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Sample records for 3d flash lidar

  1. 3D flash lidar imager onboard UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Liu, Yilong; Yang, Jiazhi; Zhang, Rongting; Su, Chengjie; Shi, Yujun; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    A new generation of flash LiDAR sensor called GLidar-I is presented in this paper. The GLidar-I has been being developed by Guilin University of Technology in cooperating with the Guilin Institute of Optical Communications. The GLidar-I consists of control and process system, transmitting system and receiving system. Each of components has been designed and implemented. The test, experiments and validation for each component have been conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that the researched and developed GLiDAR-I can effectively measure the distance about 13 m at the accuracy level about 11cm in lab.

  2. Utilization of 3D imaging flash lidar technology for autonomous safe landing on planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Vanek, Michael; Petway, Larry; Pierrottet, Diego; Busch, George; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    NASA considers Flash Lidar a critical technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future large robotic and crewed vehicles on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Flash Lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes during the final stages of descent and landing. The onboard flight comptuer can use the 3-D map of terain to guide the vehicle to a safe site. The capabilities of Flash Lidar technology were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard a helicopter and a fixed wing airctarft. The aircraft flight tests were perfomed over Moonlike terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. This paper briefly describes the Flash Lidar static and aircraft flight test results. These test results are analyzed against the landing application requirements to identify the areas of technology improvement. The ongoing technology advancement activities are then explained and their goals are described.

  3. Utilization of 3-D Imaging Flash Lidar Technology for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Vanek, Michael; Petway, Larry; Pierrotter, Diego; Busch, George; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    NASA considers Flash Lidar a critical technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future large robotic and crewed vehicles on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Flash Lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes during the final stages of descent and landing. The onboard flight computer can use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe site. The capabilities of Flash Lidar technology were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard a helicopter and a fixed wing aircraft. The aircraft flight tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. This paper briefly describes the Flash Lidar static and aircraft flight test results. These test results are analyzed against the landing application requirements to identify the areas of technology improvement. The ongoing technology advancement activities are then explained and their goals are described.

  4. Helicopter flight test of 3D imaging flash LIDAR technology for safe, autonomous, and precise planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 μm Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GNC system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of humanmade geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in realtime for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).

  5. Helicopter Flight Test of 3-D Imaging Flash LIDAR Technology for Safe, Autonomous, and Precise Planetary Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GN&C system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of human-made geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in real-time for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).

  6. Helicopter Flight Test of a Compact, Real-Time 3-D Flash Lidar for Imaging Hazardous Terrain During Planetary Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, VIncent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Kempton, Kevin S.; Reisse, Robert A.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.

    2013-01-01

    A second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled 3-D imaging Flash Lidar sensor system, developed from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, is lab characterized and helicopter flight tested under the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The ALHAT project is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar incorporates a 3-D imaging video camera based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at a video rate of 20 Hz, a high pulse-energy 1.06 µm Neodymium-doped: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a remote laser safety termination system, high performance transmitter and receiver optics with one and five degrees field-of-view (FOV), enhanced onboard thermal control, as well as a compact and self-contained suite of support electronics housed in a single box and built around a PC-104 architecture to enable autonomous operations. The Flash Lidar was developed and then characterized at two NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) outdoor laser test range facilities both statically and dynamically, integrated with other ALHAT GN&C subsystems from partner organizations, and installed onto a Bell UH-1H Iroquois "Huey" helicopter at LaRC. The integrated system was flight tested at the NASA-Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on simulated lunar approach to a custom hazard field consisting of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe-sites near the Shuttle Landing Facility runway starting at slant ranges of 750 m. In order to evaluate different methods of achieving hazard detection, the lidar, in conjunction with the ALHAT hazard detection and GN&C system, operates in both a narrow 1deg FOV raster

  7. FLASH LIDAR Based Relative Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazzel, Jack; Clark, Fred; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Relative navigation remains the most challenging part of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. In recent years, flash LIDARs, have been increasingly selected as the go-to sensors for proximity operations and docking. Flash LIDARS are generally lighter and require less power that scanning Lidars. Flash LIDARs do not have moving parts, and they are capable of tracking multiple targets as well as generating a 3D map of a given target. However, there are some significant drawbacks of Flash Lidars that must be resolved if their use is to be of long-term significance. Overcoming the challenges of Flash LIDARs for navigation-namely, low technology readiness level, lack of historical performance data, target identification, existence of false positives, and performance of vision processing algorithms as intermediaries between the raw sensor data and the Kalman filter-requires a world-class testing facility, such as the Lockheed Martin Space Operations Simulation Center (SOSC). Ground-based testing is a critical step for maturing the next-generation flash LIDAR-based spacecraft relative navigation. This paper will focus on the tests of an integrated relative navigation system conducted at the SOSC in January 2014. The intent of the tests was to characterize and then improve the performance of relative navigation, while addressing many of the flash LIDAR challenges mentioned above. A section on navigation performance and future recommendation completes the discussion.

  8. 3D flash lidar performance in flight testing on the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled lander to a lunar-like hazard field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roback, Vincent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.

    2016-05-01

    For the first time, a 3-D imaging Flash Lidar instrument has been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM), identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, help to guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying lander to that safe site on the hazard field. The flight tests served as the TRL 6 demo of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) system and included launch from NASA-Kennedy, a lunar-like descent trajectory from an altitude of 250m, and landing on a lunar-like hazard field of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe sites 400m down-range. The ALHAT project developed a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled instrument. Based upon extensive on-ground characterization at flight ranges, the Flash Lidar was shown to be capable of imaging hazards from a slant range of 1 km with an 8 cm range precision and a range accuracy better than 35 cm, both at 1-σ. The Flash Lidar identified landing hazards as small as 30 cm from the maximum slant range which Morpheus could achieve (450 m); however, under certain wind conditions it was susceptible to scintillation arising from air heated by the rocket engine and to pre-triggering on a dust cloud created during launch and transported down-range by wind.

  9. 3-D Flash Lidar Performance in Flight Testing on the Morpheus Autonomous, Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Vincent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a 3-D imaging Flash Lidar instrument has been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM), identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system, help to guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying lander to that safe site on the hazard field. The flight tests served as the TRL 6 demo of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) system and included launch from NASA-Kennedy, a lunar-like descent trajectory from an altitude of 250m, and landing on a lunar-like hazard field of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe sites 400m down-range. The ALHAT project developed a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled instrument. Based upon extensive on-ground characterization at flight ranges, the Flash Lidar was shown to be capable of imaging hazards from a slant range of 1 km with an 8 cm range precision and a range accuracy better than 35 cm, both at 1-delta. The Flash Lidar identified landing hazards as small as 30 cm from the maximum slant range which Morpheus could achieve (450 m); however, under certain wind conditions it was susceptible to scintillation arising from air heated by the rocket engine and to pre-triggering on a dust cloud created during launch and transported down-range by wind.

  10. Flash Lidar Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergkoetter, M. D.; Ruppert, L.; Weimer, C. S.; Ramond, T.; Lefsky, M. A.; Burke, I. C.; Hu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Late last year, a prototype Flash LIDAR instrument flew on a series of airborne tests to demonstrate its potential for improved vegetation measurements. The prototype is a precursor to the Electronically Steerable Flash LIDAR (ESFL) currently under development at Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp. with funding from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office. ESFL may soon significantly expand our ability to measure vegetation and forests and better understand the extent of their role in global climate change and the carbon cycle - all critical science questions relating to the upcoming NASA DESDynI and ESA BIOMASS missions. In order to more efficiently exploit data returned from the experimental Flash Lidar system and plan for data exploitation from future flights, Ball funded a graduate student project (through the Ball Summer Intern Program, summer 2009) to develop and implement algorithms for post-processing of the 3-Dimensional Flash Lidar data. This effort included developing autonomous algorithms to resample the data to a uniform rectangular grid, geolocation of the data, and visual display of large swaths of data. The resampling, geolocation, surface hit detection, and aggregation of frame data are implemented with new MATLAB code, and the efficient visual display is achieved with free commercial viewing software. These efforts directly support additional tests flights planned as early as October 2009, including possible flights over Niwot Ridge, CO, for which there is ICESat data, and a sea-level coastal area in California to test the effect of higher altitude (above ground level) on the divergence of the beams and the beam spot sizes.

  11. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  12. Advances of Flash LIDAR Development Onboard Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Yang, J.; Li, X.; Yang, X.

    2012-07-01

    A small cost-low civilian UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - UAV) platform usually requests that all carried components should be light in weight, small in volume, and efficient in energy. This paper presents the advance of a pre-mature of flash LiDAR system including laser emitting system, associate with the pulsed voltage technology. A complete laser emitting system, including laser diode, conic lens, alignment, divergence angle, etc., has been designed and implemented. The laser emitting system is first simulated and tested using 3D-Tool software, and then manufactured by an industrial company. In addition, a novel power supply topology based on two coupled coils, pulse generator circuit, and a fast switch, is proposed since several 100 V in voltage, 10-100 A in current, several hundred millisecond in pulse width is needed for flash LiDAR system onboard a small low-cost civilian UAV platform, and the traditional power supply had problems in efficiency and bulk. Finally, laser emitting and the power supply are assembled and tested. The size of laser footprint is 4398.031 mm x 4398.031 mm in x and y axes, respectively, when shitting from a flight height of 300 m, which is close to the theoretic size of 4.5 m x 4.5 m. The difference of 102 mm can meet the requirement of flash LiDAR data collection at a flight height of 300 m. Future work on extensive and on-going investigation and investments for a prototype of flash LiDAR system is drawn up as well.

  13. Super Resolution Image Enhancement for a Flash Lidar: Back Projection Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Hines, Glenn; Vanek, Michael; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert; Pierrottet, Diego

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a new image processing technique for flash LIDAR data is presented as a potential tool to enable safe and precise spacecraft landings in future robotic or crewed lunar and planetary missions. Flash LIDARs can generate, in real-time, range data that can be interpreted as a 3-dimensional (3-D) image and transformed into a corresponding digital elevation map (DEM). The NASA Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project is capitalizing on this new technology by developing, testing and analyzing flash LIDARs to detect hazardous terrain features such as craters, rocks, and slopes during the descent phase of spacecraft landings. Using a flash LIDAR for this application looks very promising, however through theoretical and simulation analysis the ALHAT team has determined that a single frame, or mosaic, of flash LIDAR data may not be sufficient to build a landing site DEM with acceptable spatial resolution, precision, size, or for a mosaic, in time, to meet current system requirements. One way to overcome this potential limitation is by enhancing the flash LIDAR output images. We propose a new super-resolution algorithm applicable to flash LIDAR range data that will create a DEM with sufficient accuracy, precision and size to meet current ALHAT requirements. The performance of our super-resolution algorithm is analyzed by processing data generated during a series of simulation runs by a high fidelity model of a flash LIDAR imaging a high resolution synthetic lunar elevation map. The flash LIDAR model is attached to a simulated spacecraft by a gimbal that points the LIDAR to a target landing site. For each simulation run, a sequence of flash LIDAR frames is recorded and processed as the spacecraft descends toward the landing site. Each run has a different trajectory profile with varying LIDAR look angles of the terrain. We process the output LIDAR frames using our SR algorithm and the results show that the achieved level of accuracy and precision of

  14. Lidar on small UAV for 3D mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael; Larsson, Hâkan

    2014-10-01

    Small UAV:s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are currently in an explosive technical development phase. The performance of UAV-system components such as inertial navigation sensors, propulsion, control processors and algorithms are gradually improving. Simultaneously, lidar technologies are continuously developing in terms of reliability, accuracy, as well as speed of data collection, storage and processing. The lidar development towards miniature systems with high data rates has, together with recent UAV development, a great potential for new three dimensional (3D) mapping capabilities. Compared to lidar mapping from manned full-size aircraft a small unmanned aircraft can be cost efficient over small areas and more flexible for deployment. An advantage with high resolution lidar compared to 3D mapping from passive (multi angle) photogrammetry is the ability to penetrate through vegetation and detect partially obscured targets. Another advantage is the ability to obtain 3D data over the whole survey area, without the limited performance of passive photogrammetry in low contrast areas. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate 3D lidar mapping capability from a small multirotor UAV. We present the first experimental results and the mechanical and electrical integration of the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a six-rotor aircraft with a total weight of 7 kg. The rotating lidar is mounted at an angle of 20 degrees from the horizontal plane giving a vertical field-of-view of 10-50 degrees below the horizon in the aircraft forward directions. For absolute positioning of the 3D data, accurate positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is of high importance. We evaluate the lidar data position accuracy both based on inertial navigation system (INS) data, and on INS data combined with lidar data. The INS sensors consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS, magnetometers, and a pressure sensor for altimetry. The lidar range resolution and accuracy is documented as well as the

  15. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  16. 3D imaging lidar for lunar robotic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Marwan W.; Tripp, Jeffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Part of the requirements of the future Constellation program is to optimize lunar surface operations and reduce hazards to astronauts. Toward this end, many robotic platforms, rovers in specific, are being sought to carry out a multitude of missions involving potential EVA sites survey, surface reconnaissance, path planning and obstacle detection and classification. 3D imaging lidar technology provides an enabling capability that allows fast, accurate and detailed collection of three-dimensional information about the rover's environment. The lidar images the region of interest by scanning a laser beam and measuring the pulse time-of-flight and the bearing. The accumulated set of laser ranges and bearings constitutes the threedimensional image. As part of the ongoing NASA Ames research center activities in lunar robotics, the utility of 3D imaging lidar was evaluated by testing Optech's ILRIS-3D lidar on board the K-10 Red rover during the recent Human - Robotics Systems (HRS) field trails in Lake Moses, WA. This paper examines the results of the ILRIS-3D trials, presents the data obtained and discusses its application in lunar surface robotic surveying and scouting.

  17. Advanced 3D polarimetric flash ladar imaging through foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, James T.; Moran, Steven E.; Roddier, Nicolas; Vercillo, Richard; Bridges, Robert; Austin, William

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional flash ladar system technologies are under development that enables remote identification of vehicles and armament hidden by heavy tree canopies. We have developed a sensor architecture and design that employs a 3D flash ladar receiver to address this mission. The receiver captures 128×128×>30 three-dimensional images for each laser pulse fired. The voxel size of the image is 3"×3"×4" at the target location. A novel signal-processing algorithm has been developed that achieves sub-voxel (sub-inch) range precision estimates of target locations within each pixel. Polarization discrimination is implemented to augment the target-to-foliage contrast. When employed, this method improves the range resolution of the system beyond the classical limit (based on pulsewidth and detection bandwidth). Experiments were performed with a 6 ns long transmitter pulsewidth that demonstrate 1-inch range resolution of a tank-like target that is occluded by foliage and a range precision of 0.3" for unoccluded targets.

  18. High definition 3D imaging lidar system using CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sungeun; Kong, Hong Jin; Bang, Hyochoong

    2016-10-01

    In this study we propose and demonstrate a novel technique for measuring distance with high definition three-dimensional imaging. To meet the stringent requirements of various missions, spatial resolution and range precision are important properties for flash LIDAR systems. The proposed LIDAR system employs a polarization modulator and a CCD. When a laser pulse is emitted from the laser, it triggers the polarization modulator. The laser pulse is scattered by the target and is reflected back to the LIDAR system while the polarization modulator is rotating. Its polarization state is a function of time. The laser-return pulse passes through the polarization modulator in a certain polarization state, and the polarization state is calculated using the intensities of the laser pulses measured by the CCD. Because the function of the time and the polarization state is already known, the polarization state can be converted to time-of-flight. By adopting a polarization modulator and a CCD and only measuring the energy of a laser pulse to obtain range, a high resolution three-dimensional image can be acquired by the proposed three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system. Since this system only measures the energy of the laser pulse, a high bandwidth detector and a high resolution TDC are not required for high range precision. The proposed method is expected to be an alternative method for many three-dimensional imaging LIDAR system applications that require high resolution.

  19. Physics and 3D in Flash Simulations: Open Source Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last decade our ability to deliver simulations over the web has steadily advanced. The improvements in speed of the Adobe Flash engine, and the development of open source tools to expand it, allow us to deliver increasingly sophisticated simulation based games through the browser, with no additional downloads required. In this paper we will present activities we are developing as part of two asteroids education projects: Finding NEO (funded through NSF and NASA SMD), and Asteroids! (funded through NSF). The first activity is Rubble!, an asteroids deflection game built on the open source Box2D physics engine. This game challenges players to push asteroids in to safe orbits before they crash in to the Earth. The Box2D engine allows us to go well beyond simple 2-body orbital calculations and incorporate “rubble piles”. These objects, which are representative of many asteroids, are composed of 50 or more individual rocks which gravitationally bind and separate in realistic ways. Even bombs can be modeled with sufficient physical accuracy to convince players of the hazards of trying to “blow up” incoming asteroids. The ability to easily build games based on underlying physical models allows us to address physical misconceptions in a natural way: by having the player operate in a world that directly collides with those misconceptions. Rubble! provides a particularly compelling example of this due to the variety of well documented misconceptions regarding gravity. The second activity is a Light Curve challenge, which uses the open source PaperVision3D tools to analyze 3D asteroid models. The goal of this activity is to introduce the player to the concept of “light curves”, measurements of asteroid brightness over time which are used to calculate the asteroid’s period. These measurements can even be inverted to generate three dimensional models of asteroids that are otherwise too small and distant to directly image. Through the use of the Paper

  20. Accuracy evaluation of 3D lidar data from small UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. M.; Bissmarck, Fredrik; Larsson, Hâkan; Grönwall, Christina; Tolt, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    A UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) with an integrated lidar can be an efficient system for collection of high-resolution and accurate three-dimensional (3D) data. In this paper we evaluate the accuracy of a system consisting of a lidar sensor on a small UAV. High geometric accuracy in the produced point cloud is a fundamental qualification for detection and recognition of objects in a single-flight dataset as well as for change detection using two or several data collections over the same scene. Our work presented here has two purposes: first to relate the point cloud accuracy to data processing parameters and second, to examine the influence on accuracy from the UAV platform parameters. In our work, the accuracy is numerically quantified as local surface smoothness on planar surfaces, and as distance and relative height accuracy using data from a terrestrial laser scanner as reference. The UAV lidar system used is the Velodyne HDL-32E lidar on a multirotor UAV with a total weight of 7 kg. For processing of data into a geographically referenced point cloud, positioning and orientation of the lidar sensor is based on inertial navigation system (INS) data combined with lidar data. The combination of INS and lidar data is achieved in a dynamic calibration process that minimizes the navigation errors in six degrees of freedom, namely the errors of the absolute position (x, y, z) and the orientation (pitch, roll, yaw) measured by GPS/INS. Our results show that low-cost and light-weight MEMS based (microelectromechanical systems) INS equipment with a dynamic calibration process can obtain significantly improved accuracy compared to processing based solely on INS data.

  1. Imaging Flash Lidar for Autonomous Safe Landing and Spacecraft Proximity Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    3-D Imaging flash lidar is recognized as a primary candidate sensor for safe precision landing on solar system bodies (Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn moons, etc.), and autonomous rendezvous proximity operations and docking/capture necessary for asteroid sample return and redirect missions, spacecraft docking, satellite servicing, and space debris removal. During the final stages of landing, from about 1 km to 500 m above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard fli1ght computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station from several kilometers distance. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16k pixels range images with 7 cm precision, at a 20 Hz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument design and capabilities as demonstrated by the closed-loop flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus). Then a plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology will be explained. This proposed plan is aimed at the development of a common sensor that with a modest design adjustment can meet the needs of both landing and proximity operation and docking applications.

  2. The application of iterative closest point (ICP) registration to improve 3D terrain mapping estimates using the flash 3D ladar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Jack; Armstrong, Ernest E.; Armbruster, Walter; Richmond, Richard

    2010-04-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to develop an effective means of creating a 3D terrain map image (point-cloud) in GPS denied regions from a sequence of co-bore sighted visible and 3D LIDAR images. Both the visible and 3D LADAR cameras were hard mounted to a vehicle. The vehicle was then driven around the streets of an abandoned village used as a training facility by the German Army and imagery was collected. The visible and 3D LADAR images were then fused and 3D registration performed using a variation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The ICP algorithm is widely used for various spatial and geometric alignment of 3D imagery producing a set of rotation and translation transformations between two 3D images. ICP rotation and translation information obtain from registering the fused visible and 3D LADAR imagery was then used to calculate the x-y plane, range and intensity (xyzi) coordinates of various structures (building, vehicles, trees etc.) along the driven path. The xyzi coordinates information was then combined to create a 3D terrain map (point-cloud). In this paper, we describe the development and application of 3D imaging techniques (most specifically the ICP algorithm) used to improve spatial, range and intensity estimates of imagery collected during urban terrain mapping using a co-bore sighted, commercially available digital video camera with focal plan of 640×480 pixels and a 3D FLASH LADAR. Various representations of the reconstructed point-clouds for the drive through data will also be presented.

  3. Real-time full-motion color Flash lidar for target detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Roy; Coppock, Eric; Craig, Rex; Craner, Jeremy; Nicks, Dennis; von Niederhausern, Kurt

    2015-05-01

    Greatly improved understanding of areas and objects of interest can be gained when real time, full-motion Flash LiDAR is fused with inertial navigation data and multi-spectral context imagery. On its own, full-motion Flash LiDAR provides the opportunity to exploit the z dimension for improved intelligence vs. 2-D full-motion video (FMV). The intelligence value of this data is enhanced when it is combined with inertial navigation data to produce an extended, georegistered data set suitable for a variety of analysis. Further, when fused with multispectral context imagery the typical point cloud now becomes a rich 3-D scene which is intuitively obvious to the user and allows rapid cognitive analysis with little or no training. Ball Aerospace has developed and demonstrated a real-time, full-motion LIDAR system that fuses context imagery (VIS to MWIR demonstrated) and inertial navigation data in real time, and can stream these information-rich geolocated/fused 3-D scenes from an airborne platform. In addition, since the higher-resolution context camera is boresighted and frame synchronized to the LiDAR camera and the LiDAR camera is an array sensor, techniques have been developed to rapidly interpolate the LIDAR pixel values creating a point cloud that has the same resolution as the context camera, effectively creating a high definition (HD) LiDAR image. This paper presents a design overview of the Ball TotalSight™ LIDAR system along with typical results over urban and rural areas collected from both rotary and fixed-wing aircraft. We conclude with a discussion of future work.

  4. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Sherwood I.

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  5. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and <10 cm range accuracy through foliage in real-time. The 3D imaging flash ladar is designed for a STUAS with a complete system SWAP estimate of <9 kg, <0.2 m3 and <350 W power. The system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  6. 3D lidar imaging for detecting and understanding plant responses and canopy structure.

    PubMed

    Omasa, Kenji; Hosoi, Fumiki; Konishi, Atsumi

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and diagnosing plant responses to stress will benefit greatly from three-dimensional (3D) measurement and analysis of plant properties because plant responses are strongly related to their 3D structures. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for direct 3D measurement of plant structure. Here the use of 3D lidar imaging to estimate plant properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, carbon stock, and species is demonstrated, and plant growth and shape responses are assessed by reviewing the development of lidar systems and their applications from the leaf level to canopy remote sensing. In addition, the recent creation of accurate 3D lidar images combined with natural colour, chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, and leaf temperature images is demonstrated, thereby providing information on responses of pigments, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal opening, and shape to environmental stresses; these data can be integrated with 3D images of the plants using computer graphics techniques. Future lidar applications that provide more accurate dynamic estimation of various plant properties should improve our understanding of plant responses to stress and of interactions between plants and their environment. Moreover, combining 3D lidar with other passive and active imaging techniques will potentially improve the accuracy of airborne and satellite remote sensing, and make it possible to analyse 3D information on ecophysiological responses and levels of various substances in agricultural and ecological applications and in observations of the global biosphere.

  7. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes. PMID:22163952

  8. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  9. Advances in animal ecology from 3D ecosystem mapping with LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Although the use of LiDAR data is widespread in vegetation science, it has only recently (< 14 years) been applied to animal ecology. Despite such recent application, LiDAR has enabled new insights in the field and revealed the fundamental importance of 3D ecosystem structure for animals. We reviewed the studies to date that have used LiDAR in animal ecology, synthesising the insights gained. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential than traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. LiDAR technology can be applied to animal ecology studies in a wide variety of environments to answer an impressive array of questions. Drawing on case studies from vastly different groups, termites and lions, we further demonstrate the applicability of LiDAR and highlight new understanding, ranging from habitat preference to predator-prey interactions, that would not have been possible from studies restricted to field based methods. We conclude with discussion of how future studies will benefit by using LiDAR to consider 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa to develop a better understanding of animal dynamics.

  10. Structure-From-Motion in 3D Space Using 2D Lidars

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-Geol; Bok, Yunsu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Shim, Inwook; Kweon, In So

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structure-from-motion methodology using 2D lidars (Light Detection And Ranging). In 3D space, 2D lidars do not provide sufficient information for pose estimation. For this reason, additional sensors have been used along with the lidar measurement. In this paper, we use a sensor system that consists of only 2D lidars, without any additional sensors. We propose a new method of estimating both the 6D pose of the system and the surrounding 3D structures. We compute the pose of the system using line segments of scan data and their corresponding planes. After discarding the outliers, both the pose and the 3D structures are refined via nonlinear optimization. Experiments with both synthetic and real data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:28165372

  11. TARGET CHARACTERIZATION IN 3D USING INFRARED LIDAR

    SciTech Connect

    B. FOY; B. MCVEY; R. PETRIN; J. TIEE; C. WILSON

    2001-04-01

    We report examples of the use of a scanning tunable CO{sub 2} laser lidar system in the 9-11 {micro}m region to construct images of vegetation and rocks at ranges of up to 5 km from the instrument. Range information is combined with horizontal and vertical distances to yield an image with three spatial dimensions simultaneous with the classification of target type. Object classification is made possible by the distinct spectral signatures of both natural and man-made objects. Several multivariate statistical methods are used to illustrate the degree of discrimination possible among the natural variability of objects in both spectral shape and amplitude.

  12. Voxel-Based 3-D Tree Modeling from Lidar Images for Extracting Tree Structual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, F.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, lidar (light detection and ranging) has been used to extracting tree structural information. Portable scanning lidar systems can capture the complex shape of individual trees as a 3-D point-cloud image. 3-D tree models reproduced from the lidar-derived 3-D image can be used to estimate tree structural parameters. We have proposed the voxel-based 3-D modeling for extracting tree structural parameters. One of the tree parameters derived from the voxel modeling is leaf area density (LAD). We refer to the method as the voxel-based canopy profiling (VCP) method. In this method, several measurement points surrounding the canopy and optimally inclined laser beams are adopted for full laser beam illumination of whole canopy up to the internal. From obtained lidar image, the 3-D information is reproduced as the voxel attributes in the 3-D voxel array. Based on the voxel attributes, contact frequency of laser beams on leaves is computed and LAD in each horizontal layer is obtained. This method offered accurate LAD estimation for individual trees and woody canopy trees. For more accurate LAD estimation, the voxel model was constructed by combining airborne and portable ground-based lidar data. The profiles obtained by the two types of lidar complemented each other, thus eliminating blind regions and yielding more accurate LAD profiles than could be obtained by using each type of lidar alone. Based on the estimation results, we proposed an index named laser beam coverage index, Ω, which relates to the lidar's laser beam settings and a laser beam attenuation factor. It was shown that this index can be used for adjusting measurement set-up of lidar systems and also used for explaining the LAD estimation error using different types of lidar systems. Moreover, we proposed a method to estimate woody material volume as another application of the voxel tree modeling. In this method, voxel solid model of a target tree was produced from the lidar image, which is composed of

  13. Methods of Real Time Image Enhancement of Flash LIDAR Data and Navigating a Vehicle Using Flash LIDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanek, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method for creating a digital elevation map ("DEM") from frames of flash LIDAR data includes generating a first distance R(sub i) from a first detector i to a first point on a surface S(sub i). After defining a map with a mesh THETA having cells k, a first array S(k), a second array M(k), and a third array D(k) are initialized. The first array corresponds to the surface, the second array corresponds to the elevation map, and the third array D(k) receives an output for the DEM. The surface is projected onto the mesh THETA, so that a second distance R(sub k) from a second point on the mesh THETA to the detector can be found. From this, a height may be calculated, which permits the generation of a digital elevation map. Also, using sequential frames of flash LIDAR data, vehicle control is possible using an offset between successive frames.

  14. The role of terrestrial 3D LiDAR scan in bridge health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanqiu; Chen, Shen-En; Sajedi, Allen; Hauser, Edd

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the potential applications of terrestrial 3D LiDAR scanning technologies for bridge monitoring. High resolution ground-based optical-photonic images from LiDAR scans can provide detailed geometric information about a bridge. Applications of simple algorithms can retrieve damage information from the geometric point cloud data, which can be correlated to possible damage quantification including concrete mass loss due to vehicle collisions, large permanent steel deformations, and surface erosions. However, any proposed damage detection technologies should provide information that is relevant and useful to bridge managers for their decision making process. This paper summaries bridge issues that can be detected from the 3D LiDAR technologies, establishes the general approach in using 3D point clouds for damage evaluation and suggests possible bridge state ratings that can be used as supplements to existing bridge management systems (BMS).

  15. 3D city models completion by fusing lidar and image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikopoulos, L.; Kalisperakis, I.; Petsa, E.; Stentoumis, C.

