cover <span class="hlt">model</span> with sufficient <span class="hlt">model</span> complexity for each participant. Finally, each participant has a separate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> stego <span class="hlt">model</span> with embedded share values. Experimental results show that the proposed technique supports reversible data hiding and the share values have higher levels of privacy and improved robustness. This technique is simple and has proven to be a feasible secret <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> sharing scheme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010576&hterms=Fractal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFractal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010576&hterms=Fractal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFractal"><span id="translatedtitle">Do Fractal <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Clouds Produces the Right <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Radiative Effects?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Stochastic fractal <span class="hlt">models</span> of clouds are often used to study <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects and their influence on the remote sensing of cloud properties. Since it is important that the cloud <span class="hlt">models</span> produce a correct radiative response, some researchers require the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters to match observed cloud properties such as scale-independent optical thickness variability. Unfortunately, matching these properties does not necessarily imply that the cloud <span class="hlt">models</span> will cause the right <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects. First, the matched properties alone only influence the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects but do not completely determine them. Second, in many cases the retrieved cloud properties have been already biased by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects, and so the <span class="hlt">models</span> may not match the true real clouds. Finally, the matched cloud properties cannot be considered independent from the scales at which they have been retrieved. This paper proposes an approach that helps ensure that fractal cloud <span class="hlt">models</span> are realistic and produce the right <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> effects. The technique compares the results of radiative transfer simulations for the <span class="hlt">model</span> clouds to new direct observations of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> radiative effects in satellite images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8538E..0IK&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8538E..0IK&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> campus <span class="hlt">modeling</span> using LiDAR point cloud data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Yoshii, Satoshi; Funatsu, Yukihiro; Takemata, Kazuya</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The importance of having a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> urban city <span class="hlt">model</span> is recognized in many applications, such as management offices of risk and disaster, the offices for city planning and developing and others. As an example of urban <span class="hlt">model</span>, we reconstructed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> KIT campus manually in this study, by utilizing airborne LiDAR point cloud data. The automatic extraction of building shapes was left in future work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........59H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........59H"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Analysis and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> TSV-Based Power Delivery Architectures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Huanyu</p> <p></p> <p>As <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> technology enters the commercial production stage, it is critical to understand different <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> power delivery architectures on the stacked ICs and packages with through-silicon vias (TSVs). Appropriate design, <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, analysis, and optimization approaches of the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> power delivery system are of foremost significance and great practical interest to the semiconductor industry in general. Based on fundamental physics of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> integration components, the objective of this thesis work is to quantitatively analyze the power delivery for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-IC systems, develop appropriate physics-based <span class="hlt">models</span> and simulation approaches, understand the key issues, and provide potential solutions for design of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-IC power delivery architectures. In this work, a hybrid simulation approach is adopted as the major approach along with analytical method to examine <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> power networks. Combining electromagnetic (EM) tools and circuit simulators, the hybrid approach is able to analyze and <span class="hlt">model</span> micrometer-scale components as well as centimeter-scale power delivery system with high accuracy and efficiency. The parasitic elements of the components on the power delivery can be precisely <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by full-wave EM solvers. Stack-up circuit <span class="hlt">models</span> for the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> power delivery networks (PDNs) are constructed through a partition and assembly method. With the efficiency advantage of the SPICE circuit simulation, the overall <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> system power performance can be analyzed and the <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> power delivery architectures can be evaluated in a short computing time. The major power delivery issues are the voltage drop (IR drop) and voltage noise. With a baseline of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> power delivery architecture, the on-chip PDNs of TSV-based chip stacks are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> and analyzed for the IR drop and AC noise. The basic design factors are evaluated using the hybrid approach, such as the number of stacked chips, the number of TSVs, and the TSV arrangement. Analytical formulas are also developed to evaluate the IR drop in <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> chip stack in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940539','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940539"><span id="translatedtitle">Possibilities of Preoperative Medical <span class="hlt">Models</span> Made by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing or Additive Manufacturing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing applications of preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span> have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span> and try to produce preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span> that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span>. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27433470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27433470"><span id="translatedtitle">Possibilities of Preoperative Medical <span class="hlt">Models</span> Made by <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Printing or Additive Manufacturing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salmi, Mika</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing applications of preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span> have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span> and try to produce preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span> that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> reconstruction, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> printing of preoperative <span class="hlt">models</span>. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391897"><span id="translatedtitle">Vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination based on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithostratigraphical <span class="hlt">models</span> of porous aquifers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to apply a methodology in order to reconstruct a lithostratigraphic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of an aquifer so as to define some parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination of porous aquifers. The DRASTIC, SINTACS and AVI methods have been applied to an alluvial coastal aquifer of southern Italy. The stratigraphic reconstruction has been obtained by interpolating stratigraphic data from more than one borehole per 2 km. The lithostratigraphic reconstruction of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> has been applied and used for three-dimensional or two-dimensional representations. In the first two methods, the layers of the vadose zone and the aquifer media have been evaluated not only by the interpolation of the single boreholes and piezometers, but also by the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, assigning the scores of the parameters of each layer of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. The comparison between the maps constructed from the weighted values in each borehole and the maps deriving from the attribution of the values of each layer of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, highlights that the second representation avoids or minimizes the "bullseye" effect linked to the presence of boreholes with higher or lower values. The study has demonstrated that it is possible to integrate a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> lithostratigraphic <span class="hlt">model</span> of an aquifer in the assessment of the parameters involved in the evaluation of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination by Point Count System methods. PMID:23391897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040081117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040081117"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Images of Natural <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Surfaces: Overview and Potential Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jalobeanu, Andre; Kuehnel, Frank; Stutz, John</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Generative <span class="hlt">models</span> of natural images have long been used in computer vision. However, since they only describe the of 2D scenes, they fail to capture all the properties of the underlying <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> world. Even though such <span class="hlt">models</span> are sufficient for many vision tasks a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene <span class="hlt">model</span> is when it comes to inferring a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> object or its characteristics. In this paper, we present such a generative <span class="hlt">model</span>, incorporating both a multiscale surface prior <span class="hlt">model</span> for surface geometry and reflectance, and an image formation process <span class="hlt">model</span> based on realistic rendering, the computation of the posterior <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter densities, and on the critical aspects of the rendering. We also how to efficiently invert the <span class="hlt">model</span> within a Bayesian framework. We present a few potential applications, such as asteroid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and Planetary topography recovery, illustrated by promising results on real images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL4..189L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL4..189L"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications of Panoramic Images: from 720° Panorama to Interior <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Augmented Reality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, I.-C.; Tsai, F.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A series of panoramic images are usually used to generate a 720° panorama image. Although panoramic images are typically used for establishing tour guiding systems, in this research, we demonstrate the potential of using panoramic images acquired from multiple sites to create not only 720° panorama, but also three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) point clouds and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor <span class="hlt">models</span>. Since <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is one of the goals of this research, the location of the panoramic sites needed to be carefully planned in order to maintain a robust result for close-range photogrammetry. After the images are acquired, panoramic images are processed into 720° panoramas, and these panoramas which can be used directly as panorama guiding systems or other applications. In addition to these straightforward applications, interior orientation parameters can also be estimated while generating 720° panorama. These parameters are focal length, principle point, and lens radial distortion. The panoramic images can then be processed with closerange photogrammetry procedures to extract the exterior orientation parameters and generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds. In this research, VisaulSFM, a structure from motion software is used to estimate the exterior orientation, and CMVS toolkit is used to generate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds. Next, the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point clouds are used as references to create building interior <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this research, Trimble Sketchup was used to build the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> point cloud was added to the determining of locations of building objects using plane finding procedure. In the texturing process, the panorama images are used as the data source for creating <span class="hlt">model</span> textures. This <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor <span class="hlt">model</span> was used as an Augmented Reality <span class="hlt">model</span> replacing a guide map or a floor plan commonly used in an on-line touring guide system. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> indoor <span class="hlt">model</span> generating procedure has been utilized in two research projects: a cultural heritage site at Kinmen, and Taipei Main Station pedestrian zone guidance and navigation system. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6051E..0MS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6051E..0MS"><span id="translatedtitle">Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity <span class="hlt">model</span> manipulation and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-image display</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>In orthognathic surgery, the framing of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth <span class="hlt">model</span> that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth <span class="hlt">model</span> and the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-CT skeletal images (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity <span class="hlt">model</span> and the virtual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27497676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27497676"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Toolbox to Enhance Physiological Relevance of Human Tissue <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Dolega, Monika E; Liguori, Lavinia; Marquette, Christophe; Le Gac, Séverine; Gidrol, Xavier; Martin, Donald K</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We discuss the current challenges and future prospects of flow-based organoid <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> self-assembling