    2015-05-01

    A fundamental step in the generation of visually detailed 3D city models is the acquisition of high fidelity 3D data. Typical approaches employ DSM representations usually derived from Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) airborne scanning or image based procedures. In this contribution, we focus on the fusion of data from both these methods in order to enhance or complete them. Particularly, we combine an existing Lidar and orthomosaic dataset (used as reference), with a new aerial image acquisition (including both vertical and oblique imagery) of higher resolution, which was carried out in the area of Kallithea, in Athens, Greece. In a preliminary step, a digital orthophoto and a DSM is generated from the aerial images in an arbitrary reference system, by employing a Structure from Motion and dense stereo matching framework. The image-to-Lidar registration is performed by 2D feature (SIFT and SURF) extraction and matching among the two orthophotos. The established point correspondences are assigned with 3D coordinates through interpolation on the reference Lidar surface, are then backprojected onto the aerial images, and finally matched with 2D image features located in the vicinity of the backprojected 3D points. Consequently, these points serve as Ground Control Points with appropriate weights for final orientation and calibration of the images through a bundle adjustment solution. By these means, the aerial imagery which is optimally aligned to the reference dataset can be used for the generation of an enhanced and more accurately textured 3D city model.

  16. Calibration between Color Camera and 3D LIDAR Instruments with a Polygonal Planar Board

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoonsu; Yun, Seokmin; Won, Chee Sun; Cho, Kyungeun; Um, Kyhyun; Sim, Sungdae

    2014-01-01

    Calibration between color camera and 3D Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) equipment is an essential process for data fusion. The goal of this paper is to improve the calibration accuracy between a camera and a 3D LIDAR. In particular, we are interested in calibrating a low resolution 3D LIDAR with a relatively small number of vertical sensors. Our goal is achieved by employing a new methodology for the calibration board, which exploits 2D-3D correspondences. The 3D corresponding points are estimated from the scanned laser points on the polygonal planar board with adjacent sides. Since the lengths of adjacent sides are known, we can estimate the vertices of the board as a meeting point of two projected sides of the polygonal board. The estimated vertices from the range data and those detected from the color image serve as the corresponding points for the calibration. Experiments using a low-resolution LIDAR with 32 sensors show robust results. PMID:24643005

  17. A real-time noise filtering strategy for photon counting 3D imaging lidar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Su, Jianzhong

    2013-04-22

    For a direct-detection 3D imaging lidar, the use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) could greatly enhance the detection sensitivity of the lidar system since each range measurement requires a single detected photon. Furthermore, Gm-APD offers significant advantages in reducing the size, mass, power and complexity of the system. However the inevitable noise, including the background noise, the dark count noise and so on, remains a significant challenge to obtain a clear 3D image of the target of interest. This paper presents a smart strategy, which can filter out false alarms in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data and obtain a clear 3D image in real time. As a result, a clear 3D image is taken from the experimental system despite the background noise of the sunny day.

  18. A Super-Resolution Algorithm for Enhancement of FLASH LIDAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Vanek, Michael; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Hines, Glen; Reisse, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for enhancement of the spatial resolution of 3-dimensional Flash Lidar images is being proposed for generation of elevation maps of terrain from a moving platform. NASA recognizes the Flash LIDAR technology as an important tool for enabling safe and precision landing in future unmanned and crewed lunar and planetary missions. The ability of the Flash LIDAR to generate 3-dimensional maps of the landing site area during the final stages of the descent phase for detection of hazardous terrain features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes is under study in the frame of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project. Since single frames of existing FLASH LIDAR systems are not sufficient to build a map of entire landing site with acceptable spatial resolution and precision, a super-resolution approach utilizing multiple frames has been developed to overcome the instrument s limitations. Performance of the super-resolution algorithm has been analyzed through a series of simulation runs obtained from a high fidelity Flash LIDAR model and a high resolution synthetic lunar elevation map. For each simulation run, a sequence of FLASH LIDAR frames are recorded and processed as the spacecraft descends toward the landing site. Simulations runs having different trajectory profiles and varying LIDAR look angles of the terrain are also analyzed. The results show that adequate levels of accuracy and precision are achieved for detecting hazardous terrain features and identifying safe areas of the landing site.

  19. An Algorithm to Identify and Localize Suitable Dock Locations from 3-D LiDAR Scans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    3-D) LiDARs have proved themselves very useful on many autonomous ground vehicles, such as the Google Driverless Car Project, the DARPA, Defense...appear in a typical point cloud data set, relative to other clusters such as cars , trees, boulders, etc. In this algorithm, these values were

  20. A high efficiency all-PMOS charge pump for 3D NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyin, Fu; Yu, Wang; Qi, Wang; Zongliang, Huo

    2016-07-01

    For 3D vertical NAND flash memory, the charge pump output load is much larger than that of the planar NAND, resulting in the performance degradation of the conventional Dickson charge pump. Therefore, a novel all PMOS charge pump with high voltage boosting efficiency, large driving capability and high power efficiency for 3D V-NAND has been proposed. In this circuit, the Pelliconi structure is used to enhance the driving capability, two auxiliary substrate bias PMOS transistors are added to mitigate the body effect, and the degradation of the output voltage and boost efficiency caused by the threshold voltage drop is eliminated by dynamic gate control structure. Simulated results show that the proposed charge pump circuit can achieve the maximum boost efficiency of 86% and power efficiency of 50%. The output voltage of the proposed 9 stages charge pump can exceed 2 V under 2 MHz clock frequency in 2X nm 3D V-NAND technology. Our results provide guidance for the peripheral circuit design of high density 3D V-NAND integration.

  1. Geometric-model-free tracking of extended targets using 3D lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinemann, Philipp; Klappstein, Jens; Dickmann, Juergen; von Hundelshausen, Felix; Wünsche, Hans-Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Tracking of extended targets in high definition, 360-degree 3D-LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements is a challenging task and a current research topic. It is a key component in robotic applications, and is relevant to path planning and collision avoidance. This paper proposes a new method without a geometric model to simultaneously track and accumulate 3D-LIDAR measurements of an object. The method itself is based on a particle filter and uses an object-related local 3D grid for each object. No geometric object hypothesis is needed. Accumulation allows coping with occlusions. The prediction step of the particle filter is governed by a motion model consisting of a deterministic and a probabilistic part. Since this paper is focused on tracking ground vehicles, a bicycle model is used for the deterministic part. The probabilistic part depends on the current state of each particle. A function for calculating the current probability density function for state transition is developed. It is derived in detail and based on a database consisting of vehicle dynamics measurements over several hundreds of kilometers. The adaptive probability density function narrows down the gating area for measurement data association. The second part of the proposed method addresses weighting the particles with a cost function. Different 3D-griddependent cost functions are presented and evaluated. Evaluations with real 3D-LIDAR measurements show the performance of the proposed method. The results are also compared to ground truth data.

  2. The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar Adaptability for Characterizing Forest Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Lefsky, M. A.; Ruppert, L.; Donley, B.; Delker, T.; Applegate, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL) instrument developed at Ball Aerospace is one that provides unprecedented flexibility to adapt to the scene of the moment. For probing the structure of forests, ESFL provides several features that can be changed shot-to-shot, enabling real time adaptability. The number of beams transmitted to the scene can vary. The spacing of the beams can be changed from a contiguous configuration suited to probing smaller scale forest structure to a sparse configuration to sample larger scale variations over the maximum possible swath. Variation of the oscillator rate can provide multiple range sampling resolutions. Data will be presented illustrating these capabilities during flight from a Twin Otter aircraft. The poster will discuss how this instrument could be used to design studies intended to quantify exactly what is the minimum sampling structure needed to measure a given scientific parameter with the desired accuracy. Such a result could allow for maximum efficiency of precious observation time in the world of remote sensing from airplane or from space.

  3. Evaluation of single photon and Geiger mode Lidar for the 3D Elevation Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Jason M.; Abdullah, Qassim; Nayegandhi, Amar; Winehouse, Jayna

    2016-01-01

    Data acquired by Harris Corporation’s (Melbourne, FL, USA) Geiger-mode IntelliEarth™ sensor and Sigma Space Corporation’s (Lanham-Seabrook, MD, USA) Single Photon HRQLS sensor were evaluated and compared to accepted 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) data and survey ground control to assess the suitability of these new technologies for the 3DEP. While not able to collect data currently to meet USGS lidar base specification, this is partially due to the fact that the specification was written for linear-mode systems specifically. With little effort on part of the manufacturers of the new lidar systems and the USGS Lidar specifications team, data from these systems could soon serve the 3DEP program and its users. Many of the shortcomings noted in this study have been reported to have been corrected or improved upon in the next generation sensors.

  4. Feature extraction from 3D lidar point clouds using image processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Shortridge, Ashton; Lusch, David; Shi, Ruoming

    2011-10-01

    Airborne LiDAR data have become cost-effective to produce at local and regional scales across the United States and internationally. These data are typically collected and processed into surface data products by contractors for state and local communities. Current algorithms for advanced processing of LiDAR point cloud data are normally implemented in specialized, expensive software that is not available for many users, and these users are therefore unable to experiment with the LiDAR point cloud data directly for extracting desired feature classes. The objective of this research is to identify and assess automated, readily implementable GIS procedures to extract features like buildings, vegetated areas, parking lots and roads from LiDAR data using standard image processing tools, as such tools are relatively mature with many effective classification methods. The final procedure adopted employs four distinct stages. First, interpolation is used to transfer the 3D points to a high-resolution raster. Raster grids of both height and intensity are generated. Second, multiple raster maps - a normalized surface model (nDSM), difference of returns, slope, and the LiDAR intensity map - are conflated to generate a multi-channel image. Third, a feature space of this image is created. Finally, supervised classification on the feature space is implemented. The approach is demonstrated in both a conceptual model and on a complex real-world case study, and its strengths and limitations are addressed.

  5. Analysis of Flash Lidar Field Test Data for Safe Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Keim, Jason A.; Ivanov, Tonislav

    2010-01-01

    In May 2008, the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project conducted a helicopter field test of a commercial flash lidar to assess its applicability to safe lunar landing. The helicopter flew several flights, which covered a variety of slant ranges and viewing angles, over man-made and natural lunar-like terrains. The collected data were analyzed to assess the performance of the sensor and the performance of two algorithms: Hazard Detection (HD) and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The collected flash lidar data were also used to validate a high fidelity flash lidar software model used in ALHAT Monte Carlo simulations. The field test results, combined with prior simulation results, advanced the technology readiness level of the HD algorithm to TRL 5 and the HRN algorithm to TRL 4.

  6. 3D Scene Reconstruction Using Omnidirectional Vision and LiDAR: A Hybrid Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vlaminck, Michiel; Luong, Hiep; Goeman, Werner; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to obtain accurate 3D reconstructions of large-scale environments by means of a mobile acquisition platform. The system incorporates a Velodyne LiDAR scanner, as well as a Point Grey Ladybug panoramic camera system. It was designed with genericity in mind, and hence, it does not make any assumption about the scene or about the sensor set-up. The main novelty of this work is that the proposed LiDAR mapping approach deals explicitly with the inhomogeneous density of point clouds produced by LiDAR scanners. To this end, we keep track of a global 3D map of the environment, which is continuously improved and refined by means of a surface reconstruction technique. Moreover, we perform surface analysis on consecutive generated point clouds in order to assure a perfect alignment with the global 3D map. In order to cope with drift, the system incorporates loop closure by determining the pose error and propagating it back in the pose graph. Our algorithm was exhaustively tested on data captured at a conference building, a university campus and an industrial site of a chemical company. Experiments demonstrate that it is capable of generating highly accurate 3D maps in very challenging environments. We can state that the average distance of corresponding point pairs between the ground truth and estimated point cloud approximates one centimeter for an area covering approximately 4000 m2. To prove the genericity of the system, it was tested on the well-known Kitti vision benchmark. The results show that our approach competes with state of the art methods without making any additional assumptions. PMID:27854315

  7. 3D Scene Reconstruction Using Omnidirectional Vision and LiDAR: A Hybrid Approach.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Michiel; Luong, Hiep; Goeman, Werner; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to obtain accurate 3D reconstructions of large-scale environments by means of a mobile acquisition platform. The system incorporates a Velodyne LiDAR scanner, as well as a Point Grey Ladybug panoramic camera system. It was designed with genericity in mind, and hence, it does not make any assumption about the scene or about the sensor set-up. The main novelty of this work is that the proposed LiDAR mapping approach deals explicitly with the inhomogeneous density of point clouds produced by LiDAR scanners. To this end, we keep track of a global 3D map of the environment, which is continuously improved and refined by means of a surface reconstruction technique. Moreover, we perform surface analysis on consecutive generated point clouds in order to assure a perfect alignment with the global 3D map. In order to cope with drift, the system incorporates loop closure by determining the pose error and propagating it back in the pose graph. Our algorithm was exhaustively tested on data captured at a conference building, a university campus and an industrial site of a chemical company. Experiments demonstrate that it is capable of generating highly accurate 3D maps in very challenging environments. We can state that the average distance of corresponding point pairs between the ground truth and estimated point cloud approximates one centimeter for an area covering approximately 4000 m 2 . To prove the genericity of the system, it was tested on the well-known Kitti vision benchmark. The results show that our approach competes with state of the art methods without making any additional assumptions.

  8. Vertical Corner Feature Based Precise Vehicle Localization Using 3D LIDAR in Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Im, Jun-Hyuck; Im, Sung-Hyuck; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-08-10

    Tall buildings are concentrated in urban areas. The outer walls of buildings are vertically erected to the ground and almost flat. Therefore, the vertical corners that meet the vertical planes are present everywhere in urban areas. These corners act as convenient landmarks, which can be extracted by using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensor. A vertical corner feature based precise vehicle localization method is proposed in this paper and implemented using 3D LIDAR (Velodyne HDL-32E). The vehicle motion is predicted by accumulating the pose increment output from the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm based on the geometric relations between the scan data of the 3D LIDAR. The vertical corner is extracted using the proposed corner extraction method. The vehicle position is then corrected by matching the prebuilt corner map with the extracted corner. The experiment was carried out in the Gangnam area of Seoul, South Korea. In the experimental results, the maximum horizontal position error is about 0.46 m and the 2D Root Mean Square (RMS) horizontal error is about 0.138 m.

  9. Vertical Corner Feature Based Precise Vehicle Localization Using 3D LIDAR in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Im, Jun-Hyuck; Im, Sung-Hyuck; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are concentrated in urban areas. The outer walls of buildings are vertically erected to the ground and almost flat. Therefore, the vertical corners that meet the vertical planes are present everywhere in urban areas. These corners act as convenient landmarks, which can be extracted by using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensor. A vertical corner feature based precise vehicle localization method is proposed in this paper and implemented using 3D LIDAR (Velodyne HDL-32E). The vehicle motion is predicted by accumulating the pose increment output from the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm based on the geometric relations between the scan data of the 3D LIDAR. The vertical corner is extracted using the proposed corner extraction method. The vehicle position is then corrected by matching the prebuilt corner map with the extracted corner. The experiment was carried out in the Gangnam area of Seoul, South Korea. In the experimental results, the maximum horizontal position error is about 0.46 m and the 2D Root Mean Square (RMS) horizontal error is about 0.138 m. PMID:27517936

  10. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-09-09

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  11. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively. PMID:25207868

  12. A Super-Resolution Algorithm for Enhancement of FLASH LIDAR Data: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Eric; Reisse Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3D super-resolution algorithm applied to the range data obtained from a recent Flash Lidar helicopter flight test. The flight test was conducted by the NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project over a simulated lunar terrain facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center. ALHAT is developing the technology for safe autonomous landing on the surface of celestial bodies: Moon, Mars, asteroids. One of the test objectives was to verify the ability of 3D super-resolution technique to generate high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and to determine time resolved relative positions and orientations of the vehicle. 3D super-resolution algorithm was developed earlier and tested in computational modeling, and laboratory experiments, and in a few dynamic experiments using a moving truck. Prior to the helicopter flight test campaign, a 100mX100m hazard field was constructed having most of the relevant extraterrestrial hazard: slopes, rocks, and craters with different sizes. Data were collected during the flight and then processed by the super-resolution code. The detailed DEM of the hazard field was constructed using independent measurement to be used for comparison. ALHAT navigation system data were used to verify abilities of super-resolution method to provide accurate relative navigation information. Namely, the 6 degree of freedom state vector of the instrument as a function of time was restored from super-resolution data. The results of comparisons show that the super-resolution method can construct high quality DEMs and allows for identifying hazards like rocks and craters within the accordance of ALHAT requirements.

  13. Image-Based Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Encoding for 3d Building Model Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Web 2.0 and cyber city modeling, an increasing number of 3D models have been available on web-based model-sharing platforms with many applications such as navigation, urban planning, and virtual reality. Based on the concept of data reuse, a 3D model retrieval system is proposed to retrieve building models similar to a user-specified query. The basic idea behind this system is to reuse these existing 3D building models instead of reconstruction from point clouds. To efficiently retrieve models, the models in databases are compactly encoded by using a shape descriptor generally. However, most of the geometric descriptors in related works are applied to polygonal models. In this study, the input query of the model retrieval system is a point cloud acquired by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems because of the efficient scene scanning and spatial information collection. Using Point clouds with sparse, noisy, and incomplete sampling as input queries is more difficult than that by using 3D models. Because that the building roof is more informative than other parts in the airborne LiDAR point cloud, an image-based approach is proposed to encode both point clouds from input queries and 3D models in databases. The main goal of data encoding is that the models in the database and input point clouds can be consistently encoded. Firstly, top-view depth images of buildings are generated to represent the geometry surface of a building roof. Secondly, geometric features are extracted from depth images based on height, edge and plane of building. Finally, descriptors can be extracted by spatial histograms and used in 3D model retrieval system. For data retrieval, the models are retrieved by matching the encoding coefficients of point clouds and building models. In experiments, a database including about 900,000 3D models collected from the Internet is used for evaluation of data retrieval. The results of the proposed method show a clear superiority

  14. Airborne LIDAR and high resolution satellite data for rapid 3D feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawak, S. D.; Panditrao, S. N.; Luis, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work uses the canopy height model (CHM) based workflow for individual tree crown delineation and 3D feature extraction approach (Overwatch Geospatial's proprietary algorithm) for building feature delineation from high-density light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data in an urban environment and evaluates its accuracy by using very high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) (spatial) and 8-band (multispectral) WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. LiDAR point cloud data over San Francisco, California, USA, recorded in June 2010, was used to detect tree and building features by classifying point elevation values. The workflow employed includes resampling of LiDAR point cloud to generate a raster surface or digital terrain model (DTM), generation of a hill-shade image and an intensity image, extraction of digital surface model, generation of bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) and extraction of tree and building features. First, the optical WV-2 data and the LiDAR intensity image were co-registered using ground control points (GCPs). The WV-2 rational polynomial coefficients model (RPC) was executed in ERDAS Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) using supplementary *.RPB file. In the second stage, ortho-rectification was carried out using ERDAS LPS by incorporating well-distributed GCPs. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the WV-2 was estimated to be 0.25 m by using more than 10 well-distributed GCPs. In the second stage, we generated the bare earth DEM from LiDAR point cloud data. In most of the cases, bare earth DEM does not represent true ground elevation. Hence, the model was edited to get the most accurate DEM/ DTM possible and normalized the LiDAR point cloud data based on DTM in order to reduce the effect of undulating terrain. We normalized the vegetation point cloud values by subtracting the ground points (DEM) from the LiDAR point cloud. A normalized digital surface model (nDSM) or CHM was calculated from the LiDAR data by subtracting the DEM from the DSM

  15. High-power multi-beam diode laser transmitter for a flash imaging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, Christer; Aitta, Petteri; Kivi, Sini; Mitikka, Risto; Tyni, Lauri; Heikkinen, Veli

    2013-10-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is developing the transmitter for the "Flash Optical Sensor for TErrain Relative NAVigation" (FOSTERNAV) multi-beam flash imaging lidar. FOSTERNAV is a concept demonstrator for new guidance, navigation and control (GNC) technologies to fulfil the requirements for landing and docking of spacecraft as well as for navigation of rovers. This paper presents the design, realisation and testing of the multi-beam continuous-wave (CW) laser transmitter to be used in a 256x256 pixel flash imaging lidar. Depending on the target distance, the lidar has three operation modes using either several beams with low divergence or one single beam with a large divergence. This paper describes the transmitter part of the flash imaging lidar with focus on the electronics and especially the laser diode drivers. The transmitter contains eight fibre coupled commercial diode laser modules with a total peak optical power of 32 W at 808 nm. The main requirement for the laser diode drivers was linear modulation up to a frequency of 20 MHz allowing, for example, low distortion chirps or pseudorandom binary sequences. The laser modules contain the laser diode, a monitoring photodiode, a thermo-electric cooler, and a thermistor. The modules, designed for non-modulated and low-frequency operation, set challenging demands on the design of the drivers. Measurement results are presented on frequency response, and eye diagrams for pseudo-random binary sequences.

  16. Innovative LIDAR 3D Dynamic Measurement System to estimate fruit-tree leaf area.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Cortiella, Ricardo; Llorens-Calveras, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre; Arnó-Satorra, Jaume; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Masip-Vilalta, Joan; Camp, Ferran; Gràcia-Aguilá, Felip; Solanelles-Batlle, Francesc; Planas-DeMartí, Santiago; Pallejà-Cabré, Tomàs; Palacin-Roca, Jordi; Gregorio-Lopez, Eduard; Del-Moral-Martínez, Ignacio; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a LIDAR-based 3D Dynamic Measurement System is presented and evaluated for the geometric characterization of tree crops. Using this measurement system, trees were scanned from two opposing sides to obtain two three-dimensional point clouds. After registration of the point clouds, a simple and easily obtainable parameter is the number of impacts received by the scanned vegetation. The work in this study is based on the hypothesis of the existence of a linear relationship between the number of impacts of the LIDAR sensor laser beam on the vegetation and the tree leaf area. Tests performed under laboratory conditions using an ornamental tree and, subsequently, in a pear tree orchard demonstrate the correct operation of the measurement system presented in this paper. The results from both the laboratory and field tests confirm the initial hypothesis and the 3D Dynamic Measurement System is validated in field operation. This opens the door to new lines of research centred on the geometric characterization of tree crops in the field of agriculture and, more specifically, in precision fruit growing.

  17. Robust Curb Detection with Fusion of 3D-Lidar and Camera Data

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jun; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2014-01-01

    Curb detection is an essential component of Autonomous Land Vehicles (ALV), especially important for safe driving in urban environments. In this paper, we propose a fusion-based curb detection method through exploiting 3D-Lidar and camera data. More specifically, we first fuse the sparse 3D-Lidar points and high-resolution camera images together to recover a dense depth image of the captured scene. Based on the recovered dense depth image, we propose a filter-based method to estimate the normal direction within the image. Then, by using the multi-scale normal patterns based on the curb's geometric property, curb point features fitting the patterns are detected in the normal image row by row. After that, we construct a Markov Chain to model the consistency of curb points which utilizes the continuous property of the curb, and thus the optimal curb path which links the curb points together can be efficiently estimated by dynamic programming. Finally, we perform post-processing operations to filter the outliers, parameterize the curbs and give the confidence scores on the detected curbs. Extensive evaluations clearly show that our proposed method can detect curbs with strong robustness at real-time speed for both static and dynamic scenes. PMID:24854364

  18. A new time-to-digital converter for the 3D imaging Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chunsheng; Huang, Zongsheng; Qin, Shiqiao; Hu, Feng

    2012-10-01

    In order to reduce the negative influence caused by the temperature and voltage variations of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), we propose a new FPGA-based time-to-digital converter. The proposed converter adopts a high-stability TCXO (Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator), a FPGA and a new algorithm, which can significantly decrease the negative influence due to the FPGA temperature and voltage variations. This paper introduces the principle of measurement, main framework, delayer chain structure and delay variation compensation method of the proposed converter, and analyzes its measurement precision and the maximum measurement frequency. The proposed converter is successfully implemented with a Cyclone I FPGA chip and a TCXO. And the implementation method is discussed in detail. The measurement precision of the converter is also validated by experiments. The results show that the mean measurement error is less than 260 ps, the standard deviation is less than 300 ps, and the maximum measurement frequency is above 10 million times per second. The precision and frequency of measurement for the proposed converter are adequate for the 3D imaging lidar (light detection and ranging). As well as the 3D imaging lidar, the converter can be applied to the pulsed laser range finder and other time interval measuring areas.

  19. Robust curb detection with fusion of 3D-Lidar and camera data.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2014-05-21

    Curb detection is an essential component of Autonomous Land Vehicles (ALV), especially important for safe driving in urban environments. In this paper, we propose a fusion-based curb detection method through exploiting 3D-Lidar and camera data. More specifically, we first fuse the sparse 3D-Lidar points and high-resolution camera images together to recover a dense depth image of the captured scene. Based on the recovered dense depth image, we propose a filter-based method to estimate the normal direction within the image. Then, by using the multi-scale normal patterns based on the curb's geometric property, curb point features fitting the patterns are detected in the normal image row by row. After that, we construct a Markov Chain to model the consistency of curb points which utilizes the continuous property of the curb, and thus the optimal curb path which links the curb points together can be efficiently estimated by dynamic programming. Finally, we perform post-processing operations to filter the outliers, parameterize the curbs and give the confidence scores on the detected curbs. Extensive evaluations clearly show that our proposed method can detect curbs with strong robustness at real-time speed for both static and dynamic scenes.

  20. Automatic 3D Extraction of Buildings, Vegetation and Roads from LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellakaout, A.; Cherkaoui, M.; Ettarid, M.; Touzani, A.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial topographic surveys using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology collect dense and accurate information from the surface or terrain; it is becoming one of the important tools in the geosciences for studying objects and earth surface. Classification of Lidar data for extracting ground, vegetation, and buildings is a very important step needed in numerous applications such as 3D city modelling, extraction of different derived data for geographical information systems (GIS), mapping, navigation, etc... Regardless of what the scan data will be used for, an automatic process is greatly required to handle the large amount of data collected because the manual process is time consuming and very expensive. This paper is presenting an approach for automatic classification of aerial Lidar data into five groups of items: buildings, trees, roads, linear object and soil using single return Lidar and processing the point cloud without generating DEM. Topological relationship and height variation analysis is adopted to segment, preliminary, the entire point cloud preliminarily into upper and lower contours, uniform and non-uniform surface, non-uniform surfaces, linear objects, and others. This primary classification is used on the one hand to know the upper and lower part of each building in an urban scene, needed to model buildings façades; and on the other hand to extract point cloud of uniform surfaces which contain roofs, roads and ground used in the second phase of classification. A second algorithm is developed to segment the uniform surface into buildings roofs, roads and ground, the second phase of classification based on the topological relationship and height variation analysis, The proposed approach has been tested using two areas : the first is a housing complex and the second is a primary school. The proposed approach led to successful classification results of buildings, vegetation and road classes.

  1. A model and simulation to predict the performance of angle-angle-range 3D flash ladar imaging sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Russo, Leonard E.; McDaniel, Robert V.

    2004-11-01

    BAE SYSTEMS reports on a program to develop a high-fidelity model and simulation to predict the performance of angle-angle-range 3D flash LADAR Imaging Sensor systems. 3D Flash LADAR is the latest evolution of laser radar systems and provides unique capability in its ability to provide high-resolution LADAR imagery upon a single laser pulse; rather than constructing an image from multiple pulses as with conventional scanning LADAR systems. However, accurate methods to model and simulate performance from these 3D LADAR systems have been lacking, relying upon either single pixel LADAR performance or extrapolating from passive detection FPA performance. The model and simulation developed and reported here is expressly for 3D angle-angle-range imaging LADAR systems. To represent an accurate "real world" type environment, this model and simulation accounts for: 1) laser pulse shape; 2) detector array size; 3) atmospheric transmission; 4) atmospheric backscatter; 5) atmospheric turbulence; 6) obscurants, and; 7) obscurant path length. The angle-angle-range 3D flash LADAR model and simulation accounts for all pixels in the detector array by modeling and accounting for the non-uniformity of each individual pixel in the array. Here, noise sources are modeled based upon their pixel-to-pixel statistical variation. A cumulative probability function is determined by integrating the normal distribution with respect to detector gain, and, for each pixel, a random number is compared with the cumulative probability function resulting in a different gain for each pixel within the array. In this manner very accurate performance is determined pixel-by-pixel. Model outputs are in the form of 3D images of the far-field distribution across the array as intercepted by the target, gain distribution, power distribution, average signal-to-noise, and probability of detection across the array. Other outputs include power distribution from a target, signal-to-noise vs. range, probability of

  2. A model and simulation to predict the performance of angle-angle-range 3D flash LADAR imaging sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Russo, Leonard E.; McDaniel, Robert V.