scaffolds. The existing paradigm of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> culture suffers from a lack of control over organoid size and shape; can be an obstacle for cell harvesting and extended cellular and molecular analysis; and does not provide access to the function of exocrine glands. Moreover, existing organ-on-chip <span class="hlt">models</span> are mostly composed of 2D extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated elastomeric membranes that do not mimic real organ architectures. A new comprehensive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> toolbox for cell biology has emerged to address some of these issues. Advances in microfabrication and cell-culturing approaches enable the engineering of sophisticated <span class="hlt">models</span> that mimic organ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> architectures and physiological conditions, while supporting flow-based drug screening and secretomics-based diagnosis. PMID:27497676</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815735','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815735"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krasnykh, Anatoly</p> <p>2003-07-29</p> <p>The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect <span class="hlt">modeling</span> methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> and MAGIC <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> (at the end) is used in an indirect method to <span class="hlt">model</span> the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JAP...111f4307D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JAP...111f4307D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4 - <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> carbon nanofiber composites as cathode materials for Li-ions batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimesso, L.; Spanheimer, C.; Jaegermann, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yarin, A. L.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The characterization of carbon nanofiber <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nonwovens, prepared by electrospinning process, coated with olivine structured lithium iron phosphate is reported. The Li<span class="hlt">Fe</span>PO4 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries was prepared by a Pechini-assisted reversed polyol process. The coating has been successfully performed on carbon nanofiber <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> nonwovens by soaking in aqueous solution containing lithium, iron salts and phosphates at 70 °C for 2-4 h. After drying-out, the composites were annealed at 600 °C for 5 h under nitrogen. The surface investigation of the prepared composites showed a uniform coating of the carbon nonwoven nanofibers as well as the formation of cauliflower-like crystalline structures which are uniformly distributed all over the surface area of the carbon nanofibers. The electrochemical measurements on the composites showed good performances delivering a discharge specific capacity of 156 mAhg- 1 at a discharging rate of C/25 and 152 mAhg- 1 at a discharging rate of C/10 at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824922"><span id="translatedtitle">Locally adaptive 2D-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> registration using vascular structure <span class="hlt">model</span> for liver catheterization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Jihye; Lee, Jeongjin; Chung, Jin Wook; Shin, Yeong-Gil</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional-three-dimensional (2D-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) registration between intra-operative 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and pre-operative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> computed tomography angiography (CTA) can be used for roadmapping purposes. However, through the projection of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessels, incorrect intersections and overlaps between vessels are produced because of the complex vascular structure, which makes it difficult to obtain the correct solution of 2D-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> registration. To overcome these problems, we propose a registration method that selects a suitable part of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vascular structure for a given DSA image and finds the optimized solution to the partial <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> structure. The proposed algorithm can reduce the registration errors because it restricts the range of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vascular structure for the registration by using only the relevant <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vessels with the given DSA. To search for the appropriate <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> partial structure, we first construct a tree <span class="hlt">model</span> of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> vascular structure and divide it into several subtrees in accordance with the connectivity. Then, the best matched subtree with the given DSA image is selected using the results from the coarse registration between each subtree and the vessels in the DSA image. Finally, a fine registration is conducted to minimize the difference between the selected subtree and the vessels of the DSA image. In experimental results obtained using 10 clinical datasets, the average distance errors in the case of the proposed method were 2.34±1.94mm. The proposed algorithm converges faster and produces more correct results than the conventional method in evaluations on patient datasets. PMID:26824922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMIN33A1298D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMIN33A1298D"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> Urban <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Capabilities in Geographical Information Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dogru, A. O.; Seker, D. Z.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Geographical Information System (GIS) Technology, which provides successful solutions to basic spatial problems, is currently widely used in 3 dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of physical reality with its developing visualization tools. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of large and complicated phenomenon is a challenging problem in terms of computer graphics currently in use. However, it is possible to visualize that phenomenon in <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> by using computer systems. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> are used in developing computer games, military training, urban planning, tourism and etc. The use of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> for planning and management of urban areas is very popular issue of city administrations. In this context, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> City <span class="hlt">models</span> are produced and used for various purposes. However the requirements of the <span class="hlt">models</span> vary depending on the type and scope of the application. While a high level visualization, where photorealistic visualization techniques are widely used, is required for touristy and recreational purposes, an abstract visualization of the physical reality is generally sufficient for the communication of the thematic information. The visual variables, which are the principle components of cartographic visualization, such as: color, shape, pattern, orientation, size, position, and saturation are used for communicating the thematic information. These kinds of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are called as abstract <span class="hlt">models</span>. Standardization of technologies used for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is now available by the use of CityGML. CityGML implements several novel concepts to support interoperability, consistency and functionality. For example