    2005-10-01

    BAE SYSTEMS reports on a program to develop a high-fidelity model and simulation to predict the performance of angle-angle-range 3D flash LADAR Imaging Sensor systems. 3D Flash LADAR is the latest evolution of laser radar systems and provides unique capability in its ability to provide high-resolution LADAR imagery upon a single laser pulse; rather than constructing an image from multiple pulses as with conventional scanning LADAR systems. However, accurate methods to model and simulate performance from these 3D LADAR systems have been lacking, relying upon either single pixel LADAR performance or extrapolating from passive detection FPA performance. The model and simulation developed and reported here is expressly for 3D angle-angle-range imaging LADAR systems. To represent an accurate "real world" type environment, this model and simulation accounts for: 1) laser pulse shape; 2) detector array size; 3) atmospheric transmission; 4) atmospheric backscatter; 5) atmospheric turbulence; 6) obscurants, and; 7) obscurant path length. The angle-angle-range 3D flash LADAR model and simulation accounts for all pixels in the detector array by modeling and accounting for the non-uniformity of each individual pixel in the array. Here, noise sources are modeled based upon their pixel-to-pixel statistical variation. A cumulative probability function is determined by integrating the normal distribution with respect to detector gain, and, for each pixel, a random number is compared with the cumulative probability function resulting in a different gain for each pixel within the array. In this manner very accurate performance is determined pixel-by-pixel. Model outputs are in the form of 3D images of the far-field distribution across the array as intercepted by the target, gain distribution, power distribution, average signal-to-noise, and probability of detection across the array. Other outputs include power distribution from a target, signal-to-noise vs. range, probability of

  3. Automatic extraction of insulators from 3D LiDAR data of an electrical substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arastounia, M.; Lichti, D. D.

    2013-10-01

    A considerable percentage of power outages are caused by animals that come into contact with conductive elements of electrical substations. These can be prevented by insulating conductive electrical objects, for which a 3D as-built plan of the substation is crucial. This research aims to create such a 3D as-built plan using terrestrial LiDAR data while in this paper the aim is to extract insulators, which are key objects in electrical substations. This paper proposes a segmentation method based on a new approach of finding the principle direction of points' distribution. This is done by forming and analysing the distribution matrix whose elements are the range of points in 9 different directions in 3D space. Comparison of the computational performance of our method with PCA (principal component analysis) shows that our approach is 25% faster since it utilizes zero-order moments while PCA computes the first- and second-order moments, which is more time-consuming. A knowledge-based approach has been developed to automatically recognize points on insulators. The method utilizes known insulator properties such as diameter and the number and the spacing of their rings. The results achieved indicate that 24 out of 27 insulators could be recognized while the 3 un-recognized ones were highly occluded. Check point analysis was performed by manually cropping all points on insulators. The results of check point analysis show that the accuracy, precision and recall of insulator recognition are 98%, 86% and 81%, respectively. It is concluded that automatic object extraction from electrical substations using only LiDAR data is not only possible but also promising. Moreover, our developed approach to determine the directional distribution of points is computationally more efficient for segmentation of objects in electrical substations compared to PCA. Finally our knowledge-based method is promising to recognize points on electrical objects as it was successfully applied for

  4. Pedestrian and car detection and classification for unmanned ground vehicle using 3D lidar and monocular camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Lee, Kimin; Lee, Hae Seok; Park, SangDeok

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes an object detection and classification method for an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) using a range sensor and an image sensor. The range sensor and the image sensor are a 3D Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensor and a monocular camera, respectively. For safe driving of the UGV, pedestrians and cars should be detected on their moving routes of the vehicle. An object detection and classification techniques based on only a camera has an inherent problem. On the view point of detection with a camera, a certain algorithm should extract features and compare them with full input image data. The input image has a lot of information as object and environment. It is hard to make a decision of the classification. The image should have only one reliable object information to solve the problem. In this paper, we introduce a developed 3D LIDAR sensor and apply a fusion method both 3D LIDAR data and camera data. We describe a 3D LIDAR sensor which is developed by LG Innotek Consortium in Korea, named KIDAR-B25. The 3D LIDAR sensor detects objects, determines the object's Region of Interest (ROI) based on 3D information and sends it into a camera region for classification. In the 3D LIDAR domain, we recognize breakpoints using Kalman filter and then make a cluster using a line segment method to determine an object's ROI. In the image domain, we extract the object's feature data from the ROI region using a Haar-like feature method. Finally it is classified as a pedestrian or car using a trained database with an Adaboost algorithm. To verify our system, we make an experiment on the performance of our system which is mounted on a ground vehicle, through field tests in an urban area.

  5. Study of City Landscape Heritage Using Lidar Data and 3d-City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinowicz, P.; Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    In contemporary town planning protection of urban landscape is a significant issue. It regards especially those cities, where urban structures are the result of ages of evolution and layering of historical development process. Specific panoramas and other strategic views with historic city dominants can be an important part of the cultural heritage and genius loci. Other hand, protection of such expositions introduces limitations for future based city development. Digital Earth observation techniques creates new possibilities for more accurate urban studies, monitoring of urbanization processes and measuring of city landscape parameters. The paper examines possibilities of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models for: a) evaluation of strategic city views, b) mapping landscape absorption limits, and c) determination protection zones, where the urbanization and buildings height should be limited. In reference to this goal, the paper introduces a method of computational analysis of the city landscape called Visual Protection Surface (VPS). The method allows to emulate a virtual surface above the city including protection of a selected strategic views. The surface defines maximum height of buildings in such a way, that no new facility can be seen in any of selected views. The research includes also analyses of the quality of simulations according the form and precision of the input data: airborne Lidar / DSM model and more advanced 3D-city models (incl. semantic of the geometry, like in CityGML format). The outcome can be a support for professional planning of tall building development. Application of VPS method have been prepared by a computer program developed by the authors (C++). Simulations were carried out on an example of the city of Dresden.

  6. Measuring Complete 3D Vegetation Structure With Airborne Waveform Lidar: A Calibration and Validation With Terrestrial Lidar Derived Voxels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, S.; Anderson, K.; Disney, M.; Gaston, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of vegetation are vital to understand habitats and their provision of ecosystem services as well as having applications in satellite calibration, weather modelling and forestry. The majority of humans now live in urban areas and so understanding vegetation structure in these very heterogeneous areas is of importance. A number of previous studies have used airborne lidar (ALS) to characterise canopy height and canopy cover, but very few have fully characterised 3D vegetation, including understorey. Those that have either relied on leaf-off scans to allow unattenuated measurement of understorey or else did not validate. A method for creating a detailed voxel map of urban vegetation, in which the surface area of vegetation within a grid of cuboids (1.5m by 1.5m by 25 cm) is defined, from full-waveform ALS is presented. The ALS was processed with deconvolution and attenuation correction methods. The signal processing was calibrated and validated against synthetic waveforms generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data, taken as "truth". The TLS data was corrected for partial hits and attenuation using a voxel approach and these steps were validated and found to be accurate. The ALS results were benchmarked against the more common discrete return ALS products (produced automatically by the lidar manufacturer's algorithms) and Gaussian decomposition of full-waveform ALS. The true vegetation profile was accurately recreated by deconvolution. Far more detail was captured by the deconvolved waveform than either the discrete return or Gaussian decomposed ALS, particularly detail within the canopy; vital information for understanding habitats. In the paper, we will present the results with a focus on the methodological steps towards generating the voxel model, and the subsequent quantitative calibration and validation of the modelling approach using TLS. We will discuss the implications of the work for complete vegetation canopy descriptions in

  7. Characterization of 3-D imaging lidar for hazard avoidance and autonomous landing on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Estes, Robert; Noe, Anna M.

    2007-04-01

    Future robotic and crewed lunar missions will require safe and precision soft-landing at scientifically interesting sites near hazardous terrain features such as craters and rocks or near pre-deployed assets. Presently, NASA is studying the ability of various 3-dimensional imaging sensors particularly lidar/ladar techniques in meeting its lunar landing needs. For this reason, a Sensor Test Range facility has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for calibration and characterization of potential 3-D imaging sensors. This paper describes the Sensor Test Range facility and its application in characterizing a 3-D imaging ladar. The results of the ladar measurement are reported and compared with simulated image frames generated by a ladar model that was also developed as part of this effort. In addition to allowing for characterization and evaluation of different ladar systems, the ladar measurements at the Sensor Test Range will support further advancement of ladar systems and development of more efficient and accurate image reconstruction algorithms.

  8. Extension of RCC Topological Relations for 3d Complex Objects Components Extracted from 3d LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xu-Feng; Abolfazl Mostafavia, Mir; Wang, Chen

    2016-06-01

    Topological relations are fundamental for qualitative description, querying and analysis of a 3D scene. Although topological relations for 2D objects have been extensively studied and implemented in GIS applications, their direct extension to 3D is very challenging and they cannot be directly applied to represent relations between components of complex 3D objects represented by 3D B-Rep models in R3. Herein we present an extended Region Connection Calculus (RCC) model to express and formalize topological relations between planar regions for creating 3D model represented by Boundary Representation model in R3. We proposed a new dimension extended 9-Intersection model to represent the basic relations among components of a complex object, including disjoint, meet and intersect. The last element in 3*3 matrix records the details of connection through the common parts of two regions and the intersecting line of two planes. Additionally, this model can deal with the case of planar regions with holes. Finally, the geometric information is transformed into a list of strings consisting of topological relations between two planar regions and detailed connection information. The experiments show that the proposed approach helps to identify topological relations of planar segments of point cloud automatically.

  9. Processing of 3-Dimensional Flash Lidar Terrain Images Generated From an Airborne Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Busch, George; Vanek, Michael; Reisse, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Data from the first Flight Test of the NASA Langley Flash Lidar system have been processed. Results of the analyses are presented and discussed. A digital elevation map of the test site is derived from the data, and is compared with the actual topography. The set of algorithms employed, starting from the initial data sorting, and continuing through to the final digital map classification is described. The accuracy, precision, and the spatial and angular resolution of the method are discussed.

  10. Comparison of 3D point clouds produced by LIDAR and UAV photoscan in the Rochefort cave (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Kaufmann, Olivier; Le Mouelic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different kind of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g. Agisoft, PhotoModeler3D, VisualSFM). We present here a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The site is located in the Belgian Variscan fold-and-thrust belt, a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. A LIDAR scan has been acquired in the main chamber of the cave (~ 15000 m³) to spatialize 3D point cloud of its inner walls and infer geological beds and structures. Even if the use of LIDAR instrument was not really comfortable in such caving environment, the collected data showed a remarkable precision according to few control points geometry. We also decided to perform another challenging survey of the same cave chamber by modelling a 3D point cloud using photogrammetry of a set of DSLR camera pictures taken from the ground and UAV pictures. The aim was to compare both techniques in terms of (i) implementation of data acquisition and processing, (ii) quality of resulting 3D points clouds (points density, field vs cloud recovery and points precision), (iii) their application for geological purposes. Through Rochefort case study, main conclusions are that LIDAR technique provides higher density point clouds with slightly higher precision than photogrammetry method. However, 3D data modeled by photogrammetry provide visible light spectral information

  11. Vegetation Structure and 3-D Reconstruction of Forests Using Ground-Based Echidna® Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.

    2009-12-01

    A ground-based, scanning, near-infrared lidar, the Echidna® validation instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, retrieves structural parameters of forest stands rapidly and accurately, and by merging multiple scans into a single point cloud provides 3-D stand reconstructions. Echidna lidar technology scans with pulses of light at 1064 nm wavelength and digitizes the light returns sufficiently finely to recover and distinguish the differing shapes of return pulses as they are scattered by leaves and trunks or larger branches. Instrument deployments in the New England region in 2007 and 2009 and in the southern Sierra Nevada of California in 2008 provided the opportunity to test the ability of the instrument to retrieve tree diameters, stem count density (stems/ha), basal area, and above-ground woody biomass from single scans at points beneath the forest canopy. In New England in 2007, mean parameters retrieved from five scans located within six 1-ha stand sites match manually-measured parameters with values of R2 = 0.94-0.99. Processing the scans to retrieve leaf area index (LAI) provided values within the range of those retrieved with other optical instruments and hemispherical photography. Foliage profiles, which measure leaf area with canopy height, showed distinctly different shapes for the stands, depending on species composition and age structure. Stand heights, obtained from foliage profiles, were not significantly different from RH100 values observed by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor in 2003. Data from the California 2008 and New England 2009 deployments were still being processed at the time of abstract submission. With further hardware and software development, Echidna® technology will provide rapid and accurate measurements of forest canopy structure that can replace manual field measurements, leading to more rapid and more accurate calibration and validation of structure mapping techniques using airborne and spaceborne remote sensors. Three

  12. Fusion of terrestrial LiDAR and tomographic mapping data for 3D karst landform investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, B.; Forbriger, M.; Siart, C.; Nowaczinski, E.

    2012-04-01

    Highly detailed topographic information has gained in importance for studying Earth surface landforms and processes. LiDAR has evolved into the state-of-the-art technology for 3D data acquisition on various scales. This multi-sensor system can be operated on several platforms such as airborne LS (ALS), mobile LS (MLS) from moving vehicles or stationary on ground (terrestrial LS, TLS). In karst research the integral investigation of surface and subsurface components of solution depressions (e.g. sediment-filled dolines) is required to gather and quantify the linked geomorphic processes such as sediment flux and limestone dissolution. To acquire the depth of the different subsurface layers, a combination of seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly applied. This multi-method approach allows modeling the extension of different subsurface media (i.e. colluvial fill, epikarst zone and underlying basal bedrock). Subsequent fusion of the complementary techniques - LiDAR surface and tomographic subsurface data - first-time enables 3D prospection and visualization as well as quantification of geomorphometric parameters (e.g. depth, volume, slope and aspect). This study introduces a novel GIS-based method for semi-automated fusion of TLS and geophysical data. The study area is located in the Dikti Mountains of East Crete and covers two adjacent dolines. The TLS data was acquired with a Riegl VZ-400 scanner from 12 scan positions located mainly at the doline divide. The scan positions were co-registered using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm of RiSCAN PRO. For the digital elevation rasters a resolution of 0.5 m was defined. The digital surface model (DSM) of the study was derived by moving plane interpolation of all laser points (including objects) using the OPALS software. The digital terrain model (DTM) was generated by iteratively "eroding" objects in the DSM by minimum filter, which additionally accounts for

  13. Investigation of multiple scattering processes resolved in clouds using a flash lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, C. S.; Hu, Y.; Saiki, E.; Delker, T.; Applegate, J.; Ramond, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar (TMFL) instrument developed at Ball Aerospace has been used to investigate the phenomenon of multiple scattering of the lidar signal inside a medium such as a water cloud. This behavior has been observed during a recent flight of the instrument aboard a Twin Otter aircraft flying over a steam plume. TMFL illuminates a line that extends across-track, and signal was observed off-axis over multiple pixels of the flash focal plane array. Thus the multiple scattering intensities are spatially sub-sampled, in addition to obtaining range resolutions. Variation of scattering strengths with off-axis distance is compared to those predicted by atmospheric models. It has been hypothesized that multiple scattering effects could account for a major source of error for space-based lidars such as CALIPSO, which samples atmospheric backscatter over a column. However, the physics behind multiple scattering is not well -understood and thus the effect cannot be sufficiently characterized to improve the error bars. The spatial resolution TMFL therefore provides a tool to quantify the effects of the processes of multiple scattering in lidar instrument signal. In addition, TMFL has recorded returns from the surface of a lake, and the strength of water surface returns can be correlated to the roughness of the water. That in turn can be tied to aerosol concentrations near the water surface.

  14. An efficient approach to 3D single tree-crown delineation in LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongus, Domen; Žalik, Borut

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method for 3D delineation of single tree-crowns in LiDAR data by exploiting the complementaries of treetop and tree trunk detections. A unified mathematical framework is provided based on the graph theory, allowing for all the segmentations to be achieved using marker-controlled watersheds. Treetops are defined by detecting concave neighbourhoods within the canopy height model using locally fitted surfaces. These serve as markers for watershed segmentation of the canopy layer where possible oversegmentation is reduced by merging the regions based on their heights, areas, and shapes. Additional tree crowns are delineated from mid- and under-storey layers based on tree trunk detection. A new approach for estimating the verticalities of the points' distributions is proposed for this purpose. The watershed segmentation is then applied on a density function within the voxel space, while boundaries of delineated trees from the canopy layer are used to prevent the overspreading of regions. The experiments show an approximately 6% increase in the efficiency of the proposed treetop definition based on locally fitted surfaces in comparison with the traditionally used local maxima of the smoothed canopy height model. In addition, 4% increase in the efficiency is achieved by the proposed tree trunk detection. Although the tree trunk detection alone is dependent on the data density, supplementing it with the treetop detection the proposed approach is efficient even when dealing with low density point-clouds.

  15. a Novel Method for Automation of 3d Hydro Break Line Generation from LIDAR Data Using Matlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, G. J.; Gopalam, U.; Devarajan, V.

    2013-08-01

    Water body detection is necessary to generate hydro break lines, which are in turn useful in creating deliverables such as TINs, contours, DEMs from LiDAR data. Hydro flattening follows the detection and delineation of water bodies (lakes, rivers, ponds, reservoirs, streams etc.) with hydro break lines. Manual hydro break line generation is time consuming and expensive. Accuracy and processing time depend on the number of vertices marked for delineation of break lines. Automation with minimal human intervention is desired for this operation. This paper proposes using a novel histogram analysis of LiDAR elevation data and LiDAR intensity data to automatically detect water bodies. Detection of water bodies using elevation information was verified by checking against LiDAR intensity data since the spectral reflectance of water bodies is very small compared with that of land and vegetation in near infra-red wavelength range. Detection of water bodies using LiDAR intensity data was also verified by checking against LiDAR elevation data. False detections were removed using morphological operations and 3D break lines were generated. Finally, a comparison of automatically generated break lines with their semi-automated/manual counterparts was performed to assess the accuracy of the proposed method and the results were discussed.

  16. Topographic mapping flash lidar for multiple scattering, terrain, and forest mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramond, Tanya; Saiki, Eileen; Weimer, Carl; Applegate, Jeff; Hu, Yongxiang; Delker, Thomas; Ruppert, Lyle; Donley, Brian

    2011-06-01

    The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar (TMFL) developed at Ball Aerospace combines a pushbroom format transmitter at 1064 nm with a flash focal plane receiver. The wide 20 degree field of view of the instrument enables broad swath coverage from a single laser pulse without the need for a scanning mechanism. These features make the TMFL design particularly well-suited for space flight. TMFL has been demonstrated during an airborne flight where data were gathered over a forest plot to measure tree waveforms. Topographic maps were assembled of river beds and geologic areas of high relief. The TMFL has also been used to observe multiple-scattering phenomena in clouds by illuminating a steam plume from the aircraft above. Signal was recorded off-axis from the illuminated laser line by as much as 1 degree. The TMFL study of multiple-scattering is valuable as it provides a unique way to significantly improve the calibration of measured backscatter for space lidars. Lidar backscatter was also measured from water surface and was shown to correlate with models of water surface roughness.

  17. 3D Modeling of Landslide in Open-pit Mining on Basis of Ground-based LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope stability is not only an important problem which is related to production and safety in open-pit mining, but also very complex task. There are three main reasons which affect the slope stability as follows: geotechnical factors: Geological structure, lithologic characteristics, water, cohesion, friction, etc.; climate factors: Rainfall and temperature; and external factors: Open-pit mining process, explosion vibration, dynamic load, etc.. The 3rd reason, as a specially one in open-pit mining, not only causes some dynamic problems but also induces the fast geometry changing which must be considered in the following research using numerical simulation and stability analysis. Recently, LIDAR technology has been applied in many fields and places in the world wide. Ground-based LIDAR technology with high accuracy up to 3mm increasingly accommodates to monitoring landslides and detecting changing. LIDAR data collection and preprocessing research have been carried out by Department of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology at RWTH Aachen University. LIDAR data, so-called a point-cloud of mass data in high density can be obtained in short time for the sensitive open-pit mining area by using ground-based LIDAR. To obtain a consistent surface model, it is necessary to set up multiple scans with the ground-based LIDAR. The framework of data preprocessing which can be implemented by Poly-Works is introduced as follows: gross error detection and elimination, integration of reference frame, model fusion of different scans (re-sampled in overlap region), data reduction without removing the useful information which is a challenge and research front in LIDAR data processing. After data preprocessing, 3D surface model can be directly generated in Poly-Works or generated in other software by building the triangular meshes. The 3D surface landslide model can be applied to further researches such as: real time landslide geometry monitoring due to the fast data collection and

  18. 3-D water vapor field in the atmospheric boundary layer observed with scanning differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, Florian; Behrendt, Andreas; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) water vapor data of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are required to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere exchange processes. For this purpose, the scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) was developed as well as new analysis tools and visualization methods. The instrument determines 3-D fields of the atmospheric water vapor number density with a temporal resolution of a few seconds and a spatial resolution of up to a few tens of meters. We present three case studies from two field campaigns. In spring 2013, the UHOH DIAL was operated within the scope of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in western Germany. HD(CP)2 stands for High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction and is a German research initiative. Range-height indicator (RHI) scans of the UHOH DIAL show the water vapor heterogeneity within a range of a few kilometers up to an altitude of 2 km and its impact on the formation of clouds at the top of the ABL. The uncertainty of the measured data was assessed for the first time by extending a technique to scanning data, which was formerly applied to vertical time series. Typically, the accuracy of the DIAL measurements is between 0.5 and 0.8 g m-3 (or < 6 %) within the ABL even during daytime. This allows for performing a RHI scan from the surface to an elevation angle of 90° within 10 min. In summer 2014, the UHOH DIAL participated in the Surface Atmosphere Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in southwestern Germany. Conical volume scans were made which reveal multiple water vapor layers in three dimensions. Differences in their heights in different directions can be attributed to different surface elevation. With low-elevation scans in the surface layer, the humidity profiles and gradients can be related to different land cover such as maize, grassland, and forest as well as different surface layer

  19. Knowledge Based 3d Building Model Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks from LIDAR and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the development of the high resolution data acquisition technologies, many different approaches and algorithms have been presented to extract the accurate and timely updated 3D models of buildings as a key element of city structures for numerous applications in urban mapping. In this paper, a novel and model-based approach is proposed for automatic recognition of buildings' roof models such as flat, gable, hip, and pyramid hip roof models based on deep structures for hierarchical learning of features that are extracted from both LiDAR and aerial ortho-photos. The main steps of this approach include building segmentation, feature extraction and learning, and finally building roof labeling in a supervised pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) framework to have an automatic recognition system for various types of buildings over an urban area. In this framework, the height information provides invariant geometric features for convolutional neural network to localize the boundary of each individual roofs. CNN is a kind of feed-forward neural network with the multilayer perceptron concept which consists of a number of convolutional and subsampling layers in an adaptable structure and it is widely used in pattern recognition and object detection application. Since the training dataset is a small library of labeled models for different shapes of roofs, the computation time of learning can be decreased significantly using the pre-trained models. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the deep learning approach to detect and extract the pattern of buildings' roofs automatically considering the complementary nature of height and RGB information.

  20. 3-D earthquake surface displacements from differencing pre- and post-event LiDAR point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, A. K.; Nissen, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Saripalli, S.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion in aerial LiDAR surveying along active faults across the western United States and elsewhere provides a high-resolution topographic baseline against which to compare repeat LiDAR datasets collected after future earthquakes. We present a new method for determining 3-D coseismic surface displacements and rotations by differencing pre- and post-earthquake LiDAR point clouds using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, a point set registration technique widely used in medical imaging, computer vision and graphics. There is no need for any gridding or smoothing of the LiDAR data and the method works well even with large mismatches in the density of the two point clouds. To explore the method's performance, we simulate pre- and post-event point clouds using real ("B4") LiDAR data on the southern San Andreas Fault perturbed with displacements of known magnitude. For input point clouds with ~2 points per square meter, we are able to reproduce displacements with a 50 m grid spacing and with horizontal and vertical accuracies of ~20 cm and ~4 cm. In the future, finer grids and improved precisions should be possible with higher shot densities and better survey geo-referencing. By capturing near-fault deformation in 3-D, LiDAR differencing with ICP will complement satellite-based techniques such as InSAR which map only certain components of the surface deformation and which often break down close to surface faulting or in areas of dense vegetation. It will be especially useful for mapping shallow fault slip and rupture zone deformation, helping inform paleoseismic studies and better constrain fault zone rheology. Because ICP can image rotations directly, the technique will also help resolve the detailed kinematics of distributed zones of faulting where block rotations may be common.

  1. The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar for micro-topography of river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donley, B.; Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Ruppert, L.; Delker, T.; Applegate, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar (TMFL) instrument built by Ball Aerospace is a pushbroom lidar operating at 1064nm that provides the ability to map the topographic structure of river beds and surrounding terrain. The receiver is a pixilated array, allowing small-scale resolution of micro-topography that is critical to understanding river dynamics and the biodiversity of the area. The instrument uses no mechanical scanning, which is a key feature allowing the design to be applicable to space flight like the NASA Decadal Survey mission LIST. The TMFL instrument has been flown on a Twin Otter aircraft. This poster will exhibit examples of river topography over dry and wet riverbeds. Examples are given of imaging a river even when partially obscured under trees in an area of high canopy density.

  2. A Lidar Point Cloud Based Procedure for Vertical Canopy Structure Analysis And 3D Single Tree Modelling in Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunsheng; Weinacker, Holger; Koch, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for both vertical canopy structure analysis and 3D single tree modelling based on Lidar point cloud is presented in this paper. The whole area of research is segmented into small study cells by a raster net. For each cell, a normalized point cloud whose point heights represent the absolute heights of the ground objects is generated from the original Lidar raw point cloud. The main tree canopy layers and the height ranges of the layers are detected according to a statistical analysis of the height distribution probability of the normalized raw points. For the 3D modelling of individual trees, individual trees are detected and delineated not only from the top canopy layer but also from the sub canopy layer. The normalized points are resampled into a local voxel space. A series of horizontal 2D projection images at the different height levels are then generated respect to the voxel space. Tree crown regions are detected from the projection images. Individual trees are then extracted by means of a pre-order forest traversal process through all the tree crown regions at the different height levels. Finally, 3D tree crown models of the extracted individual trees are reconstructed. With further analyses on the 3D models of individual tree crowns, important parameters such as crown height range, crown volume and crown contours at the different height levels can be derived. PMID:27879916

  3. A Lidar Point Cloud Based Procedure for Vertical Canopy Structure Analysis And 3D Single Tree Modelling in Forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunsheng; Weinacker, Holger; Koch, Barbara

    2008-06-12

    A procedure for both vertical canopy structure analysis and 3D single tree modelling based on Lidar point cloud is presented in this paper. The whole area of research is segmented into small study cells by a raster net. For each cell, a normalized point cloud whose point heights represent the absolute heights of the ground objects is generated from the original Lidar raw point cloud. The main tree canopy layers and the height ranges of the layers are detected according to a statistical analysis of the height distribution probability of the normalized raw points. For the 3D modelling of individual trees, individual trees are detected and delineated not only from the top canopy layer but also from the sub canopy layer. The normalized points are resampled into a local voxel space. A series of horizontal 2D projection images at the different height levels are then generated respect to the voxel space. Tree crown regions are detected from the projection images. Individual trees are then extracted by means of a pre-order forest traversal process through all the tree crown regions at the different height levels. Finally, 3D tree crown models of the extracted individual trees are reconstructed. With further analyses on the 3D models of individual tree crowns, important parameters such as crown height range, crown volume and crown contours at the different height levels can be derived.

  4. Method for Enhancing a Three Dimensional Image from a Plurality of Frames of Flash LIDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanek, Michael D. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Bulyshev, Alexander (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for enhancing a three dimensional image from frames of flash LIDAR data includes generating a first distance R(sub i) from a first detector i to a first point on a surface S(sub i). After defining a map with a mesh theta having cells k, a first array S(k), a second array M(k), and a third array D(k) are initialized. The first array corresponds to the surface, the second array corresponds to the elevation map, and the third array D(k) receives an output for the DEM. The surface is projected onto the mesh theta, so that a second distance R(sub k) from a second point on the mesh theta to the detector can be found. From this, a height may be calculated, which permits the generation of a digital elevation map. Also, using sequential frames of flash LIDAR data, vehicle control is possible using an offset between successive frames.

  5. Application of Lidar Data and 3D-City Models in Visual Impact Simulations of Tall Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    The paper examines possibilities and limitations of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models to provide specialist urban analyses of tall buildings. The location and height of tall buildings is a subject of discussions, conflicts and controversies in many cities. The most important aspect is the visual influence of tall buildings to the city landscape, significant panoramas and other strategic city views. It is an actual issue in contemporary town planning worldwide. Over 50% of high-rise buildings on Earth were built in last 15 years. Tall buildings may be a threat especially for historically developed cities - typical for Europe. Contemporary Earth observation, more and more available Lidar scanning and 3D city models are a new tool for more accurate urban analysis of the tall buildings impact. The article presents appropriate simulation techniques, general assumption of geometric and computational algorithms - available methodologies and individual methods develop by author. The goal is to develop the geometric computation methods for GIS representation of the visual impact of a selected tall building to the structure of large city. In reference to this, the article introduce a Visual Impact Size method (VIS). Presented analyses were developed by application of airborne Lidar / DSM model and more processed models (like CityGML), containing the geometry and it's semantics. Included simulations were carried out on an example of the agglomeration of Berlin.

  6. Modeling of a sensitive time-of-flight flash LiDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathipour, V.; Wheaton, S.; Johnson, W. E.; Mohseni, H.

    2016-09-01

    used for monitoring and profiling structures, range, velocity, vibration, and air turbulence. Remote sensing in the IR region has several advantages over the visible region, including higher transmitter energy while maintaining eye-safety requirements. Electron-injection detectors are a new class of detectors with high internal avalanche-free amplification together with an excess-noise-factor of unity. They have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. Furthermore, they have an extremely low jitter. The detector operates in linear-mode and requires only bias voltage of a few volts. This together with the feedback stabilized gain mechanism, makes formation of large-format high pixel density electron-injection FPAs less challenging compared to other detector technologies such as avalanche photodetectors. These characteristics make electron-injection detectors an ideal choice for flash LiDAR application with mm scale resolution at longer ranges. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, a detailed theoretical LiDAR model was developed. In this model we compare the performance of the electron-injection detector with commercially available linear-mode InGaAs APD from (Hamamatsu G8931-20) as well as a p-i-n diode (Hamamatsu 11193 p-i-n). Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model, show the electron-injection detector array (of 100 x 100 element) achieves better resolution with higher signal-to-noise compared with both the InGaAs APD and the p-i-n array (of 100 x 100 element).

  7. Automated object detection and tracking with a flash LiDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The detection of objects, or persons, is a common task in the fields of environment surveillance, object observation or danger defense. There are several approaches for automated detection with conventional imaging sensors as well as with LiDAR sensors, but for the latter the real-time detection is hampered by the scanning character and therefore by the data distortion of most LiDAR systems. The paper presents a solution for real-time data acquisition of a flash LiDAR sensor with synchronous raw data analysis, point cloud calculation, object detection, calculation of the next best view and steering of the pan-tilt head of the sensor. As a result the attention is always focused on the object, independent of the behavior of the object. Even for highly volatile and rapid changes in the direction of motion the object is kept in the field of view. The experimental setup used in this paper is realized with an elementary person detection algorithm in medium distances (20 m to 60 m) to show the efficiency of the system for objects with a high angular speed. It is easy to replace the detection part by any other object detection algorithm and thus it is easy to track nearly any object, for example a car or a boat or an UAV in various distances.

  8. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    DOE PAGES

    Debnath, Mithu; Iungo, G. Valerio; Ashton, Ryan; ...

    2017-02-06

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with goodmore » accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.« less

  9. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    SciTech Connect

    Debnath, Mithu; Iungo, G. Valerio; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  10. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Mithu; Valerio Iungo, G.; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  11. The 2011 Eco3D Flight Campaign: Vegetation Structure and Biomass Estimation from Simultaneous SAR, Lidar and Radiometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Rincon, Rafael; Harding, David; Gatebe, Charles; Ranson, Kenneth Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Dabney, Phillip; Roman, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The Eco3D campaign was conducted in the Summer of 2011. As part of the campaign three unique and innovative NASA Goddard Space Flight Center airborne sensors were flown simultaneously: The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR), the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) and the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR). The campaign covered sites from Quebec to Southern Florida and thereby acquired data over forests ranging from Boreal to tropical wetlands. This paper describes the instruments and sites covered and presents the first images resulting from the campaign.

  12. The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar: A NASA Facility Instrument for Ecological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Lefsky, M. A.; Duong, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL) is a lidar concept created at Ball Aerospace and developed in conjunction with NASA. It represents a new paradigm for airborne or spaceborne lidar remote sensing. Instead of the mechanical scanning common to airborne lidars, or the fixed beam approach found in spaceborne lidars, ESFL allows the number and position of transmitted beams to vary shot-to-shot. This is done using an acousto-optic beam deflector that splits a single laser beam into N output beams, where N and the position of beam N on the ground can be reconfigured in real time electronically. This transmitter concept is coupled with a Flash Focal Plane Array (FFPA), a pixilated detector where every pixel delivers a time-resolved intensity waveform, thus allowing lidar imaging. The ESFL enables several jumps in capability for remote sensing of ecosystems. Multiple spatial scales can be probed simultaneously or within the same flight transect because beam spacings can be varied in real time. This means contiguous beams can be applied to regions where smaller scale variability needs to be probed, and in areas where maximum across-track coverage is needed, those beams are spread out. Furthermore, each beam can be projected onto multiple pixels, allowing one to collect a waveform over multiple length scales simultaneously. The electronic interface with the AOBD means that the transmitted pattern can respond to any of a multitude of inputs. The ESFL can interface with another forward-looking sensor, such as a hyperspectral instrument or another lidar or a digital camera. The data from that second sensor could be used to direct the ESFL observation toward, for example, an area with a specific spectral signature, or an area free from clouds. The ESFL concept was designed with a path to space in mind, but an airborne version has been built and tested on aircraft. The work continues under a NASA Airborne Instrument Technology Transition (AITT) grant designed to

  13. Volumetric LiDAR scanning of a wind turbine wake and comparison with a 3D analytical wake model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    A correct estimation of the future power production is of capital importance whenever the feasibility of a future wind farm is being studied. This power estimation relies mostly on three aspects: (1) a reliable measurement of the wind resource in the area, (2) a well-established power curve of the future wind turbines and, (3) an accurate characterization of the wake effects; the latter being arguably the most challenging one due to the complexity of the phenomenon and the lack of extensive full-scale data sets that could be used to validate analytical or numerical models. The current project addresses the problem of obtaining a volumetric description of a full-scale wake of a 2MW wind turbine in terms of velocity deficit and turbulence intensity using three scanning wind LiDARs and two sonic anemometers. The characterization of the upstream flow conditions is done by one scanning LiDAR and two sonic anemometers, which have been used to calculate incoming vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, wind direction and an approximation to turbulence intensity, as well as the thermal stability of the atmospheric boundary layer. The characterization of the wake is done by two scanning LiDARs working simultaneously and pointing downstream from the base of the wind turbine. The direct LiDAR measurements in terms of radial wind speed can be corrected using the upstream conditions in order to provide good estimations of the horizontal wind speed at any point downstream of the wind turbine. All this data combined allow for the volumetric reconstruction of the wake in terms of velocity deficit as well as turbulence intensity. Finally, the predictions of a 3D analytical model [1] are compared to the 3D LiDAR measurements of the wind turbine. The model is derived by applying the laws of conservation of mass and momentum and assuming a Gaussian distribution for the velocity deficit in the wake. This model has already been validated using high resolution wind-tunnel measurements

  14. 3D turbulence measurements in inhomogeneous boundary layers with three wind LiDARs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric anemometry is obtaining reliable turbulence measurements of inhomogeneous boundary layers at heights or in locations where is not possible or convenient to install tower-based measurement systems, e.g. mountainous terrain, cities, wind farms, etc. Wind LiDARs are being extensively used for the measurement of averaged vertical wind profiles, but they can only successfully accomplish this task under the limiting conditions of flat terrain and horizontally homogeneous flow. Moreover, it has been shown that common scanning strategies introduce large systematic errors in turbulence measurements, regardless of the characteristics of the flow addressed. From the point of view of research, there exist a variety of techniques and scanning strategies to estimate different turbulence quantities but most of them rely in the combination of raw measurements with atmospheric models. Most of those models are only valid under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The limitations stated above can be overcome by a new triple LiDAR technique which uses simultaneous measurements from three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. It allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector in time as well as local velocity gradients without the need of any turbulence model and with minimal assumptions [EGU2013-9670]. The triple LiDAR technique has been applied to the study of the flow over the campus of EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). The results show the potential of the technique for the measurement of turbulence in highly complex boundary layer flows. The technique is particularly useful for micrometeorology and wind engineering studies.

  15. Three-dimensional (3D) GIS-based coastline change analysis and display using LIDAR series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.

    This paper presents a method to visualize and analyze topography and topographic changes on coastline area. The study area, Assantage Island Nation Seashore (AINS), is located along a 37-mile stretch of Assateague Island National Seashore in Eastern Shore, VA. The DEMS data sets from 1996 through 2000 for various time intervals, e.g., year-to-year, season-to-season, date-to-date, and a four year (1996-2000) are created. The spatial patterns and volumetric amounts of erosion and deposition of each part on a cell-by-cell basis were calculated. A 3D dynamic display system using ArcView Avenue for visualizing dynamic coastal landforms has been developed. The system was developed into five functional modules: Dynamic Display, Analysis, Chart analysis, Output, and Help. The Display module includes five types of displays: Shoreline display, Shore Topographic Profile, Shore Erosion Display, Surface TIN Display, and 3D Scene Display. Visualized data include rectified and co-registered multispectral Landsat digital image and NOAA/NASA ATM LIDAR data. The system is demonstrated using multitemporal digital satellite and LIDAR data for displaying changes on the Assateague Island National Seashore, Virginia. The analyzed results demonstrated that a further understanding to the study and comparison of the complex morphological changes that occur naturally or human-induced on barrier islands is required.

  16. 3D Wind Reconstruction and Turbulence Estimation in the Boundary Layer from Doppler Lidar Measurements using Particle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottner, L.; Baehr, C.

    2014-12-01

    Turbulent phenomena in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are characterized by small spatial and temporal scales which make them difficult to observe and to model.New remote sensing instruments, like Doppler Lidar, give access to fine and high-frequency observations of wind in the ABL. This study suggests to use a method of nonlinear estimation based on these observations to reconstruct 3D wind in a hemispheric volume, and to estimate atmospheric turbulent parameters. The wind observations are associated to particle systems which are driven by a local turbulence model. The particles have both fluid and stochastic properties. Therefore, spatial averages and covariances may be deduced from the particles. Among the innovative aspects, we point out the absence of the common hypothesis of stationary-ergodic turbulence and the non-use of particle model closure hypothesis. Every time observations are available, 3D wind is reconstructed and turbulent parameters such as turbulent kinectic energy, dissipation rate, and Turbulent Intensity (TI) are provided. This study presents some results obtained using real wind measurements provided by a five lines of sight Lidar. Compared with classical methods (e.g. eddy covariance) our technic renders equivalent long time results. Moreover it provides finer and real time turbulence estimations. To assess this new method, we suggest computing independently TI using different observation types. First anemometer data are used to have TI reference.Then raw and filtered Lidar observations have also been compared. The TI obtained from raw data is significantly higher than the reference one, whereas the TI estimated with the new algorithm has the same order.In this study we have presented a new class of algorithm to reconstruct local random media. It offers a new way to understand turbulence in the ABL, in both stable or convective conditions. Later, it could be used to refine turbulence parametrization in meteorological meso-scale models.

  17. Implicit Regularization for Reconstructing 3D Building Rooftop Models Using Airborne LiDAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaewook; Jwa, Yoonseok; Sohn, Gunho

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization, highly accurate and semantically rich virtualization of building assets in 3D become more critical for supporting various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and location-based services. Many research efforts have been conducted to automatically reconstruct building models at city-scale from remotely sensed data. However, developing a fully-automated photogrammetric computer vision system enabling the massive generation of highly accurate building models still remains a challenging task. One the most challenging task for 3D building model reconstruction is to regularize the noises introduced in the boundary of building object retrieved from a raw data with lack of knowledge on its true shape. This paper proposes a data-driven modeling approach to reconstruct 3D rooftop models at city-scale from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. The focus of the proposed method is to implicitly derive the shape regularity of 3D building rooftops from given noisy information of building boundary in a progressive manner. This study covers a full chain of 3D building modeling from low level processing to realistic 3D building rooftop modeling. In the element clustering step, building-labeled point clouds are clustered into homogeneous groups by applying height similarity and plane similarity. Based on segmented clusters, linear modeling cues including outer boundaries, intersection lines, and step lines are extracted. Topology elements among the modeling cues are recovered by the Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) technique. The regularity of the building rooftop model is achieved by an implicit regularization process in the framework of Minimum Description Length (MDL) combined with Hypothesize and Test (HAT). The parameters governing the MDL optimization are automatically estimated based on Min-Max optimization and Entropy-based weighting method. The performance of the proposed method is tested over the International Society for

  18. 3D Vegetation Mapping Using UAVSAR, LVIS, and LIDAR Data Acquisition Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Denice

    2011-01-01

    The overarching objective of this ongoing project is to assess the role of vegetation within climate change. Forests capture carbon, a green house gas, from the atmosphere. Thus, any change, whether, natural (e.g. growth, fire, death) or due to anthropogenic activity (e.g. logging, burning, urbanization) may have a significant impact on the Earth's carbon cycle. Through the use of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) and NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), which are airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) remote sensing technologies, we gather data to estimate the amount of carbon contained in forests and how the content changes over time. UAVSAR and LVIS sensors were sent all over the world with the objective of mapping out terrain to gather tree canopy height and biomass data; This data is in turn used to correlate vegetation with the global carbon cycle around the world.

  19. How integrating 3D LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol: The French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretar, F.; Mériaux, P.; Fauchard, C.

    2012-04-01

    carried out. A LiDAR system is able to acquire data on a dike structure of up to 80 km per day, which makes the use of this technique also valuable in case of emergency situations. It provides additional valuable products like precious information on dike slopes and crest or their near environment (river banks, etc.). Moreover, in case of vegetation, LiDAR data makes possible to study hidden structures or defaults from images like the erosion of riverbanks under forestry vegetation. The possibility of studying the vegetation is also of high importance: the development of woody vegetation near or onto the dike is a major risk factor. Surface singularities are often signs of disorder or suspected disorder in the dike itself: for example a subsidence or a sinkhole on a ridge may result from internal erosion collapse. Finally, high resolution topographic data contribute to build specific geomechanical model of the dike that, after incorporating data provided by geophysical and geotechnical surveys, are integrated in the calculations of the structure stability. Integrating the regular use of LiDAR data in the dike surveillance protocol is not yet operational in France. However, the high number of French stakeholders at the national level (on average, there is one stakeholder for only 8-9km of dike !) and the real added value of LiDAR data makes a spatial data infrastructure valuable (webservices for processing the data, consulting and filling the database on the field when performing the local diagnosis)

  20. Investigation of lightning flash morphologies along the entire supercell life cycle using a numerical 3D cloud resolving model(CRM).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinié, G.; Escobar, J.; Gazin, D.

    2008-12-01

    A stochastic lightning flash scheme has been implemented in line in a meso-sca le CRM. It is fully parallelized and vectorized. In this model, a lightning flash is schematized as two single conducting channels (single tracks) propagating in opposite directions from the lightning ignition point. Branch patterns propagate from the single channels. On the base of scale similarities between discharges in dielectrics at centimeter scales and lightning flashes, the stochastic scheme has been designed to compute branch trajec tories. Physical considerations and branch fractal dimensions compel branch trajectories. The charge neutralization operates along the single tracks and branches to threshold the cloud electrical charge. First, an assessment of the scheme will be presented in simple 2D configurations. Second, we will describe comprehensive 3D-thundercloud life-cycle simulations including cloud electrification and lightning discharges. Lightning flash patterns are analyzed through statistics of their effective fractal dimension. It is shown that paradoxically, lightning flashes with quasi-plane branch propagation (fractal dimension close to 2) lead to more steady electrical behavior than those completely filling volumes (fractal dimension close to 3).

  1. Incorporation of 3-D Scanning Lidar Data into Google Earth for Real-time Air Pollution Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C.; Nee, J.; Das, S.; Sun, S.; Hsu, Y.; Chiang, H.; Chen, S.; Lin, P.; Chu, J.; Su, C.; Lee, W.; Su, L.; Chen, C.

    2011-12-01

    3-D Differential Absorption Scanning Lidar (DIASL) system has been designed with small size, light weight, and suitable for installation in various vehicles and places for monitoring of air pollutants and displays a detailed real-time temporal and spatial variability of trace gases via the Google Earth. The fast scanning techniques and visual information can rapidly identify the locations and sources of the polluted gases and assess the most affected areas. It is helpful for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect the people's health and abate the air pollution as quickly as possible. The distributions of the atmospheric pollutants and their relationship with local metrological parameters measured with ground based instruments will also be discussed. Details will be presented in the upcoming symposium.

  2. 3D Scan of Ornamental Column (huabiao) Using Terrestrial LiDAR and Hand-held Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, C.; Xi, X.

    2015-08-01

    In ancient China, Huabiao was a type of ornamental column used to decorate important buildings. We carried out 3D scan of a Huabiao located in Peking University, China. This Huabiao was built no later than 1742. It is carved by white marble, 8 meters in height. Clouds and various postures of dragons are carved on its body. Two instruments were used to acquire the point cloud of this Huabiao, a terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl VZ-1000) and a hand-held imager (Mantis Vision F5). In this paper, the details of the experiment were described, including the differences between these two instruments, such as working principle, spatial resolution, accuracy, instrument dimension and working flow. The point clouds obtained respectively by these two instruments were compared, and the registered point cloud of Huabiao was also presented. These should be of interest and helpful for the research communities of archaeology and heritage.

  3. Compact 3D lidar based on optically coupled horizontal and vertical scanning mechanism for the autonomous navigation of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Gu; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Lee, Ki-Min; Lee, Hae-Seok; Baeg, Moon-Hong; Park, Jong-Ok; Kim, Hong-Ki

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a new 3D LIDAR sensor, named KIDAR-B25, for measuring 3D image information with high range accuracy, high speed and compact size. To measure a distance to the target object, we developed a range measurement unit, which is implemented by the direct Time-Of-Flight (TOF) method using TDC chip, a pulsed laser transmitter as an illumination source (pulse width: 10 ns, wavelength: 905 nm, repetition rate: 30kHz, peak power: 20W), and an Si APD receiver, which has high sensitivity and wide bandwidth. Also, we devised a horizontal and vertical scanning mechanism, climbing in a spiral and coupled with the laser optical path. Besides, control electronics such as the motor controller, the signal processing unit, the power distributor and so on, are developed and integrated in a compact assembly. The key point of the 3D LIDAR design proposed in this paper is to use the compact scanning mechanism, which is coupled with optical module horizontally and vertically. This KIDAR-B25 has the same beam propagation axis for emitting pulse laser and receiving reflected one with no optical interference each other. The scanning performance of the KIDAR-B25 has proven with the stable operation up to 20Hz (vertical), 40Hz (horizontal) and the time is about 1.7s to reach the maximum speed. The range of vertical plane can be available up to +/-10 degree FOV (Field Of View) with a 0.25 degree angular resolution. The whole horizontal plane (360 degree) can be also available with 0.125 degree angular resolution. Since the KIDAR-B25 sensor has been planned and developed to be used in mobile robots for navigation, we conducted an outdoor test for evaluating its performance. The experimental results show that the captured 3D imaging data can be usefully applicable to the navigation of the robot for detecting and avoiding the moving objects with real time.

  4. Retrieval of Vegetation Structural Parameters and 3-D Reconstruction of Forest Canopies Using Ground-Based Echidna® Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2010-12-01

    A ground-based, scanning, near-infrared lidar, the Echidna® validation instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, retrieves structural parameters of forest stands rapidly and accurately, and by merging multiple scans into a single point cloud, the lidar also provides 3-D stand reconstructions. Echidna lidar technology scans with pulses of light at 1064 nm wavelength and digitizes the full return waveform sufficiently finely to recover and distinguish the differing shapes of return pulses as they are scattered by leaves, trunks, and branches. Deployments in New England in 2007 and the southern Sierra Nevada of California in 2008 tested the ability of the instrument to retrieve mean tree diameter, stem count density (stems/ha), basal area, and above-ground woody biomass from single scans at points beneath the forest canopy. Parameters retrieved from five scans located within six 1-ha stand sites matched manually-measured parameters with values of R2 = 0.94-0.99 in New England and 0.92-0.95 in the Sierra Nevada. Retrieved leaf area index (LAI) values were similar to those of LAI-2000 and hemispherical photography. In New England, an analysis of variance showed that EVI-retrieved values were not significantly different from other methods (power = 0.84 or higher). In the Sierra, R2 = 0.96 and 0.81 for hemispherical photos and LAI-2000, respectively. Foliage profiles, which measure leaf area with canopy height, showed distinctly different shapes for the stands, depending on species composition and age structure. New England stand heights, obtained from foliage profiles, were not significantly different (power = 0.91) from RH100 values observed by LVIS in 2003. Three-dimensional stand reconstruction identifies one or more “hits” along the pulse path coupled with the peak return of each hit expressed as apparent reflectance. Returns are classified as trunk, leaf, or ground returns based on the shape of the return pulse and its location. These data provide a point

  5. Automatic Extraction of Building Roof Planes from Airborne LIDAR Data Applying AN Extended 3d Randomized Hough Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to extract automatically building roof planes from airborne LIDAR data applying an extended 3D Randomized Hough Transform (RHT). The proposed methodology consists of three main steps, namely detection of building points, plane detection and refinement. For the detection of the building points, the vegetative areas are first segmented from the scene content and the bare earth is extracted afterwards. The automatic plane detection of each building is performed applying extensions of the RHT associated with additional constraint criteria during the random selection of the 3 points aiming at the optimum adaptation to the building rooftops as well as using a simple design of the accumulator that efficiently detects the prominent planes. The refinement of the plane detection is conducted based on the relationship between neighbouring planes, the locality of the point and the use of additional information. An indicative experimental comparison to verify the advantages of the extended RHT compared to the 3D Standard Hough Transform (SHT) is implemented as well as the sensitivity of the proposed extensions and accumulator design is examined in the view of quality and computational time compared to the default RHT. Further, a comparison between the extended RHT and the RANSAC is carried out. The plane detection results illustrate the potential of the proposed extended RHT in terms of robustness and efficiency for several applications.

  6. Flash!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Govert

    2002-04-01

    About three times a day our sky flashes with a powerful pulse of gamma ray bursts (GRB), invisible to human eyes but not to astronomers' instruments. The sources of this intense radiation are likely to be emitting, within the span of seconds or minutes, more energy than the sun will in its entire 10 billion years of life. Where these bursts originate, and how they come to have such incredible energies, is a mystery scientists have been trying to solve for three decades. The phenomenon has resisted study -- the flashes come from random directions in space and vanish without trace -- until very recently. In what could be called a cinematic conflation of Flash Gordon and The Hunt for Red October, Govert Schilling's Flash!: The Hunt for the Biggest Explosions in the Universe describes the exciting and ever-changing field of GRB research. Based on interviews with leading scientists, Flash! provides an insider's account of the scientific challenges involved in unravelling the enigmatic nature of GRBs. A science writer who has followed the drama from the very start, Schilling describes the ambition and jealousy, collegiality and competition, triumph and tragedy, that exists among those who have embarked on this recherche. Govert Schilling is a Dutch science writer and astronomy publicist. He is a contributing editor of Sky and Telescope magazine, and regularly writes for the news sections of Science and New Scientist. Schilling is the astronomy writer for de Volkskrant, one of the largest national daily newspapers in The Netherlands, and frequently talks about the Universe on Dutch radio broadcasts. He is the author of more than twenty popular astronomy books, and hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles on astronomy.

  7. Laser sources for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmer, J.; Iadevaia, A.; Yin, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Advanced LIDAR applications such as next gen: Micro Pulse; Time of Flight (e.g., Satellite Laser Ranging); Coherent and Incoherent Doppler (e.g., Wind LIDAR); High Spectral Resolution; Differential Absorption (DIAL); photon counting LIDAR (e.g., 3D LIDAR); are placing more demanding requirements on conventional lasers (e.g., increased rep rates, etc.) and have inspired the development of new types of laser sources. Today, solid state lasers are used for wind sensing, 2D laser Radar, 3D scanning and flash LIDAR. In this paper, we report on the development of compact, highly efficient, high power all-solidstate diode pulsed pumped ns lasers, as well as, high average power/high pulse energy sub nanosecond (<1ns) and picosecond (<100ps) lasers for these next gen LIDAR applications.

  8. 3D terrestrial lidar data classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: Applications in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodu, N.; Lague, D.

    2012-03-01

    result is given at each point, allowing the user to remove the points for which the classification is uncertain. The process can be both fully automated (minimal user input once, all scenes treated in large computation batches), but also fully customized by the user including a graphical definition of the classifiers if so desired. Working classifiers can be exchanged between users independently of the instrument used to acquire the data avoiding the need to go through full training of the classifier. Although developed for fully 3D data, the method can be readily applied to 2.5D airborne lidar data.

  9. Multi-sourced, 3D geometric characterization of volcanogenic karst features: Integrating lidar, sonar, and geophysical datasets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Gary, M. O.; Reyes, R.; Halihan, T.; Fairfield, N.; Stone, W. C.

    2009-12-01

    Karstic aquifers can form very complex hydrogeological systems and 3-D mapping has been difficult, but Lidar, phased array sonar, and improved earth resistivity techniques show promise in this and in linking metadata to models. Zacatón, perhaps the Earth’s deepest cenote, has a sub-aquatic void space exceeding 7.5 x 106 cubic m3. It is the focus of this study which has created detailed 3D maps of the system. These maps include data from above and beneath the the water table and within the rock matrix to document the extent of the immense karst features and to interpret the geologic processes that formed them. Phase 1 used high resolution (20 mm) Lidar scanning of surficial features of four large cenotes. Scan locations, selected to achieve full feature coverage once registered, were established atop surface benchmarks with UTM coordinates established using GPS and Total Stations. The combined datasets form a geo-registered mesh of surface features down to water level in the cenotes. Phase 2 conducted subsurface imaging using Earth Resistivity Imaging (ERI) geophysics. ERI identified void spaces isolated from open flow conduits. A unique travertine morphology exists in which some cenotes are dry or contain shallow lakes with flat travertine floors; some water-filled cenotes have flat floors without the cone of collapse material; and some have collapse cones. We hypothesize that the floors may have large water-filled voids beneath them. Three separate flat travertine caps were imaged: 1) La Pilita, which is partially open, exposing cap structure over a deep water-filled shaft; 2) Poza Seca, which is dry and vegetated; and 3) Tule, which contains a shallow (<1 m) lake. A fourth line was run adjacent to cenote Verde. La Pilita ERI, verified by SCUBA, documented the existence of large water-filled void zones ERI at Poza Seca showed a thin cap overlying a conductive zone extending to at least 25 m depth beneath the cap with no lower boundary of this zone evident

  10. Constraints on 3D fault and fracture distribution in layered volcanic- volcaniclastic sequences from terrestrial LIDAR datasets: Faroe Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raithatha, Bansri; McCaffrey, Kenneth; Walker, Richard; Brown, Richard; Pickering, Giles

    2013-04-01

    Hydrocarbon reservoirs commonly contain an array of fine-scale structures that control fluid flow in the subsurface, such as polyphase fracture networks and small-scale fault zones. These structures are unresolvable using seismic imaging and therefore outcrop-based studies have been used as analogues to characterize fault and fracture networks and assess their impact on fluid flow in the subsurface. To maximize recovery and enhance production, it is essential to understand the geometry, physical properties, and distribution of these structures in 3D. Here we present field data and terrestrial LIDAR-derived 3D, photo-realistic virtual outcrops of fault zones at a range of displacement scales (0.001- 4.5 m) within a volcaniclastic sand- and basaltic lava unit sequence in the Faroe Islands. Detailed field observations were used to constrain the virtual outcrop dataset, and a workflow has been developed to build a discrete fracture network (DFN) models in GOCAD® from these datasets. Model construction involves three main stages: (1) Georeferencing and processing of LIDAR datasets; (2) Structural interpretation to discriminate between faults, fractures, veins, and joint planes using CAD software and RiSCAN Pro; and (3) Building a 3D DFN in GOCAD®. To test the validity of this workflow, we focus here on a 4.5 m displacement strike-slip fault zone that displays a complex polymodal fracture network in the inter-layered basalt-volcaniclastic sequence, which is well-constrained by field study. The DFN models support our initial field-based hypothesis that fault zone geometry varies with increasing displacement through volcaniclastic units. Fracture concentration appears to be greatest in the upper lava unit, decreases into the volcaniclastic sediments, and decreases further into the lower lava unit. This distribution of fractures appears to be related to the width of the fault zone and the amount of fault damage on the outcrop. For instance, the fault zone is thicker in

  11. Using Lidar-derived 3-D Vegetation Structure Maps to Assist in the Search for the Ivory- billed Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofton, M. A.; Blair, J. B.; Rabine, D.; Dubayah, R.; Greim, H.

    2006-12-01

    Averaging about 20 inches in length, the ivory-billed woodpecker is among the world's largest woodpeckers. It once ranged through swampy forests in the southeastern and lower Mississippi valley states, and until recently was believed to have become extinct in the 1940's when commercial logging destroyed its last known habitat. Recent sightings however, may indicate the birds' survival in remaining bottomland hardwood forest adjacent to the Cache and White Rivers in Arkansas. In June-July 2006, NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to map approximately 5000 km2 of the White River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas, including sites where recent possible sightings of the bird occurred. LVIS is an airborne, medium- footprint (5- to 25-meter diameter), full waveform-recording, airborne, scanning lidar system which has been used extensively for mapping forest structure, habitat, carbon and natural hazards. The system digitally records the shape of the returning laser echo, or waveform, after its interaction with the various reflecting surfaces of the earth (leaves, branches, ground, etc.), providing a true 3-dimensional record of the surface structure. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces (the return waveform). Experimental metrics such as canopy structure metrics based on energy quartiles, as well as ground energy/canopy cover and waveform complexity metrics will be derived from each waveform. The project is a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland, NASA, USGS, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The LVIS-generated data of the 3- D vegetation structure and underlying terrain will be used as a means to guide local, ground-based search efforts in the upcoming field season as well as identify the remaining areas of habitat suitable for protection should the bird be found.

  12. Analysis of the energy distribution of interface traps related to tunnel oxide degradation using charge pumping techniques for 3D NAND flash applications

    SciTech Connect

    An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Tae Geun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The degradation tendency extracted by CP technique was almost the same in both the bulk-type and TFT-type cells. - Highlights: • D{sub it} is directly investigated from bulk-type and TFT-type CTF memory. • Charge pumping technique was employed to analyze the D{sub it} information. • To apply the CP technique to monitor the reliability of the 3D NAND flash. - Abstract: The energy distribution and density of interface traps (D{sub it}) are directly investigated from bulk-type and thin-film transistor (TFT)-type charge trap flash memory cells with tunnel oxide degradation, under program/erase (P/E) cycling using a charge pumping (CP) technique, in view of application in a 3-demension stackable NAND flash memory cell. After P/E cycling in bulk-type devices, the interface trap density gradually increased from 1.55 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} to 3.66 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} due to tunnel oxide damage, which was consistent with the subthreshold swing and transconductance degradation after P/E cycling. Its distribution moved toward shallow energy levels with increasing cycling numbers, which coincided with the decay rate degradation with short-term retention time. The tendency extracted with the CP technique for D{sub it} of the TFT-type cells was similar to those of bulk-type cells.