it supports different Levels-of-Detail (LoD), which may arise from independent data collection processes and are used for efficient visualization and efficient data analysis. In one CityGML data set, the same object may be represented in different LoD simultaneously, enabling the analysis and visualization of the same object with regard to different degrees of resolution. Furthermore, two CityGML data sets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........42I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........42I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Building <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Reconstruction using Photometric Satellite and Aerial Imageries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Izadi, Mohammad</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis, the problem of three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) reconstruction of building <span class="hlt">models</span> using photometric satellite and aerial images is investigated. Here, two systems are pre-sented: 1) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building reconstruction using a nadir single-view image, and 2) <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> building reconstruction using slant multiple-view aerial images. The first system detects building rooftops in orthogonal aerial/satellite images using a hierarchical segmentation algorithm and a shadow verification approach. The heights of detected buildings are then estimated using a fuzzy rule-based method, which measures the height of a building by comparing its predicted shadow region with the actual shadow evidence in the image. This system finally generated a KML (Keyhole Markup Language) file as the output, that contains <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of detected buildings. The second system uses the geolocation information of a scene containing a building of interest and uploads all slant-view images that contain this scene from an input image dataset. These images are then searched automatically to choose image pairs with different views of the scene (north, east, south and west) based on the geolocation and auxiliary data accompanying the input data (metadata that describes the acquisition parameters at the capture time). The camera parameters corresponding to these images are refined using a novel point matching algorithm. Next, the system independently reconstructs <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> flat surfaces that are visible in each view using an iterative algorithm. <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces generated for all views are combined, and redundant surfaces are removed to create a complete set of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces. Finally, the combined <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> surfaces are connected together to generate a more complete <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. For the experimental results, both presented systems are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively and different aspects of the two systems including accuracy, stability, and execution time are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6909S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.6909S"><span id="translatedtitle">Land surface temperature from INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> imager data: Retrieval and assimilation in NWP <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Randhir; Singh, Charu; Ojha, Satya P.; Kumar, A. Senthil; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, A. S. Kiran</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A new algorithm is developed for retrieving the land surface temperature (LST) from the imager radiance observations on board geostationary operational Indian National Satellite (INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>). The algorithm is developed using the two thermal infrared channels (TIR1 10.3-11.3 µm and TIR2 11.5-12.5 µm) via genetic algorithm (GA). The transfer function that relates LST and thermal radiances is developed using radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span> simulated database. The developed algorithm has been applied on the INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> observed radiances, and LST retrieved from the developed algorithm has been validated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land surface temperature (LST) product. The developed algorithm demonstrates a good accuracy, without significant bias and standard deviations of 1.78 K and 1.41 K during daytime and nighttime, respectively. The newly proposed algorithm performs better than the operational algorithm used for LST retrieval from INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> satellite. Further, a set of data assimilation experiments is conducted with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) <span class="hlt">model</span> to assess the impact of INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LST on <span class="hlt">model</span> forecast skill over the Indian region. The assimilation experiments demonstrated a positive impact of the assimilated INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LST, particularly on the lower tropospheric temperature and moisture forecasts. The temperature and moisture forecast errors are reduced (as large as 8-10%) with the assimilation of INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LST, when compared to forecasts that were obtained without the assimilation of INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LST. Results of the additional experiments of comparative performance of two LST products, retrieved from operational and newly proposed algorithms, indicate that the impact of INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LST retrieved using newly proposed algorithm is significantly larger compared to the impact of INSAT-<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> LST retrieved using operational algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4...81H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL4...81H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Laser Scanning <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Application on Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hou, M.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Y.; Hu, Y.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is located at Baoding Mountain in Chongqing. It has the reputation as "the Gem of World's Rock Carving Art". At present,the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is basically well conserved, while the local damage is already very serious. However, the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue is a three-dimensional caved statue, the present plane surveying and mapping device cannot reflect the preservation situation completely. Therefore, the documentation of the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva Statue using terrestrial laser scanning is of great significance. This paper will introduce a new method for superfine <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of Thousand-hand Bodhisattva based on the high-resolution <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cloud points. By analyzing these <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> cloud points and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>, some useful information, such as several <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> statistics, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thematic map and <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> shape restoration suggestion of Thousand-hand Bodhisattva will be revealed, which are beneficial to restoration work and some other application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6561E..0XS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6561E..0XS"><span id="translatedtitle">Stereo-vision based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for unmanned ground vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Se, Stephen; Jasiobedzki, Piotr</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Instant Scene <span class="hlt">Modeler</span> (iSM) is a vision system for generating calibrated photo-realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> of unknown environments quickly using stereo image sequences. Equipped with iSM, Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) can capture stereo images and create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> to be sent back to the base station, while they explore unknown environments. Rapid access to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> will increase the operator situational awareness and allow better mission planning and execution, as the <span class="hlt">models</span> can be visualized from different views and used for relative measurements. Current military operations of UGVs in urban warfare threats involve the operator hand-sketching the environment from live video feed. iSM eliminates the need for an additional operator as the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is generated automatically. The photo-realism of the <span class="hlt">models</span> enhances the situational awareness of the mission and the <span class="hlt">models</span> can also be used for change detection. iSM has been tested on our autonomous vehicle to create photo-realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> while the rover traverses in unknown environments. Moreover, a proof-of-concept iSM payload has been mounted on an iRobot PackBot with Wayfarer technology, which is equipped with autonomous urban reconnaissance capabilities. The Wayfarer PackBot UGV uses wheel odometry for localization and builds 2D occupancy grid maps from a laser sensor. While the UGV is following walls and avoiding obstacles, iSM captures and processes images to create photo-realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Experimental results show that iSM can complement Wayfarer PackBot's autonomous navigation in two ways. The photo-realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> provide better situational awareness than 2D grid maps. Moreover, iSM also recovers the camera motion, also known as the visual odometry. As wheel odometry error grows over time, this can help improve the wheel odometry for better localization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..341K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..341K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic Texture Reconstruction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">d</span> City <span class="hlt">Model</span> from Oblique Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In recent years, the photorealistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">models</span> are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh <span class="hlt">model</span> can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> city <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009808','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009808"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Damaged Cavity <span class="hlt">Model</span> Builder for Lower Surface Acreage Tile on Orbiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Belknap, Shannon; Zhang, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Automated Thermal Tool for Damaged Acreage Tile Math <span class="hlt">Model</span> builder was developed to perform quickly and accurately <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> thermal analyses on damaged lower surface acreage tiles and structures beneath the damaged locations on a Space Shuttle Orbiter. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> builder created both TRASYS geometric math <span class="hlt">models</span> (GMMs) and SINDA thermal math <span class="hlt">models</span> (TMMs) to simulate an idealized damaged cavity in the damaged tile(s). The GMMs are processed in TRASYS to generate radiation conductors between the surfaces in the cavity. The radiation conductors are inserted into the TMMs, which are processed in SINDA to generate temperature histories for all of the nodes on each layer of the TMM. The invention allows a thermal analyst to create quickly and accurately a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of a damaged lower surface tile on the orbiter. The <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> builder can generate a GMM and the correspond ing TMM in one or two minutes, with the damaged cavity included in the tile material. A separate program creates a configuration file, which would take a couple of minutes to edit. This configuration file is read by the <span class="hlt">model</span> builder program to determine the location of the damage, the correct tile type, tile thickness, structure thickness, and SIP thickness of the damage, so that the <span class="hlt">model</span> builder program can build an accurate <span class="hlt">model</span> at the specified location. Once the <span class="hlt">models</span> are built, they are processed by the TRASYS and SINDA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19533253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19533253"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation of a tumor spheroid in a microgravity environment as a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of melanoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marrero, Bernadette; Messina, Jane L; Heller, Richard</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>An in vitro <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed utilizing a synthetic microgravity environment to facilitate studying the cell interactions. 2D monolayer cell culture <span class="hlt">models</span> have been successfully used to understand various cellular reactions that occur in vivo. There are some limitations to the 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> that are apparent when compared to cells grown in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix. For example, some proteins that are not expressed in a 2D <span class="hlt">model</span> are found up-regulated in the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> matrix. In this paper, we discuss techniques used to develop the first known large, free-floating <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissue <span class="hlt">model</span> used to establish tumor spheroids. The bioreactor system known as the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARVs) was used to provide a microgravity environment. The HARVs promoted aggregation of keratinocytes (HaCaT) that formed a construct that served as scaffolding for the growth of mouse melanoma. Although there is an emphasis on building a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> with the proper extracellular matrix and stroma, we were able to develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> that excluded the use of matrigel. Immunohistochemistry and apoptosis assays provided evidence that this <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> supports B16.F10 cell growth, proliferation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Immunofluorescence showed that melanoma cells interact with one another displaying observable cellular morphological changes. The goal of engineering a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> tissue <span class="hlt">model</span> is to collect new information about cancer development and develop new potential treatment regimens that can be translated to in vivo <span class="hlt">models</span> while reducing the use of laboratory animals. PMID:19533253</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4461827','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4461827"><span id="translatedtitle">A kinematic <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> head-free gaze-shifts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Daemi, Mehdi; Crawford, J. Douglas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> for the kinematics of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing's and Fick