  13. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Demoz, Belay B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  14. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  15. Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development at NASA Langley Research Center for NASA Space-Based 3-D Winds Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the 20-plus years of pulsed transmit laser development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to enable a coherent Doppler wind lidar to measure global winds from earth orbit. We briefly also discuss the many other ingredients needed to prepare for this space mission.

  16. Automatic 3D Building Model Generation by Integrating LiDAR and Aerial Images Using a Hybrid Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Eunju

    The development of sensor technologies and the increase in user requirements have resulted in many different approaches for efficient building model generation. Three-dimensional building models are important in various applications, such as disaster management and urban planning. Despite this importance, generation of these models lacks economical and reliable techniques which take advantage of the available multi-sensory data from single and multiple platforms. Therefore, this research develops a framework for fully-automated building model generation by integrating data-driven and model-driven methods as well as exploiting the advantages of images and LiDAR datasets. The building model generation starts by employing LiDAR data for building detection and approximate boundary determination. The generated building boundaries are then integrated into a model-based image processing strategy, because LiDAR derived planes show irregular boundaries due to the nature of LiDAR point acquisition. The focus of the research is generating models for the buildings with right-angled-corners, which can be described with a collection of rectangles (e.g., L-shape, T-shape, U-shape, gable roofs, and more complex building shapes which are combinations of the aforementioned shapes), under the assumption that the majority of the buildings in urban areas belong to this category. Therefore, by applying the Minimum Bounding Rectangle (MBR) algorithm recursively, the LiDAR boundaries are decomposed into sets of rectangles for further processing. At the same time the quality of the MBRs are examined to verify that the buildings, from which the boundaries are generated, are buildings with right-angled-corners. These rectangles are preliminary model primitives. The parameters that define the model primitives are adjusted using detected edges in the imagery through the least-squares adjustment procedure, i.e., model-based image fitting. The level of detail in the final Digital Building Model

  17. Prediction of L-band signal attenuation in forests using 3D vegetation structure from airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pang-Wei; Lee, Heezin; Judge, Jasmeet; Wright, William C.; Clint Slatton, K.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we propose a novel method to predict microwave attenuation in forested areas by using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). While propagating through a vegetative medium, microwave signals suffer from reflection, absorption, and scattering within vegetation, which cause signal attenuation and, consequently, deteriorate signal reception and information interpretation. A Fresnel zone enveloping the radio frequency line-of-sight is applied to segment vegetation structure occluding signal propagation. Return parameters and the spatial distribution of vegetation from the airborne LiDAR inside Fresnel zones are used to weight the laser points to estimate directional vegetation structure. A Directional Vegetation Density (DVD) model is developed through regression that links the vegetation structure to the signal attenuation at the L-band using GPS observations in a mixed forest in North Central Florida. The DVD model is compared with currently-used empirical models and obtained better R2 values of 0.54 than the slab-based models. Finally, the model is evaluated by comparing with GPS observations of signal attenuation. An overall root mean square error of 3.51 dB and a maximum absolute error of 9.38 dB are found. Sophisticated classification algorithms and full-waveform LiDAR systems may significantly improve the estimation of signal attenuation.

  18. Using LiDAR Data to Measure the 3D Green Biomass of Beijing Urban Forest in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Cheng; Convertino, Matteo; Feng, Zhongke; Zhang, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to find a new approach to measure 3D green biomass of urban forest and to testify its precision. In this study, the 3D green biomass could be acquired on basis of a remote sensing inversion model in which each standing wood was first scanned by Terrestrial Laser Scanner to catch its point cloud data, then the point cloud picture was opened in a digital mapping data acquisition system to get the elevation in an independent coordinate, and at last the individual volume captured was associated with the remote sensing image in SPOT5(System Probatoired'Observation dela Tarre)by means of such tools as SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions), GIS (Geographic Information System), RS (Remote Sensing) and spatial analysis software (FARO SCENE and Geomagic studio11). The results showed that the 3D green biomass of Beijing urban forest was 399.1295 million m3, of which coniferous was 28.7871 million m3 and broad-leaf was 370.3424 million m3. The accuracy of 3D green biomass was over 85%, comparison with the values from 235 field sample data in a typical sampling way. This suggested that the precision done by the 3D forest green biomass based on the image in SPOT5 could meet requirements. This represents an improvement over the conventional method because it not only provides a basis to evalue indices of Beijing urban greenings, but also introduces a new technique to assess 3D green biomass in other cities. PMID:24146792

  19. Using LiDAR data to measure the 3D green biomass of Beijing urban forest in China.

    PubMed

    He, Cheng; Convertino, Matteo; Feng, Zhongke; Zhang, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to find a new approach to measure 3D green biomass of urban forest and to testify its precision. In this study, the 3D green biomass could be acquired on basis of a remote sensing inversion model in which each standing wood was first scanned by Terrestrial Laser Scanner to catch its point cloud data, then the point cloud picture was opened in a digital mapping data acquisition system to get the elevation in an independent coordinate, and at last the individual volume captured was associated with the remote sensing image in SPOT5(System Probatoired'Observation dela Tarre)by means of such tools as SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions), GIS (Geographic Information System), RS (Remote Sensing) and spatial analysis software (FARO SCENE and Geomagic studio11). The results showed that the 3D green biomass of Beijing urban forest was 399.1295 million m(3), of which coniferous was 28.7871 million m(3) and broad-leaf was 370.3424 million m(3). The accuracy of 3D green biomass was over 85%, comparison with the values from 235 field sample data in a typical sampling way. This suggested that the precision done by the 3D forest green biomass based on the image in SPOT5 could meet requirements. This represents an improvement over the conventional method because it not only provides a basis to evalue indices of Beijing urban greenings, but also introduces a new technique to assess 3D green biomass in other cities.

  20. An Inspire-Konform 3d Building Model of Bavaria Using Cadastre Information, LIDAR and Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roschlaub, R.; Batscheider, J.

    2016-06-01

    The federal governments of Germany endeavour to create a harmonized 3D building data set based on a common application schema (the AdV-CityGML-Profile). The Bavarian Agency for Digitisation, High-Speed Internet and Surveying has launched a statewide 3D Building Model with standardized roof shapes for all 8.1 million buildings in Bavaria. For the acquisition of the 3D Building Model LiDAR-data or data from Image Matching are used as basis in addition with the building ground plans of the official cadastral map. The data management of the 3D Building Model is carried out by a central database with the usage of a nationwide standardized CityGML-Profile of the AdV. The update of the 3D Building Model for new buildings is done by terrestrial building measurements within the maintenance process of the cadaster and from image matching. In a joint research project, the Bavarian State Agency for Surveying and Geoinformation and the TUM, Chair of Geoinformatics, transformed an AdV-CityGML-Profilebased test data set of Bavarian LoD2 building models into an INSPIRE-compliant schema. For the purpose of a transformation of such kind, the AdV provides a data specification, a test plan for 3D Building Models and a mapping table. The research project examined whether the transformation rules defined in the mapping table, were unambiguous and sufficient for implementing a transformation of LoD2 data based on the AdV-CityGML-Profile into the INSPIRE schema. The proof of concept was carried out by transforming production data of the Bavarian 3D Building Model in LoD2 into the INSPIRE BU schema. In order to assure the quality of the data to be transformed, the test specifications according to the test plan for 3D Building Models of the AdV were carried out. The AdV mapping table was checked for completeness and correctness and amendments were made accordingly.

  1. 3D-Modeling of Vegetation from Lidar Point Clouds and Assessment of its Impact on Façade Solar Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronato, G.; Rey, E.; Andersen, M.

    2016-10-01

    The presence of vegetation can significantly affect the solar irradiation received on building surfaces. Due to the complex shape and seasonal variability of vegetation geometry, this topic has gained much attention from researchers. However, existing methods are limited to rooftops as they are based on 2.5D geometry and use simplified radiation algorithms based on view-sheds. This work contributes to overcoming some of these limitations, providing support for 3D geometry to include facades. Thanks to the use of ray-tracing-based simulations and detailed characterization of the 3D surfaces, we can also account for inter-reflections, which might have a significant impact on façade irradiation. In order to construct confidence intervals on our results, we modeled vegetation from LiDAR point clouds as 3D convex hulls, which provide the biggest volume and hence the most conservative obstruction scenario. The limits of the confidence intervals were characterized with some extreme scenarios (e.g. opaque trees and absence of trees). Results show that uncertainty can vary significantly depending on the characteristics of the urban area and the granularity of the analysis (sensor, building and group of buildings). We argue that this method can give us a better understanding of the uncertainties due to vegetation in the assessment of solar irradiation in urban environments, and therefore, the potential for the installation of solar energy systems.

  2. Retrieving Leaf Area Index and Foliage Profiles Through Voxelized 3-D Forest Reconstruction Using Terrestrial Full-Waveform and Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yang, X.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Saenz, E.; Paynter, I.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Martel, J.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Jupp, D.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lowell, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring and monitoring canopy biophysical parameters provide a baseline for carbon flux studies related to deforestation and disturbance in forest ecosystems. Terrestrial full-waveform lidar systems, such as the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI) and its successor Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL), offer rapid, accurate, and automated characterization of forest structure. In this study, we apply a methodology based on voxelized 3-D forest reconstructions built from EVI and DWEL scans to directly estimate two important biophysical parameters: Leaf Area Index (LAI) and foliage profile. Gap probability, apparent reflectance, and volume associated with the laser pulse footprint at the observed range are assigned to the foliage scattering events in the reconstructed point cloud. Leaf angle distribution is accommodated with a simple model based on gap probability with zenith angle as observed in individual scans of the stand. The DWEL instrument, which emits simultaneous laser pulses at 1064 nm and 1548 nm wavelengths, provides a better capability to separate trunk and branch hits from foliage hits due to water absorption by leaf cellular contents at 1548 nm band. We generate voxel datasets of foliage points using a classification methodology solely based on pulse shape for scans collected by EVI and with pulse shape and band ratio for scans collected by DWEL. We then compare the LAIs and foliage profiles retrieved from the voxel datasets of the two instruments at the same red fir site in Sierra National Forest, CA, with each other and with observations from airborne and field measurements. This study further tests the voxelization methodology in obtaining LAI and foliage profiles that are largely free of clumping effects and returns from woody materials in the canopy. These retrievals can provide a valuable 'ground-truth' validation data source for large-footprint spaceborne or airborne lidar systems retrievals.

  3. Increasing the effective aperture of a detector and enlarging the receiving field of view in a 3D imaging lidar system through hexagonal prism beam splitting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cui, Tianxiang; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-11

    The detector in a highly accurate and high-definition scanning 3D imaging lidar system requires high frequency bandwidth and sufficient photosensitive area. To solve the problem of small photosensitive area of an existing indium gallium arsenide detector with a certain frequency bandwidth, this study proposes a method for increasing the receiving field of view (FOV) and enlarging the effective photosensitive aperture of such detector through hexagonal prism beam splitting. The principle and construction of hexagonal prism beam splitting is also discussed in this research. Accordingly, a receiving optical system with two hexagonal prisms is provided and the splitting beam effect of the simulation experiment is analyzed. Using this novel method, the receiving optical system's FOV can be improved effectively up to ±5°, and the effective photosensitive aperture of the detector is increased from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm.

  4. High-Precision 3D Geolocation of Persistent Scatterers with one Single-Epoch GCP and Lidar DSM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengshi; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Chang, Ling; Wang, Jinhu; Lindenbergh, Roderik R. C.; Liao, Mingsheng; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-08-01

    In persistent scatterer (PS) interferometry, the relatively poor 3D geolocalization precision of the measurement points (the scatterers) is still a major concern. It makes it difficult to attribute the deformation measurements unambiguously to (elements of) physical objects. Ground control points (GCP's), such as corner reflectors or transponders, can be used to improve geolocalization, but only in the range-azimuth domain. Here, we present a method which uses only one GCP, visible in only one single radar acquisition, in combination with a digital surface model (DSM) data to improve the geolocation precision, and to achieve an object snap by projecting the scatterer position to the intersection with the DSM model, in the metric defined by the covariance matrix (i.e. error ellipsoid) of every scatterer.

  5. Detecting and Analyzing Corrosion Spots on the Hull of Large Marine Vessels Using Colored 3d LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aijazi, A. K.; Malaterre, L.; Tazir, M. L.; Trassoudaine, L.; Checchin, P.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a new method that automatically detects and analyzes surface defects such as corrosion spots of different shapes and sizes, on large ship hulls. In the proposed method several scans from different positions and viewing angles around the ship are registered together to form a complete 3D point cloud. The R, G, B values associated with each scan, obtained with the help of an integrated camera are converted into HSV space to separate out the illumination invariant color component from the intensity. Using this color component, different surface defects such as corrosion spots of different shapes and sizes are automatically detected, within a selected zone, using two different methods depending upon the level of corrosion/defects. The first method relies on a histogram based distribution whereas the second on adaptive thresholds. The detected corrosion spots are then analyzed and quantified to help better plan and estimate the cost of repair and maintenance. Results are evaluated on real data using different standard evaluation metrics to demonstrate the efficacy as well as the technical strength of the proposed method.

  6. Separating Leaves from Trunks and Branches with Dual-Wavelength Terrestrial Lidar Scanning: Improving Canopy Structure Characterization in 3-D Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Wang, Z.; Yang, X.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Woodcock, C.; Jupp, D.; Schaefer, M.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lowell, J.

    2013-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter characterizing forest structure, used in models regulating the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the land and the atmosphere. However, optical methods in common use cannot separate leaf area from the area of upper trunks and branches, and thus retrieve only plant area index (PAI), which is adjusted to LAI using an appropriate empirical woody-to-total index. An additional problem is that the angular distributions of leaf normals and normals to woody surfaces are quite different, and thus leafy and woody components project quite different areas with varying zenith angle of view. This effect also causes error in LAI retrieval using optical methods. Full-waveform scans at both the NIR (1064 nm) and SWIR (1548 nm) wavelengths from the new terrestrial Lidar, the Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL), which pulses in both wavelengths simultaneously, easily separate returns of leaves from trunks and branches in 3-D space. In DWEL scans collected at two different forest sites, Sierra National Forest in June 2013 and Brisbane Karawatha Forest Park in July 2013, the power returned from leaves is similar to power returned from trunks/branches at the NIR wavelength, whereas the power returned from leaves is much lower (only about half as large) at the SWIR wavelength. At the SWIR wavelength, the leaf scattering is strongly attenuated by liquid water absorption. Normalized difference index (NDI) images from the waveform mean intensity at the two wavelengths demonstrate a clear contrast between leaves and trunks/branches. The attached image shows NDI from a part of a scan of an open red fir stand in the Sierra National Forest. Leaves appear light, while other objects are darker.Dual-wavelength point clouds generated from the full waveform data show weaker returns from leaves than from trunks/branches. A simple threshold classification of the NDI value of each scattering point readily separates leaves from trunks and

  7. Reducing the influence of direct reflection on return signal detection in a 3D imaging lidar system by rotating the polarizing beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Lee, Xiaobao; Cui, Tianxiang; Qu, Yang; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-01

    The direction rule of the laser beam traveling through a deflected polarizing beam splitter (PBS) cube is derived. It reveals that, due to the influence of end-face reflection of the PBS at the detector side, the emergent beam coming from the incident beam parallels the direction of the original case without rotation, with only a very small translation interval between them. The formula of the translation interval is also given. Meanwhile, the emergent beam from the return signal at the detector side deflects at an angle twice that of the PBS rotation angle. The correctness has been verified by an experiment. The intensity transmittance of the emergent beam when propagating in the PBS is changes very little if the rotation angle is less than 35 deg. In a 3D imaging lidar system, by rotating the PBS cube by an angle, the direction of the return signal optical axis is separated from that of the origin, which can decrease or eliminate the influence of direct reflection caused by the prism end face on target return signal detection. This has been checked by experiment.

  8. Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, R. T. H.

    1969-01-01

    Lidar is an optical radar technique employing laser energy. Variations in signal intensity as a function of range provide information on atmospheric constituents, even when these are too tenuous to be normally visible. The theoretical and technical basis of the technique is described and typical values of the atmospheric optical parameters given. The significance of these parameters to atmospheric and meteorological problems is discussed. While the basic technique can provide valuable information about clouds and other material in the atmosphere, it is not possible to determine particle size and number concentrations precisely. There are also inherent difficulties in evaluating lidar observations. Nevertheless, lidar can provide much useful information as is shown by illustrations. These include lidar observations of: cirrus cloud, showing mountain wave motions; stratification in clear air due to the thermal profile near the ground; determinations of low cloud and visibility along an air-field approach path; and finally the motion and internal structure of clouds of tracer materials (insecticide spray and explosion-caused dust) which demonstrate the use of lidar for studying transport and diffusion processes.

  9. A green flash from the Moon; BOSS measures the distant universe in 3D; Cuts in Parliament; When asteroids collide; SpaceX to beat China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    The biggest 3D map of the distant universe, based on the intergalactic hydrogen distribution as well as on the distribution of visible galaxies, has been produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III).

  10. Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, J.-P.; Aubry, Y.

    1981-09-01

    It is noted that a photodetector at the telescope focal plane of a lidar produces a signal which is processed, giving information on the concentration of the species being monitored. The delay between the emitted and return signals indicates the distance to the interacting volume. Because of the poor efficiency of the interaction processes, the main difficulty in developing a good lidar has to do with the availability of sufficiently efficient lasers. Certain laser characteristics are discussed, and a CNES program for the development of lasers for lidar techniques is presented, future space applications being considered as mid-term objectives. The various components of the laser system developed by CNES are described. These are a dual frequency tunable oscillator, the amplifier chain, the beam control unit and wavelength servo-system, and the harmonic conversion subsystem.

  11. Coupling high resolution 3D point clouds from terrestrial LiDAR with high precision displacement time series from GB-InSAR to understand landslide kinematic: example of the La Perraire instability, Swiss Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Clément; Baillifard, François; Harald Blikra, Lars; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Kristensen, Lene; Leva, Davide; Metzger, Richard; Rivolta, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Ground-Based Radar Interferometry have changed our perception and interpretation of slope activities for the last 20 years and are now routinely used for monitoring and even early warning purposes. Terrestrial LiDAR allows indeed to model topography with very high point density, even in steep slopes, and to extract 3D displacements of rock masses by comparing successive datasets. GB-InSAR techniques are able to detect mm displacements over large areas. Nevertheless, both techniques suffer of some limitations. The precision of LiDAR devices actually limits its ability to monitor very slow-moving landslides, as well as by the dam resolution and the particular geometry (in azimuth/range) of GB-InSAR data may complicate their interpretations. To overcome those limitations, tools were produced to truly combine strong advantages of both techniques, by coupling high resolution geometrical data from terrestrial LiDAR or photogrammetry with high precision displacement time series from GB-InSAR. We thus developed a new exportation module into the processing chain of LiSAmobile (GB-InSAR) devices in order to wrap radar results from their particular geometry on high resolution 3D point clouds with cm mean point spacing. Furthermore, we also added new importation and visualization functionalities into Coltop3D (software for geological interpretations of laser scanning data) to display those results in 3D and even analyzing displacement time series. This new method has also been optimized to create as few and small files as possible and for time processing. Advantages of coupling terrestrial LiDAR and GB-InSAR data will be illustrated on the La Perraire instability, an active large rockslide involving frequent rockfalls and threatening inhabitant within the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss Alps. This rock mass, monitored by LiDAR and GPS since 2006, is huge enough and long-term movements are big (up to 1.6 m in 6 years) and complex enough to make

  12. Lidar Systems for Precision Navigation and Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Currently, NASA is developing novel lidar sensors aimed at needs of future planetary landing missions. These lidar sensors are a 3-Dimensional Imaging Flash Lidar, a Doppler Lidar, and a Laser Altimeter. The Flash Lidar is capable of generating elevation maps of the terrain that indicate hazardous features such as rocks, craters, and steep slopes. The elevation maps collected during the approach phase of a landing vehicle, at about 1 km above the ground, can be used to determine the most suitable safe landing site. The Doppler Lidar provides highly accurate ground relative velocity and distance data allowing for precision navigation to the landing site. Our Doppler lidar utilizes three laser beams pointed to different directions to measure line of sight velocities and ranges to the ground from altitudes of over 2 km. Throughout the landing trajectory starting at altitudes of about 20 km, the Laser Altimeter can provide very accurate ground relative altitude measurements that are used to improve the vehicle position knowledge obtained from the vehicle navigation system. At altitudes from approximately 15 km to 10 km, either the Laser Altimeter or the Flash Lidar can be used to generate contour maps of the terrain, identifying known surface features such as craters, to perform Terrain relative Navigation thus further reducing the vehicle s relative position error. This paper describes the operational capabilities of each lidar sensor and provides a status of their development. Keywords: Laser Remote Sensing, Laser Radar, Doppler Lidar, Flash Lidar, 3-D Imaging, Laser Altimeter, Precession Landing, Hazard Detection

  13. High resolution three-dimensional flash LIDAR system using a polarization modulating Pockels cell and a micro-polarizer CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sungeun; Kong, Hong Jin; Bang, Hyochoong; Kim, Jae-Wan; Kim, Jomsool; Choi, Soungwoong

    2016-12-26

    An innovative flash LIDAR (light detection and ranging) system with high spatial resolution and high range precision is proposed in this paper. The proposed system consists of a polarization modulating Pockels cell (PMPC) and a micro-polarizer CCD camera (MCCD). The Pockels cell changes its polarization state with respect to time after a laser pulse is emitted from the system. The polarization state of the laser-return pulse depends on the arrival time. The MCCD measures the intensity of the returning laser pulse to calculate the polarization state, which gives the range. A spatial resolution and range precision of 0.12 mrad and 5.2 mm at 16 m were obtained, respectively, in this experiment.

  14. Dense surface reconstruction based on the fusion of monocular vision and three-dimensional flash light detection and ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Gangtao; Du, Xiaoping; Zhao, Jiguang; Chen, Hang; Song, Jianjun; Song, Yishuo

    2015-07-01

    A dense surface reconstruction approach based on the fusion of monocular vision and three-dimensional (3-D) flash light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is proposed. The texture and geometry information can be obtained simultaneously and quickly for stationary or moving targets with the proposed method. Primarily, our 2-D/3-D fusion imaging system including cameras calibration and an intensity-range image registration algorithm is designed. Subsequently, the adaptive block intensity-range Markov random field (MRF) with optimizing weights is presented to improve the sparse range data from 3-D flash LIDAR. Then the energy function is minimized quickly by conjugate gradient algorithm for each neighborhood system instead of the whole MRF. Finally, the experiments with standard depth datasets and real 2-D/3-D images demonstrate the validity and capability of the proposed scheme.

  15. B4 2 After, 3D Deformation Field From Matching Pre- To Post-Event Aerial LiDAR Point Clouds, The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah M7.2 Earthquake Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Nissen, E.; Limon-Tirado, J. F.; Arrowsmith, R.; Krishnan, A.; Saripalli, S.; Oskin, M. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Arregui, S. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O. J.

    2013-05-01

    Aerial LiDAR surveys reconstruct with amazing fidelity the sinuosity of terrain relief. In this research we explore the 3D deformation field at the surface after a big earthquake (M7.2) by comparing pre- to post-event aerial LiDAR point clouds. The April 4 2010 earthquake produced a NW-SE surface rupture ~110km long with right-lateral normal slip up to 3m in magnitude over a very favorable target: scarcely vegetated and unaltered desert mountain range, sierras El Mayor and Cucapah, in northern Baja California, close to the US-México border. It is a plate boundary region between the Pacific and North American plates. The pre-event LiDAR with lower point density (0.013-0.033 pts m-2) required filtering and post-processing before comparing with the denser (9-18 pts m-2) more accurate post event dataset. The 3D surface displacement field was determined using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, implemented in the open source Point Cloud Library (PCL). The LiDAR datasets are first split into a grid of windows, and for each one, ICP iteratively converges on the rigid body transformation (comprising translations and rotations) that best aligns the pre- to post-event points. Perturbing the pre- and post-event point clouds independently with a synthetic right lateral inverse displacements of known magnitude along a proposed fault, ICP recovered the synthetically introduced translations. Windows with dimensions of 100-200m gave the best results for datasets with these densities. The simplified surface rupture photo interpreted and mapped in the field, delineates very well the vertical displacements patterns unveiled by ICP. The method revealed block rotations, some with clockwise and others counter clockwise direction along the simplified surface rupture. As ground truth, displacements from ICP have similar values as those measured in the field along the main rupture by Fletcher and collaborators. The vertical component was better estimated than the

  16. A study of integration methods of aerial imagery and LIDAR data for a high level of automation in 3D building reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Suyoung; Schenk, Toni F.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes integration methods to increase the level of automation in building reconstruction. Aerial imagery has been used as a major source in mapping fields and, in recent years, LIDAR data became popular as another type of mapping resources. Regarding to their performances, aerial imagery has abilities to delineate object boundaries but leaves many missing parts of boundaries during feature extraction. LIDAR data provide direct information about heights of object surfaces but have limitation for boundary localization. Efficient methods using complementary characteristics of two sensors are described to generate hypotheses of building boundaries and localize the object features. Tree structures for grid contours of LIDAR data are used for interpretation of contours. Buildings are recognized by analyzing the contour trees and modeled with surface patches with LIDAR data. Hypotheses of building models are generated as combination of wing models and verified by assessing the consistency between the corresponding data sets. Experiments using aerial imagery and laser data are presented. Our approach shows that the building boundaries are successfully recognized through our contour analysis approach and the inference from contours and our modeling method using wing model increase the level of automation in hypothesis generation/verification steps.

  17. Estimating the relationship between urban 3D morphology and land surface temperature using airborne LiDAR and Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests are known for mitigating the urban heat island effect and heat-related health issues by reducing air and surface temperature. Beyond the amount of the canopy area, however, little is known what kind of spatial patterns and structures of urban forests best contributes to reducing temperatures and mitigating the urban heat effects. Previous studies attempted to find the relationship between the land surface temperature and various indicators of vegetation abundance using remote sensed data but the majority of those studies relied on two dimensional area based metrics, such as tree canopy cover, impervious surface area, and Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, etc. This study investigates the relationship between the three-dimensional spatial structure of urban forests and urban surface temperature focusing on vertical variance. We use a Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor image (acquired on July 24, 2014) to estimate the land surface temperature of the City of Sacramento, CA. We extract the height and volume of urban features (both vegetation and non-vegetation) using airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and high spatial resolution aerial imagery. Using regression analysis, we apply empirical approach to find the relationship between the land surface temperature and different sets of variables, which describe spatial patterns and structures of various urban features including trees. Our analysis demonstrates that incorporating vertical variance parameters improve the accuracy of the model. The results of the study suggest urban tree planting is an effective and viable solution to mitigate urban heat by increasing the variance of urban surface as well as evaporative cooling effect.

  18. Simultaneous High Resolution Lidar Imaging of the Shallow-water Seafloor and Beach with the Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuell, G. H.

    2009-12-01

    The Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL) is a data fusion system designed to simultaneously produce sub-meter 3D images of the beach and shallow-water seafloor. The lidar employs a high power, high frequency pulsed green laser, circular scanner, and novel receiver architecture enabling the system to handle the full dynamic range encountered in the littoral environment. A multi-channel receiver approach is used to establish multiple fields-of-view (FOV), and a segmented detector is used on the inner FOV, thereby creating a hybrid scanned/flash lidar. After applying a radiometric calibration, the bathymetric and topographic waveforms may be analyzed to estimate reflectance at the laser wavelength for each laser spot. Algorithms and software for CZMIL have been developed using SHOALS data. In this presentation, we demonstrate results achieved with SHOALS, and discuss the anticipated performance of CZMIL.

  19. Hot Flashes

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Hot flashes By Mayo Clinic Staff Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the ... skin may redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause profuse sweating and may ...

  20. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  1. 3D camera technology trade-off and breadboard demonstration for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Julien; Bohn, Preben; Schumann-Olsen, Henrik; Biggio, Andrea; Kowaltschek, Steeve

    2015-06-01

    In previous decades, the vision-based navigation problem based on 2D imaging has been largely studied and applied in space, for rendezvous and docking, as well as rover navigation, or entry, descent and landing. By providing measurement of the third dimension (range), 3D camera technology looks a promising alternative for many applications. Stereoscopic camera is one option to measure the third coordinate, but relies on significant CPU capabilities, which are generally not available for space applications. Scanning LIDAR (LIght detection and ranging) is also an existing solution, but it is relatively large and heavy and the refresh rate, lifetime and reliability are mainly determined by moving parts. 3D time-of-flight (TOF) technology (including flash LIDARs) offers a reliable alternative. By illuminating a whole scene at a time and thus providing a whole array image, there is no need for complex processing nor moving mechanisms, which clearly appears as an advantage for space applications. This paper presents the ongoing study conducted under ESA contract in the field of 3D TOF technology. Its goal is to evaluate the suitability of a 3D TOF camera for space applications, to derive requirements and a preliminary design, and finally to create and test a breadboard model. Performance budget, cost, and a development plan of a versatile spatialized 3D TOF camera are also outputs of the study, in addition to a high-fidelity simulator, allowing further studies by generating representative images and depth maps. To fulfill this project, a European team has been created, gathering Thales Alenia Space, Terma and SINTEF.

  2. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications. Prompted by a growing appreciation for the wide applicability and inherent value of lidar, a USGS-led consortium of Federal agencies commissioned a National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) study in 2010 to quantify the costs and benefits of a national lidar program. A 2012 NEEA report documented a substantial return on such an investment, defined five Quality Levels (QL) for elevation data, and recommended an 8-year collection cycle of Quality Level 2 (QL2) lidar data as the optimum balance of benefit and affordability. In response to the study, the USGS–NGP established the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) in 2013 as the interagency vehicle through which the NEEA recommendations could be realized. Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  3. Space-Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Transmitters for Coherent, Ranging, 3D-Imaging, Altimetry, Topology, and Carbon Dioxide Lidar and Earth and Planetary Optical Laser Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Mark; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Utano, Rich; Gupta, Shantanu

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes Fibertek, Inc.'s progress in developing space-qualified Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) transmitters for laser communications and ranging/topology, and CO2 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. High peak power (1 kW) and 6 W of average power supporting multiple communications formats has been demonstrated with 17% efficiency in a compact 3 kg package. The unit has been tested to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 standards. A 20 W EDFA suitable for CO2 lidar has been demonstrated with ~14% efficiency (electrical to optical [e-o]) and its performance optimized for 1571 nm operation.

  4. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  5. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  6. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hee -Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; ...

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N = 2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. As a result, we also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  7. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  8. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  9. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  10. Lidar Sensor Performance in Closed-Loop Flight Testing of the Morpheus Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Vincent E.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Barnes, Bruce W.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Brewster, Paul F.; Kempton, Kevin S.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a suite of three lidar sensors have been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system, guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying test bed to a safe landing on the hazard field. The lidar sensors and GN&C system are part of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project which has been seeking to develop a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The 3-D imaging flash lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled instrument developed from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA and is used as part of the ALHAT Hazard Detection System (HDS) to scan the hazard field and build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM) in near-real time for identifying safe sites. The flash lidar is capable of identifying a 30 cm hazard from a slant range of 1 km with its 8 cm range precision at 1 sigma. The flash lidar is also used in Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN) to provide position updates down to a 250m slant range to the ALHAT navigation filter as it guides Morpheus to the safe site. The Doppler Lidar system has been developed within NASA to provide velocity measurements with an accuracy of 0.2 cm/sec and range measurements with an accuracy of 17 cm both from a maximum range of 2,200 m to a minimum range of several meters above the ground. The Doppler Lidar's measurements are fed into the ALHAT navigation filter to provide lander guidance to the safe site. The Laser Altimeter, also developed within NASA, provides range measurements with an accuracy of 5 cm from a maximum operational range of 30 km down to 1 m and, being a separate sensor from the flash lidar, can provide range along a separate vector. The Laser Altimeter measurements are also

  11. LiDAR: Providing structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vierling, Lee A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Asner, Gregory P.; Stoker, Jason M.; Johnson, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of MacArthur, three-dimensional (3-D) structural information on the environment has fundamentally transformed scientific understanding of ecological phenomena (MacArthur and MacArthur 1961). Early data on ecosystem structure were painstakingly laborious to collect. However, as reviewed and reported in recent volumes of Frontiers(eg Vierling et al. 2008; Asner et al.2011), advances in light detection and ranging (LiDAR) remote-sensing technology provide quantitative and repeatable measurements of 3-D ecosystem structure that enable novel ecological insights at scales ranging from the plot, to the landscape, to the globe. Indeed, annual publication of studies using LiDAR to interpret ecological phenomena increased 17-fold during the past decade, with over 180 new studies appearing in 2010 (ISI Web of Science search conducted on 23 Mar 2011: [{lidar AND ecol*} OR {lidar AND fores*} OR {lidar AND plant*}]).

  12. AE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  13. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  14. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  15. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  16. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  17. Flash Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2000-03-01

    Meteorites contain millimeter-sized objects called chondrules. They were melted in the solar nebula, the cloud of gas and dust in which the Sun and planets formed. Numerous experiments on rock powders have been done to understand the melting process and the cooling rates chondrules experienced. Most meteorite specialists believe that chondrules formed by flash heating, with almost instantaneous melting, though the length of time they remained molten is uncertain. Can conventional laboratory furnaces heat rock powders rapidly enough to flash melt them? Susan Maharaj and Roger Hewins (Rutgers University, New Brunswick) tested this idea by inserting tiny wires of pure elements (which have precise melting temperatures) into compressed rock powders about 3.5 mm in diameter, and placing the samples into a furnace heated to a range of temperatures. They found that at 1600 C, a sample took only six seconds to reach 1538 C. When placed into a furnace at 1500 C, samples took ten seconds to reach 1495 C. This shows that the flash heating process can be studied in conventional laboratory furnaces.

  18. 3D Lasers Increase Efficiency, Safety of Moving Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Canadian company Neptec Design Group Ltd. developed its Laser Camera System, used by shuttles to render 3D maps of their hulls for assessing potential damage. Using NASA funding, the firm incorporated LiDAR technology and created the TriDAR 3D sensor. Its commercial arm, Neptec Technologies Corp., has sold the technology to Orbital Sciences, which uses it to guide its Cygnus spacecraft during rendezvous and dock operations at the International Space Station.

  19. Venus in 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    Stereographic images of the surface of Venus which enable geologists to reconstruct the details of the planet's evolution are discussed. The 120-meter resolution of these 3D images make it possible to construct digital topographic maps from which precise measurements can be made of the heights, depths, slopes, and volumes of geologic structures.

  20. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-06-01

    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  1. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  3. A 3D Cloud-Construction Algorithm for the EarthCARE Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, H. W.; Jerg, M. P.; Wehr, T.; Kato, S.; Donovan, D. P.; Hogan, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents and assesses an algorithm that constructs 3D distributions of cloud from passive satellite imagery and collocated 2D nadir profiles of cloud properties inferred synergistically from lidar, cloud radar and imager data.

  4. Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  5. 3D and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.

    1995-05-01

    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  6. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  7. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  8. Martian terrain - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An area of rocky terrain near the landing site of the Sagan Memorial Station can be seen in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  10. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  11. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  12. Intraoral 3D scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  13. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  14. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Lidar Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wollpert.

    2009-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the LiDAR acquisition methodology employed by Woolpert on the 2009 USDA - Savannah River LiDAR Site Project. LiDAR system parameters and flight and equipment information is also included. The LiDAR data acquisition was executed in ten sessions from February 21 through final reflights on March 2, 2009; using two Leica ALS50-II 150kHz Multi-pulse enabled LiDAR Systems. Specific details about the ALS50-II systems are included in Section 4 of this report.

  16. Performance testing of 3D point cloud software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-10-01

    LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the engineering field: civil engineering, cultural heritage, mining, industry and environmental engineering. One of the most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing, especially for large mobile LiDAR datasets. Several software solutions for data managing are available in the market, including open source suites, however, users often unknown methodologies to verify their performance properly. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and four different suites are studied: QT Modeler, VR Mesh, AutoCAD 3D Civil and the Point Cloud Library running in software developed at the University of Vigo (SITEGI). The software based on the Point Cloud Library shows better results in the loading time of the point clouds and CPU usage. However, it is not as strong as commercial suites in working set and commit size tests.

  17. A Conceptual Design For A Spaceborne 3D Imaging Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    First generation spaceborne altimetric approaches are not well-suited to generating the few meter level horizontal resolution and decimeter accuracy vertical (range) resolution on the global scale desired by many in the Earth and planetary science communities. The present paper discusses the major technological impediments to achieving few meter transverse resolutions globally using conventional approaches and offers a feasible conceptual design which utilizes modest power kHz rate lasers, array detectors, photon-counting multi-channel timing receivers, and dual wedge optical scanners with transmitter point-ahead correction.

  18. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  19. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at http://jstarck.free.fr/mrs3d.html

  20. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  1. Point Cloud Visualization in AN Open Source 3d Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Calle, M.; Gómez-Deck, D.; Koehler, O.; Pulido, F.

    2011-09-01

    During the last years the usage of 3D applications in GIS is becoming more popular. Since the appearance of Google Earth, users are familiarized with 3D environments. On the other hand, nowadays computers with 3D acceleration are common, broadband access is widespread and the public information that can be used in GIS clients that are able to use data from the Internet is constantly increasing. There are currently several libraries suitable for this kind of applications. Based on these facts, and using libraries that are already developed and connected to our own developments, we are working on the implementation of a real 3D GIS with analysis capabilities. Since a 3D GIS such as this can be very interesting for tasks like LiDAR or Laser Scanner point clouds rendering and analysis, special attention is given to get an optimal handling of very large data sets. Glob3 will be a multidimensional GIS in which 3D point clouds could be explored and analysed, even if they are consist of several million points.The latest addition to our visualization libraries is the development of a points cloud server that works regardless of the cloud's size. The server receives and processes petitions from a 3d client (for example glob3, but could be any other, such as one based on WebGL) and delivers the data in the form of pre-processed tiles, depending on the required level of detail.

  2. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  3. 3D Buckligami: Digital Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin; de Reus, Koen; Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin

    2014-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit collective buckling in 3D, and create these by a 3D printing/moulding technique. Our structures consist of cubic lattice of anisotropic unit cells, and we show that their mechanical properties are programmable via the orientation of these unit cells.

  4. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  5. LLNL-Earth3D

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  6. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  7. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  8. 3D vision system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  9. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  10. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  11. The 3D Elevation Program and America's infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-11-07

    Infrastructure—the physical framework of transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and other systems—and construction management—the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from beginning to end—are critical to the Nation’s prosperity. The American Society of Civil Engineers has warned that, despite the importance of the Nation’s infrastructure, it is in fair to poor condition and needs sizable and urgent investments to maintain and modernize it, and to ensure that it is sustainable and resilient. Three-dimensional (3D) light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data provide valuable productivity, safety, and cost-saving benefits to infrastructure improvement projects and associated construction management. By providing data to users, the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data. The size and breadth of improvements for the Nation’s infrastructure and construction management needs call for an efficient, systematic approach to acquiring foundational 3D elevation data. The 3DEP approach to national data coverage will yield large cost savings over individual project-by-project acquisitions and will ensure that data are accessible for other critical applications.

  12. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  13. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  14. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  15. 3D Scan Systems Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 5 Feb 98 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D Scan Systems Integration REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED...2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 [ EDO QUALITY W3PECTEDI DLA-ARN Final Report for US Defense Logistics Agency on DDFG-T2/P3: 3D...SCAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Contract Number SPO100-95-D-1014 Contractor Ohio University Delivery Order # 0001 Delivery Order Title 3D Scan Systems

  16. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation's natural and constructed features. The Michigan Statewide Authoritative Imagery and Lidar (MiSAIL) program provides statewide lidar coordination with local, State, and national groups in support of 3DEP for Michigan.

  17. 3D polymer scaffold arrays.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yang, Yanyin; Dorsey, Shauna M; Ramalingam, Murugan; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a combinatorial platform for fabricating tissue scaffold arrays that can be used for screening cell-material interactions. Traditional research involves preparing samples one at a time for characterization and testing. Combinatorial and high-throughput (CHT) methods lower the cost of research by reducing the amount of time and material required for experiments by combining many samples into miniaturized specimens. In order to help accelerate biomaterials research, many new CHT methods have been developed for screening cell-material interactions where materials are presented to cells as a 2D film or surface. However, biomaterials are frequently used to fabricate 3D scaffolds, cells exist in vivo in a 3D environment and cells cultured in a 3D environment in vitro typically behave more physiologically than those cultured on a 2D surface. Thus, we have developed a platform for fabricating tissue scaffold libraries where biomaterials can be presented to cells in a 3D format.

  18. Autofocus for 3D imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Elkin, Forest

    2008-04-01

    Three dimensional (3D) autofocus remains a significant challenge for the development of practical 3D multipass radar imaging. The current 2D radar autofocus methods are not readily extendable across sensor passes. We propose a general framework that allows a class of data adaptive solutions for 3D auto-focus across passes with minimal constraints on the scene contents. The key enabling assumption is that portions of the scene are sparse in elevation which reduces the number of free variables and results in a system that is simultaneously solved for scatterer heights and autofocus parameters. The proposed method extends 2-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) methods to an arbitrary number of passes allowing the consideration of scattering from multiple height locations. A specific case from the proposed autofocus framework is solved and demonstrates autofocus and coherent multipass 3D estimation across the 8 passes of the "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set" X-Band radar data.

  19. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  20. Non-contact 3D fingerprint scanner using structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Mike; Hassebrook, Laurence; Yalla, Veeraganesh; Daley, Raymond

    2011-03-01

    As crime prevention and national security remain a top priority, requirements for the use of fingerprints for identification continue to grow. While the size of fingerprint databases continues to expand, new technologies that can improve accuracy and ultimately matching performance will become more critical to maintain the effectiveness of the systems. FlashScan3D has developed non-contact, fingerprint scanners based on the principles of Structured Light Illumination (SLI) that capture 3Dimensional data of fingerprints quickly, accurately and independently of an operator. FlashScan3D will present findings from various research projects performed for the US Army and the Department of Homeland Security.

  1. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, Lee K.

    1981-01-01

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  2. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, L.K.

    1979-12-07

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  3. Turbulence in Reynolds' flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerbus, Rory; Liu, Chien-Chia; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-11-01

    Osborne Reynolds' seminal work from 1883 revealed that the transition from quiescent, laminar flow to a turbulent pipe filled with roiling eddies is mediated by localized flashes of fluctuations. Later work has unveiled many features of these flashes: they proliferate or fade away, maintain their shape or continually expand. The nature of the fluctuations in the flashes, however, has remained mysterious. Here, using measures traditionally attributed to high Reynolds number (Re) flows, we present experimental results on the fluctuations of the flashes. Our results suggest that the transition to turbulence is the low Re limit of the high Re, fully developed flow. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology.

  4. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  5. Status of the 3D Elevation Program, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Eldridge, Diane F.; Jason, Allyson L.; Lukas, Vicki; Saghy, David L.; Stoker, Jason M.; Thunen, Diana R.

    2017-01-18

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) is a cooperative activity to collect light detection and ranging (lidar) data for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and U.S. territories; and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) elevation data for Alaska during an 8-year period. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partner organizations acquire high-quality three-dimensional elevation data for the United States and its territories that support requirements beyond what could be realized if agencies independently pursued lidar and IfSAR data collection activities. Data collection rates have been increasing as a growing number of State and Federal agencies participate in cooperative data acquisition projects. USGS and partner agencies expanded data collection, completed the initial product delivery systems and implemented changes to the program governance to include a restructuring of the 3DEP working group and formalizing the relationship to the Federal Geographic Data Committee during the final year (2015) of program preparation.

  6. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  7. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  8. Beam optimization for imaging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, Lyle

    2015-05-01

    Active remote sensing returns information of the highest value at the lowest cost when outgoing energy can be carefully shaped and directed to the task at hand. This paper presents results of lab and airborne testing of an Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL) under continuing development by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. The results highlight the adaptive nature of this and other active instruments having fine control of illumination, and show the benefits of combining lab simulation with flight testing in validation of algorithms and control design.

  9. Macrophage podosomes go 3D.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Emeline; Guiet, Romain; Balor, Stéphanie; Charrière, Guillaume M; Poincloux, Renaud; Labrousse, Arnaud; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Le Cabec, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage tissue infiltration is a critical step in the immune response against microorganisms and is also associated with disease progression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Macrophages are constitutively equipped with specialized structures called podosomes dedicated to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We recently reported that these structures play a critical role in trans-matrix mesenchymal migration mode, a protease-dependent mechanism. Podosome molecular components and their ECM-degrading activity have been extensively studied in two dimensions (2D), but yet very little is known about their fate in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Therefore, localization of podosome markers and proteolytic activity were carefully examined in human macrophages performing mesenchymal migration. Using our gelled collagen I 3D matrix model to obligate human macrophages to perform mesenchymal migration, classical podosome markers including talin, paxillin, vinculin, gelsolin, cortactin were found to accumulate at the tip of F-actin-rich cell protrusions together with β1 integrin and CD44 but not β2 integrin. Macrophage proteolytic activity was observed at podosome-like protrusion sites using confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. The formation of migration tunnels by macrophages inside the matrix was accomplished by degradation, engulfment and mechanic compaction of the matrix. In addition, videomicroscopy revealed that 3D F-actin-rich protrusions of migrating macrophages were as dynamic as their 2D counterparts. Overall, the specifications of 3D podosomes resembled those of 2D podosome rosettes rather than those of individual podosomes. This observation was further supported by the aspect of 3D podosomes in fibroblasts expressing Hck, a master regulator of podosome rosettes in macrophages. In conclusion, human macrophage podosomes go 3D and take the shape of spherical podosome rosettes when the cells perform mesenchymal migration. This work

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  11. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  12. Petal, terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monster

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  14. 3D Wind: Quantifying wind speed and turbulence intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Wang, H.; Crippa, P.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating measurements and modeling of wind characteristics for wind resource assessment and wind farm control is increasingly challenging as the scales of wind farms increases. Even offshore or in relatively homogeneous landscapes, there are significant gradients of both wind speed and turbulence intensity on scales that typify large wind farms. Our project is, therefore, focused on (i) improving methods to integrate remote sensing and in situ measurements with model simulations to produce a 3-dimensional view of the flow field on wind farm scales and (ii) investigating important controls on the spatiotemporal variability of flow fields within the coastal zone. The instrument suite deployed during the field experiments includes; 3-D sonic and cup anemometers deployed on meteorological masts and buoys, anemometers deployed on tethersondes and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, multiple vertically-pointing continuous-wave lidars and scanning Doppler lidars. We also integrate data from satellite-borne instrumentation - specifically synthetic aperture radar and scatterometers and output from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Spatial wind fields and vertical profiles of wind speed from WRF and from the full in situ observational suite exhibit excellent agreement in a proof-of-principle experiment conducted in north Indiana particularly during convective conditions, but showed some discrepancies during the breakdown of the nocturnal stable layer. Our second experiment in May 2013 focused on triangulating a volume above an area of coastal water extending from the port in Cleveland out to an offshore water intake crib (about 5 km) and back to the coast, and includes extremely high resolution WRF simulations designed to characterize the coastal zone. Vertically pointing continuous-wave lidars were operated at each apex of the triangle, while the scanning Doppler lidar scanned out across the water over 90 degrees azimuth angle. Preliminary results pertaining to

  15. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0

  16. The World of 3-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayshark, Robin K.

    1991-01-01

    Students explore three-dimensional properties by creating red and green wall decorations related to Christmas. Students examine why images seem to vibrate when red and green pieces are small and close together. Instructions to conduct the activity and construct 3-D glasses are given. (MDH)

  17. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  18. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  19. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  20. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  1. The Flash Grab Effect

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Patrick; Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    When an object moves back and forth, its trajectory appears significantly shorter than it actually is. The object appears to stop and reverse well before its actual reversal point, as if there is some averaging of location within a window of about 100 ms (Sinico et al, 2009). Surprisingly, if a bar is flashed at the physical end point of the trajectory, right on top of the object, just as it reverses direction, the flash is also shifted – grabbed by the object – and is seen at the perceived endpoint of the trajectory rather than the physical endpoint. This can shift the perceived location of the flash by as much as 2 or 3 times its physical size and by up to several degrees of visual angle. We first show that the position shift of the flash is generated by the trajectory shortening, as the same shift is seen with or without the flash. The flash itself is only grabbed if it is presented within a small spatiotemporal attraction zone around the physical end point of the trajectory. Any flash falling in that zone is pulled toward the perceived endpoint. The effect scales linearly with speed, up to a maximum, and is independent of the contrast of the moving stimulus once it is above 5%. Finally, we demonstrate that this position shift requires attention. These results reveal a new “flash grab” effect in the family of motion-induced position shifts. Although it most resembles the flash drag effect, it differs from this in the following ways: 1) it has a different temporal profile, 2) it requires attention, 3) it is about 10 times larger. PMID:23872166

  2. Understanding Green Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  3. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  4. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  5. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  6. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  7. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A-16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  8. The 3D Elevation Program: Summary for New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  9. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  10. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  11. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the use community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  13. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  14. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  15. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  16. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  17. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 (table 1) for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data (table 1) for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  19. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  20. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  3. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  4. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  5. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA; Dewberry, 2011) evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  6. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  7. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  8. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  9. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the OMB Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  10. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  11. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  13. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation's natural and constructed features.

  14. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  15. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  16. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 ifsar data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  17. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation's natural and constructed features.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  19. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  20. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  3. Comparing swimsuits in 3D.

    PubMed

    van Geer, Erik; Molenbroek, Johan; Schreven, Sander; deVoogd-Claessen, Lenneke; Toussaint, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In competitive swimming, suits have become more important. These suits influence friction, pressure and wave drag. Friction drag is related to the surface properties whereas both pressure and wave drag are greatly influenced by body shape. To find a relationship between the body shape and the drag, the anthropometry of several world class female swimmers wearing different suits was accurately defined using a 3D scanner and traditional measuring methods. The 3D scans delivered more detailed information about the body shape. On the same day the swimmers did performance tests in the water with the tested suits. Afterwards the result of the performance tests and the differences found in body shape was analyzed to determine the deformation caused by a swimsuit and its effect on the swimming performance. Although the amount of data is limited because of the few test subjects, there is an indication that the deformation of the body influences the swimming performance.

  4. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  5. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  6. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  7. Filter algorithm for airborne LIDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ma, Hongchao; Wu, Jianwei; Tian, Liqiao; Qiu, Feng

    2007-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning data has become an accepted data source for highly automated acquisition of digital surface models(DSM) as well as for the generation of digital terrain models(DTM). To generate a high quality DTM using LIDAR data, 3D off-terrain points have to be separated from terrain points. Even though most LIDAR system can measure "last-return" data points, these "last-return" point often measure ground clutter like shrubbery, cars, buildings, and the canopy of dense foliage. Consequently, raw LIDAR points must be post-processed to remove these undesirable returns. The degree to which this post processing is successful is critical in determining whether LIDAR is cost effective for large-scale mapping application. Various techniques have been proposed to extract the ground surface from airborne LIDAR data. The basic problem is the separation of terrain points from off-terrain points which are both recorded by the LIDAR sensor. In this paper a new method, combination of morphological filtering and TIN densification, is proposed to separate 3D off-terrain points.

  8. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer the second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.

  9. Linear LIDAR versus Geiger-mode LIDAR: impact on data properties and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, A.; Pfennigbauer, M.

    2016-05-01

    LIDAR has become the inevitable technology to provide accurate 3D data fast and reliably even in adverse measurement situations and harsh environments. It provides highly accurate point clouds with a significant number of additional valuable attributes per point. LIDAR systems based on Geiger-mode avalanche photo diode arrays, also called single photon avalanche photo diode arrays, earlier employed for military applications, now seek to enter the commercial market of 3D data acquisition, advertising higher point acquisition speeds from longer ranges compared to conventional techniques. Publications pointing out the advantages of these new systems refer to the other category of LIDAR as "linear LIDAR", as the prime receiver element for detecting the laser echo pulses - avalanche photo diodes - are used in a linear mode of operation. We analyze the differences between the two LIDAR technologies and the fundamental differences in the data they provide. The limitations imposed by physics on both approaches to LIDAR are also addressed and advantages of linear LIDAR over the photon counting approach are discussed.

  10. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Idaho, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, infrastructure and construction management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, flood risk management, forest resources management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features. The Idaho LiDAR Consortium provides statewide collaboration and data sharing mechanisms that can be used as a resource by State and Federal partners implementing the 3DEP initiative.

  11. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  12. Flash Bulletin: Fireflies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Debbie

    1984-01-01

    Explains the flashes of light emitted by fireflies as competition, species-specific code, species identification and mating behavior and ecology. Suggests activities to conduct to study the insects and their behavior. (ERB)

  13. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  14. Lidar Sensors for Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Reisse, Robert A.; Pierrottet, Diego F.

    2013-01-01

    Lidar technology will play an important role in enabling highly ambitious missions being envisioned for exploration of solar system bodies. Currently, NASA is developing a set of advanced lidar sensors, under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project, aimed at safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles at designated sites with a high degree of precision. These lidar sensors are an Imaging Flash Lidar capable of generating high resolution three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, a Doppler Lidar for providing precision vehicle velocity and altitude, and a Laser Altimeter for measuring distance to the ground and ground contours from high altitudes. The capabilities of these lidar sensors have been demonstrated through four helicopter and one fixed-wing aircraft flight test campaigns conducted from 2008 through 2012 during different phases of their development. Recently, prototype versions of these landing lidars have been completed for integration into a rocket-powered terrestrial free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) being built by NASA Johnson Space Center. Operating in closed-loop with other ALHAT avionics, the viability of the lidars for future landing missions will be demonstrated. This paper describes the ALHAT lidar sensors and assesses their capabilities and impacts on future landing missions.

  15. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-02-03

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, scientific research, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, landslide mitigation, natural resources conservation, sea level rise and subsidence, coastal zone management, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, U.S. territorial, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and selected U.S. territories, and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data for Alaska, all with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle, provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A‒16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional (3D) representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  16. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Hawaii, elevation data are critical for infrastructure and construction management, flood risk management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, natural resources conservation, coastal zone management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, U.S. territorial, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and selected U.S. territories, and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data for Alaska, all with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle, provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional (3D) representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  17. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  18. Characterizing 3D Vegetation Structure from Space: Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Bergen, Kathleen; Blair, James B.; Dubayah, Ralph; Houghton, Richard; Hurtt, George; Kellndorfer, Josef; Lefsky, Michael; Ranson, Jon; Saatchi, Sasan; Shugart, H. H.; Wickland, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Human and natural forces are rapidly modifying the global distribution and structure of terrestrial ecosystems on which all of life depends, altering the global carbon cycle, affecting our climate now and for the foreseeable future, causing steep reductions in species diversity, and endangering Earth s sustainability. To understand changes and trends in terrestrial ecosystems and their functioning as carbon sources and sinks, and to characterize the impact of their changes on climate, habitat and biodiversity, new space assets are urgently needed to produce high spatial resolution global maps of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of vegetation, its biomass above ground, the carbon stored within and the implications for atmospheric green house gas concentrations and climate. These needs were articulated in a 2007 National Research Council (NRC) report (NRC, 2007) recommending a new satellite mission, DESDynI, carrying an L-band Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) and a multi-beam lidar (Light RAnging And Detection) operating at 1064 nm. The objectives of this paper are to articulate the importance of these new, multi-year, 3D vegetation structure and biomass measurements, to briefly review the feasibility of radar and lidar remote sensing technology to meet these requirements, to define the data products and measurement requirements, and to consider implications of mission durations. The paper addresses these objectives by synthesizing research results and other input from a broad community of terrestrial ecology, carbon cycle, and remote sensing scientists and working groups. We conclude that: (1) current global biomass and 3-D vegetation structure information is unsuitable for both science and management and policy. The only existing global datasets of biomass are approximations based on combining land cover type and representative carbon values, instead of measurements of actual biomass. Current measurement attempts based on radar and multispectral

  19. 3D Nanostructuring of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, Robert

    2000-03-01

    Modern semiconductor technology allows to machine devices on the nanometer scale. I will discuss the current limits of the fabrication processes, which enable the definition of single electron transistors with dimensions down to 8 nm. In addition to the conventional 2D patterning and structuring of semiconductors, I will demonstrate how to apply 3D nanostructuring techniques to build freely suspended single-crystal beams with lateral dimension down to 20 nm. In transport measurements in the temperature range from 30 mK up to 100 K these nano-crystals are characterized regarding their electronic as well as their mechanical properties. Moreover, I will present possible applications of these devices.

  20. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  2. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  3. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  4. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  5. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  6. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  7. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  8. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Martian terrain & airbags - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. 3D structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, William M.; Goodwin, Paul C.

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy achieves double the lateral and axial resolution of wide-field microscopy, using conventional fluorescent dyes, proteins and sample preparation techniques. A three-dimensional interference-fringe pattern excites the fluorescence, filling in the "missing cone" of the wide field optical transfer function, thereby enabling axial (z) discrimination. The pattern acts as a spatial carrier frequency that mixes with the higher spatial frequency components of the image, which usually succumb to the diffraction limit. The fluorescence image encodes the high frequency content as a down-mixed, moiré-like pattern. A series of images is required, wherein the 3D pattern is shifted and rotated, providing down-mixed data for a system of linear equations. Super-resolution is obtained by solving these equations. The speed with which the image series can be obtained can be a problem for the microscopy of living cells. Challenges include pattern-switching speeds, optical efficiency, wavefront quality and fringe contrast, fringe pitch optimization, and polarization issues. We will review some recent developments in 3D-SIM hardware with the goal of super-resolved z-stacks of motile cells.

  11. The 3D elevation program - Precision agriculture and other farm practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-12-27

    The agriculture industry, including farmers who rely on advanced technologies, increasingly use light detection and ranging (lidar) data for crop management to enhance agricultural productivity. Annually, the combination of greater yields and reduced crop losses is estimated to increase revenue by \\$2 billion for America's farmers when terrain data derived from lidar are available for croplands. Additionally, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates that the value of improved services for farmers, through its farm assistance program, would be \\$79 million annually if lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) are made available to the public.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply superior, lidar-derived terrain data to the agriculture industry, which would allow farms to refine agricultural practices and produce crops more efficiently. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks, allowing them to concentrate on mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards and specifications, and (4) most importantly, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  12. Flash fire propensity of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flash fire test results on 86 materials, evaluated using the USF flash fire screening test, are presented. The materials which appear least prone to flash fires are PVC, polyphenylene oxide and sulfide, and polyether and polyaryl sulfone; these did not produce flash fires under these particular test conditions. The principal value of these screening tests at the present time is in identifying materials which appear prone to flash fires, and in identifying which formulations of a generic material are more or less prone to flash fires.