constraints for the eyes and head, respectively. The internal design of the <span class="hlt">model</span> was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: (1) a saccade generator, (2) a head rotation generator, (3) a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the <span class="hlt">model</span> can implement: (1) the correct <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters), (2) the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and (3) the experimentally observed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> constraints to influence <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision. PMID:26113816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113816"><span id="translatedtitle">A kinematic <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> head-free gaze-shifts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daemi, Mehdi; Crawford, J Douglas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Rotations of the line of sight are mainly implemented by coordinated motion of the eyes and head. Here, we propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> for the kinematics of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span>) head-unrestrained gaze-shifts. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was designed to account for major principles in the known behavior, such as gaze accuracy, spatiotemporal coordination of saccades with vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), relative eye and head contributions, the non-commutativity of rotations, and Listing's and Fick constraints for the eyes and head, respectively. The internal design of the <span class="hlt">model</span> was inspired by known and hypothesized elements of gaze control physiology. Inputs included retinocentric location of the visual target and internal representations of initial <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eye and head orientation, whereas outputs were <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> displacements of eye relative to the head and head relative to shoulder. Internal transformations decomposed the 2-D gaze command into <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> eye and head commands with the use of three coordinated circuits: (1) a saccade generator, (2) a head rotation generator, (3) a VOR predictor. Simulations illustrate that the <span class="hlt">model</span> can implement: (1) the correct <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> reference frame transformations to generate accurate gaze shifts (despite variability in other parameters), (2) the experimentally verified constraints on static eye and head orientations during fixation, and (3) the experimentally observed <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> trajectories of eye and head motion during gaze-shifts. We then use this <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate how 2-D eye-head coordination strategies interact with <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> constraints to influence <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> orientations of the eye-in-space, and the implications of this for spatial vision. PMID:26113816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858399"><span id="translatedtitle">Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic <span class="hlt">model</span> via rapid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen</p> <p>2016-02-23</p> <p>The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogel-based triculture <span class="hlt">model</span> that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HPC-only <span class="hlt">model</span>, our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> triculture <span class="hlt">model</span> shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> biomimetic liver <span class="hlt">model</span> that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. PMID:26858399</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4776497','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4776497"><span id="translatedtitle">Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic <span class="hlt">model</span> via rapid <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrogel-based triculture <span class="hlt">model</span> that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> HPC-only <span class="hlt">model</span>, our <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> triculture <span class="hlt">model</span> shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> biomimetic liver <span class="hlt">model</span> that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. PMID:26858399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780801"><span id="translatedtitle">Lift-Off: Using Reference Imagery and Freehand Sketching to Create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Models</span> in VR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jackson, Bret; Keefe, Daniel F</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> has long been regarded as an ideal application for virtual reality (VR), but current VR-based <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools suffer from two problems that limit creativity and applicability: (1) the lack of control for freehand <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, and (2) the difficulty of starting from scratch. To address these challenges, we present Lift-Off, an immersive <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> interface for creating complex <span class="hlt">models</span> with a controlled, handcrafted style. Artists start outside of VR with 2D sketches, which are then imported and positioned in VR. Then, using a VR interface built on top of image processing algorithms, 2D curves within the sketches are selected interactively and "lifted" into space to create a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scaffolding for the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Finally, artists sweep surfaces along these curves to create <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">models</span>. Evaluations are presented for both long-term users and for novices who each created a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> sailboat <span class="hlt">model</span> from the same starting sketch. Qualitative results are positive, with the visual style of the resulting <span class="hlt">models</span> of animals and other organic subjects as well as architectural <span class="hlt">models</span> matching what is possible with traditional fine art media. In addition, quantitative data from logging features built into the software are used to characterize typical tool use and suggest areas for further refinement of the interface. PMID:26780801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686392"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic segmentation of the fetal cerebellum on ultrasound volumes, using a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> statistical shape <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gutiérrez-Becker, Benjamín; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando; Guzmán Huerta, Mario E; Benavides-Serralde, Jesús Andrés; Camargo-Marín, Lisbeth; Medina Bañuelos, Verónica</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Previous work has shown that the segmentation of anatomical structures on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound data sets provides an important tool for the assessment of the fetal health. In this work, we present an algorithm based on a <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> statistical shape <span class="hlt">model</span> to segment the fetal cerebellum on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound volumes. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is adjusted using an ad hoc objective function which is in turn optimized using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. Our algorithm was tested on ultrasound volumes of the fetal brain taken from 20 pregnant women, between 18 and 24 gestational weeks. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.8528 and a mean Dice coefficient of 0.8 between cerebellar volumes measured using manual techniques and the volumes calculated using our algorithm were obtained. As far as we know, this is the first effort to automatically segment fetal intracranial structures on <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> ultrasound data. PMID:23686392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/774501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/774501"><span id="translatedtitle">Gamma<span class="hlt">Modeler</span> TM <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> gamma-ray imaging technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Gamma<span class="hlt">Modeler</span>{trademark} system was used to survey a portion of the facility and provide <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visual and radiation representation of contaminated equipment located within the facility. The <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> Gamma<span class="hlt">Modeler</span>{trademark} system software was used to deconvolve extended sources into a series of point sources, locate the positions of these sources in space and calculate the 30 cm. dose rates for each of these sources. Localization of the sources in three dimensions provides information on source locations interior to the visual objects and provides a better estimate of the source intensities. The three dimensional representation of the objects can be made transparent in order to visualize sources located within the objects. Positional knowledge of all the sources can be used to calculate a map of the radiation in the canyon. The use of <span class="hlt">3</span>-<span class="hlt">D</span> visual and gamma ray information supports improved planning decision-making, and aids in communications with regulators and stakeholders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhB..22c0513Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhB..22c0513Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical structure of the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) Ising <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhi-Dong</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>An overview of the mathematical structure of the three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) Ising <span class="hlt">model</span> is given from the points of view of topology, algebra, and geometry. By analyzing the relationships among transfer matrices of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span>, Reidemeister moves in the knot theory, Yang-Baxter and tetrahedron equations, the following facts are illustrated for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span>. 1) The complex quaternion basis constructed for the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span> naturally represents the rotation in a (3+1)-dimensional space-time as a relativistic quantum statistical mechanics <span class="hlt">model</span>, which is consistent with the 4-fold integrand of the partition function obtained by taking the time average. 2) A unitary transformation with a matrix that is a spin representation in 2n·l·o-space corresponds to a rotation in 2n·l·o-space, which serves to smooth all the crossings in the transfer matrices and contributes the non-trivial topological part of the partition function of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span>. 3) A tetrahedron relationship would ensure the commutativity of the transfer matrices and the integrability of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span>, and its existence is guaranteed by the Jordan algebra and the Jordan-von Neumann-Wigner procedures. 4) The unitary transformation for smoothing the crossings in the transfer matrices changes the wave functions by complex phases varphix, varphiy, and varphiz. The relationship with quantum field and gauge theories and the physical significance of the weight factors are discussed in detail. The conjectured exact solution is compared with numerical results, and the singularities at/near infinite temperature are inspected. The analyticity in β = 1/(kBT) of both the hard-core and the Ising <span class="hlt">models</span> has been proved only for β > 0, not for β = 0. Thus the high-temperature series cannot serve as a standard for judging a putative exact solution of the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Ising <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8761E..06G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8761E..06G"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic visual image <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic scenes in agricultural engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Li; Yan, Juntao; Li, Xiaobo; Ji, Yatai; Li, Xin</p> <p></p> <p>The dynamic visual image <span class="hlt">modeling</span> for <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> synthetic scenes by using dynamic multichannel binocular visual image based on the mobile self-organizing network. Technologies of <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> synthetic scenes have been widely used in kinds of industries. The main purpose of this paper is to use multiple networks of dynamic visual monitors and sensors to observe an unattended area, to use the advantages of mobile network in rural areas for improving existing mobile network information service further and providing personalized information services. The goal of displaying is to provide perfect representation of synthetic scenes. Using low-power dynamic visual monitors and temperature/humidity sensor or GPS installed in the node equipment, monitoring data will be sent at scheduled time. Then through the mobile self-organizing network, <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> is rebuilt by synthesizing the returned images. On this basis, we formalize a novel algorithm for multichannel binocular visual <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> images based on fast <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Taking advantage of these low prices mobile, mobile self-organizing networks can get a large number of video from where is not suitable for human observation or unable to reach, and accurately synthetic <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> scene. This application will play a great role in promoting its application in agriculture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApCM..tmp...47G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApCM..tmp...47G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> Finite Element <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Cutting Forces in Drilling Fibre Metal Laminates and Experimental Hole Quality Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giasin, Khaled; Ayvar-Soberanis, Sabino; French, Toby; Phadnis, Vaibhav</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Machining Glass fibre aluminium reinforced epoxy (GLARE) is cumbersome due to distinctively different mechanical and thermal properties of its constituents, which makes it challenging to achieve damage-free holes with the acceptable surface quality. The proposed work focuses on the study of the machinability of thin (~2.5 mm) GLARE laminate. Drilling trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed rate and spindle speed on the cutting forces and hole quality. The resulting hole quality metrics (surface roughness, hole size, circularity error, burr formation and delamination) were assessed using surface profilometry and optical scanning techniques. A three dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) finite-element (<span class="hlt">FE</span>) <span class="hlt">model</span> of drilling GLARE laminate was also developed using ABAQUS/Explicit to help understand the mechanism of drilling GLARE. The homogenised ply-level response of GLARE laminate was considered in the <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> to predict cutting forces in the drilling process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SuScT..25a5009Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SuScT..25a5009Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) system. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is characterized by the E-J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the <span class="hlt">model</span> in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our <span class="hlt">model</span> to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D <span class="hlt">models</span>. The new <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6870367','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6870367"><span id="translatedtitle">GM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: interactive three-dimensional gravity and magnetic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> program (GM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>. REV1 user's guide)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maurer, J.; Atwood, J.W.</p> <p>1980-10-01</p> <p>GM<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has been developed for computering the gravity or magnetic anomaly due to a three-dimensional body, and for plotting the resulting contour map. A complex body may be constructed from several right-rectilinear vertical-sided prisms. The program allows the input and editing of the prism data which are then used to calculate the anomaly map for plotting. Plotting is done on either a Tekronix 4014 graphics terminal, a Statos electrostatic plotter, or a CalComp pen plotter. A terminal plot is also available which can be printed on any terminal and on a line printer. The program is written in FORTRAN IV code and operates on a PRIME 400 computer system. Adaptation of the program to other systems is relatively straightforward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26978075"><span id="translatedtitle">BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) cell culture <span class="hlt">models</span> that are imaged in full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also enables visualization of raw and processed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation. PMID:26978075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MSAIS..24..111P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MSAIS..24..111P"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen spectral line synthesis: <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> non-LTE with CO5BOLD hydrodynamical <span class="hlt">model</span> atmospheres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prakapavičius, D.; Steffen, M.; Kučinskas, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Caffau, E.; Cayrel, R.</p> <p></p> <p>In this work we present first results of our current project aimed at combining the <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere approach with non-LTE (NLTE) spectral line synthesis for a number of key chemical species. We carried out a full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-NLTE spectrum synthesis of the oxygen IR 777 nm triplet, using a modified and improved version of our NLTE<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> package to calculate departure coefficients for the atomic levels of oxygen in a CO5BOLD <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> hydrodynamical solar <span class="hlt">model</span> atmosphere. Spectral line synthesis was subsequently performed with the Linfor<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> code. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the lines of the oxygen triplet produce deeper cores under NLTE conditions, due to the diminished line source function in the line forming region. This means that the solar oxygen IR 777 nm lines should be stronger in NLTE, leading to negative <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> NLTE-LTE abundance corrections. Qualitatively this result would support previous claims for a relatively low solar oxygen abundance. Finally, we outline several further steps that need to be taken in order to improve the physical realism and numerical accuracy of our current <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>-NLTE calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4792475','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4792475"><span id="translatedtitle">BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span>) cell culture <span class="hlt">models</span> that are imaged in full <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> also enables visualization of raw and processed <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig<span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation. PMID:26978075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phosphates&pg=3&id=EJ726125','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phosphates&pg=3&id=EJ726125"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Double-Helical DNA Showing Variable Chemical Details</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cady, Susan G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Since the first DNA <span class="hlt">model</span> was created approximately 50 years ago using molecular <span class="hlt">models</span>, students and teachers have been building simplified DNA <span class="hlt">models</span> from various practical materials. A <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> double-helical DNA <span class="hlt">model</span>, made by placing beads on a wire and stringing beads through holes in plastic canvas, is described. Suggestions are given to enhance…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.667...48P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.667...48P"><span id="translatedtitle">Present-day stress field in subduction zones: Insights from <span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viscoelastic <span class="hlt">models</span> and data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petricca, Patrizio; Carminati, Eugenio</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">3</span><span class="hlt">D</span> viscoelastic <span class="hlt">FE</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> were performed to investigate the impact of geometry and kinematics on the lithospheric stress in convergent margins. Generic geometries were designed in order to resemble natural subduction. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions mirror the results of previous 2D <span class="hlt">models</span> concerning the effects of lithosphere-mantle relative flow on stress regimes, and allow a better understanding of the lateral variability of the stress field. In particular, in both upper and lower plates, stress axes orientations depend on the adopted geometry and axes rotations occur following the trench shape. Generally stress axes are oriented perpendicular or parallel to the trench, with the exception of the slab lateral tips where rotations occur. Overall compression results in the upper plate when convergence rate is faster than mantle flow rate, suggesting a major role for convergence. In the slab, along-strike tension occurs at intermediate and deeper depths (> 100 km) in case of mantle flow sustaining the sinking lithosphere and slab convex geometry facing mantle flow or in case of opposing mantle flow and slab concave geometry facing mantle flow. Along-strike compression is predicted in case of sustaining mantle flow and concave slabs or in case of opposing mantle flow and convex slabs. The slab stress field is thus controlled by the direction of impact of mantle flow onto the slab and by slab longitudinal curvature. Slab pull produces not only tension in the bending region of subducted plate but also compression where upper and lower plates are coupled. A qualitative comparison between results and data in selected subductions indicates good match for South America, Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec subductions. Discrepancies, as for Sumatra-Java, emerge due to missing geometric (e.g., occurrence of fault systems and local changes in the orientation of plate boundaries) and rheological (e.g., plasticity associated with slab bending, anisotropy) complexities in the <spa