  13. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-06

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  14. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  15. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  16. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2016-11-02

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  17. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  18. Fiducial Marker Detection and Pose Estimation From LIDAR Range Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    the LidarSimulation and a 3D graphical scene in the Delta3D game engine . The PrimitiveBuffer class contains several buffers to temporarily store data...Python bindings for the Delta3D game engine . The simulation produces point cloud data sets according to the actual VLS laser firing parameters to...terrain, measurement of structures, documentation and reverse engineering of public infrastructure, and robotic and autonomous systems for navigation and

  19. 3-D Object Recognition from Point Cloud Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Walker, A. S.; Zhang, B.

    2011-09-01

    The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs). Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU) computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM) and digital elevation model (DEM), so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex roofs. Several case

  20. LIDAR data filtering and classification with TIN and assistant plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qihong; Mao, Jianhua; Li, Xianhua; Liu, Xuefeng

    2007-06-01

    LIDAR is a new promising technique in obtaining instantly 3D point cloud data representing the earth surface information. In order to extract valuable earth surface feature information for further application, 3D sub-randomly spatial distributed LIDAR point cloud should be filtered and classified firstly. In this article, a new LIDAR data filtering and classification algorithm is presented. First, the points' neighboring relation and height-jump situation in TIN (triangulated irregular network) model for 3D LIDAR point cloud are analyzed. After that, the filtering algorithm based on TIN neighboring relation and height-jump is presented. Third, an assistant plane is designed in TIN neighborhood filtering algorithm in order to yield more effective filtering result. Then, the LIDAR points are classified into bare ground points, building points and vegetation points using the above filtering algorithms. The experiment is performed using the airborne LIDAR data, and the result shows that this method has better effect on filtering and classification of LIDAR point cloud data.

  1. Smart-pixel for 3D ranging imagers based on single-photon avalanche diode and time-to-digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Bojan; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco

    2011-05-01

    We present a "smart-pixel" suitable for implementation of monolithic single-photon imaging arrays aimed at 3D ranging applications by means of the direct time-of-flight detection (like LIDAR systems), but also for photon timing applications (like FLIM, FCS, FRET). The pixel includes a Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) and a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) monolithically designed and manufactured in the same chip, and it is able to detect single photons and to measure in-pixel the time delay between a START signal (e.g. laser excitation, LIDAR flash) and a photon detection (e.g. back reflection from a target object). In order to provide both wide dynamic range, high time resolution and very high linearity, we devised a TDC architecture based on an interpolation technique. A "coarse" counter counts the number of reference-clock rising-edges between START and STOP, while high resolution is achieved by means of two interpolators, which measure the time elapsed between START (and STOP) signal and a successive clock edge. In an array with many pixels, multiple STOP channels are needed while just one START channel is necessary if the START event is common to all channels. We report on the design and characterization of prototype circuits, fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology containing complete conversion channels (i.e. 20-μm active-area diameter SPAD, quenching circuitry, and TDC). With a 100 MHz reference clock, the TDC provides a time resolution of 10 ps, a dynamic range of 160 ns and DNL < 1% LSB rms.

  2. NASA's 3D Flight Computer for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) for Microelectronics Systems was planning to validate a newly developed 3D Flight Computer system on its first deep-space flight, DS1, launched in October 1998. This computer, developed in the 1995-97 time frame, contains many new computer technologies previously never used in deep-space systems. They include: advanced 3D packaging architecture for future low-mass and low-volume avionics systems; high-density 3D packaged chip-stacks for both volatile and non-volatile mass memory: 400 Mbytes of local DRAM memory, and 128 Mbytes of Flash memory; high-bandwidth Peripheral Component Interface (Per) local-bus with a bridge to VME; high-bandwidth (20 Mbps) fiber-optic serial bus; and other attributes, such as standard support for Design for Testability (DFT). Even though this computer system did not complete on time for delivery to the DS1 project, it was an important development along a technology roadmap towards highly integrated and highly miniaturized avionics systems for deep-space applications. This continued technology development is now being performed by NASA's Deep Space System Development Program (also known as X2000) and within JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM).

  3. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2009-02-24

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  4. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOEpatents

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2008-09-02

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  5. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  8. Lidar postcards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program develops and uses specialized technology to build high-resolution topographic and habitat maps. High-resolution maps of topography, bathymetry, and habitat describe important features affected by coastal-management decisions. The mapped information serves as a baseline for evaluating resources and tracking the effectiveness of resource- and conservation-management decisions. These data products are critical to researchers, decision makers, resource managers, planners, and the public. To learn more about Lidar (light detection and ranging) technology visit: http://ngom.usgs.gov/dsp/.

  9. [3D emulation of epicardium dynamic mapping].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Yang, Cui-Wei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2005-03-01

    In order to realize epicardium dynamic mapping of the whole atria, 3-D graphics are drawn with OpenGL. Some source codes are introduced in the paper to explain how to produce, read, and manipulate 3-D model data.

  10. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  11. High speed large viewing angle shutters for triple-flash active glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, B.; Bellini, B.; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J.-L.

    2009-02-01

    We present a new generation of liquid crystal shutters for active glasses, well suited to 3-D cinema current trends, involving triple flash regimes. Our technology uses a composite smectic C* liquid crystal mixture1. In this paper we focus on the electro-optical characterization of composite smectic-based shutters, and compare their performance with nematic ones, demonstrating their advantages for the new generation of 3-D cinema and more generally 3-D HDTV.

  12. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  13. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  14. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  15. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  16. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  17. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  18. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  19. Optical amplifiers for coherent lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard

    1996-01-01

    We examine application of optical amplification to coherent lidar for the case of a weak return signal (a number of quanta of the return optical field close to unity). We consider the option that has been explored to date, namely, incorporation of an optical amplifier operated in a linear manner located after reception of the signal and immediately prior to heterodyning and photodetection. We also consider alternative strategies where the coherent interaction, the nonlinear processes, and the amplification are not necessarily constrained to occur in the manner investigated to date. We include the complications that occur because of mechanisms that occur at the level of a few, or one, quantum excitation. Two factors combine in the work to date that limit the value of the approach. These are: (1) the weak signal tends to require operation of the amplifier in the linear regime where the important advantages of nonlinear optical processing are not accessed, (2) the linear optical amplifier has a -3dB noise figure (SN(out)/SN(in)) that necessarily degrades the signal. Some improvement is gained because the gain provided by the optical amplifier can be used to overcome losses in the heterodyned process and photodetection. The result, however, is that introduction of an optical amplifier in a well optimized coherent lidar system results in, at best, a modest improvement in signal to noise. Some improvement may also be realized on incorporating more optical components in a coherent lidar system for purely practical reasons. For example, more compact, lighter weight, components, more robust alignment, or more rapid processing may be gained. We further find that there remain a number of potentially valuable, but unexplored options offered both by the rapidly expanding base of optical technology and the recent investigation of novel nonlinear coherent interference phenomena occurring at the single quantum excitation level. Key findings are: (1) insertion of linear optical

  20. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of California, elevation data are critical for infrastructure and construction management; natural resources conservation; flood risk management; wildfire management, planning, and response; agriculture and precision farming; geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation; and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  1. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Minnesota, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, water supply and quality, coastal zone management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  2. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Wisconsin, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, water supply and quality, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  3. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Rhode Island, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, natural resources conservation, coastal zone management, sea level rise and subsidence, agriculture and precision farming, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative (Snyder, 2012a,b), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  4. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Virginia, elevation data are critical for urban and regional planning, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, agriculture and precision farming, resource mining, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  5. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Texas, elevation data are critical for natural resources conservation; wildfire management, planning, and response; flood risk management; agriculture and precision farming; infrastructure and construction management; water supply and quality; and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the source for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  6. Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate for hot flashes.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra; Loprinzi, Charles; Quella, Susan; Sloan, Jeff; Pruthi, Sandya; Novotny, Paul

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a long-acting preparation of medroxyprogesterone acetate for hot flash management, 3 men receiving androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer and 15 women with a history of breast cancer were treated as part of clinical practice with three biweekly intramuscular injections of 500 mg depomedroxyprogesterone. A review of hot flash diaries and patient charts were completed to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of these injections for managing hot flashes. Treatment was associated with an approximate 90% decrease in hot flashes (95% CI 82-97%). Daily hot flash frequency decreased from a mean of 10.9 on the first day of treatment (95% CI 8.0-13.8 hot flashes per day) to a mean of 1.1 hot flashes 6 weeks later (95% CI 0.5-1.8 hot flashes) and to a mean of 0.7 hot flashes 12 weeks following therapy initiation (95% CI 0.1-1.2). Improvement in the hot flashes remained for months after discontinuing the injections in many patients. Reported side effects were minimal. This experience suggests that treatment with depomedroxyprogesterone may be an effective and well-tolerated option for the treatment of hot flashes.

  7. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  8. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  9. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.; Parron, D.; Lafet, Y.; Van Hulle, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3D data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.

  10. LiDAR - An emerging tool for geological applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years the use and applicability of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology has increased dramatically. As a result, more and more LiDAR data now are being collected across the country for a wide range of applications, and LiDAR currently is the technology of choice for high resolution terrain model creation, 3-D city and infrastructure modeling, forestry, and a wide range of scientific applications. LiDAR is a key technology for geological applications both within and outside the U.S. Geological Survey, and efforts are underway to try to collect high resolution LiDAR data for the entire United States (https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3089/pdf/fs2012-3089.pdf).

  11. Observations of Umbral Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Krijger, J. M.

    2003-10-01

    We present observations of oscillations in the chromosphere of the umbra of sunspots. The observations were obtained with the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) and the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma, comprising spectrograms and filtergrams in the Ca II H line. The sawtooth pattern in the spectroscopic time evolution of the Ca II H core is shown as well as evidence for a connection between umbral flashes and running penumbral waves from image sequences. Running waves, coherent over a large fraction of the penumbra, seem to be excited by flashes that occur close to the umbra-penumbral boundary. Comparing the intensity oscillations in the Ca II H line with TRACE observations in the 1600 Å passband, we find a phase difference of approximately 25 ° with 1600 Å leading the Ca II H intensity oscillation which we attribute to complex dynamical behaviour.

  12. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  13. Indoor Mobile Positioning Based on Lidar Data and Coded Sequence Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Dong, B.; Chen, D.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposed a coded sequence pattern for automatic matching of LiDAR point data, the methods including SIFT features, Otsu segmentation and Fast Hough transformation for the identification, positioning and interpret of the coded sequence patterns, the POSIT model for fast computing the translation and rotation parameters of LiDAR point data, so as to achieve fast matching of LiDAR point data and automatic 3D mapping of indoor shafts and tunnels.

  14. Physics Flash August 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-08-25

    Physics Flash is the newsletter for the Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This newsletter is for August 2016. The following topics are covered: "Accomplishments in the Trident Laser Facility", "David Meyerhofer elected as chair-elect APS Nominating Committee", "HAWC searches for gamma rays from dark matter", "Proton Radiography Facility commissions electromagnetic magnifier", and "Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks."

  15. Physics Flash December 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    This is the December 2016 issue of Physics Flash, the newsletter of the Physics Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this issue, the following topics are covered: Novel liquid helium technique to aid highly sensitive search for a neutron electrical dipole moment; Silverleaf: Prototype Red Sage experiments performed at Q-site; John L. Kline named 2016 APS Fellow; Physics students in the news; First Entropy Engine quantum random number generator hits the market; and celebrating service.

  16. Flash Rust & Waterjetting Study

    SciTech Connect

    DORSH, P.M..

    2001-11-14

    Certain areas of the primary wall in the AY-101 tank annulus are being cleaned with a remotely operated waterjet. There is some concern on how it will effect the surface of the tank wall after cleaning and how to prevent rust and corrosion from developing on the wall in the future. This study addresses the cause and effects of flash rust, which typically develops on steel surfaces after the waterjetting process.

  17. Lidar Sensor Performance in Closed-Loop Flight Testing of the Morpheus Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, V. Eric; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Barnes, Bruce W.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Brewster, Paul F.; Kempton, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a suite of three lidar sensors have been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system, help to guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying lander to that safe site on the hazard field. The lidar sensors and GN&C system are part of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project which has been seeking to develop a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The 3-D imaging Flash Lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, aircooled instrument developed from a number of components from industry and NASA and is used as part of the ALHAT Hazard Detection System (HDS) to scan the hazard field and build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM) in near-real time for identifying safe sites. The Flash Lidar is capable of identifying a 30 cm hazard from a slant range of 1 km with its 8 cm range precision (1-s). The Flash Lidar is also used in Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN) to provide position updates down to a 250m slant range to the ALHAT navigation filter as it guides Morpheus to the safe site. The Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) system has been developed within NASA to provide velocity measurements with an accuracy of 0.2 cm/sec and range measurements with an accuracy of 17 cm both from a maximum range of 2,200 m to a minimum range of several meters above the ground. The NDLâ€"TM"s measurements are fed into the ALHAT navigation filter to provide lander guidance to the safe site. The Laser Altimeter (LA), also developed within NASA, provides range measurements with an accuracy of 5 cm from a maximum operational range of 30 km down to 1 m and, being a separate sensor from the Flash Lidar, can provide range along a separate vector. The LA measurements are also fed

  18. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  19. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  20. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  1. Optimal flash rate and duty cycle for flashing visual indicators.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, J.

    1971-01-01

    This experiment examined the ability of observers to determine, as quickly as possible, whether a visual indicator was steadily on or flashing. Six flash rates (periods) were combined factorially with three duty cycles (on-off ratios) to define 18 ?types' of intermittent signals. Experimental sessions were divided into six runs of 100 trials, each run utilizing one of the six flash rates. On any given trial in a run, the probability of a steady signal occurring was 0.5 and the probability of a flashing signal occurring was 0.5. A different duty cycle was employed daily for each experimental session. In all, 400 trials were devoted to each of the flash rates at each duty cycle. Accuracy and latency of response were the dependent variables of interest. The results show that the observers view the light for an interval of time appropriate to the expected flash rate and duty cycle; whether they judge the light to be steady or intermittent depends upon whether the light is extinguished during the predetermined waiting period. Adoption of this temporal criterion delays responding in comparison to those tasks involving responses to light onset. The decision or response criteria held by the observers are also sensitive to the parameters of the flashing light: observers become increasingly willing to call a flashing light ?steady' as flash duration increases.

  2. 3D measurement for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Peter; Lilienblum, Tilo; Sommerkorn, Gerd; Michaelis, Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Optical 3-D measurement is an interesting approach for rapid prototyping. On one hand it's necessary to get the 3-D data of an object and on the other hand it's necessary to check the manufactured object (quality checking). Optical 3-D measurement can realize both. Classical 3-D measurement procedures based on photogrammetry cause systematic errors at strongly curved surfaces or steps in surfaces. One possibility to reduce these errors is to calculate the 3-D coordinates from several successively taken images. Thus it's possible to get higher spatial resolution and to reduce the systematic errors at 'problem surfaces.' Another possibility is to process the measurement values by neural networks. A modified associative memory smoothes and corrects the calculated 3-D coordinates using a-priori knowledge about the measurement object.

  3. Pose Performance of LIDAR-Based Relative Navigation for Non-Cooperative Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Jordan L.

    Flash LIDAR is an important new sensing technology for relative navigation; these sensors have shown promising results during rendezvous and docking applications involving a cooperative vehicle. An area of recent interest is the application of this technology for pose estimation with non-cooperative client vehicles, in support of on-orbit satellite servicing activities and asteroid redirect missions. The capability for autonomous rendezvous with non-cooperative satellites will enable refueling and servicing of satellites (particularly those designed without servicing in mind), allowing these vehicles to continue operating rather than being retired. Rendezvous with an asteroid will give further insight to the origin of individual asteroids. This research investigates numerous issues surrounding pose performance using LIDAR. To begin analyzing the characteristics of the data produced by Flash LIDAR, simulated and laboratory testing have been completed. Observations of common asteroid materials were made with a surrogate LIDAR, characterizing the reflectivity of the materials. A custom Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was created to estimate the relative position and orientation of the LIDAR relative to the observed object. The performance of standardized pose estimation techniques (including ICP) has been examined using non-cooperative data as well as the characteristics of the materials that will potentially be observed during missions. For the hardware tests, a SwissRanger ToF camera was used as a surrogate Flash LIDAR.

  4. On detailed 3D reconstruction of large indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, Egor

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present techniques for highly detailed 3D reconstruction of extra large indoor environments. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of low-range, far-range and hybrid sensing and reconstruction approaches. The proposed techniques for low-range and hybrid reconstruction, enabling the reconstruction density of 125 points/cm3 on large 100.000 m3 models, are presented in detail. The techniques tackle the core challenges for the above requirements, such as a multi-modal data fusion (fusion of a LIDAR data with a Kinect data), accurate sensor pose estimation, high-density scanning and depth data noise filtering. Other important aspects for extra large 3D indoor reconstruction are the point cloud decimation and real-time rendering. In this paper, we present a method for planar-based point cloud decimation, allowing for reduction of a point cloud size by 80-95%. Besides this, we introduce a method for online rendering of extra large point clouds enabling real-time visualization of huge cloud spaces in conventional web browsers.

  5. Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-24

    Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-01-2007 to 11-30-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photorefractive Polymers for Updateable 3D ...ABSTRACT During the tenure of this project a large area updateable 3D color display has been developed for the first time using a new co-polymer...photorefractive polymers have been demonstrated. Moreover, a 6 inch × 6 inch sample was fabricated demonstrating the feasibility of making large area 3D

  6. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Stratasys 3D printer . PDMS was cast in the negative molds in order to create permanent biocompatible plastic masters (SmoothCast 310). All goals of task...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0304 TITLE: 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David L. Kaplan CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D

  7. 3D carotid plaque MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS There has been significant progress made in 3D carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging techniques in recent years. 3D plaque imaging clearly represents the future in clinical use. With effective flow suppression techniques, choices of different contrast weighting acquisitions, and time-efficient imaging approaches, 3D plaque imaging offers flexible imaging plane and view angle analysis, large coverage, multi-vascular beds capability, and even can be used in fast screening. PMID:26610656

  8. 3-D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    3- D Extensions for Trustworthy Systems (Invited Paper) Ted Huffmire∗, Timothy Levin∗, Cynthia Irvine∗, Ryan Kastner† and Timothy Sherwood...address these problems, we propose an approach to trustworthy system development based on 3- D integration, an emerging chip fabrication technique in...which two or more integrated circuit dies are fabricated individually and then combined into a single stack using vertical conductive posts. With 3- D

  9. Hardware Trust Implications of 3-D Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    enhancing a commod- ity processor with a variety of security functions. This paper examines the 3-D design approach and provides an analysis concluding...of key components. The question addressed by this paper is, “Can a 3-D control plane provide useful secure services when it is conjoined with an...untrust- worthy computation plane?” Design-level investigation of this question yields a definite yes. This paper explores 3- D applications and their

  10. Digital holography and 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Partha; Barbastathis, George; Kim, Myung; Kukhtarev, Nickolai

    2011-03-01

    This feature issue on Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging comprises 15 papers on digital holographic techniques and applications, computer-generated holography and encryption techniques, and 3-D display. It is hoped that future work in the area leads to innovative applications of digital holography and 3-D imaging to biology and sensing, and to the development of novel nonlinear dynamic digital holographic techniques.

  11. Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenlin; Zhao, Chengqiang; Yu, Hong; Chen, Mingliang; Xu, Wendong; Han, Shensheng

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote imaging attracts increasing attentions in capturing a target's characteristics. Although great progress for 3D remote imaging has been made with methods such as scanning imaging lidar and pulsed floodlight-illumination imaging lidar, either the detection range or application mode are limited by present methods. Ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC), enables the reconstruction of a two-dimensional N-pixel image from much fewer than N measurements. By GISC technique and the depth information of targets captured with time-resolved measurements, we report a 3D GISC lidar system and experimentally show that a 3D scene at about 1.0 km range can be stably reconstructed with global measurements even below the Nyquist limit. Compared with existing 3D optical imaging methods, 3D GISC has the capability of both high efficiency in information extraction and high sensitivity in detection. This approach can be generalized in nonvisible wavebands and applied to other 3D imaging areas.

  12. Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenlin; Zhao, Chengqiang; Yu, Hong; Chen, Mingliang; Xu, Wendong; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote imaging attracts increasing attentions in capturing a target’s characteristics. Although great progress for 3D remote imaging has been made with methods such as scanning imaging lidar and pulsed floodlight-illumination imaging lidar, either the detection range or application mode are limited by present methods. Ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC), enables the reconstruction of a two-dimensional N-pixel image from much fewer than N measurements. By GISC technique and the depth information of targets captured with time-resolved measurements, we report a 3D GISC lidar system and experimentally show that a 3D scene at about 1.0 km range can be stably reconstructed with global measurements even below the Nyquist limit. Compared with existing 3D optical imaging methods, 3D GISC has the capability of both high efficiency in information extraction and high sensitivity in detection. This approach can be generalized in nonvisible wavebands and applied to other 3D imaging areas. PMID:27184530

  13. Three-dimensional ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wenlin; Zhao, Chengqiang; Yu, Hong; Chen, Mingliang; Xu, Wendong; Han, Shensheng

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote imaging attracts increasing attentions in capturing a target’s characteristics. Although great progress for 3D remote imaging has been made with methods such as scanning imaging lidar and pulsed floodlight-illumination imaging lidar, either the detection range or application mode are limited by present methods. Ghost imaging via sparsity constraint (GISC), enables the reconstruction of a two-dimensional N-pixel image from much fewer than N measurements. By GISC technique and the depth information of targets captured with time-resolved measurements, we report a 3D GISC lidar system and experimentally show that a 3D scene at about 1.0 km range can be stably reconstructed with global measurements even below the Nyquist limit. Compared with existing 3D optical imaging methods, 3D GISC has the capability of both high efficiency in information extraction and high sensitivity in detection. This approach can be generalized in nonvisible wavebands and applied to other 3D imaging areas.

  14. Remote sensing solution using 3-D flash LADAR for automated control of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Brian J.; Fuka, Jennifer A.; Burwell, Alan C.; Gray, Stephen W.; Hubbard, Mason J.; Schenkel, Joseph W.

    2015-09-01

    The majority of image quality studies in the field of remote sensing have been performed on systems with conventional aperture functions. These systems have well-understood image quality tradeoffs, characterized by the General Image Quality Equation (GIQE). Advanced, next-generation imaging systems present challenges to both post-processing and image quality prediction. Examples include sparse apertures, synthetic apertures, coded apertures and phase elements. As a result of the non-conventional point spread functions of these systems, post-processing becomes a critical step in the imaging process and artifacts arise that are more complicated than simple edge overshoot. Previous research at the Rochester Institute of Technology's Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory has resulted in a modeling methodology for sparse and segmented aperture systems, the validation of which will be the focus of this work. This methodology has predicted some unique post-processing artifacts that arise when a sparse aperture system with wavefront error is used over a large (panchromatic) spectral bandpass. Since these artifacts are unique to sparse aperture systems, they have not yet been observed in any real-world data. In this work, a laboratory setup and initial results for a model validation study will be described. Initial results will focus on the validation of spatial frequency response predictions and verification of post-processing artifacts. The goal of this study is to validate the artifact and spatial frequency response predictions of this model. This will allow model predictions to be used in image quality studies, such as aperture design optimization, and the signal-to-noise vs. post-processing artifact tradeoff resulting from choosing a panchromatic vs. multispectral system.

  15. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  16. Unlocking the scientific potential of complex 3D point cloud dataset : new classification and 3D comparison methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.; Brodu, N.; Leroux, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based lidar and photogrammetric techniques are increasingly used to track the evolution of natural surfaces in 3D at an unprecedented resolution and precision. The range of applications encompass many type of natural surfaces with different geometries and roughness characteristics (landslides, cliff erosion, river beds, bank erosion,....). Unravelling surface change in these contexts requires to compare large point clouds in 2D or 3D. The most commonly used method in geomorphology is based on a 2D difference of the gridded point clouds. Yet this is hardly adapted to many 3D natural environments such as rivers (with horizontal beds and vertical banks), while gridding complex rough surfaces is a complex task. On the other hand, tools allowing to perform 3D comparison are scarce and may require to mesh the point clouds which is difficult on rough natural surfaces. Moreover, existing 3D comparison tools do not provide an explicit calculation of confidence intervals that would factor in registration errors, roughness effects and instrument related position uncertainties. To unlock this problem, we developed the first algorithm combining a 3D measurement of surface change directly on point clouds with an estimate of spatially variable confidence intervals (called M3C2). The method has two steps : (1) surface normal estimation and orientation in 3D at a scale consistent with the local roughness ; (2) measurement of mean surface change along the normal direction with explicit calculation of a local confidence interval. Comparison with existing 3D methods based on a closest-point calculation demonstrates the higher precision of the M3C2 method when mm changes needs to be detected. The M3C2 method is also simple to use as it does not require surface meshing or gridding, and is not sensitive to missing data or change in point density. We also present a 3D classification tool (CANUPO) for vegetation removal based on a new geometrical measure: the multi

  17. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  18. Rapid 2-axis scanning lidar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsell, Daryl; LaRocque, Paul E.; Tripp, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    The rapid 2-axis scanning lidar prototype was developed to demonstrate high-precision single-pixel linear-mode lidar performance. The lidar system is a combined integration of components from various commercial products allowing for future customization and performance enhancements. The intent of the prototype scanner is to demonstrate current stateof- the-art high-speed linear scanning technologies. The system consists of two pieces: the sensor head and control unit. The senor head can be installed up to 4 m from the control box and houses the lidar scanning components and a small RGB camera. The control unit houses the power supplies and ranging electronics necessary for operating the electronics housed inside the sensor head. This paper will discuss the benefits of a 2-axis scanning linear-mode lidar system, such as range performance and a userselectable FOV. Other features include real-time processing of 3D image frames consisting of up to 200,000 points per frame.

  19. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-07

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra--and inter-observer variability.

  20. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  1. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  2. Single Particle Difraction at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M.; Boutet, S.; Starodub, Dmitri; Decorwin-Martin, Philippe; Chapman, H.; Bajt, S.; Schulz, J.; Hajdu, Janos; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Marchesini, Stefano; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Woods, Bruce; Rohner, Urs; /Tofwerk AG, Thun

    2010-06-11

    Single-pulse coherent diffraction patterns have been collected from randomly injected single particles with a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL). The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of the object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. A diffraction pattern of a single particle will only be recorded when the particle arrival into the FEL interaction region coincides with FEL pulse arrival and detector integration. The properties of the experimental apparatus coinciding with these three events set the data acquisition rate. For our single particle FLASH diffraction imaging experiments: (1) an aerodynamic lens stack prepared a particle beam that consisted of particles moving at 150-200 m/s positioned randomly in space and time, (2) the 10 fs long FEL pulses were delivered at a fixed rate, and (3) the detector was set to integrate and readout once every two seconds. The effect of these experimental parameters on the rate of data acquisition using randomly injected particles will be discussed. Overall, the ultrashort FEL pulses do not set the limit of the data acquisition, more important is the effective interaction time of the particle crossing the FEL focus, the pulse sequence structure and the detector readout rate. Example diffraction patterns of randomly injected ellipsoidal iron oxide nanoparticles in different orientations are presented. This is the first single particle diffraction data set of identical particles in different orientations collected on a shot-to-shot basis. This data set will be used to test algorithms for recovering 3D structure from single particle diffraction.

  3. Flash evaporator systems test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

  4. Methods of flash sintering

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  5. Forest Biomass retrieval strategies from Lidar and Radar modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Ranson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Estimates of regional and global forest biomass and forest structure are essential for understanding and monitoring ecosystem responses to human activities and climate change. Lidars with capabilities of recording the time-varying return signals provide vegetation height, ground surface height, and vertical distribution of vegetated surfaces intercepted by laser pulses. Large footprint lidar has been shown to be an effective technique for measuring forest canopy height, and biomass from space. Essentially, radar responds to the amount of water in a forest canopy, as well as its spatial structure. Data from these sensors contain information relevant to different aspects of the biophysical properties of the vegetation canopy including above ground biomass. The planned NASA new mission DESDynI will provide global systematic lidar sampling data and complete global coverage of L-band high resolution SAR and InSAR data for vegetation 3D structure mapping. By combining lidar and high-resolution SAR data, our quantitative knowledge of global carbon dynamics and ecosystem structure and function can be improved. This requires some new data processing and fusion technologies. What is the proper lidar sampling design and how to expand the vegetation spatial structural parameters estimated at lidar footprints to global spatial coverage in high resolution need to be resolved. Current configuration of DESDynI may also require lidar observations with variable looking angles, which creates a new challenge in lidar data processing. Models designed to simulate lidar and radar response from a variety of forest canopies can help answer these questions. In this paper we present an overview of our spatially explicit lidar and radar models and their use for examining the questions above. Specifically we will discuss sensitivities of large-footprint lidar and L-band polarimetric and interferometric radar to forest

  6. Integration of real-time 3D image acquisition and multiview 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Li, Wei; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Yongchun

    2014-03-01

    Seamless integration of 3D acquisition and 3D display systems offers enhanced experience in 3D visualization of the real world objects or scenes. The vivid representation of captured 3D objects displayed on a glasses-free 3D display screen could bring the realistic viewing experience to viewers as if they are viewing real-world scene. Although the technologies in 3D acquisition and 3D display have advanced rapidly in recent years, effort is lacking in studying the seamless integration of these two different aspects of 3D technologies. In this paper, we describe our recent progress on integrating a light-field 3D acquisition system and an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display for real-time light field capture and display. This paper focuses on both the architecture design and the implementation of the hardware and the software of this integrated 3D system. A prototype of the integrated 3D system is built to demonstrate the real-time 3D acquisition and 3D display capability of our proposed system.

  7. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  8. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W. W.; Stevenson, Graig; Patel, Ketan; Wang, Jun

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  9. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  10. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary.

  11. 3D elastic control for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Hachet, Martin; Pouderoux, Joachim; Guitton, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    To increase the input space of mobile devices, the authors developed a proof-of-concept 3D elastic controller that easily adapts to mobile devices. This embedded device improves the completion of high-level interaction tasks such as visualization of large documents and navigation in 3D environments. It also opens new directions for tomorrow's mobile applications.

  12. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  13. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  14. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  15. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  16. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  17. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  18. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  20. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  1. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  2. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  3. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern–Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any \\text{SU}(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal \\text{SU}(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  4. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Quon 3D language for quantum information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string–genus “joint relation,” involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C∗-Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation. PMID:28167790

  6. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  7. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  8. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  9. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  10. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  11. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  12. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  13. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  14. Superoxide flashes in single mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang; Fang, Huaqiang; Groom, Linda; Cheng, Aiwu; Zhang, Wanrui; Liu, Jie; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Kaitao; Han, Peidong; Zheng, Ming; Yin, Jinhu; Wang, Weidong; Mattson, Mark P; Kao, Joseph P Y; Lakatta, Edward G; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Ouyang, Kunfu; Chen, Ju; Dirksen, Robert T; Cheng, Heping

    2008-07-25

    In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial matrix-targeted superoxide indicator, that individual mitochondria undergo spontaneous bursts of superoxide generation, termed "superoxide flashes." Superoxide flashes occur randomly in space and time, exhibit all-or-none properties, and provide a vital source of superoxide production across many different cell types. Individual flashes are triggered by transient openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore stimulating superoxide production by the ETC. Furthermore, we observe a flurry of superoxide flash activity during reoxygenation of cardiomyocytes after hypoxia, which is inhibited by the cardioprotective compound adenosine. We propose that superoxide flashes could serve as a valuable biomarker for a wide variety of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  15. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  16. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  17. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  18. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  19. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  20. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc.

  1. Development and Test of Blimp-Based Compact LIDAR Powewr-Line Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, W. W.; Dou, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Wu, M. X.; Ren, R. G.; Xu, X.

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a compact LIDAR system designed to inspect overhead transmission line for maintenance purposes. This LIDAR system is carried by a small unmanned helium airship, which is guided by GPS and laser ranging to fly automatically along the power-line over a limited distance. The 3D coordinates of the power line, power tower and power line channel features are gathered by LIDAR. Test have been accomplished using this blimp-based compact LIDAR power-line inspection system. Its inspections of a 500kV power lines also shows the high efficient inspection, less risk to personnel and more inspections per day compared with manual inspection.

  2. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  5. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  6. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  7. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  15. RHOCUBE: 3D density distributions modeling code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Agliozzo, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.

  16. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  17. 3D-HIM: A 3D High-density Interleaved Memory for Bipolar RRAM Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (Post Print ) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2010 – NOV 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 3D -HIM: A 3D HIGH-DENSITY INTERLEAVED MEMORY...emerged as one of the promising candidates for large data storage in computing systems. Moreover, building up RRAM in a three dimensional ( 3D ) stacking...brings in the potential reliability issue. To alleviate the situation, we introduce two novel 3D stacking structures built upon bipolar RRAM

  18. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  19. Optical 3D surface digitizing in forensic medicine: 3D documentation of skin and bone injuries.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2003-11-26

    Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.

  20. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  1. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    Our physical environment undergoes constant changes in space and time with strongly varying triggers, frequencies, and magnitudes. Monitoring these environmental changes is crucial to improve our scientific understanding of complex human-environmental interactions and helps us to respond to environmental change by adaptation or mitigation. The three-dimensional (3D) description of the Earth surface features and the detailed monitoring of surface processes using 3D spatial data have gained increasing attention within the last decades, such as in climate change research (e.g., glacier retreat), carbon sequestration (e.g., forest biomass monitoring), precision agriculture and natural hazard management. In all those areas, 3D data have helped to improve our process understanding by allowing quantifying the structural properties of earth surface features and their changes over time. This advancement has been fostered by technological developments and increased availability of 3D sensing systems. In particular, LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, also referred to as laser scanning, has made significant progress and has evolved into an operational tool in environmental research and geosciences. The main result of LiDAR measurements is a highly spatially resolved 3D point cloud. Each point within the LiDAR point cloud has a XYZ coordinate associated with it and often additional information such as the strength of the returned backscatter. The point cloud provided by LiDAR contains rich geospatial, structural, and potentially biochemical information about the surveyed objects. To deal with the inherently unorganized datasets and the large data volume (frequently millions of XYZ coordinates) of LiDAR datasets, a multitude of algorithms for automatic 3D object detection (e.g., of single trees) and physical surface description (e.g., biomass) have been developed. However, so far the exchange of datasets and approaches (i.e., extraction algorithms) among LiDAR users

  2. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  3. A Coherent FMCW LIDAR Mapping System for Automated Tissue Debridment

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.

    1999-06-28

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a prototype 850-nm FMCW lidar system for mapping tissue damage in burn cases for the US Army Medical Research and Material Command. The laser system will provide a 3D-image map of the burn and surrounding area and provide tissue damage assessment.

  4. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  5. Modeling cellular processes in 3D.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2D or 1D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling.

  6. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  7. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  8. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  9. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  10. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2017-01-16

    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.

  11. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  12. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.

  13. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  14. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  15. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  16. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  17. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  18. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  19. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  20. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  1. 3D liver surgery simulation: computer-assisted surgical planning with 3D simulation software and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-03-27

    To perform accurate hepatectomy without injury, it is necessary to understand the anatomical relationship among the branches of Glisson's sheath, hepatic veins, and tumor. In Japan, three-dimensional (3D) preoperative simulation for liver surgery is becoming increasingly common, and liver 3D modeling and 3D hepatectomy simulation by 3D analysis software for liver surgery have been covered by universal healthcare insurance since 2012. Herein, we review the history of virtual hepatectomy using computer-aided surgery (CAS) and our research to date, and we discuss the future prospects of CAS. We have used the SYNAPSE VINCENT medical imaging system (Fujifilm Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for 3D visualization and virtual resection of the liver since 2010. We developed a novel fusion imaging technique combining 3D computed tomography (CT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fusion image enables us to easily visualize anatomic relationships among the hepatic arteries, portal veins, bile duct, and tumor in the hepatic hilum. In 2013, we developed an original software, called Liversim, that enables real-time deformation of the liver using physical simulation, and a randomized control trial has recently been conducted to evaluate the use of Liversim and SYNAPSE VINCENT for preoperative simulation and planning. Furthermore, we developed a novel hollow 3D-printed liver model whose surface is covered with frames. This model is useful for safe liver resection, has better visibility, and the production cost is reduced to one-third of a previous model. Preoperative simulation and navigation with CAS in liver resection are expected to help planning and conducting a surgery and surgical education. Thus, a novel CAS system will contribute to not only the performance of reliable hepatectomy but also to surgical education.

  2. Why 3D Cameras are Not Popular: A Qualitative User Study on Stereoscopic Photography Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, Jussi; Westman, Stina; Salmimaa, Marja; Pölönen, Monika; Järvenpää, Toni; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    Digital stereoscopic 3D cameras have entered the consumer market in recent years, but the acceptance of this novel technology has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to identify the benefits and problems that novice users encounter in 3D photography by equipping five users with 3D cameras for a 4-week trial. We gathered data using a weekly questionnaire, an exit interview, and a stereoscopic disparity analysis of the 699 photographs taken during the trial. The results indicate that the participants took photographs at too-close distances, which caused excessive disparities. They learned to avoid the problem to some extent; the number of failed photographs due to excessive stereoscopic disparity decreased 70 % in 4 weeks. The participants also developed a preference for subjects that included clear depth differences and started to avoid photographing people because they looked unnatural in 3D photographs. They also regarded flash-induced shadows and edge violations problematic because of the unnatural effects in the photographs. We propose in-camera assistance tools for 3D cameras to make 3D photography easier.

  3. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-09

    technique generates 3D microstructures by controlled out-of- plane folding of 2D patterns through a variety of laser-based digital fabrication...processes. Digital microfabrication techniques such as laser direct-write (LDW) offer a viable alternative for generating 3D self-folding designs. These...folding at the microscale where manual or mechanized actuation of the smaller struc- tures is not practical. LDW techniques allow micromachining and

  4. Spatioangular Prefiltering for Multiview 3D Displays.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Hirakawa, Keigo; Zwicker, Matthias; Nguyen, Truong

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the reproduction of light fields on multiview 3D displays. A three-way interaction between the input light field signal (which is often aliased), the joint spatioangular sampling grids of multiview 3D displays, and the interview light leakage in modern multiview 3D displays is characterized in the joint spatioangular frequency domain. Reconstruction of light fields by all physical 3D displays is prone to light leakage, which means that the reconstruction low-pass filter implemented by the display is too broad in the angular domain. As a result, 3D displays excessively attenuate angular frequencies. Our analysis shows that this reduces sharpness of the images shown in the 3D displays. In this paper, stereoscopic image recovery is recast as a problem of joint spatioangular signal reconstruction. The combination of the 3D display point spread function and human visual system provides the narrow-band low-pass filter which removes spectral replicas in the reconstructed light field on the multiview display. The nonideality of this filter is corrected with the proposed prefiltering. The proposed light field reconstruction method performs light field antialiasing as well as angular sharpening to compensate for the nonideal response of the 3D display. The union of cosets approach which has been used earlier by others is employed here to model the nonrectangular spatioangular sampling grids on a multiview display in a generic fashion. We confirm the effectiveness of our approach in simulation and in physical hardware, and demonstrate improvement over existing techniques.

  5. Using Hyperspectral Frame Images from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle for Detailed Measurement of Boreal Forest 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Raquel A.; Tommaselli, Antonio M. G.; Honkavaara, Eija

    2016-10-01

    Objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using multi-image matching and information extracted from image classification to improve strategies in generation of point clouds of 3D forest scene. Image data sets were collected by a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral frame camera on-board a UAV in a boreal forest area. The results of the new method are analysed and compared with commercial software and LiDAR data. Experiments showed that the point clouds generated with the proposed algorithm fitted better with the LiDAR data at the ground level, which is favourable for digital terrain model (DTM) extraction.

  6. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  7. Auto convergence for stereoscopic 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Buyue; Kothandaraman, Sreenivas; Batur, Aziz Umit

    2012-03-01

    Viewing comfort is an important concern for 3-D capable consumer electronics such as 3-D cameras and TVs. Consumer generated content is typically viewed at a close distance which makes the vergence-accommodation conflict particularly pronounced, causing discomfort and eye fatigue. In this paper, we present a Stereo Auto Convergence (SAC) algorithm for consumer 3-D cameras that reduces the vergence-accommodation conflict on the 3-D display by adjusting the depth of the scene automatically. Our algorithm processes stereo video in realtime and shifts each stereo frame horizontally by an appropriate amount to converge on the chosen object in that frame. The algorithm starts by estimating disparities between the left and right image pairs using correlations of the vertical projections of the image data. The estimated disparities are then analyzed by the algorithm to select a point of convergence. The current and target disparities of the chosen convergence point determines how much horizontal shift is needed. A disparity safety check is then performed to determine whether or not the maximum and minimum disparity limits would be exceeded after auto convergence. If the limits would be exceeded, further adjustments are made to satisfy the safety limits. Finally, desired convergence is achieved by shifting the left and the right frames accordingly. Our algorithm runs real-time at 30 fps on a TI OMAP4 processor. It is tested using an OMAP4 embedded prototype stereo 3-D camera. It significantly improves 3-D viewing comfort.

  8. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  9. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems.

  10. 3D Viscoelastic traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M; Henann, David L; Franck, Christian

    2014-10-28

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels.

  11. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1996-09-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI photo type using ten thousand lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of Integral Photography and Varifocal type method. In the case of Integral Photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  12. Focus-distance-controlled 3D TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Nobuaki; Kim, Kyung-tae; Son, Jung-Young; Murata, Tatsuya; Orima, Takatoshi

    1997-05-01

    There is a phenomenon that a 3D image appears in proportion to a focus distance when something is watched through a convex lens. An adjustable focus lens which can control the focus distance of the convex lens is contrived and applied to 3D TV. We can watch 3D TV without eyeglasses. The 3D TV image meets the NTSC standard. A parallax data and a focus data about the image can be accommodated at the same time. A continuous image method realizes much wider views. An anti 3D image effect can be avoided by using this method. At present, an analysis of proto-type lens and experiment are being carried out. As a result, a phantom effect and a viewing area can be improved. It is possible to watch the 3D TV at any distance. Distance data are triangulated by two cameras. A plan of AVI proto type using ten thousands lenses is discussed. This method is compared with four major conventional methods. As a result, it is revealed that this method can make the efficient use of integral photography and varifocal type method. In the case of integral photography, a miniaturization of this system is possible. But it is difficult to get actual focus. In the case of varifocal type method, there is no problem with focusing, but the miniaturization is impossible. The theory investigated in this paper makes it possible to solve these problems.

  13. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  14. New non-Doppler remote sensing technique for 3D wind field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail S.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Gurvich, Alexander V.

    1994-06-01

    A new approach to the statistical analysis of fluctuating, photon-limited signals that permits us to accumulate and process the lidar returns without averaging of the reflected energy fluctuations is developed. This approach requires recording the photocounts for each pulse in a series of pulses and then determining photocount statistics. Based on the semiclassical theory of photodetection and Mandel's formula, a relationship has been obtained between the time-space cross correlation function and the cross spectrum of the lidar returns and corresponding photocount statistics. It is shown that the relative uncertainties of measuring the cross correlation or the cross spectrum of the lidar returns is determined by the general number of photocounts, but not by their mean value. A fast-scanning lidar system, which is based on a new photocounting analysis approach, is described for 3D wind field mapping in the atmosphere at altitudes up to 5 km. A program for the experimental verification of the new approach is presented.

  15. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education. PMID:28367477

  16. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  17. Ballistic Flash Characterization: Penetration and Back-Face Flash

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    14 Figure 3: Shot T210 Flash X-Radius vs Time .................................................................. 24 Figure 4: 7075 Set A Model...Cumulative Area ................................................................. 35 Figure 5: 7075 Set A Model Average Area...35 Figure 6: 7075 Set B Model Cumulative Area

  18. Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The laser radar, or lidar (for light detection and ranging) is an important tool for atmospheric studies. Lidar provides a unique and powerful method for unobtrusively profiling aerosols, wind, water vapor, temperature, and other atmospheric parameters. This brief overview of lidar remote sensing is focused on atmospheric applications involving pulsed lasers. The level of technical detail is aimed at the educated non-lidar expert and references are provided for further investigation of specific topics. The article is divided into three main sections. The first describes atmospheric scattering processes and the physics behind laser-atmosphere interactions. The second section highlights some of the primary lidar applications, with brief descriptions of each measurement capability. The third section describes the practical aspects of lidar operation, including the governing equation and operational considerations.

  19. Laser safety in design of near-infrared scanning LIDARs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Elgin, D.

    2015-05-01

    3D LIDARs (Light Detection and Ranging) with 1.5μm nanosecond pulse lasers have been increasingly used in different applications. The main reason for their popularity is that these LIDARs have high performance while at the same time can be made eye-safe. Because the laser hazard effect on eyes or skin at this wavelength region (<1.4μm) is mainly from the thermal effect accumulated from many individual pulses over a period of seconds, scanning can effectively reduce the laser beam hazard effect from the LIDARs. Neptec LIDARs have been used in docking to the International Space Station, military helicopter landing and industrial mining applications. We have incorporated the laser safety requirements in the LIDAR design and conducted laser safety analysis for different operational scenarios. While 1.5μm is normally said to be the eye-safe wavelength, in reality a high performance 3D LIDAR needs high pulse energy, small beam size and high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to achieve long range, high resolution and high density images. The resulting radiant exposure of its stationary beam could be many times higher than the limit for a Class 1 laser device. Without carefully choosing laser and scanning parameters, including field-of-view, scan speed and pattern, a scanning LIDAR can't be eye- or skin-safe based only on its wavelength. This paper discusses the laser safety considerations in the design of eye-safe scanning LIDARs, including laser pulse energy, PRF, beam size and scanning parameters in two basic designs of scanning mechanisms, i.e. galvanometer based scanner and Risley prism based scanner. The laser safety is discussed in terms of device classification, nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) and safety glasses optical density (OD).

  20. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A.; Rodríguez-Morata, Clara; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Rubiales, Juan M.; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a total of 287 increment cores from 178 disturbed Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) which yielded indications on 212 growth disturbances related to past flash flood impact. In combination with local archives, meteorological data, annual forest management records and highly-resolved terrestrial data (i.e., LiDAR data and aerial imagery), the dendrogeomorphic time series allowed dating 25 flash floods over the last three centuries, with a major event leaving an intense geomorphic footprint throughout the catchment in 1936. The analysis of meteorological records suggests that the rainfall thresholds of flash floods vary with the seasonality of events. Dated flash floods in the 20th century were primarily related with synoptic troughs owing to the arrival of air masses from north and west on the Iberian Peninsula during negative indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The results of this study contribute considerably to a better understanding of hazards related with hydrogeomorphic processes in central Spain in general and in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park in particular.

  1. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  2. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  3. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  4. Lidar Calibration Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the newly established Lidar Calibration Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and calibration of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of instruments, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar Calibration Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.

  5. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  6. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; ...

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  7. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  8. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  9. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  10. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  11. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  12. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  13. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  14. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  15. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  16. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  17. A new approach for semi-automatic rock mass joints recognition from 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, Adrián J.; Abellán, A.; Tomás, R.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2014-07-01

    Rock mass characterization requires a deep geometric understanding of the discontinuity sets affecting rock exposures. Recent advances in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instrumentation currently allow quick and accurate 3D data acquisition, yielding on the development of new methodologies for the automatic characterization of rock mass discontinuities. This paper presents a methodology for the identification and analysis of flat surfaces outcropping in a rocky slope using the 3D data obtained with LiDAR. This method identifies and defines the algebraic equations of the different planes of the rock slope surface by applying an analysis based on a neighbouring points coplanarity test, finding principal orientations by Kernel Density Estimation and identifying clusters by the Density-Based Scan Algorithm with Noise. Different sources of information - synthetic and 3D scanned data - were employed, performing a complete sensitivity analysis of the parameters in order to identify the optimal value of the variables of the proposed method. In addition, raw source files and obtained results are freely provided in order to allow to a more straightforward method comparison aiming to a more reproducible research.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program initiative: a call for action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Constance, Eric W.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Jason, Allyson L.; Lukas, Vicki; Saghy, David L.; Stoker, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative is accelerating the rate of three-dimensional (3D) elevation data collection in response to a call for action to address a wide range of urgent needs nationwide. It began in 2012 with the recommendation to collect (1) high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data for the conterminous United States (CONUS), Hawaii, and the U.S. territories and (2) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska. Specifications were created for collecting 3D elevation data, and the data management and delivery systems are being modernized. The National Elevation Dataset (NED) will be completely refreshed with new elevation data products and services. The call for action requires broad support from a large partnership community committed to the achievement of national 3D elevation data coverage. The initiative is being led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and includes many partners—Federal agencies and State, Tribal, and local governments—who will work together to build on existing programs to complete the national collection of 3D elevation data in 8 years. Private sector firms, under contract to the Government, will continue to collect the data and provide essential technology solutions for the Government to manage and deliver these data and services. The 3DEP governance structure includes (1) an executive forum established in May 2013 to have oversight functions and (2) a multiagency coordinating committee based upon the committee structure already in place under the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP). The 3DEP initiative is based on the results of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) that was funded by NDEP agencies and completed in 2011. The study, led by the USGS, identified more than 600 requirements for enhanced (3D) elevation data to address mission-critical information requirements of 34 Federal agencies, all 50 States, and a sample of private sector companies and Tribal and local

  19. D Feature Point Extraction from LIDAR Data Using a Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Schlichting, A.; Brenner, C.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate positioning of vehicles plays an important role in autonomous driving. In our previous research on landmark-based positioning, poles were extracted both from reference data and online sensor data, which were then matched to improve the positioning accuracy of the vehicles. However, there are environments which contain only a limited number of poles. 3D feature points are one of the proper alternatives to be used as landmarks. They can be assumed to be present in the environment, independent of certain object classes. To match the LiDAR data online to another LiDAR derived reference dataset, the extraction of 3D feature points is an essential step. In this paper, we address the problem of 3D feature point extraction from LiDAR datasets. Instead of hand-crafting a 3D feature point extractor, we propose to train it using a neural network. In this approach, a set of candidates for the 3D feature points is firstly detected by the Shi-Tomasi corner detector on the range images of the LiDAR point cloud. Using a back propagation algorithm for the training, the artificial neural network is capable of predicting feature points from these corner candidates. The training considers not only the shape of each corner candidate on 2D range images, but also their 3D features such as the curvature value and surface normal value in z axis, which are calculated directly based on the LiDAR point cloud. Subsequently the extracted feature points on the 2D range images are retrieved in the 3D scene. The 3D feature points extracted by this approach are generally distinctive in the 3D space. Our test shows that the proposed method is capable of providing a sufficient number of repeatable 3D feature points for the matching task. The feature points extracted by this approach have great potential to be used as landmarks for a better localization of vehicles.

  20. Adaptive clutter rejection for 3D color Doppler imaging: preliminary clinical study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yang Mo; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Karadayi, Kerem; Kolokythas, Orpheus; Kim, Yongmin

    2008-08-01

    In three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound color Doppler imaging (CDI), effective rejection of flash artifacts caused by tissue motion (clutter) is important for improving sensitivity in visualizing blood flow in vessels. Since clutter characteristics can vary significantly during volume acquisition, a clutter rejection technique that can adapt to the underlying clutter conditions is desirable for 3D CDI. We have previously developed an adaptive clutter rejection (ACR) method, in which an optimum filter is dynamically selected from a set of predesigned clutter filters based on the measured clutter characteristics. In this article, we evaluated the ACR method with 3D in vivo data acquired from 37 kidney transplant patients clinically indicated for a duplex ultrasound examination. We compared ACR against a conventional clutter rejection method, down-mixing (DM), using a commonly-used flow signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and a new metric called fractional residual clutter area (FRCA). The ACR method was more effective in removing the flash artifacts while providing higher sensitivity in detecting blood flow in the arcuate arteries and veins in the parenchyma of transplanted kidneys. ACR provided 3.4 dB improvement in SCR over the DM method (11.4 +/- 1.6 dB versus 8.0 +/- 2.0 dB, p < 0.001) and had lower average FRCA values compared with the DM method (0.006 +/- 0.003 versus 0.036 +/- 0.022, p < 0.001) for all study subjects. These results indicate that the new ACR method is useful for removing nonstationary tissue motion while improving the image quality for visualizing 3D vascular structure in 3D CDI.

  1. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  2. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  3. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced.

  4. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  5. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  6. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toushmalani, Reza; Saibi, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran) to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region.

  7. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  8. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  9. Atomic resolution 3D electron diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    Electron lens aberration is the major barrier limiting the resolution of electron microscopy. Here we describe a novel form of electron microscopy to overcome electron lens aberration. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a 2 x 2 x 2 unit cell nano-crystal (framework of LTA [Al12Si12O48]8) can be ab initio determined at the resolution of 1 Angstrom from a series of simulated noisy diffraction pattern projections with rotation angles ranging from -70 degrees to +70 degrees in 5 degrees increments along a single rotation axis. This form of microscopy (which we call 3D electron diffraction microscopy) does not require any reference waves, and can image the 3D structure of nanocrystals, as well as non-crystalline biological and materials science samples, with the resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction.

  10. Simple buffers for 3D STORM microscopy.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Rajan, Vinoth Sundar; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-06-01

    3D STORM is one of the leading methods for super-resolution imaging, with resolution down to 10 nm in the lateral direction, and 30-50 nm in the axial direction. However, there is one important requirement to perform this type of imaging: making dye molecules blink. This usually relies on the utilization of complex buffers, containing different chemicals and sensitive enzymatic systems, limiting the reproducibility of the method. We report here that the commercial mounting medium Vectashield can be used for STORM of Alexa-647, and yields images comparable or superior to those obtained with more complex buffers, especially for 3D imaging. We expect that this advance will promote the versatile utilization of 3D STORM by removing one of its entry barriers, as well as provide a more reproducible way to compare optical setups and data processing algorithms.

  11. 3D integral imaging with optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro; Javidi, Bahram

    2008-04-01

    Integral imaging (InI) systems are imaging devices that provide auto-stereoscopic images of 3D intensity objects. Since the birth of this new technology, InI systems have faced satisfactorily many of their initial drawbacks. Basically, two kind of procedures have been used: digital and optical procedures. The "3D Imaging and Display Group" at the University of Valencia, with the essential collaboration of Prof. Javidi, has centered its efforts in the 3D InI with optical processing. Among other achievements, our Group has proposed the annular amplitude modulation for enlargement of the depth of field, dynamic focusing for reduction of the facet-braiding effect, or the TRES and MATRES devices to enlarge the viewing angle.

  12. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  13. Recent EFIT Developments and 3D Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Chu, M. S.; St. John, H. E.; Strait, E. J.; Montgomery, A. L.; Perkins, F. W.

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments of the equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT and its 3D extension to model toroidally asymmetric effects due to error and externally applied perturbation magnetic fields are presented. These include a new more complete uncertainty matrix for magnetic diagnostics based on detailed knowledge about their fabrication, installation, calibration, and operation. A new algorithm to efficiently compute high bootstrap-fraction equilibria that explicitly separates out the Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap contributions to the poloidal current stream function is also being developed. Other on-going and planned developments include a new computational structure based on Fortran 90/95 with a unified interface that can conveniently accommodate different tokamak devices and grid sizes, as well as a computational link that allows easy integration with transport and stability physics modules for integrated modeling. EFIT reconstruction capability is also being extended to 3D based on perturbation solutions to the 3D Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation.

  14. 3D nanopillar optical antenna photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; Shapiro, Joshua; Scofield, Adam; Lin, Andrew; Williams, Benjamin S; Huffaker, Diana L

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate 3D surface plasmon photoresponse in nanopillar arrays resulting in enhanced responsivity due to both Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPRs) and Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs). The LSPRs are excited due to a partial gold shell coating the nanopillar which acts as a 3D Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) in focusing light into the nanopillar. Angular photoresponse measurements show that SPP-BWs can be spectrally coincident with LSPRs to result in a x2 enhancement in responsivity at 1180 nm. Full-wave Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations substantiate both the spatial and spectral coupling of the SPP-BW / LSPR for enhanced absorption and the nature of the LSPR. Geometrical control of the 3D NOA and the self-aligned metal hole lattice allows the hybridization of both localized and propagating surface plasmon modes for enhanced absorption. Hybridized plasmonic modes opens up new avenues in optical antenna design in nanoscale photodetectors.

  15. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Ali; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Boguslawski, Pawel

    2016-10-01

    GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM), Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  16. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  17. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M. A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D. W.; Hallquist, J. O.; Rainsberger, R. B

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  18. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2016-07-12

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  19. 3D aerosol climatology over East Asia derived from CALIOP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongbo; Sun, Xuejin; Zhang, Chuanliang; Zhang, Riwei; Li, Yan; Li, Haoran

    2017-03-01

    The seasonal mean extinction coefficient profile (ECP), single scattering albedo (SSA), and scattering phase function (SPF) derived from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) version 3 Level 2 5-km aerosol profile product (2011-2014) were compiled into a three-dimensional (3D) aerosol climatology for East Asia. The SSA and SPF were calculated as the weighted averages of the scattering properties of the CALIOP aerosol subtypes. The weights were set to the occurrence frequencies of the subtypes. The single scattering properties of each subtype were extrapolated from the volume-based size distribution and complex refractive indexes based on Mie calculations. For the high-loading episodes (aerosol optical depth ≥ 0.6), the exponential ECP structures were most frequently observed over the farmland and desert areas, along with the uplifted ECP structures over the marine and coastal areas. Besides the desert areas, high-loading episodes also occurred over areas with frequent agricultural and industry activities. Unlike the conventional half-3D aerosol climatology (vertically constant SSA and SPF), this newly generated climatology specified SSA and SPF in the full-3D space (full-3D aerosol climatology). Errors on the shortwave radiative heating rate (SW RHR) due to the half-3D aerosol climatology approximation were quantified. The SW RHR errors were around ±1 K/day, implying that the half-3D aerosol climatology should be used with caution in climate modeling. This study is among the first to generate a full-3D aerosol climatology from the CALIOP data. This full-3D aerosol climatology is potentially useful for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling.

  20. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.